Organization & work

The above presented short literature review on the topic of employee engagement reflects to a great extend individual’s experiences in a workplace environment. The theory of employee engagement is viewed by the individual as an analytical tool that provides explanation as well as deeper understanding of the willingness and ability to contribute to organisational success. It is important not only because is provides general sense and explanation of the phenomenon but also because it identifies a distinct set of observations about the underlying reality of engagement at work.
Motivation to engage and feel fully involved and enthusiastic about author’s job and organization was clearly explained by the theory of Kahn (1990). Psychological factors such as meaningfulness, safety and availability are crucial in workplace practice in order to be fully engaged. For example, meaningful work gave the individual an opportunity to use range of abilities, which created better fit, interest and more challenging work environment.
Furthermore, rewarding co-workers, constant feedback and positive relationships characterized by trust and mutual development provided safety and healthy organizational culture. Consequently, accomplishment of individual’s goals and successful completion of organizational tasks was facilitated what brought satisfaction and positive attitude towards work. In turn, engaging attitude and motivation occurred what was described by the aspect of job resources investigated by Bakker and Demerouti (2008).

Also availability of other resources such as support and coaching provided the individual with growth opportunities. Engagement level significantly rose when organization offered a formal career development system that included components such as formal career tracks, mobility systems to help the individual move about in the organization, and annual career conversations. This resulted in a willingness to put more effort into the work. Further explanation of work engagement of the individual can be found in the theory of social exchange.
By understanding how individual’s job fits into the big picture of the organization and by clarifying what are the competencies, helped the individual to upgrade the skills to match the needs of the future and bring value to the organization. By being appraised and rewarded for work the individual felt obliged to respond in kind and repay the organization. In conclusion, the theory of employee engagement provides an important insight into building an organizational culture with satisfied and engaged employees.
It helps the organization to achieve more with less, move faster at the same time as improving quality and customer service without increasing costs. As they do this they realize that what makes the difference is not just strong brands, state-of-the-art technology, new products or new markets. Increasingly organizations realize that they also need to inspire their employees to go the extra mile and feel passionate about the future of their company. They need to motivate them to exert maximum effort, deploy maximum intelligence, and apply maximum creativity in their work for the benefit of the organization as a whole.
Bakker, A. B. and Demerouti, E. (2007), “The job demands-resources model: state of the art”, Journal of Managerial Psychology, Vol. 22, pp. 309-28. Bakker A. B. and Demerouti, E. (2008), “Towards a model of work engagement”, Carrer Development Internationl, Vol. 13, pp. 209-223. Britt, T. W. , Adler, A. B. , & Bartone, P. T. (2001). Deriving benefits from stressful events: The role of engagement in meaningful work and hardiness. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 6, 53–63. Hakanen, J. , Bakker, A. B.
and Schaufeli, W. B. (2006), “Burnout and work engagement among teachers”, The Journal of School Psychology, Vol. 43, pp. 495-513. Harter, J. K. , Schmidt, F. L. , & Hayes, T. L. (2002). Business- unit- level relationship between employee satisfaction, employee engagement, and business outcomes: A meta- analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87, 268–279. Kahn, W. A. (1990), “Psychological conditions of personal engagement and disengagement at work”, Academy of Management Journal, Vol. 33, pp. 692-724. Llorens, S. , Bakker, A. B.
, Schaufeli, W. B. and Salanova, M. (2006), “Testing the robustness of the job demands-resources model”, International Journal of Stress Management, Vol. 13, pp. 378-91. Luthans, F. , Norman, S. M. , Avolio, B. J. and Avey, J. B. (2008), “The mediating role of psychological capital in the supportive organizational climate: employee performance relationship”, Journal of Organizational Behavior, Vol. 29, pp. 219-38. Maslach, C. , Schaufelli, W. B. and Leiter, M. P. (2001), “Job burnout”, A nnua l Revi ew of Psychology, Vol. 52, pp.
397-422. May, D. R. , Gilson, R. L. and Harter, L. M. (2004), “The psychological conditions of meaningfulness, safety and availability and the engagement of the human spirit at work”, Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, Vol. 77, pp. 11-37. Rothbard, N. P. (2001), “Enriching or depleting? The dynamics of engagement in work and family roles”, Administrative Science Quarterly, Vol. 46, pp. 655-84. Saks M. A. , (2006), “Antecedents and Consequences of employee engagement”, Journal of Managerial Psychology, Vol.
21, pp. 600-619. Schaufeli, W. B. and Bakker, A. B. (2004), “Job demands, job resources and their relationship with burnout and engagement: a multi-sample study”, Journal of Organizational Behavior, Vol. 25, pp. 293-315. Schaufeli, W. B. , Salanova, M. , Gonzalez-Roma, V. and Bakker, A. B. (2002), “The measurement of engagement and burnout: a two sample con? rmatory factor analytic approach”, Journal of Happiness Studies, Vol. 3, pp. 71-92. Schaufeli, W. B. and Salanova, M. (2007), “Work engagement: an emerging psychological concept


Meaningful Work

I believe that meaningful work means doing a job that fulfills what you want to achieve. This may be in the form of money or prestige or simply self-satisfaction. It should be the easiest way to get to where you want to be.
Most people view their jobs as terrible, hard or boring tasks that need to be done just to survive. I, however, would rather look at work as something to enjoy while making sure I get something I want in return.
Hating one’s job seems to be a public consensus. Very few appreciate their work.  Calvin, in the comic series, Calvin and Hobbes, is popular for saying “It’s only work if somebody makes you do it.”

Most people look at their jobs as stressful because of the pressure that goes with it: deadlines, hard-to-please employers and waking up early after sleeping late the night before. If we really think about it, it is not any different from school. At least in a job, you get paid not just a grade.
People would rather avoid work because of the pressure. However, stress management is something we all can learn because “stress is a response to pressure.” (What Is Work) To handle pressure, we must learn how to balance work and life instead of letting it rule our lives.
Sir James M. Barrie, the author of Peter Pan, once said “nothing is really work unless you would rather do something else” but I believe that to achieve great things, we need to change our view of work.
In the book, “The Lazy Way To Success – How To Do Nothing And Accomplish Everything,” the author, Fred Gratzon, believes that the “basis of success is not hard work. The basis of success is doing less.” (25) What he meant was that by thinking clearly of how to solve our problems (money, most of the time), we can find solutions that do not necessarily take our happiness away. Gratzon believes that if you put the problem in its correct perspective, you can think of easier ways to get what you want less anxiety and effort.
Gratzon is right. Work, I believe is important to achieve what I want or need. It may be money or prestige or happiness. Whatever my goals would be in the future will determine my chosen jobs someday. Realistically, I know I can’t always get the job I want but I believe that I can choose the right attitude and do what I need to do to get what I want. Work is not a pain but a means for me to gain. Work is the way to put meaning in my life.
Works Cited
“What Is Work Related Stress?” 2006
Gratzon, Fred. The Lazy Way To Success – How To Do Nothing And Accomplish Everything. Iowa: Soma Press, 2002.


Lack of Motivation/ work ethic in American youth

Every one is faced with the challenge of living his life amidst the challenges that it presents to the individual. The individual must determine the way he must live his life, the way he is supposed to live his life, and how to behave or react to the situations that life presents to him. In a way, all individual carries a goal in his life in order for him to get what he wants and what he deserves.
Through these situations, one may feel overwhelmed and incapable of making the right choices at the right time. there are also several times in which a person will experience failure and be wrong about the decisions in his life. To understand the cause of failure, the emotions that contributes and results to failure, entails a sense of lack of interest for the individual to pursue his dreams or aspirations in life. All these things are a contributing factor to the development of motivation in the individual. Or the absence of which defines the lack of motivation.
The paper will explore the concept of motivation. In doing so, the discussion regarding how motivation is developed and the reasons for the lack of it will be evaluated. Specifically, the paper will examine why American youths lacks motivation and work ethic despite the opportunities presented to them in a first-world country like the United States. To begin, let us define the concept of motivation. Motivation is defined as a noun that gives a person a reason to act (Encarta, 2006).

It can also be defined as the desire of an individual to accomplish a goal or participate in any activity that promotes his goals and aspirations in life.  Motivation is the driving force behind the actions and behaviors of an organism. It is the internal state or condition that gives direction or desire to drive the person towards a goal-oriented behavior. Motivation should also be understood as based on emotions. It is the search for positive emotional experiences. A person motivated tries not to worry about the challenges or the negative ideas when facing challenges. Motivation is essential to be part of one person’s growth and life because simply, it involves the person’s performance in all learned responses to the challenges.
One good theoretical definition of motivation is used by Abraham Maslow in his developed concept, the hierarchy of needs. The hierarchy of needs explains how personality influences different fields of and within the individual. Maslow uses the hierarchy to reflect the realities of personal experiences. Maslow as a psychology theoretician is classified in one of the school of though in psychology which is the humanist approach.
In the particular view, their approach is not based on mechanical forces, reinforcements or stimuli, unconscious instinctual impulses or how other psychology school of thought perceives it. Humanist believes that the individual’s potentials drive him to his success. Maslow attributed that the fullness of one’s potentials is contributed by a mentality of a fully functioning person and a person who has a healthy personality. Maslow attributed these characteristics to a self-actualized person.
The contribution of Maslow in defining the character of an individual is essential for us in understanding why US teenagers lack motivation nowadays and lacks work ethics. In Maslow’s theory of the hierarchy of needs, the basic needs such as food, shelter and clothing are instinctive needs. The basic needs are the first level in Maslow’s five levels of basic needs. The needs mentioned above the basic needs are understanding, esthetic appreciation and purely spiritual needs.
It must be noted that the fist level of needs must be fulfilled first before the rest and above needs are fulfilled. The need mentioned by Maslow that is important in the development of one’s self is first the physiological needs. The physiological needs are biological needs that serve as the basic needs like oxygen, food and water. Second, the safety needs. The safety needs, after the physiological needs are satisfied, the need for security alarms the person. Take for instance an adult responding to an emergency or a child’s moments of insecurity. Third level is the need for love, affection and belongingness.
After the two latter needs are satisfied, Maslow theorized that people seek to overcome feelings of loneliness and alienation. That is why this need is realized through socialization processes of the individual. The fourth level is the need for esteem. Both self-esteem and esteem from other persons becomes dominant at one point. Human needs stable self-respect and respect from other people.
Without this realization, people tend to feel weak, helpless and worthless. After four below levels are satisfied, the top level emerges and becomes dominant. This is the need for self-actualization. This level is what Maslow attributed as the person in which he must be and was born to be. The self-actualization needs enable the person to feel restless, on the edge or even confused in his pursuit for his right state of mind. Maslow believes that this level makes an individual realize what he must be doing for his personal fulfillment. He also believes that the society is placing hindrances for a person to fulfill his self-actualization needs. Education is one of the hindrances that Maslow mentioned. This had caused the call for action of educators to respond to this need and focus on the potentials of the individual.
After providing the basic theoretical concept for us to understand the lack of motivation and work ethics among teenagers, the concrete studies and reasons for such will be discussed and explored. Many studies had already contributed in the society’s understanding of how humans are motivated and the reasons for the lack of it. We mentioned earlier the theory conceptualized by Maslow, the Hierarchy of Needs, because the strong point in using this theory is the comprehension that the higher level of needs of the individual includes affiliation, recognition of talents and potentials, and competence.
Motivation is a concept in life that that originated in the Latin word “motus” which means to move. Being motivated is an indication of a person’s strong will to overcome obstacles and challenges. It initiates action for the individual to move towards a direction beneficial for him. Motivation is regarded as a process of integrating and interaction between internal and external factors of an individual.
In understanding the lack of motivation among teenagers in the United States, we must first give importance to the role of society and its means that reflects the lack of motivation among teens. Today, media and entertainment influence greatly on teenagers. Each of them is influenced through music, movies and others. These factors one way or another, without us knowing, is a contributing factor to one’s lack of motivation, the same way that these influences become a motivating factor in the formation of goals of teenagers. Some of them want to become rich and popular. Some wants to like the personalities that they admire.
But in further discussion of the lack of motivation and work ethics among teenagers, several reasons can be attributed to such in a much larger perspective and theoretical framework. According to Stipek (1988), several reasons for the lack of motivation are brought by internal and external factors. Teenagers do not define goals that characterize their personal success. These goals initiate the motivation, the drive for the person to do something to fulfill them. Or even if they have goals, the goals and activities in which it is executed is the wrong method in fulfilling it. The goals may also be non-achievable goals.
Another attributed reason for the lack of motivation is the negative feelings and emotions one person situates his or herself at. Teenagers also have the tendency to set goals for future endeavors, and if they fail, they lose the drive to try to achieve it once more. That is why goals must be set within bounds of achieving them in time. The prolong satisfaction of achieving goals in the distant future affects teenagers lack of motivation. The goals set by teenagers also are not reflected in their present-day activities.
The activities they include themselves may be not related to the goals they have set. Stipek (1988) also mentioned that the important goals teenagers must achieve should not conflict their present-day activities. Motivation also comes with reinforcements and rewards. Lack of motivation can also be attributed to low incentives that teenagers get disappointed at. Another significant reason why teenagers lack motivation is the interference and influence of personal problems in their family, society and the activities they participate in.
To address to this problem, parents and educators must share the same responsibility to increase motivation among teenagers to achieve success and realize their potentials. As we have discussed the reasons for teenagers’ lack of motivation, it is now the goal of educators, parents and the society in greater scale to act on this phenomenon. Parents and educators must encourage teenagers to become authentic, to listen to themselves and the inner voices that govern their emotions.
Parents and educators must teach the teenagers to be different because the reality is, everybody is different. The media and the different personalities and figures in the society today greatly influences teens today and this brings several challenges for the development of one’s individuality. Teenagers want to be who ever they admire and see on television, which brought such problems as the reason why teenagers want to be skinny, undergo surgical procedures to look like their idols or be popular.
They must teach teenagers to transcend the limitations and perception of cultural differences. They must also teach the importance of following their hearts desire, as cliché as it may sound. Their calling, fate or destiny will be able to motivate them in achieving their goals. To this goal parents and educators must encourage teenagers to discover their potentials and develop the skills they inherently have. Also important is to instill in teenagers mind that life is worth to be experienced thus the need to do necessary actions to live life to the fullest and to their potentials.
Parents and educators must also accept the teenagers for their own personality and must not give reasons for them to doubt what they want is not what they are supposed to do. Encouragement and reinforcements is very essential in overcoming the challenge with lack of motivation. from the real attitudes and perception of the teenagers, potentials are discovered and further developed into something the teenager will perceive as essential for him to achieve success and happiness. Also as the responsibility of parents, the basic needs must be satisfied. Included in which is safety, belongingness and esteem need. Parents must secure these needs before the teenager can focus on his personal development and achievement of goals.
He will appreciate the things done for him to achieve success in life. As for the role of educators, they must refresh the knowledge and consciousness of teenagers for them to realize their importance in the society. In conjunction with satisfying the need for belongingness, teenagers are encouraged and motivated is they have an idea of their worth and importance of the role they play in the society. Teenagers must be taught to control the activities in their lives, to get involve in activities that are related to their goals.
When an individual has control in their life, it naturally improves the condition of their life in all aspects. This means that teenagers must be taught to be aware how to grace under pressure and practice minimalism. Teenagers must also be encouraged by parent and educators to never give in to failure. They must let them understanding the failures is a natural occurrence that one has to learn and live in. parents and educators must also encourage teenagers to transcend into personal problems for their own benefits.
With the growing alarm rate of divorced parents in the United States, parents must make it a priority to let teenagers understand the situation for them to realize that they are still important amidst the personal problems they encounter. Whether it may occur in the home or in school, the responsibility to overcome lack of motivation must involve the teenager to adhere to the situation and react to it in a positive manner.
Although this is not an easy process as we are still govern mostly of our emotions, parents and educators must enforce teenager’s perception of a better life ahead of these problems and negative situations. Lastly, parents and educators must give teenagers the right to choose and present them with viable choices for them fulfill their potentials, goals and aspirations.
Stipek, D. (1988). Motivation to learn: From theory to practice. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Mary, Rose. “Tips on how to overcome lack of motivation while working at home”. EzineArticles. November 1, 2006. December 1, 2006 <>
Huitt, W. (2004). “Maslow’s hierarchy of needs”. Educational Psychology Interactive. Valdosta State University. Retrieved December 1, 2006 from,
Anonymous. “Adherance to Youth Guidelines.” 1.
Maslow, A. H. “A Theory of Human Motivation.” Classics in the History of Psychology Christopher D. Green, 1943.
Messina, J. J., and Messina, C. M. . “Testing Motivation in Recovery.” 2006.
Perera, Karl. “Self-Motivation.” 2005.


Protestant Work Ethic

o Work Ethic Jenna Warmund Jenna Warmund Quest Professor Crump October 3, 2012 Not everything in life is a guarantee. If there is something you want in life I do believe that anything can be achieved with hard work and dedication. Therefore I do agree with the Protestant Work Ethic. The Protestant Work Ethic is said the belief that hard work leads to success (Rosenthal, Lisa, 2011). I think Black Like Me is a huge example of how hard work leads to success.
After Griffin published this book there was a lot of backlash, but I do believe a lot of good has come from it. I think it has changed a lot of people perception on African Americans in the 1960’s. And I would say that this book was a success for Griffin. At one point in the book Griffin says, “When all the talk, all the propaganda has been cut away, the criterion is nothing but the color of skin. My experience proved that. They judged me by no quality. My skin was dark” (page 115).
I think this just goes to show how much times have changed. Back then black people didn’t even think it was possible to become leaders or even achieve their dreams just because they were judged by the color of their skin. I am not saying that today it is completely easy for black people to achieve their dreams because I do think they still deal with challenges and discrimination, but it is nothing like it was back then. Eventually Griffin had had enough, all the challenges and emotions built up. “Suddenly I had had enough.

Suddenly I could stomach no more of this degradation- not of myself but of all men who were black like me” (page 132). Griffin faced many challenges in this book. But he never gave up. Hard work leads to success. No one in today’s world became successful by just sitting around. If there’s something you want to achieve you have to go after it, even if you know from the beginning that you’re going to face strenuous challenges. In Black Like Me (Griffin 1960) there was an instance that disputed my belief of the Protestant Work Ethic.
When John Howard Griffin stops to study a restaurant menu he realizes that just a few days ago he could have ordered anything he wanted but now he does not have that privilege. He then says “The Negro often dreams of things separated from him only by a door, knowing that he is forever cut off from experiencing them. ” I disagree with the quote. It may have been that way back then, but now I think everyone has the equal opportunity to achieve anything to which they set their mind to.
The book Black Like Me just goes to show that if there is something you are inspired about or have a dream that it is achievable. There may be challenges and obstacles that you come across but with hard work and dedication you will succeed. Work Reference Rosenthal, Lisa, (2011). Protestant work ethic’s relation to intergroup and policy attitudes: A meta? analytic review. . European Journal of Social Psychology. Vol 41(7) (e. g. 2), pp. pp. 874-885. Quizlet. (2012). Retrieved from http://quizlet. com/750335/black-like-me-quotes-flash-cards/


Response to Young workers lack work ethic

Hi, I am responding to Helen’s letter in the Your Views section on Sept. 8th. Most companies are still stuck with the traditional approach in hiring people – giving too much weight on talent and little emphasis on attitude. Herein lies the potential problem and Helen so rightly mentioned it – talent is useless if not combined with a strong work ethic. The best approach is to hire for attitude then train for skill. A strong work ethic is a byproduct of attitude – a person who brings hard work and diligence to the office carries a positive outlook that would rub off on his environment.
Skills and talent can get you somewhere but only attitude assures personal and professional success. Attitude affects the way we think and the way we behave. It impacts how we work with other people and our ability to deal with change. Attitude makes the difference between a nice place to work and a place we dread to go. Four principles define the new model for smart hiring: 1. What You Know Changes, Who You Are Doesn’t The single best predictor of future behavior is past behavior. Your personality is going to be essentially the same throughout your life.
2. You Can’t Find What You Are Not Looking For The best way to select people who’ll thrive in your company is to identify the personal characteristics of people who are already thriving and hire people just like them. 3. The Best Way to Evaluate People is to Watch Them Work Provide a simulation of the work and watch how people respond. You have to see how people will do the job before you hire them. 4. You Can’t Hire People Who Don’t Apply Companies that hire smart usually start their recruiting efforts close to home — with their own people.

This makes sense people tend to spend time (personally and professionally) with people like themselves. So, how would a company apply this approach? Through the resume process you’re going to find people who have the basic skill levels you’re looking for. With a telephone screen you can find out if people have the foundational knowledge and the intellect for what you want. But when you bring them in for an interview, the most important question you need to answer is: Can we work with this applicant? The second most-important question is: Is this applicant teachable?
If you cannot answer yes to BOTH of those questions, a do not hire sign needs to start flashing above your candidate’s head. Move them along, wish them well, and bring in your next applicant. Southwest Airlines, recently rated by Fortune Magazine as the best place to work in America, believes you can’t build a great company without great people. Attitude is a critical factor for success and the one we have the most control over. As Earl Nightingale once said, “Our attitude toward life determines life’s attitude toward us. ”


Introduction to How PCs Work

When you mention the word “technology,” most people think about computers. Virtually every facet of our lives has some computerized component. The appliances in our homes have microprocessors built into them, as do our televisions. Even our cars have computers.
But the computer that everyone thinks of first is typically the personal computer, or PC. A PC is a general-purpose tool built around a microprocessor.It has lots of different parts — including memory, a hard disk, a modem, and more — that work together. “General purpose” means that you can do many different things with a PC. You can use it to type documents, send e-mail, browse the Internet and play games. PCs trace their history back to the 1970s, when a man named Ed Roberts began to sell computer kits based on a microprocessor chip designed by Intel. Roberts called his computer the Altair 8800 and sold the unassembled kits for $395.
Popular Electronics ran a story about the kid in its January 1975 issue, and to the surprise of just about everyone, the kits became an instant hit and the era of the personal computer began [source: The Computer History Project]. A few years later, the dynamic duo of Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak unleashed the Apple II computer on the world. From that point on, the personal computer really began to take off. Other manufacturers followed suit, and soon there were computers from Commodore, Atari and Texas Instruments.Not long after the debut of the Apple II, IBM got into the personal computer game. Today, when someone says PC, chances are they mean a machine running on the Microsoft Windows operating system with an x86-compatible microprocessor. While Apple Macintosh computers are technically personal computers, most people wouldn’t call them PCs.

In this article, we will talk about PCs in the general sense and all the different parts that go into them. You’ll learn about the various components and how they work together in a basic operating session.You’ll also find out what the future may hold for these machines. PC Parts Let’s take a look at the main components of a typical desktop computer: • Central processing unit (CPU) – The microprocessor “brain” of the computer system is called the central processing unit. It’s a chip that holds a complete computational engine. It uses assembly language as its native language. Everything that a computer does is overseen by the CPU.
• Memory – This is very fast storage used to hold data. It has to be fast because it connects directly to the microprocessor.There are several specific types of memory in a computer: • Random-access memory (RAM) – Used to temporarily store information with which the computer is currently working • Read-only memory (ROM) – A permanent type of memory storage used by the computer for important data that doesn’t change • Basic input/output system (BIOS) – A type of ROM that is used by the computer to establish basic communication when the computer is first powered on • Caching – The storing of frequently used data in extremely fast RAM that connects directly to the CPU • Virtual memory – Space on a hard disk used to temporarily store data and swap it in and out of RAM as needed • Flash memory – a solid state storage device, Flash memory requires no moving parts and retains data even after the computer powers off • Motherboard – This is the main circuit board to which all of the other internal components connect. The CPU and memory are usually on the motherboard. Other systems may be found directly on the motherboard or connected to it through a secondary connection.For example, a sound card can be built into the motherboard or connected through an expansion slot. Power supply – An electrical transformer regulates the electricity used by the computer.
• Hard disk – This is large-capacity permanent storage used to hold information such as programs and documents. Traditional hard drives contain moving parts — the drive has platters on which it stores data. The drive spins the platters to record and read data. But some newer hard drives are flash-based with no moving parts. These drives are called solid-state drives. • Operating system – This is the basic software that allows the user to interface with the computer. • Integrated Drive Electronics (IDE) Controller – This is the primary interface for the hard drive, CD-ROM and floppy disk drive.
Accelerated Graphics Port (AGP) – This is a very high-speed connection used by the graphics card to interface with the computer. • Sound card – This is used by the computer to record and play audio by converting analog sound into digital information and back again. • Graphics card – This translates image data from the computer into a format that can be displayed by the monitor. Some graphics cards have their own powerful processing units (called a GPU — graphics processing unit). The GPU can handle operations that normally would require the CPU. • Ports – In computer hardware terms, a port is an interface that allows a computer to communicate with peripheral equipment. • Real-time clock – Every PC has a clock containing a vibrating crystal.
By referring to this clock, all the components in a computer can synchronize properly. • Complementary Metal-oxide Semiconductor – The CMOS and CMOS battery allow a computer to store information even when the computer powers down. The battery provides uninterrupted power. • Fans, heat sinks and cooling systems – The components in a computer generate heat. As heat rises, performance can suffer. Cooling systems keep computers from overheating. PC Connections A typical computer connects to the world around it in three different ways: input/output devices, ports and networking.
No matter how powerful the components inside your computer are, you need a way to interact with them. This interaction is called input/output (I/O).The most common types of I/O in PCs are: • Monitor – The monitor is the primary device for displaying information from the computer. • Keyboard – The keyboard is the primary device for entering information into the computer. • Mouse – The mouse is the primary device for navigating and interacting with the computer. • Removable storage – Removable storage devices allow you to add new information to your computer very easily, as well as save information that you want to carry to a different location. There are several types of removable storage: o CD-ROM – CD-ROM (compact disc, read-only memory) is a popular form of distribution of commercial software.
Many systems now offer CD-R (recordable) and CD-RW (rewritable), which can also record. CD-RW discs can be erased and rewritten many times. o Flash memory – Based on a type of ROM called electrically erasable programmable read-only memory (EEPROM), Flash memory provides fast, permanent storage. CompactFlash, SmartMedia and PCMCIA cards are all types of Flash memory. o DVD-ROM – DVD-ROM (digital versatile disc, read-only memory) is similar to CD-ROM but is capable of holding much more information. You may use Bluetooth or Wi-Fi to sync your music player or print driving directions, but many computers still have ports to help you connect to a wide selection of peripherals.While there have been others, two are most commonly found on newer computers: • Universal Serial Bus (USB) – The most popular external connection, USB ports offer power and versatility and are incredibly easy to use.
• FireWire (IEEE 1394) – FireWire is a very popular method of connecting digital-video devices, such as camcorders or digital cameras, to your computer. Networking, especially to the Internet, is very important to today’s computer users. Your computer can probably use one or more of these methods: • Modem – This is the standard method of connecting to the Internet. • Local area network (LAN) card – This is used by many computers, particularly those in an Ethernet office network, to connect to one another. Cable modem – This type of modem uses the cable system in your home, like the kind you might use to subscribe to cable TV, to connect to the Internet. • Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) modem – This is a high-speed connection that works over a standard telephone line. • Very high bit-rate DSL (VDSL) modem – A newer variation of DSL, VDSL requires that your phone line have fiber-optic cables.
An even faster version called the gigabit per second DSL (GDSL) may follow [source: Cioffi, et al. ]. Powering Up a PC A typical computer session begins with turning on the power. Here’s what happens in that process: 1. You press the “On” button on the computer and the monitor. 2.You see the BIOS software doing its thing, called the power-on self-test (POST).
On many machines, the BIOS displays text describing such data as the amount of memory installed in your computer and the type of hard disk you have. During this boot sequence, the BIOS does a remarkable amount of work to get your computer ready to run. • The BIOS determines whether the video card is operational. Most video cards have a miniature BIOS of their own that initializes the memory and graphics processor on the card. If they don’t, there is usually video-driver information on another ROM on the motherboard that the BIOS can load. • The BIOS checks to see if this is a cold boot or a reboot. It does this by hecking the value at memory address 0000:0472.
A value of 1234h indicates a reboot, in which case the BIOS skips the rest of POST. Any other value is considered a cold boot. • If your computer is undergoing a cold boot, the BIOS verifies RAM by performing a read/write test of each memory address. It checks for a keyboard and a mouse. It looks for an expansion bus and, if it finds one, checks all the connected cards. If the BIOS finds any errors during the POST, it notifies you with a series of beeps or a text message displayed on the screen. An error at this point is almost always a hardware problem.
• The BIOS displays some details about your system.This typically includes information about the following: o Processor o Floppy and hard drive o Memory o BIOS revision and date o Display • Any special drivers, such as those for expansion cards, are loaded from the adapter and the BIOS displays the information. • The BIOS looks at the sequence of storage devices identified as boot devices in the complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) setup. Boot is short for “bootstrap,” as in the old phrase “Pull yourself up by your bootstraps. ” Boot refers to the process of launching the operating system. The BIOS tries to initiate the boot sequence from the first device using the bootstrap loader. 3.
The bootstrap loader loads the operating system into memory and allows it to begin operation. It does this by setting up the divisions of memory that hold the operating system, user information and applications. The bootstrap loader then establishes the data structures that are used to communicate within and between the sub-systems and applications of the computer. Finally, it turns control of the computer over to the operating system. PC Operating Systems Once loaded, the operating system’s tasks fall into six broad categories: • Processor management – Breaking the tasks down into manageable chunks and prioritizing them before sending to the CPU • Memory management -Coordinating the flow of data in and out of RAM and determining when virtual memory is necessary • Device management – Providing an interface between each device connected to the computer, the CPU and applications • Storage management – Directing where data will be stored permanently on hard drives and other forms of storage • Application Interface – Providing a standard communications and data exchange between software programs and the computer • User Interface – Providing a way for you to communicate and interact with the computer Say, for example, that you open up a word processing program and type a letter, save it and then print it out. Several components work together to make this happen: ? The keyboard and mouse send your input to the operating system. The operating system determines that the word-processing program is the active program and accepts your input as data for that program.
?The word-processing program determines the format that the data is in and, via the operating system, stores it temporarily in RAM. ? Each instruction from the word-processing program is sent by the operating system to the CPU. These instructions are intertwined with instructions from other programs that the operating system is overseeing before being sent to the CPU. ? All this time, the operating system is steadily providing display information to the graphics card, directing what will be displayed on the monitor. When you choose to save the letter, the word-processing program sends a request to the operating system, which then provides a standard window for selecting where you wish to save the information and what you want to call it. Once you have chosen the name and file path, the operating system directs the data from RAM to the appropriate storage device. ? You click on “Print.
” The word-processing program sends a request to the operating system, which translates the data into a format the printer understands and directs the data from RAM to the appropriate port for the printer you requested. ? You open up a Web browser and check out HowStuffWorks. Once again, the operating system coordinates all of the action. This time, though, the computer receives input from another source, the Internet, as well as from you.The operating system seamlessly integrates all incoming and outgoing information. ? You close the Web browser and choose the “Shut Down” option. ? The operating system closes all programs that are currently active.
If a program has unsaved information, you’re given an opportunity to save it before closing the program. ? The operating system writes its current settings to a special configuration file so that it will boot up next time with the same settings. ? If the computer provides software control of power, then the operating system will completely turn off the computer when it finishes its own shut-down cycle. Otherwise, you will have to turn the power off manually. The Future of PCsSilicon microprocessors have been the heart of the computing world for more than 40 years. In that time, microprocessor manufacturers have crammed more electronic devices onto microprocessors. In 1965, Intel founder Gordon Moore predicted that microprocessors would double in complexity every two years.
Since then, the number of electronic devices put on a microprocessor has doubled every 18 months, and the prediction has come to be known as Moore’s Law. Many have predicted that Moore’s Law will soon reach its end because of the physical limitations of silicon microprocessors. 2008 HowStuffWorks Extreme ultraviolet lithography is the future of computer-chip manufacturing.The current process used to pack more transistors onto a chip is called deep-ultraviolet lithography (DUVL), which is a photography-like technique that focuses light through lenses to carve circuit patterns on silicon wafers. While new manufacturing techniques have extended the useful lifep of the DUVL process, before long chip manufacturers will have to use new techniques to keep up with Moore’s Law. Many are already looking at extreme-ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) as a way to extend the life of silicon at least until the end of the decade. EUVL uses mirrors instead of lenses to focus the light, which allows light with shorter wavelengths to focus on the silicon wafer accurately.
To learn more about EUVL, see How EUVL Chipmaking Works.Beyond EUVL, researchers have been looking at alternatives to the traditional microprocessor design. Two of the more interesting emerging technologies are DNA computers and quantum computers. DNA computers have the potential to take computing to new levels, picking up where Moore’s Law leaves off. There are several advantages to using DNA instead of silicon: • As long as there are cellular organisms, there will be a supply of DNA. • The large supply of DNA makes it a cheap resource. • Unlike traditional microprocessors, which are made using toxic materials, DNA biochips can be made cleanly.
• DNA computers are many times smaller than today’s computers.DNA’s key advantage is that it will make computers smaller than any computer that has come before, while at the same time increasing storage capacity. One pound (0. 45 kilogram) of DNA has the capacity to store more information than all the electronic computers ever built. The computing power of a teardrop-sized DNA computer, using the DNA logic gates, will be more powerful than the world’s most powerful supercomputer. More than 10 trillion DNA molecules can fit into an area no larger than 1 cubic centimeter (. 06 cubic inch).
With this small amount of DNA, a computer would be able to hold 10 terabytes (TB) of data and perform 10 trillion calculations at a time. By adding more DNA, more calculations could be performed.Unlike conventional computers, DNA computers could perform calculations simultaneously. Conventional computers operate in linear fashion, taking on tasks one at a time. Parallel computing will allow DNA to solve complex mathematical problems in hours — problems that might take electrical computers hundreds of years to complete. You can learn more about DNA computing in How DNA Computers Will Work. Today’s computers work by manipulating bits that exist in one of two states: 0 or 1.
Quantum computers aren’t limited to two states; they encode information as quantum bits, or qubits. A qubit can be a 1 or a 0, or it can exist in a superposition that is simultaneously 1 and 0 or somewhere in between.Qubits represent atoms that are working together to serve as computer memory and a microprocessor. Because a quantum computer can contain these multiple states simultaneously, it has the potential to be millions of times more powerful than today’s most powerful supercomputers. A 30-qubit quantum computer would equal the processing power of a conventional computer capable of running at 10 teraops, or trillions of operations per second. To equal the top of the line in supercomputers you’d need more qubits. The Roadrunner supercomputer can run at a petaflop — 1,000 trillian floating point operations per second.
You can learn more about the potential of quantum computers in How Quantum Computers Will Work.


Work Placement Reflective

This is a sample of the reflective diary kept during my work placement with Viridian Housing. The experiences accounted in this sample reflect those used in support of my critical review. A reflective diary is a private record of experiences throughout work placement. It is very important to use this diary to report thoughts, feelings and opinions rather than reporting on the factual events of the day. A reflective diary is also important for keeping a record of both the positive and non positive experiences, as well as the achievements.
The purpose of reflection is a means to be able to think things over or to visualize. Reflection involves complex mental processing that discovers new ideas or inter-relationships between ideas.[1] Accurate reflection will help us improve our decision-making, deal with issues in everyday work and social situations, discover new ideas and help understand ourselves better.

There is a recurring theme with the tenancy checks and inspection visits that is very frustrating. I spoke to another tenant who is a long term tenant of Viridian. Invariably with the visits there will be small maintenance issues that need to be sorted out, however generally they have not been reported because they are minor and often aesthetic. In this case it was the issue of a window that was stuck shut. The tenant proceeded to tell me that there was a maintenance history, but that he would call one of the housing officers to sort it out, because that is the person they usually dealt with. Professionally this has no impact what so ever, as these things are recorded and can easily be dealt with. I found it frustrating however, because despite my position with Viridian, I feel that the tenants doubt my abilities and professional expertise. In this situation I remained calm and collected, as I suspect that this is a personal insecurity which will resolve itself with further experience in the field. I am also sure that there was no intention to undermine my position. I was proud that I was able to keep my composure despite feeling rather frustrated at the time. I spoke to one of my colleagues about it later that day and found out that this is a common thing with all housing officers. I was happy to learn this and am not dreading doing inspection visits as I was earlier in the day.
An elderly lady came for a consultation after going to a number of housing organizations to attempt to get into a care facility. By the time she arrived in our offices she was at her wits end. Although the issue of finding accommodation for her is relatively simple and routine, I discovered that she really needed to just talk to someone that understood what she wanted and what she did not want. A lot of what she was complaining about had to do with housing organizations wanting to put her into a type of frail care facility, however this isn’t what she wanted. I feel like the respect that Viridian is always reinforcing in this industry really does have a place, as this lady clearly hasn’t been shown much respect and even though we have not helped her yet, she was incredibly happy and grateful at the end of the meeting. I am finding that so much about this position has to do with an attitude of respect towards to client. I do not think that one could succeed in this position without the ability to build rapport with people and be friendly. I was proud to be a member of Viridian as the assistance that we can offer people in her situation, although not particularly unique, can make a huge difference in the lives of the elderly and disabled.
I performed a tenancy check and inspection visit and was let into the property by who I assumed was family of the tenant. This was after significant problems in trying to gain access to the property and eventually after harassing the tenant for over a week, I was able to secure an inspection date and time. After having a look around the property it started to look a bit suspicious as it was clear that this family member was living in the property. After some questioning it became clear that the property had been informally sublet to this family member and that the actual tenant was now living somewhere else. Obviously illegal subletting has to be reported and the family member of the tenant will most likely be evicted from the property. I had mixed feelings about this, because she seemed like a very nice person who was going to bear the consequences of the mistake of the tenant. I felt very sympathetic towards her and going forward, I felt sad in having to report this to the housing officers. The matter was taken over by the housing officer that manages the property, however in subsequent reporting I found out that the matter has been settled. I was proud of my ability to be perceptive in this situation and follow my instincts. Although emotionally it was difficult to follow the rules, professionally this was a triumph as I followed my gut and in doing so discovered an illegal tenancy.
There was an incident with an elderly couple that was occupying on the properties that had about three stairs throughout. Whilst in the office, I received a phone call from the husband informing me of the unsuitability of the housing for them because of the problems that the stairs caused. He then demanded that we find another house for them or see to it that there are the requisite ramps installed in the housing immediately. To that point I had not dealt with an issue like this, however I treated the matter as urgent and reported it immediately to one of my colleagues. The next day I received a phone call from the same man who was now irate that there had been no action taken as of yet and he shouted over the phone at me, not allowing me to speak. Whilst I understood his concern, I did not appreciate the disrespect shown towards me, especially since we had given him feedback on the issue and all things considered it was not urgent. I managed to stay calm during the whole conversation and tried to be as compassionate and understanding as possible. I calmly explained to him that we needed to get approval to install ramps in the property and there would be some delay. I was proud of myself for staying calm during that time as I was getting more frustrated as the man continued to rant at me. Moving forward, I learnt that when dealing with homes, people are always going to be upset, but as the professional you need to stay calm and do your job without getting angry or upset.
There was an issue with a tenant that had a leaking roof that had allegedly been reported to the maintenance team. I checked the records and nothing was reflected. As there was staff training that week, I was alone in the office and the weekend was approaching. Not wanting the tenant to suffer any further water damage to her property, I went about organizing a repair team to go to the house to fix it the next afternoon, however got a call from the contractor who was at the house saying the tenant had said that someone had been around earlier to fix the problem from Viridian. This was incredibly frustrating as now the contractor would be paid for nothing and it was a waste of my time, the tenants and the contractors. I cross checked with the maintenance team the following Monday when training was over and discovered that they had organized for the roof to be fixed, however due to training they had been unable to update the records to reflect this. I was very embarrassed that I had not first checked with the relevant housing officer, although at the time I felt that I was showing initiative. I feel like I learnt a valuable lesson through making this mistake that although showing initiative is encouraged, one must have all the facts of the situation before executing a plan. I had to explain the situation to the housing officer, who understood my mistake. I do feel however that there is some responsibility on the housing officer for not having updated the record, as it was clearly within my duties to have the maintenance issue sorted out and it is important to always update the files with the correct information at all times as these systems exist for exactly this reason. Although I was not formally reprimanded, I do feel that I was only part responsible. Nonetheless, I learnt a valuable lesson about communication between the different teams in Viridian and moving forward I shall ensure that I follow all protocol accordingly.
Nolan, Y.,Moonie, N.,Lavers, S. (2005) Health and Social Care (Adults): S/NVQ Level 3, Essex, Heinemann
Nolan, Y. (2005) Health and Social Care (Adults): S/NVQ Level 2, Essex, Heinemann.
[1] Nolan, Y.,Moonie, N.,Lavers, S. (2005) Health and Social Care (Adults): S/NVQ Level 3, Essex, Heinemann


Experience of Work with People of Different Age

Generation Gap When younger workers are hired in the same department as older workers, the results can be frustrating or rewarding. What makes the difference is how management decides to blend the workforces. The 80 million Generation Y workers, called millennial, who were born after 1977 bring a host of talents to the office. They generally are skilled at hands-on, experiential learning and gain skills by attempting to perform a task rather than by reading a book or attending a lecture. They multicast, prefer to work alone, accept change readily, and access Information at all ours of the day.
These work habits are contrary to what older workers have experienced during their careers. To blend the cultures, managers must devise methods of fostering coexistence. The project-oriented nature of IT work appeals to the bright, creative, energetic millennial, and they perform best when given new technologies and the freedom to experiment. Enjoying new situations and challenges, they excel at mentoring less tech-saws workers on using the Innovative hardware and software and rotating among various departments to meet new people.
They also thrive in an atmosphere that encourages blobbing and testing, so the work environment should allow mobile social networking and communications. What are your thoughts? Do you find this to be the case at your place of work? I believe the current increase in new millennial further assist the older population. For example, as a professional in the Education industry the younger generations, in my opinion juggle various tasks. However, I feel the older population can benefit from most millennial by keeping an open mind to technology. Often times many baby boomers become resistant to change.

Remotely no adaptation occurs, leading to undue stress of millennial. On another note, millennial may often be underestimated within the workforce due to autonomy. The world has emerged into a new era involving a high demand to remain abreast with frequent changes. I work alongside various baby-boomers and they are never updated with anything. Work By Lange-Wilcox multicast, prefer to work alone, accept change readily, and access information at all they excel at mentoring less tech-savvy workers on using the innovative hardware my opinion Juggle various tasks.