Categories
War

Report On Concept Software Solutions

This report is based on the Concept Software Solutions, which is a custom software engineering house that provides customized solutions to small and large organizations. The company is having a software team, which is presently working on the project of ‘e-Learning Portal’ for a chief national university and during this period, numerous issue aroused in the organization. This paper explores the ethical and unethical behavior performed by the members of software team especially Angela, David and board of directors. This report begins with the introduction to company.
Moving further, this paper explains the purpose of report along with the scope and limitation of the ethical analysis. Before beginning with the in-depth analysis of the ethical issues it is necessary to understand the meaning of certain terms, which are explained under the heading definitions. To develop more clarity into the concepts this report provides description of Questionable Acts and Justification Based on the ethical theories under the heading Ethical Analysis. Last but not the least, this report presents Stakeholder Identification and Bommer et. al’s Analysis.
As stakeholder’s identification assist in determining success factor for the organization and also helps in analyzing business crisis. At the end report provides conclusion stating the potential solution, risk in implementing the decision and potential solution. 1. Introduction Before beginning with the ethical analysis, it is necessary have an overview about the company. CSS stands for Concept Software Solutions, which particularizes in products and services, especially for the e- Learning sector.

In 1990, Concept Software Solutions was found as a custom software engineering firm which is meant to provide tailor made solutions for all the small and large organizations. In this concern, the company has formulated numerous significant applications and systems, which can be altered to go well with numerous organizations. The e- Learning Delivery Systems and related services for the corporate, teaching and higher education markets have a growth rate of about 50-60 per cent in the company.
CSS formulates strategic alliances with its customers and content partners. This enables the Concept Software Solutions to lay down a developing market presence in Europe and Asia. Concept Software Solutions is developing quickly and in Melbourne (head office) it is having a staff of about 25 people. Apart from this, the company is having sales office in Hong Kong; an innovative office in Europe (UK), a team involved in development purpose is situated in Amsterdam and has recently established a worldwide support centre in Brisbane.

Categories
War

The First Modern War

Samuel Santiuste Ms. Engelken US History I Honors May 13, 2011 The First Modern War While reading history, we typically see that wars were typically fought with soldiers in close- order formations with a musket that would be fired in unison on command. Everything changed after the American Civil War, a conflict to determine the fate of slaves in the Union, erupted. Today many historians consider the Civil War as the first modern war because it depended on: heavy industry, fast communication and transportation.
But this time all of these new technologies were used to its full potential. As a result new weapon technology was mass produced which inflicted heavy losses on both the Union and the Confederate sides and resulted in improved battlefield medicine. Years before the Civil War, soldiers would normally carry muskets that had a fire range of about 250 yards. But although this weapon had an amazing range, the musket only held and fired one bullet at a time and it hit random targets.
The accuracy of the musket was from about 80 yards and this caused many of the battles to be fought at a close range. Then, in 1848 the French officer named Claude-Etienne Minie took the design of a bullet that expanded upon fired and “simplified and improved on earlier designs–including those developed by Britain’s Captain John Norton (1818) and William Greener (1836)” to make the bullet that bears its name: the Minie ball (Minie Ball). This new bullet combined with the rifle made a terrific duo because the range of the weapon was from 200-250 yards with a terrific accuracy.

To show the bullet’s power alone, during the Crimean War of 1853-56 “the bullet so improved the effectiveness of infantry troops that 150 soldiers using the Minie ball could equal the firing power of more than 500 with a traditional musket and ammunition” (Minie Ball). When this weapon was introduced to the Civil War, the old model of warfare became obsolete right away because the infantry along with the cavalry could not charge against the enemy as they used to.
Other weapons that came into action in the Civil War were not as deadly as the Minie ball but had a big impact on surviving. Despite the fact that the Minie ball was easy to load, soldiers still had to pause in the middle of the action to reload their guns, and this made them easy targets. By 1863, there was a new weapon that solved this problem called repeating rifle because it could fired more than one bullet before the needing of a reload. The most famous type was the Spencer carbine.
But like many other technology, this weapon was only available to the Northerners. Many Southerners thought that this weapon was unfair and one Union soldier once wrote: “they say we are not fair, that we have guns that we load up on Sunday and shoot all the rest of the week” (Civil War Technology). At the end of the war, the statistics showed that the Minie ball combined with the rifle did the most damage because “with more than 200,000 soldiers killed and more than 400,000 wounded, 90 percent of these causalities were caused by these weapons” (Minie Ball).
On the same year that the Civil War started, President Lincoln ordered a blockade on the Confederates to stop their cotton trade and split the confederacy. So to counter attack the Union, many advances in naval warfare were flourishing which led to the built of the H. L. Hunley, which was the first ever effective submarine developed by the Confederates. This Confederate submarine was created to destroy the Union blockade wooden ships with the use of torpedoes that were attached along a long steak that exploded upon contact or by a timer.
But before the submarine was ready to attack, it sank three times and on the fourth tried “it was sent out to attack the U. S. S. Housatonic, and detonated its torpedo, sinking the Housatonic and thereby becoming the first submarine to ever sink an enemy vessel” (Dutch). Despite the best efforts the submarine sank with the blast. Another incredible invention that changed the nature of warfare in the seas was when the ironclad warships came into action. This time both sides had their own version of the ironclad which was powered by a steam engine: Union had the U. S. S. Monitor and the Confederates the C.
S. S. Virginia or Merrimack. Once again the Confederates tried to destroy the Union ships using an ironclad “built upon the charred remains of a burnt wooden warship, clad completely in iron plating down to the waterline and bristling with cannons” (White). This warship just went straight for the blockade in Virginia, and although it was hit by explosives and other heavy artillery the damage was minimal. And this is just a brief view of what might the battle would have been like by Professor J Rickard with the Virginia: On 8 March 1862 she steamed out of Norfolk to attack the Union blockading fleet.
Her ten guns were opposed to 219 Union guns on five ships, but the Union ships didn’t stand a chance. First to go was the U. S. S. Cumberland (24 guns), rammed and sunk. The only serious damage inflicted to the Virginia was that her ram broke off and remained stuck in the Cumberland. All of this meant that the Union needed reinforcement, so they sent the Monitor to save the day. These ships battled for “several hours as their shells and shot bounced off each other’s thick armor plating” and the match might have ended in a tie as there were no records telling who won (White).
As the iron-clad demonstrated their power, the old wooden ships became obsolete. Even though there was fascinating technology being used in the Civil War, the only two “weapons” that President Lincoln that used the most were the train and the telegraph. Although the railroads were still a new concept because they were not used much for military purposes, they were still used to attack the enemy and replenish troops. The Union owned about 21,000 miles of railroad tracks while the Confederates only owned about 9,000 miles.
Since the beginning of the war both sides used trains to transport ammunition and soldiers to the front lines faster than ever before. Because the trains played a very important role in the war, the enemy used “rail twisters and devices to blow up railroad bridges and other infrastructure and even some troops specialized in destroying railroad equipment as their sole-role in the war” (AE Aeragon) . Most of the time trains were used for transportation, but on special occasions they were used as rams.
Sometimes troops would send trains at full speed to “damage an enemy train or railroad facilities, or to attack troops and even to destroy bridges” (Koenig). This experienced Confederates soldiers when they saw a train on flames aiming straight for them. Now, the telegraph was located along the railroad tracks and this meant that the North had the upper hand because they have the most railroad miles. The telegraph helped President Lincoln from the White House “to monitor battlefield reports, lead real-time strategy meetings and deliver orders to his men” (Civil War Technology).
This turn out to be a great advantage for the North because they still required the technology and industry to carry out communication tasks. And by 1862 the U. S. Military Telegraph Corps “trained 1,200 operators, strung 4,000 miles telegraph wire and had sent more than 1,000,000 messages back and for” (Koenig). This alone can tell that during this war that the president was actually involved more than in past wars. Throughout the entire Civil War, diseases were killing more people than weapons because people had little knowledge about the silent killers called germs.
Since the beginning of the Civil War in the spring of 1861 “medically, the United States was woefully prepared and scientists, meanwhile, had yet to come up with the theory that germs cause diseases” (Sohn). This meant that doctors did not know that they should always wash their instruments before operating and the hospital hygiene was very poor which led to disease breakouts. But problems led to many medical advances such as the protocol to treat the injuries.
This system was created by Jonathan Letterman, a Union surgeon, who “created a well-organized system of care that began with triage close to the source of harm and was followed by rapid transportation to a series of clinics, hospitals and specialists” (Sohn). This medical protocol is still essential today. While there medical advancements, many improvements on neurology came about. Physicians began “the study of phantom limbs, the perception of a missing arm or leg as present and painful” (White). The American physician S. Weir Mitchell discovered phenomenon such as the shell shock and posttraumatic stress syndrome.
One of the ways that physicians noticed these problems were when soldiers would freeze or started to shake wildly and many thought it was because that person was a coward. So Mitchell and his colleague, Jacob da Costa, “came into a conclusion which was that the soldiers were suffering from mental problems, stress and heart diseases” (White). To treat these problems, they said it was necessary the removal and rest from the source causing the stress. The Civil War, an event that could have or could have not being avoided, shaped the future of the entire world. The war had a great impact on anything that ranged from weapons to medicine.
It also leaded to the creation of new technology such as the telephone and the improvement on the medical field. Although the war brought many innovations to the United Sates, it is still the bloodiest one in the American history because people from the same nation were being killed and it is similar to what the British Novelists Agatha Christie said about war: One is left with the horrible feeling now that war settles nothing; that to win a war is as disastrous as to lose one. Works Cited “Civil War Technology. ” 2011. The History Channel website. Apr. 27 2011, 11:04 <http://www. history. com/topics/civil-war-technology>.
Dutch, Steven. “The First Modern War and the Last Ancient War. ” University of Wisconsin – Green Bay. N. p. , 02 Jun 2010. Web. 27 Apr 2011. <http://www. uwgb. edu/dutchs/westtech/x1stmodw. htm>. Koenig, Alan R. “Railroad’s Critical Role in the Civil War. ” America’s Civil War 1996: n. pag. Web. 27 Apr 2011. <http://www. historynet. com/railroads-critical-role-in-the-civil-war. htm>. “Minie Ball. ” 2011. The History Channel website. Apr. 27 2011, 11:03 <http://www. history. com/topics/minie-ball>. Rickard, J (1 May 2006), American Civil War: The Blockade and the War at Sea, <http://www. historyofwar. rg/articles/wars_american_civil_war09_waratsea. html>. Sohn, Emily. “How the Civil War Changed Modern Medicine. ” Discovery News. N. p. , 08 Apr. 2011. Web. 27 Apr 2011. <http://news. discovery. com/history/civil-war-modern-medicine-110331. html>. Stevens, Anthony. Roots of War and Terror. New York: Cromwell Press Ltd, 2044. 212. eBook. “The US Civil War, the First Modern War. ” AE Aeragon. N. p. , n. d. Web. 27 Apr 2011. <http://www. aeragon. com/03/index. html>. White, David. “Born in the USA: A New World of War. ” History Today 60. 6 (2010): 12. Points of View Reference Center. EBSCO. Web. 27 Apr. 2011.

Categories
War

Essay on Open Source Software

Introduction:
The concept of open source affects many fields of study from computer software and hardware to architecture, health, science, robotics and even politics. Linus Torvalds predicted this proliferation of source openness when he said: “the future is open source everything”. But another founder of open source movement, Eric Raymond, refused the using of this concept about applications outside software (Wikipedia, 2009).
Free/open source software (F/OSS) is accessible software where end source code is available for the user. It is not limited to software as applicable ones, it exceeds to allow beneficial to read, modify and recreate the source code (V. Hippel, V. Krogh, 2003). So F/OSS is usually provides users with source code and information needed to apply their changes on them.

The ability to run the program as the user wishes is one of the essential freedoms which Richard Stallman, the founder of free software and defender of open source, was confirmed in an interview. These freedoms are: the freedom to study how these software works, the freedom to change it according to project’s requirements, the freedom to redistribute it and the freedom to distribute your modified copy to others (Reilly 2008).
In Raymond opinion “good programmers know how to write, great ones know what to rewrite”, and he illustrated that it is almost easier to use an already existing solution to start with than to start from nothing at all. But this involves developer in difficult-to-be-solved problems if choice is not suitable. Linux operating system was not written from scratch where Linus Torvalds started by studying ideas from Minix “a tiny Unix-like OS” and then reused it according to project’s purposes (Raymond, 1999)
Beginnings:
It was a big surprise for those who used to pay for software to be told that groups of volunteers create high quality software and produce it to the community for free. The idea of FOSS began in 1960s. In this decade commercial software was not available and researchers were in need to share software code. As a result, they started to share source code in a limited framework.
“Open sharing of software code was a common practice in the MIT Artificial Intelligence Laboratory in the early 1960s and in similar laboratories such as Stanford and Carnegie Mellon” (Moon & Sproull 2002).
After that developers and users gave the idea more attention. Consequently, foundations of free software have been established in 1980s when Stallman called for free software and claimed that software should be common. In an interview, Stallman confirmed that computer users could not use the proprietary software come with most computers in the 1980s. So, such software keeps users “divided and helpless”. Stallman was dissatisfied with that situation and he started the free software movement in 1993 when he wrote the GNU open source operating system (M. Reilly, 2008). The general public license of GNU operating system allows users receive all their rights in essential freedoms mentioned above. In 2005 the idea achieved its goals in software filed and became more trusted by users and developers (Raymond 1999).
Wikipedia is a known example of F/OSS. It is a free encyclopedia started in the beginnings of 2001 by means of highly qualified contributors. It provides 19 free encyclopedias in 19 different languages and its content has been created by user contributions.
Many other examples like Apache web server, BIND name server and Linux operating system kernel are free for any user to use, amend and share.
Motivations:
The motivations of Stallman to produce free software are his strong belief in freedom, particularly “the freedom for individuals to cooperate” (2003). But what are the incentives other developers have to become contributors in open source projectsIn other words, why do programmers volunteer their time and experience without any financial returns to create free software?
Raymond is one of the first GNU contributors, a developer of many net open source software and a significant participant in Linux operating system development. He indicated that Linux project was going from “strength to strength” and the reason was the “bazaar” model of the Linux development style in which all contributors worked hard as at individual projects. He added that the democratic atmosphere in bazaar model motivated him and his partners to work hard regardless of financial returns (Raymond 1999).
The Linux creator, Linus Trovalds, says: “I am basically a very lazy person who likes to get credit for things other people actually do” (Raymond 1999). Torvalds , as he stated in his book ‘Just For Fun’, has an early interest in computing, he does not seem to take himself too seriously, he is a lucky guy who can provide a career for himself, and he finds a lot of fun when he writes software code.
It is surprising that hackers are also a significant motivating factor; they lead developers to impress their peers, gain a better reputation and raise their ranks in society (Zaleski et al. 2001).
Wikipedia showed, in a study made up by Wikipedia administrators, that the reason for their participants to be a part in such free work is the desire to create a benefit thing that helps others and meets their requirements (Wikipedia 2010). While the basic motivations for corporation in learners open source community are learning specific topics, learning how to be future learners and projects creating.
Advantages:
Software is characterized by many factors:
Its cost, where the lower price is more preferred and thus free is the most.
Voluntary work, where volunteers are motivated towards the project and they are interested in, which means that they do their best.
Continuously tested by all participant and users, hence it is almost free of bugs and errors.
These factors refer that open source software is likely to be the best solution for any project if needed features are provided. Besides, developers have created it according to own needs which means that it is in a high level of quality and efficiency.
F/OSS has many advantages related to development cost and time, bug correction and independency. Time and cost are essential factors in software development and they can be exploited by using of OSS which reduces the number of programmers employer has to pay himself, provides a ready tested code from other projects and thus reduces the time it takes to build, test and develop. Besides that creating software by many developers, each has revised and corrected its errors and each has a different background, leads to less bugs and faster detection and correction. Linus’ law refers to this idea ‘Given enough eyeballs, all bugs are shallow’ (Answers.com, 2009).
Openness of source code provides communication paths and interactive communities. F/OSS community in schools consists of researchers, learners and teachers; each listens to others and respects their opinions. It is expected in this style of community to switch roles among its members, where students may be assigned particular roles to take on for the studied project. So they can share their ideas in all project’s aspects. On the other hand, sense of control is uncommon in most classrooms, so one of learner’s community’s advantages is to prepare students for future life by involving them in the experiment of leadership (H. Baytiyeh, J. Pfaffman, 2010).
Another advantage for open source software, which Zaleski stated in his article, that open source innovation was the reason for Linux operating system to move quickly from being an ambiguous operating system used by programmers and hackers to an essential operating system in business area (2001).
On the other hand, open source technology resolved the problem of knowledge transfer in developing countries. Direct import of software not only costs these countries high amounts of money, but also puts them in complex troubles where they do not know how to develop this software to meet the local needs (Alkhatib 2008).
Why do some organizations still buy commercial software instead of using free ones?
The voluntary of open source projects and the relative lake of financial support make them far from marketing and advertising. This means that many organizations have not been informed that free solutions relevant to their needs are available freely. This “knowledge gap” cause many other barriers. Some managers do not know how to implement and use open source applications and they may be unaware of the range of services provided with such applications like support services and consultations.
To cover this knowledge gap, an “up to date” archive of open source applications is available in SourceForge.net website. This website consists of more than 131,000 open source applications with their latest software updates where the accessibility is allowed for any organization to find suitable free software according to its requirements. Further, assistance with the technical issues of open source applications implementation is available by many open source consultants like IBM, Red Hat, and Open Sky Consulting.
Forking is another reason for not using F/OSS. The independency between open source software developers groups leads to different versions of same software. Although these versions started with the same source code, they are not able to interoperate because these groups create their own versions without coordination. This phenomenon is called “forking” and it is the responsible for open source software fragmenting. As a result, the open source BSD-Unix community was divided into three portions in early 1990s, and Emacs text editor and NCSA web server are other examples where both forked into two divisions in 1992 and 2995 respectively.
In Nagy’s opinion, forking is dangerous because it causes inherited fragmentation for both of the original software adopters and marketing of relative applications. Many versions of one software leads adopters to choose one to support, consequently, software will not gain the critical mass of adopters it aims to do. On the other hand, venders will be put in a point of choosing to support one of forked versions or all of them in their own applications. In this case, some adopters and vendors decide to wait for a standard version or to stall their adoption and supporting (NAGY et al. 2010).
Conclusion:
No one can predict the future of software, but developers can expect that open source software will be stronger and gain increased faith from traditional software industry.
Historically, one can recognize the discontinuities appeared between IBM System in the 1960s, first PC in the end of 1970s and the open source movement in the 1990s. So it is expected that this technology gap will take place in the next 10-15 years for a new software innovation (Campbell-Kelly 2008)
Green IT
Introduction:
IT has brought many significant solutions for environmental sustainability, but at the same time, it caused a lot of problems especially in data centers where energy is consumed enormously (Murugesan 2010)
Hopper, a professor of computer technology at the University of Cambridge and head of its Computer Laboratory, claimed that “the system we now employ is hugely wasteful” and he proposed to create new systems which are more efficient, less expensive and help in reducing energy consumptions; because he believed that moving data is cheaper than energy (Kurp 2008)
Computers impact environment from the first stage of producing to the last stage of disposal. Moreover, increased consumption of energy leads to more greenhouse gas emissions because the main source of energy is coil, oil or gas burning (Murugesan 2010)
Since environmental problems come from each stage of computer’s life, green IT must covers all of these areas, from designing to manufacturing and use end with disposal.
In the article Harnessing Green IT: Principles and Practices, San Murugesan defines green computing as “the study and practice of designing, manufacturing, using, and disposing of computers, servers, and associated subsystems -such as monitors, printers, storage devices, and networking and communications systems- efficiently and effectively with minimal or no impact on the environment.” (Murugesan 2008)
Suggested solutions:
Dell and Hewlett-Packard are two computer manufacturers. They decided to solve the problem by retooling their products. On the other hand, the solution from the standpoint of David Wang, the data center architect for Teradata, is not to replace all old computers by others which are more environments friendly. He confirmed that attention must be drawn to increasing power consumption as well as to heat removal in data centers (Kurp 2008).
Murugesan has illustrated areas and activities which are involved in green IT solutions as the following:
– Environmental friendly designing;
– Energy-efficient computing;
– Power management;
– Location and architecture of data centers;
– Server virtualization which has been explained before;
– Responsible disposal and recycling;
– Regulatory compliance;
– Green metrics, assessment tools and methodology;
– Environment-related risk reducing;
– Use of renewable energy sources; and
– Eco-labeling of IT products (2008).
Other solutions have been produced by Hasbrouck and Woodruff. They suggested two strategies for green computing:
Reduce computing technology’s contribution to the problem by producing energy-efficient computers, take reusability into account during computers’ designing, use less materials and work toward computers’ and related systems’ recycling. Moreover, they indicated that truing off inactive computers, using energy-efficient devices and reduction of emissions emitted from computers’ manufacturing are significant parts of this strategy.
Give computing a role in resolving the issue by creating green applications which enable design green objects and green processes such as design green buildings, invent source of renewable energy and design fuel-efficient aircraft (2008).
Most efforts in green IT are directed towards the first strategy to solve environmental problems which have increased along with computers’ using increase.
As a result of these problems caused by computers, many associations are turning to green computing to save money and reduce waste. To do so, Dick Sullivan listed five major trends:
Virtualization in all forms especially for servers, storage and network environments. In other words, transform entire machines into software-based entities. For instance, a room with five servers can be replaced by an efficient server provided with high performance software.
Utilize the cloud computing where no need to have own data centers, own big servers or storage systems. Many organizations need only a small amount of proprietary equipment and functionality. In this case, they can basically purchase what they need from someone else who will be responsible for the security, power and maintenance.
Sullivan confirmed that “a huge amount of data is basically an exact duplicate of other data”, so converting to intelligent compression or single instance storage can eliminate this waste and cut the total data storage needed.
Solid-state disk (SSD) has no moving parts and is not magnetic, so it is a stronger, safer and faster way to store and access data.
Everyone can make impact and be a part of green computing project when s/he has more awareness of her/his direct and indirect daily computing habits. Employees, for example, can support green computing if they use to turn off computers not in use, banning screen savers and shorten the turn-off times when computers are inactive. On the other hand, printing waste a lot of papers, so managing this daily process by printing only as needed and adopting double sided printing will make a significant impact (Clarke 2009)
Many efforts have been made to support the idea of green IT. Climate Savers Computing Initiative (CSCI) is one of these efforts. It seeks to reduce electric power consumption of PCs and it has established a catalogue of green products from organizations involved with, in addition to helpful information about reducing PC energy consumption.
This initiative is a group of consumers, businesses and conservation organizations formed in 2007, it has gained brilliant results where 50 percent of energy consumed by computers was economized by 2010, and it was able to reduce global CO2 emissions from the operation of computers by 54 million tons a year (Wikipedia 2010).
Motivations:
To enforce computer users to subject to green IT solutions and apply them on their daily routines, government can face them with more green taxis and rules.
But it is better, in my opinion, to raise people awareness toward the danger that threatens the Earth if they continue using traditional computers in traditional methods, and to teach them the benefits of green IT.
Applying green IT issues in all affected areas offers individuals and organizations financial benefits where IT operations achieve better energy efficiency through green initiatives. In a survey made by Sun Microsystem Australia, 1500 responses have been collected from 758 different-size organizations. Almost of these responses illustrated that the main reasons for using green IT practices are reducing energy consumption and get lower costs.
As a result, most companies started to prioritize environmental issues. Moreover, institutions and corporate ask their suppliers to take into account how to “green up” their products and manufacturing processes. Not only companies but also people began to adhere to environmentally friendly issues of IT (Murugesan 2008).
Green IT approach:
As it has mentioned above that environmental problems caused by computing should be addressed by a holistic approach which include solutions for all areas affected by using computers.
This approach, as it has been explained by Murugesan, consists of four concepts:
Green use that aims to reduce energy consumption and use computers in an environmentally friendly manner.
Green disposal where computers, related system like printers and electronic equipments should be reused, refurbished or recycled.
Green design where new computers, servers and cooling devices can be designed to be more energy efficient.
Green manufacturing which aims to adopt the process of computers and sub-systems creating that minimize or get rid of its impact on the environment (2008)

References:
2003. Richard Stallman: Freedom–His Passion Both For Work And In Life. Electronic Design, 51(23), 112.
Answers.com, what are the advantages and disadvantages of open source software and why?, [Internet]. Available from: http://wiki.answers.com/Q/What_are_the_advantages_and_ disadvantages_of _open _source_software_and_why, [Accessed 30th November 2010]
Campbell-Kelly, M., 2008. Historical Reflecions Will the Future of Software be Open SourceCommunications of the ACM, 51(10), 21-23.
Clarke, K., 2009. Green computing trends you should know. Associations Now, 5(8), 19.
Hasbrouck, J. & Woodruff, A., 2008. Green Homeowners as Lead Adopters: Sustainable Living and Green Computing. Intel Technology Journal, 12(1), 39-48.
Kurp, P., 2008. Green Computing. Communications of the ACM, 51(10), 11-13.
Michael Bloch, Open source software in your online business -advantages/ disadvantages, 1999-2010
Moon, J.Y. & Sproull, L., 2002. Essence of distributed work: The case of the Linux kernel. In P. Hinds & S. Kiesler, eds. Distributed work. Cambridge, MA US: MIT Press, pp. 381-404.
Murugesan. S., 2008, “Harnessing Green IT: Principles and Practices,” IEEE IT Professional, January–February 2008, pp 24-33.
Murugesan, S., 2010. Making IT Green. IEEE Computer Society, Vol. 12, No. 2.
NAGY, D., YASSIN, A.M. & BHATTACHERJEE, A., 2010. Organizational Adoption of Open Source Software: Barriers and Remedies. Communications of the ACM, 53(3), 148-151.
Raymond, E., 1999. The Cathedral and the Bazaar. Knowledge, Technology & Policy, 12(3), 23.
Reilly, M., 2008. Interview: Richard Stallman, one of the founders of “free software”.
Vidyasagar Potdar and Elizabeth Chang (2004) Open source and closed source software development methodologies. Proc.of the 4th Workshop on Open Source Software Engineering, pages 105-109, Edinburgh, Scotland, May 25 2004.
Wikipedia the free encyclopedia (2001) Open source [Internet]. Available from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Open_source, [Accessed 4th November 2010]
Zaleski, J. et al., 2001. JUST FOR FUN (Book Review). Publishers Weekly, 248(17), 60.

Categories
War

Wars of Roses: A Thematic Account

Introduction
Wars of the Roses was a dreadfully brutal, prolonged, civil conflict in England among the descendants of two houses namely the Yorks and the Lancasters; with each claiming to be the rightful heir to the throne. The overall result of the brutal war was to slay off all the prospective claimants to the English throne on belonging to either houses, inflict mayhem and devastation, turn hatred into blood-feuds, and force the entire English Royal family that ruled the country for more than 300 years to a disgraceful end. Moreover, the Wars of the Roses has few equivalents in history when it comes to tortuous schemes, turnarounds, treachery and treason, changes allegiance, armed setbacks, and astonishing endings. Wars or Roses is not an easy war to comprehend historically or in terms of military progress.
The war is named after the two Roses that represent the houses of Lancaster (red rose) and York (white rose) respectively, among the English nobility. The roots of the war lies in the disputed progression of kingship that existed over the two previous generations when King Henry IV (Bolingbroke), who was a Lancaster, became king succeeding Richard II, who had been deposed off. Many observers and commentators are of the belief that Richard’s cousin Clarence, who was a York, had had a better claim to the throne; however Richard II was in a better position to make a claim as his father, John of Gaunt, was highly influential. Succeeding Richard II, Henry V became a popular king earning great respect for victories in France; hence no one argued against his succession to the throne. Likewise, no one challenged his son’s claim to succession during the life of Henry V. Unfortunately, Henry V died young and his son Henry VI did not prove to be as popular or a strong leader as his predecessor. His kingship was marred by the surrounding of unpopular advisors. Given this situation, the House of York, impelled on by the Earl of Warwick (aka the King Maker), made efforts to claim their righteousness for the throne.[1]

The political maneuverings to by the House of York to reclaim their right for the throne began much earlier than the actual battles. It was when King Henry VI, after several years of his marriage to Margaret of Anjou, failed to produce a male off spring who would succeed him. It was widely opined that after the death of King Henry VI, the throne would smoothly pass on to the Yorks given that Henry had no heir. This opinion turned into a reality when a formal accord of succession was signed between the Lancasters and the Yorks and it seemed as eventually the Yorks would succeed without any bloodshed. However, as the events unfolded, King Henry’s VI wife Margaret of Anjou unexpectedly gave birth to a male child after a long wait of seven years. Margaret of Anjou was a strong lady, with all the strength of characters and leadership qualities lacked by her husband, and thus decided to abolish the previously signed accord of Yorkish succession and insisted upon the right of her son to succeed Kind Henry VI. [2]
Similarly the tensions between the Lancaster and Yorks renewed following the removal of Richard of York from government positions and the Royal council by Henry VI. Henry VI was prone to bouts of insanity and hence he appointed Richard of York as his Regent during one of his bouts in 1454. Upon his recovery, he saw that Richard had become too powerful and thus removed him from all his positions. This ignited the Yorks to attack Henry VI under Richard’s command.[3]
During the early years of the War of Roses, Margaret of Anjou was the one who led the cause of Lancaster rather than her husband King Henry VI. Margaret of Anjou shied away from nothing, from leading her husband’s armies personally, to decapitating her adversaries in order to support the succession of her son. On the other hand, the driving force behind the cause of Yorks was the powerful Earl of Warwick, and the Duke of York. Both Warwick and the Queen were cousins by marriage. At that time, Warwick was considered to be the wealthiest and the most influential English noble. Ironically, he had no male heirs and resultantly he was determined to marry his daughters with the Royal family. [4]
The entire War of Roses can be divided into three phases. The initial phase was the longest and deadliest, and led to the victory of the Yorks. It was followed by a phase of rebellion within the House of York, which subsequently led to Lancaster’s claim to the throne. Their success was very short lived and soon the Yorks regained the throne. The third phase was marked by the death of King Edward IV of York. During this phase, Richard III fought with a usurper Henry Tudor, who was a distant cousin of the Royals from the Lancaster side.
First Phase: This phase is marked by the deadliest and the most violent battles between the two Houses which were fought between 1459 and 1461, and ended in the victory of Yorks— the Lancaster Royals were exiled in France, with Henry VI being imprisoned by the Yorks in England. There were however, several reversals where the Yorks seemed to have lost their way, along with temporary truces between the two sides.[5]
After the opening battles between the two sides, the Yorks were victorious in the early battles. However, the Yorks face massive disaster during the battle of Wakefield, in December of 1460, the Yorks met with disaster. Both the Duke of York and his eldest son were killed. The Yorkish supporters were enraged with this defeat and thus they further attacked the Lanceters with more armies, inflicting heavy losses upon them parallel to the battle of Wakefield. Ultimately in the battle of Towton, the Lanceters were defeated with their Royals narrowly escaping. Edward IV claimed the throne in 1461. It was followed by a cessation of armed battles for almost ten years.
Second Phase: The second phase initiated with a prevailing feeling of discontent among the Yorkish camp. The Earl of Warwick who had orchestrated the Yorkist reclamation to the throne along with Kind Edward’s father, became disheartened with Edward when he decided to marry someone from the rival family contrary to Warwick’s wishes, and ignored his advice on some major issues. Consequently, Warwick along with a brother of Edward named Clarence, deposed Edward and replaced him with Clarence However, this victory was short lived. Soon Warwick, along with help of Queen Margaret, again overthrew Edward. However, with a startling turn of events, both Warwick and Prince Henry (son of Henry VI were killed in the following battles and Edward IV again reclaimed the throne to rule the rest of his life.[6]
Third Phase: Edward IV died while his apparent heir Edward V was too young to rule and therefore, his faithful uncle Richard was appointed as his Regent. However, Richard soon captured young Edward and his brother in the Tower on London, and upon their mysterious disappearance, claimed the throne for himself. Richard was both liked very much by those who despised Edwards IV wife and hated by those who alleged him for killing Edward’s IV two princes. It was in this situation that Henry Tudor of Lancaster asserted his claim to the throne. Henry counted on Richard’s enemies for assistance against him and was duly right. Henry Tudor reconciled with the Yorks by marrying Elizabeth of York, the eldest daughter of Edward IV.[7]
According to Hicks[8] there are four factors that led to the War of Roses. These are: the crown’s (Henry VI) weak financial condition; the people’s engagement in politics; the interference of foreign countries; and the consciousness of the nobility that it is legitimate to try to terminate the king. There existed other problems behind the war too. One of those which very prominent was the variety of economic troubles that emerged in around 1440 and lasted till 1470s, to which Hicks refers as the ‘Great Slump’[9]. Problems such as credit crisis, a significant fall in the foreign trade, a drastic fall down in agro-based (agricultural) revenues, rents, wages and other prices are considered to be main features contributing to the first two factors: the revenues which were being obtained through customs were cut down. Furthermore, since the impoverishment influenced all the tax payers – thus a harder task was confronted in drawing out grants of direct taxation from the parliament. Similarly, it is under debate that economic problems gave rise to much of the turbulent situation of this period, contributing in the revolt of 1450 and the reservoir of famous alienation on which nobles like Richard of York and Warwick the Kingmaker eagerly drew. Adding to this, one other problem which caused the nobility to move their boundaries of obedience was the division of dynasty, a core factor prior to 1460, but after that a persistent and easy way of disputing with the authority of the King. These four are the major causes of the War of Roses, and whenever these factors departed, such as throughout 1485-1525, the conflicts ended.
In K.B McFarlane’s[10] view, the inability of Henry VI to manage a basically sound and stable system regarding the relationship between the king (himself) and nobility (his Regent Richard II) caused the war. The war persisted because the series of usurps didn’t guarantee landowners the safety that they required. This explanation efficiently points out the individual’s role in a structural setting; and it is considered to be a valid explanation of the wars generally.
Tony Pollard[11] explains that the War or Roses was the result of underlying weaknesses in the political system. On one hand it was basically due to the gap between the expectations and the administration of the subjects, while on the other hand it is the capability of the monarchs to carry out what they demanded. Although this gap could and did get extended for several reasons, which are more local to the later 15th century (defeat in France, fiscal and economic problems, a split in the dynasty, an incapable and clumsy ruler in the 1450s and significantly shrewd ones after 1485), it was the cause behind the Wars, as it was also the cause of the problems and issues of 1370-1410 and perhaps 1547-53.
Another modern explanation of War of Roses is contributed by Christine Carpenter[12]. She has contended that, while the political system was totally stable, it is a particular manner of accounting both public and private authorities, predominantly that of aristocracy, describing why the incompetency of Henry VI had such striking and long lasting effects led to the war. According to Carpenter, the king ought to balance and merge the different components in the constitution; if he did not make decisions authoritatively and did not offer an adequate leadership in the field of justice and defense, division and disorder were the fate. And like Edward IV (until 1417), Edward V and Richard III, could similarly not offer that kind of leadership. According to Carpenter, the inappropriate actions of Warwick and the role played by Henry VII in prolonging the conflict, was not needed.
These various themes indicate that there are many reasons which can be attributed as the causal factors for these historic events; with each different theme or factor grounded in sound social, political and economical theories. Some of these justifications may sound more viable than others, while some might be deemed as less influential. A common theme among all of these aforementioned theories is that whenever the subjects of an authority are denied their rightful privileges and justice along with their basic needs, it paves way for the ultimate demise of the authority itself. This can be an important lesson for those who assert their authorities in the current times in any ways; whether they are the heads of governments, powerful business organizations, religious leaders, or even a head of family. After all, it is always better to learn from the example of others rather than become another example ourselves.
Bibliography
Carpenter, C. (1997).The Wars of the Roses: Politics and the Constitution in England, c.1437–1509. Cambridge.
Haaren, J. and Poland A. (1904) Famous Men of the Middle Ages. American Book Company
Haigh, P. A. (1995). The Military Campaigns of the Wars of the Roses.
Hatcher, J (1996) ‘The great slump of the mid-15th century’, in Progress and Problems in Medieval England, ed. R. Britnell and J. Hatcher (Cambridge, 1996), 237–72.
Heritage History (2012). War of the Roses. 1453-1485. Lancatrians Vs Yorkists. {online} Available from http://www.heritage-history.com/www/heritage.php?Dir=wars&FileName=wars_roses.php (cited on 17th December, 2012)
Hicks, M. (2010). The Wars of Roses. New Haven, CT, Yale University Press,
McFarlane, K.B. (1981) ‘The Wars of the Roses’, in idem, England in the 15th Century. London., 231–61
Pollard, J. (2001)The Wars of the Roses, 2nd ed., Basingstoke.
Wheeler, K. (2012) The Wars of the Roses. {online} Available from http://web.cn.edu/kwheeler/War_of_Roses.html (cited on 17th December, 2012)

Categories
War

Conflict and war are inevitable in life

We are going to be discussing “Conflict and war are inevitable in life.” First of all, you cannot imagine a world without conflict and war as they are happening every day. Human beings are prone to conflict and war. War and peace are like Ying and Yang. They are combined and nothing can separate it. Needless wars occur around the world endlessly. Conflicts which are occurring now are:
1. Riots e.g: In Egypt. According to the BBC website, over 100 people have been killed due to the riots.
You can disagree by saying” however, the police in Egypt are controlling the riots and rioters begin to decrease by each day according to the BBC. This shows that conflicts can be resolved is not inevitable.”

1. Our fellow teachers, like our Mr Harland are going on strike this Wednesday due to their pensions. This is out of the context however this is still a way of causing troubles in our society.
“They are doing this because if they don’t they won’t be able to survive anymore. It won’t be fair on them would it?”
Let’s think back a few years. Racism was very common in the United States and in many parts of Europe. Conflict and wars were created due to racism. People had to suffer in order to survive. Americans used coloured people (black) as slaves to do their bidding. This was inevitable in life!
Yes it was a tragedy however that too has been resolved. People change their ways to a greater good. Rosa Parks was an extraordinary example. She stood up towards the white people and due to this, racism was soon abolished.
So if it wasn’t for Rosa Parks, would racism have gone even further? Would I be sitting here having this discussion?
Wars also occurred and are still occurring in around the globe. For example
1. Afghanistan. The British have to assist as well which endangers many soldiers and innocent people who did not want any of this to occur. All this happened because of one man. (Gadaffi).
We are still trying to maintain peace around the world by assisting those in need.
However, isn’t helping in the war going to increase the number of battles fought and how many more should have to die?
I have also heard that the war in Sri Lanka has ended and people are rebuilding their lives.
Wars get created and solved all the time. The Ultimate goal of war and conflict in my opinion is because of jealousy towards a person or people and for the satisfaction of human needs.
Even in Julius Caesar, Mark Anthony and Octavius go up against Brutus and Cassius in a needless war. Why should people have to die without any cause or reason? This is exactly why war and conflict are inevitable in life.

Categories
War

Washington Crossing the Deleware

CROSSING THE DELEWARE HIST101 George Washington saved not only the continental army at the battle of Trenton, but he also saved and breathed new life into the cause of Independence. After knowing seemingly knowing nothing but defeat and hardship for the latter half of 1776, Washington knew that not only he, but the neophyte country known as the United States, needed a miracle. History dictates that he most certainly delivered that miracle and saved the cause, but what were the effects of his victory?
What is the importance of his crossing of the Delaware? The crossing at the Delaware river has become over the years, the symbol of American spirit and resolve. Numerous historical evidence indicates the hardships and hazards that accompanied the crossing that fateful December night. But to discuss the effects of the crossing, one must set the stage of events first. In the winter of 1776, General George Washington and his fledgling continental army stood on the precipice of annihilation.
After suffering a series of disastrous defeats which resulted in the loss of New York city and it’s surrounding areas, Washington gathered the shattered remnants of his once proud army and retreated across the Delaware river into Pennsylvania. Washington knew that the life of not only his army, but the cause was ebbing away daily, more so with their disastrous string of defeats. With low morale, constant desertion, sickness and hunger facing his men, he also knew that there was one other chief problem which would befall him at the end of the year;the expiration of the soldiers enlistments. [1]

When the continentals drove the British troops out of Boston in March of 1776, Washington had seventeen thousand troops under his command. By December of 1776, through not only combat but the attrition of war and what entails with it, he now commanded a mere four thousand seven hundred men. At the end of December when the enlistments for the soldiers ran out, he would be fighting with only twelve hundred men. In a letter that Washington wrote to John Hancock who was residing with the Continental congress in Philadelphia at the time, Washington wrote, “Ten more days will put an end to the existence of our Army[2]. Washington was not exaggerating when he said this. He had no doubt in his mind that come the end of the year the expiration of enlistments would cause an exodus of his fighting force. Aside from the threat of the ending enlistments, there was also the Hessian mercenary force across the river at Trenton, which Washington had no doubt that the they would cross the Delaware river once it was frozen over and suitable to do so. Washington also realized that if he could end the year with a tremendous victory, it would do wonders not only for the cause, but for recruiting more soldiers to fight for it.
With nothing to lose and everything to gain, Washington decided that he would attack the Hessian mercenary force on December 25, 1776. The Hessians were feared by the continental army, and rightfully so. They were some of the Europe’s best trained troops at the time and the memories of their massacre of American troops at the Battle of Long Island, lay fresh in their minds. The need for self-preservation seemed almost as strong as the need to avenge the brave soldiers lost. Washington’s staff strongly advised him from attacking the Hessians in broad daylight, even crossing the river it’s self.
Their seemed to be a prevalent feeling that the Hessians would destroy the continentals, even though they had the Hessian’soutnumbered(the Hessians in Trenton were around fifteen-hundred men). While the continentals had numbers on their side, the Hessians had several things they did not. The Hessians were billeted in houses no doubt with fire places and were relatively safe and comfortable from the cold. The Hessians were also no doubt well fed and well cared for. On the contrary, the continental soldier at the time had barely any adequate provisions at all.
They were ill fed and ill equipped to face not only the Hessians but the driving winter which was upon them. Most of them wore no shoes, if any shoes at all. On the night of the crossing a major, John Wilkinson, had seen spots of red in the snow, “tinged here and there”, he wrote, “with blood from the feet of men who wore broken shoes. ”[3] Washington had also lost a significant number of weapons and material during the retreat across the Delaware. Taking over the Hessian garrison in Trenton would not only be a good psychological boost for his troops, but it would also be a start in obtaining much needed supplies for them as well.
On Christmas night 1776, Washington assembled his army to cross the Delaware. Several writings on that fateful evening indicated the hardships and perils of the crossing itself. Thomas Rodney who was there that night described it as, “It was a severe night as I ever saw. The frost was sharp, the current difficult to stem, the ice increasing, the wind high, and at eleven it began to snow. ” When the continentals cross the Delaware, all accounted for and behind schedule, they began their march onto Trenton, New Jersey. John Greenwood, a fifer in the Continental Army described the march. What I suffered on the march, cannot be described. They who were with us know best about these things, others cannot believe the tenth part, so I shall say nothing further. 3” Exhausted, starving, frightened and freezing, the Continentals commenced battle with the Hessian at Trenton around eight in the morning, catching most of the Hessian unaware, most of which were still sleeping. From the start of the engagement, the continentals were fully in control of the tempo of the battle and seized the initiative. The Hessians became completely surrounded and their units became isolated and they were forced to surrender.
They also suffered heavy losses with twenty-two men dead, eighty three wounded, and nearly one thousand and one hundred troops captured by the Americans. The American’s only suffered two dead and five wounded. (statistics differ to a varying degree on the casualties and material obtained by Washington and his men). Washington had originally planed to march the army further to Princeton and New Brunswick, but after consideration and discussion from his staff, dropped the plan. He ordered his troops to recross the Delaware, where they took back with them not only the Hessian prisoners, but much needed quipment and supplies needed to sustain his army. The battle despite its seemingly small proportion increased not only morale among the men which had been dangerously low to begin with, but also their confidence. They had defeated one Europe, even one of the world’s most respected troops at the time. Despite the victory and the bold gamble it was, there was still the issue of the expiration of enlistments. Washington seized the advantage and the boost the victory had given him, and two days after the battle, only a few days before the expiration, implored his exhausted, underfed and underpaid troops to stay longer.
Fifty years after, a sergeant whom was present at the time gave his account of what Washington said to a group of soldiers. “My brave fellows, you have done all I asked you to do, and more than could be reasonably expected. But your country is at stake, your wives, your houses, all that you hold dear. You have worn yourselves put with fatigues and hardships, but we know not how to spare you. If you will consent to stay but one month longer, you will render that service to the cause of liberty, and to your country, which you probably can never do under any other circumstances.
The present is emphatically the crisis that will decide our destiny. ”3 Before this gambit, there were some members of the Congress and even Washington’s own soldiers and staff whom questioned his military ability and handling of the army. The victory at Trenton, and later at Princeton, quelled these fears. Faith was not only renewed in him, but also in his army. The victory also had a tremendous effect upon morale not only within the troops but in Congress as well. The victory also broke the psychological hold that the Hessians had over the continentals as well.
They knew now and full realized that they were a capable army as any in the world. The defeat of the Hessians also caused the British to abandon their efforts of protection to the loyalist leaning peoples of New Jersey. When looking at the crossing of the Delaware and the victory at Trenton on a tactical scale, it seems to be a minor engagement. But the significance and the psychological impact, saved the not only the continental army, but it pulled the cause out of the depths of a sea of despondency and defeat.
Over the years the American people have come to see the crossing of the Delaware, as a symbol of American resolve, and that we as a people will never give into tyranny and oppression. Bibliography 1. “The Continental Army”, http://www. history. army. mil/books/RevWar/ContArmy/CA-05. htm 2. “George Washington Papers at the Library of Congress”, last modified Feb-16-1999, http://memory. loc. gov/ammem/gwhtml/gwhome. html 3. “Washington Crossing Historical Park”, http://www. ushistory. org/washingtoncrossing/history/revwartimeline. htm ———————– 1]“The Continental Army”, http://www. history. army. mil/books/RevWar/ContArmy/CA-05. htm [2]“George Washington Papers at the Library of Congress”, last modified Feb-16-1999, http://memory. loc. gov/ammem/gwhtml/gwhome. html [3]Washington Crossing Historical Park”, http://www. ushistory. org/washingtoncrossing/history/revwartimeline. htm 3Washington Crossing Historical Park”, http://www. ushistory. org/washingtoncrossing/history/revwartimeline. htm 3Washington Crossing Historical Park”, http://www. ushistory. org/washingtoncrossing/history/revwartimeline. htm

Categories
War

The Masquerades of War

William Westmoreland proclaims, “War is fear cloaked in courage. ” Tim O’brien, Lily Lee Adams, and Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. composed literary works that disclose the different degrees of fear and absurdity aroused by war. “Where Have You Gone, Charming Billy? “, “The Friendship Only Lasted A Few Seconds”, and “The Declaration of Independeance From the War in Vietnam” each express characters who encounter war in varying yet mutual ways. The characters from each composition endure the troubles of war either inside or outside of the battle field.
The writings intertwine into a stream of consciousness as fear, false facade, and hope for humanity blend the three pieces of literature together. “Falsehood is easy; truth so difficult,” George Eliot announces. This remains true for both the cases of Paul Berlin and the nurse from Lily Lee Adams’ poem. Private First Class Paul Berlin “was pretending he was not in the war, pretending he had not watched Billy Boy Watkins die of a heart attack that afternoon. He pretended he was not a soldier” (622). The soldier bears a severe weight of fear inside him when he witnesses the death of a cohort in the war who dies of a heart attack.Although Berlin remains uneasy and faces a constant attack of cowardice, he curtains this and replaces his fear with a guise of bravery.
In the poem by Lily Lee Adams, the nurse also withstands fear while she ponders, “How can the world understand any of this? ” She doubts that she “can keep the world from forgetting” the lives that slowly fade as she holds them during their last seconds of living (629). Unlike Paul Berlin, the nurse does not pretend, but she becomes whoever she needs to be for the dying soldiers.She becomes a mother, she represents Mary, she turns into a friend even though “the friendship only lasted a few seconds. ” “I never lied,” expresses the nurse; however, Berlin continues to pretend that “In the morning, when they reached the sea, it would be better” (622). The nurse of Lily Lee Adam’s poem narrates in first person point of view, while the story remains in third person limited. In the story, Paul Berlin laughs at the thought of Billy Boy Watkins “succumbing to a heart attack suffered while under enormous stress” (626). He finds this as an escape from his own stress and fear of his position.

As the writer Kurt Vonnegutt mentions, “humor is an almost psychological response to fear;” therefore, Berlin hides his fear by laughing at the idea of death. Though honestly, he yearns for relief and wishes to forget, and “he tried not to think” of Billy Boy Watkin’s death (623). However, the nurse desires for people to remember what the soldiers are dying for as she asks the question, “How can I keep the world from forgetting? ” (629). Despite their discrepancies, both characters acquire courage during the times they need it most, which helps them endure the misery heaped upon them by the war. Dr.Martin Luther King and Tim O’brien wrote about different acts of falsehood. Dr.
King exclaims that Americans are facing the “cruel irony of watching Negro and white boys on TV screens as they kill and die together for a nation that has been unable to seat them together in the same schools” (641). Also, the presence of irony occurs in Tim O’Brien’s short story when Paul Berlin reacts strangely to Billy Boy Watkin’s death. He covers his fear by pretending that Billy’s death remains “a good joke,” but inside, he knows that “even when he smelled salt and heard the sea, he could not stop being afraid” (627).Both writings reach out to their audience about the importance of accepting the truth. Dr. King elaborates on how America should not send her young black and white men to Southeast Asia to help them gain liberty when liberty in America between these races remain untrue in places like “southwest Georgia and East Harlem” (640). The story differs from the speech in that the story represents a work of fiction, while Dr.
King’s speech resembles a non-fiction essay. The speech displays a first person point of view, while the story exhibits a third person limited point of view.Paul Berlin of the short story undergoes hypocrisy when he acts that fear of death and all the stress of the war remains unreal. He becomes fraudulent when he imagines that “he would never let on how frightened he had been. ‘Not so bad,’ he would say instead, making his father feel proud (623). Dr. King’s speech speaks against this kind of hypocrisy in which soldiers pretend and “kill and die together” and unite in “brutal solidarity” during war when they treat each other with disrespect and prejudiced ways back at home.
Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. and Tim O’brien both show in their ompositions war attains the ability to stir conflict within the people involved. War creates inexplicable emotions which remain baffling to people outside of the war front, but these emotions, whether they be false, forced, true, or kept hidden, allow soldiers to bear extreme hardships in times of extreme tribulations. Hiram Johnson reminds people, “Truth is the first casualty of war. ” Both Lily Lee Adams and Dr. King express that adhering to the truth may only make war worse; therefore, soldiers pretend to be allies during war and nurses become the loved ones of the dying soldiers.
Both characters become what they need to be at the time. Even though they bear false facades, the growth of friendship remains inevitable during battle. The American soldiers become united despite their differences and disagreements at home. The nurse becomes a true friend despite the brevity of the friendship. Both the poem and the speech reaches out to their audience and to America and asks them to realize the effects of the war and for it to change. However, a dying soldier says, “I don’t believe this, I’m dying for nothing” in the poem (629). This soldier feels that he failed his mission to serve justice in Vietnam.
He desires for the world to understand and truly feel the pain and suffering he faced. Dr. King proclaims that “we must find new ways to speak for peace in Vietnam and justice throughout the developing world- a world that borders on our doors” (641). The poem notes that soldiers are dying to protect the poor people of Vietnam, but Dr. King’s speech discloses on the fact that the manipulation of the poor continues in Vietnam while American soldiers unite “burning the huts of a poor village, but we realize that they would never live on the same block in Detroit” (640).Although war remains mostly miserable, it unites the people involved. These parts of war help soldiers, nurses, and enemies to help each other out and let aside their differences.
They unite in times of war and form a true bond. The nurse did the best she could for the soldiers, her friends. Dr. King whishes America to do the best she can as well. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. , Tim O’Brien, and Lily Lee Adams composed laudable works that deal with characters who endure the worst aspects of war.
“The Declaration of Independence From the War in Vietnam,” “Where Have You Gone, Charming Billy? , and “The Friendship Only Lasted A Few Seconds” prove that truth and fear weave a balance of feelings that help people endure during times of serious distress. Without people’s different ways of handling emotions towards fear and their acceptance of the truth during war, every soldier, fighter, nurse, and observer would rupture into madness and dissipate deep into the abyss of hopelessness and oppression. People need to remember what war instigates and comprehend that as Isaac Asimov remarked, “It is not only the living who are killed in war. ”

Categories
War

BlackHawk War And Seminole War

Two monumental wars began because of these disagreements, the Black Hawk War and the Second Seminole War. With these two wars the Tribal Indians classical fought on the grounds where they didn’t feel it was right they as the land owners would be kicked off their rightful land because the government wanted it for their own use. The Second Seminole War was lead by an Indian named Solaces (Hatch, 2012). Solaces was the son of a white man and Indian women.
Solace’s father would beat his mother in front of him often until one day she chose to run (Chance, 2003). Solaces was captured one time after running which gave him a greater hatred for the ones he called “The White Man” (Chance, 2003). In 1819 Spain had turned Florida into the Unites States and the Native Americans that had fled south Were Once again caught in U. S territory who they knew would try to relocate them away from their home. Solaces was a part of one of the tribes, the “Seminole” tribe that was going to have to move towards the Mississippi.
Solaces did not want him or his people to have to move, so when there was a meeting that was going to be held most of the other tribes signed their treaties agreeing to move their tribes out of Florida, but the Seminole tribe refused to move, Solaces stated as he stood up at the meeting with a knife in his hand “This is the only treaty I will make with the whites” (Hatch, 2012). From that point on it was a war between the government and the Seminole. For years the Generals could not take over the Seminole Tribe.

The tribe was strong like their leader Solaces and the tribe knew the area well to know how to take advantage of anyone coming to hurt them or their people (Hatch, 2012). The Seminole Tribe fought many small wars and never lost until their leader got very sick with malaria and became very weak (Hatch, 2012). Solaces had two leaders under him which guided and ran the troops, but the tribe depended on Solace’s strength and when he got weak so did all of his Indian Army.
Towards the end of the war a General Hernandez was allowed to come to the Seminole camp, the Seminole hung its white flag at half mass as it’s flag of truce, but since the Seminole had such a stubbornness to them when it came to the Generals and their Army, General Hernandez had his men silently surround the camp and when given the sign they took it over and the invincible Solaces was captured and imprisoned (Hatch, 2012). A year later Solaces died and when he died about only 100 Seminole were left in Florida (Hatch, 2012).
The Blackjack War also happened during the sass’s. Black Hawk himself as one of the Auk Indians. Two chiefs had agreed to a treaty that the Auk Indians would leave the land east of the Mississippi and let the government have it. Back Hawk and other Auk Indians did not believe these chiefs had the right to give this land away (Wisconsin, 2014). A quarter century later settlers began to start taking over the land with no respect for any treaties at the time and the Auk Indians thought it was futile to resist the overwhelming white forces (Wisconsin, 2014).
Black Hawk decided to lead 1,200 Auk’s in the hope of reoccupying their home and land (keep in mind Black Hawk didn’t hind the treaty was real and thought it was fraudulent because of who had did the signing) and if anything bad Was to happen the British would come to his aid (which they did not) (Wisconsin, 2014). In 1832 for 16 weeks Black Hawk and his followers had plans. The warriors would fight and the non- combatants would try to find ways across the Mississippi River to safety.
Many died from hunger, thirst, exhaustion, and were buried on the trail (Wisconsin, 2014). Troops were able to attacks when the Auk’s Indians reached the banks of the Mississippi near the mouth of the Bad Axe River Wisconsin, 2014). In the end Black Hawk left his followers to surrender and only 150 Indians survived out of the 1,200 that began with Black Hawk. The two tribes didn’t want to just give up land they believed was there, but who can blame them.
Imagine if someone came into your home and said they were going to take it and you had to move with your family. These two tribes suffered a great deal and the families all suffered with so many dead. There is one big difference between the two wars though. Each tribe had one main leader Solaces and Black Hawk. Solaces did retreat as did Black Hawk, but Black Hawk just ended up giving up on his followers completely where Solaces didn’t. Solaces tried to finally work with the military and come up with a treaty for his followers.
Solaces didn’t just give up and walk away from his followers in hopes they make it. Regardless of all the history, all the Indian tribes were treated unfairly and were always bullied by the government to due whatever the government thought was best (which was always best for the government, not everyone involved). The Tribes did fight and did try to stand their ground and hold onto their land. In the end the tribes just weren’t strong or big enough to fight off he militias and troops involved against them and lost both battles.

Categories
War

Customer Perception Towards Mobile Banking

Customer Perception Towards Mobile Banking With Special Reference to India
Purpose: The objective of this paper is to study customer perception of mobile banking and finding important factors in India.
Design/Methodology/Approach: The research methodology is largely based on an extensive literature review and is based on exploratory research followed by descriptive analysis. The data collected through a questionnaire, which is based on both open-ended and closed-ended questions. The questionnaire is based on a Likert scale. The data is analyzed through Factor analysis.

Findings: The important factors that affect the perception of customers towards mobile banking are convenience, security, faith in traditional banking and awareness. Research limitation/implications: This study is based on the data collected from major metro cities of India. The study is based on customers availing mobile banking services. The findings of the paper cannot be generalized, as the sampling technique is a non-probability sampling. Practical implications: The results of this paper will encourage mobile banking service providers to strengthen the security policy and provide augmented services to attract new customers.
Paper Type: Research Paper Key Words: Mobile Banking; Customer Perception; Factor Analysis; India INTRODUCTION In recent years, the technological developments in information technology have lead to the evolution of a new concept in the Banking Industry i. e. Mobile banking. Mobile banking is defined as the “type of execution of financial services in the course of which – within an electronic procedure – the customer uses mobile communication techniques in conjunction with mobile devices” (Pousttchi and Schurig 2004). Moreover, it is defined as “a channel hereby the customer interacts with a bank via a mobile device, such as a mobile phone or personal digital assistant” (Barnes and Corbitt 2003, Scornavacca and Barnes 2004). The evolution of Mobile banking has fundamentally transformed the way banks traditionally conduct their businesses and the ways consumers perform their banking However the success of Mobile banking is not going smoothly, its full of problems. Firstly the adoption of Mobile banking has not kept pace with that of mobile devices like mobile phones, PDA’S, etc.
This gap is attributed to the lack of trust among bank customers, particularly between Internet and mobile device users in the age group of 45 and greater than 55. Secondly, customers still have faith on face-to-face interaction while concerned with their money due to reasons such as fear of the online environment and lack of trust in the Internet and mobile devices systems. Recent literature on Mobile banking showed that the formation of trust can help reduce the impact of key inhibiting factors such as fears about using online service among non-mobile banking customers.
The customer perception towards mobile banking is controlled by a variety of factors, few within the firm’s control and few beyond the control of the firm. These days Mobile banking has facilitated the customers to avail of any services just by the click of the buttons of mobile phones or PDA’S. But at the same time, the customers are concerned about the security of their transactions and other personal information. As more and more customers are making increasing use of Mobile banking services it becomes imperative to examine the factors that affect customer expectation and satisfaction.
Literature Review
Electronic banking is regarded as on of the most successful business to consumer applications in electronic commerce (Pousttchi and Schuring, 2004). The mobile phone is one of the most integral parts of customers’ lives and its use is growing in the world. Mobile banking offers various kinds of services like to request the account balance, latest transactions of the account, transfer fund between accounts, to make buy and sell orders for the stock exchange and to receive portfolio and price information.
Various studies indicate that perceived financial cost (Luarn and Lin, 2005) and perceived complexity (Lee et al. , 2003) inhibits the use and adoption of mobile banking services. Security aspects are argued as an important concern in the adoption of mobile banking (Brown et al. , 2003, Luarn and Lin, 2005). Contrary to previous findings, some studies have argued that security issues are not perceived by the customer to be major obstacles in mobile banking transactions (Sournata, 2003; Laukkanen and Lauronen, 2005). These studies state that mobile baking was found a secure way to conduct banking transactions by users.
However, Suranta (2003) found that mobile services were not used since they were perceived as impractical and not sufficiently diversified. Gonzalez (2008) stated that M-commerce has many advantages over the conventional banking system as it has reduced geographical boundaries and has enabled the customers to avail of the services 24*7 hours just by clicking the buttons of their mobile phones and other mobile devices. It enables the users to access their account, get their account information, do transactions and avail other facilities without much delay and effort.
As per the prediction of Broadie (2007) the Mobile banking is leading to a paradigm shift in marketing practices resulting in high performance in the banking industry. Delivery of service in banking can be provided efficiently only when the background operations are efficient. An efficient background operation can be conducted only when it is integrated by an electronic system. The components like data, hardware, software, network and people are the essential elements of the system. Banking customers get satisfied with the system when it provides maximum convenience and comfort while transacting with the bank.
Internet-enabled electronic systems facilitate the operation to fetch these results. But it is very important to maintain the security aspect while customers avail services via mobile devices or wireless networks because the customers are very sensitive with their personal information and other transaction details, hence the service provider must ensure effective security checks to ensure error-free service and safe transactions.
Purpose of the Study
The objective of this paper is to study the customer perception towards Mobile banking and finding important factors affecting customer perception in India.
Analysis and Discussion
Demographic analysis is done to know the perception of mobile banking in various age groups of people with different occupations (Refer Table. 1). This analysis shows that there is a significance difference in the usage of mobile banking between males and females. The age group of 35-45 uses this service quite often. The KMO and Bartlett’s Test indicates the suitability of the data for factor analysis. Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy’s value (Refer Table. 2) is 0. 755 which is greater than 0. 5. This indicates that a factor analysis will be useful with our data.
From the above table, we can interpret that there is no error in 75. 5% of the sample and in the remaining 24. 5%, there may occur some sort of error. The value of significance level is 0. 000 which is less than 0. 05. So there is a significant relationship among the variables. About 66. 185% of the total variance in the 16 variables is attributable to the first four components. (Refer Table. 3). It can be seen that Component 1 explains variance of 6. 230, which is 38. 934% of total variance; Component 2 explains variance of 1. 718, which is 10. 735% of total variance; Component 3 explains variance of 1. 23, which is 8. 894% of the total variance and Component 4 explains the variance of 1. 220, which is 7. 622% of the total variance.
Convenience is most highly correlated with V1, V6, V8, V10, V11, V12 and V15. The second factor i. e.
Security is most highly correlated with V3, V7, V14 and V15. The third factor i. e.
The detailed research and field study was carried out with the usage of SPSS 16 software. A confirmatory factor analysis was performed on this software. Convenience, security, traditional banking and awareness are factors that measure the perception of mobile banking. The demographic study indicates that people of greater than 45 years of age are not comfortable with mobile banking this is because of either their faith in the onsite transactions and not easily accept the newer technology because of lack of awareness and its advantages.
The results of this study suggest that there would be greater challenges for banks and mobile manufacturers to gain trust among all ages of the people. Proper integration between banks and mobile manufacturers would gain trust by ensuring excellent security through advanced reliable technology. This would augment the usage of mobile banking in India In order to get maximum advantage of the mobile banking following suggestions can utilize to attract bank customers to use mobile banking in the future:

First banks should realize the advantage of mobile banking and provide these services to the customer. The positive belief can be made in the mind of customers by providing sufficient information on the benefits of mobile banking. In order to achieve this objective, banks should provide a user manual that contains details on mobile banking, including usefulness and ease of use. This can also be achieved by establishing a counter for mobile banking that gives all the information regarding mobile banking. This will influence customers’ decision to use mobile banking.
Banks should ensure greater safety by adopting advanced newer technology and should give more importance of the confidentiality of personal identification number. Banks can organize workshops on mobile commerce applications to increase customers’ familiarity and understanding of mobile banking.

Limitations of the Study
This study cannot be generalized as the sample has been taken from the major metro cities of India. Mobile banking user’s perception is measured in this paper. So further research can be carried out considering mobile baking users and non-user to get a better picture of perception towards mobile banking in India.
References

Barnes, S. J. & Corbitt, B. (2003). Mobile banking: concept and potential. International Journal of Mobile Communications, 1 (3), 273-288.
Brodie, H Winklhofer. 2007). Is e-marketing Coming of Age? An Examination of the Penetration of e- marketing and Firm Performance. J. Innterac. Market, 21:2-21.
Brown, I. , Cajee, Z. , Davies, D. , Stroebel, S. (2003), “Cell phone banking: predictors of adoption in South Africa – an exploratory study”, International Journal of Information Management, Vol. 23 No. 5, pp. 381-94.
Gonzalez, M. E. (2008). An Alternative Approach in Service Quality: An E-Banking Case Study. Quality Manage, 15: 41-48.
Laukkanen, T. , Lauronen, J. (2005), “Consumer value creation in mobile banking services”, International Journal of Mobile Communications, Vol. No. 4, pp. 325-38.
Lee, M. S. Y. , McGoldrick, P. F. , Keeling, K. A. , Doherty, J. (2003), “Using ZMET to explore barriers to the adoption of 3G mobile banking services”, International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, Vol. 31 No. 6, pp. 340-8.
Luarn, P. , Lin, H. H. (2005), “Toward an understanding of the behavioral intention to use mobile banking”, Computers in Human Behavior, Vol. 21 No. 6, pp. 873-91.
Pousttchi, K. & Schurig, M. (2004). Assessment of today’s mobile banking applications from the view of customer requirements. Proceedings of the 37th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, Big Island, Hawaii.
Scornavacca, E. & Barnes, S. J. (2004). Mobile banking services in Japan: a strategic perspective. International Journal of Mobile Communications, 2 (1), 51-66.
Suoranta, M. (2003), “Adoption of mobile banking in Finland”, Jyvaskyla, Finland, doctoral thesis.