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Tourism

Sport Tourism in Manchester, United Kingdom

Abstract
The evolution of Urban Tourism has provided a wide range of opportunity for the city of Manchester, UK. Alongside this opportunity Manchester has determined to employ a sport centred economic plan in an effort to bring in revenue. This study begins by assessing the underlying policies alongside the economic and social context in order to establish the overall direction of the rebranding effort of the focus on the area of sport. Next, this work examines the competing interests with the advent of the policy records in order to produce a credible series of results. Employing these results illustrated a wide range of benefits for the sport centred urban tourist effort. Alongside the positive elements is a strong residual argument that further study of the often volatile market segment will be needed in order to fully assess every opportunity.
Policies

Current statistics illustrate the UK tourism market is centred in urban areas by a wide margin (Beioley 2002, pp. 1). This revenue stream can be utilized to reinvigorate a local or regional economic outlook in a variety of manners. Analysis demonstrates that city tourism differs from national tourism in that it is shorter, higher spending and far more reliant on the underlying public services (Beioley 2002, pp. 2). This is a positive component to the effort by Manchester, suggesting that there is a fundamental shift in policy to accompany this approach. Beginning with an initial report on the feasibility of transforming Manchester into a tourist destination, the concept of a sport centred industry has been favourably looked upon by the city (Law 2012, pp. 1). Lacking the infrastructure support would hamper the overall implementation of this avenue, making regulatory partnership vital. Manchester has found itself in positive area by building a partnership with both the social and legislative elements.
Manchester has recognized that the area of sport is a very popular cultural draw with the potential to spread good will towards the entire city and region (Tallon 2010, pp. 239). This facet of their plan not only built a solid foundation, but expanded the accompany revenue base. Regulators instituted policies that have resulted in the construction of the City of Manchester Stadium, with the explicit goal of revitalizing the entire district. This approach to the revitalisation effort has been heralded as a solid foundation upon which to build the regeneration of Manchester’s entire infrastructure (Tallon 2010, pp. 239). Underlying policies that are conducive to the sport arena are credited for energizing the tourist trade, transforming the image of the city itself as well as creating a sustainable form of industry that can serve to propel the city into the next era. Each of these components adds value, yet, the potential for a substantial lack of cohesiveness does exist (Tallon 2010, pp. 239)
Employing governmental assistance that designated Greater Manchester an ‘Enterprise Zone’ in 1987, there has been a sustained drive to capitalize on the potential for urban tourism centred on the area of sport (Tallon 2010, pp. 52). This on-going assistance has been a tremendous benefit to the implementation of the urban renewal plan.
As a result of the on-going campaign to build economic progress, regulators have actively worked to instil a tourism friendly element that is a continual boon to the urban recovery process in Manchester (Weed 2010, pp. 187). Alongside the recognition of the potential revenue to be found in the tourist trade, Manchester has worked unceasingly to put itself in a better strategic marketing position. It is the combination of forward thinking policy in conjunction with an adaptable industry that demonstrates Manchester’s long term commitment to the area of urban tourism.
Economic and Social Context
In a very public effort to rebrand the city in the 1990’s, Manchester adopted the new motto “The life and Soul of Britain” (Spirou 2011, pp. 112). A demonstrative first step allows a positive perception to begin. This rededication was a precursor of the effort to improve the social and cultural perception of Manchester as a destination. Acting on the potential for an increase in revenue, Manchester rightly pursued the industry of sport as a method to address this deficiency (Weed 2010, pp. 187). Succeeding in attaining their goal of the Common Wealth Games of 2002this economic activity served to lift the city above the dismal outlook with the further positive ramification of being judged relied upon to do the same for many similar progressive endeavours (Weed 2010, pp. 187). This is a positive element in that each project further strengthens the infrastructure.
Manchester’s demonstrated the widely felt social imperative to look beyond the current methods of creating revenue in order to make the most of the possibilities (Ashworth and Page 2010, pp. 1). This approach is in line with the working recognition for the need to employ an approach that connects the infrastructure of social sciences, with a focus on the element of urban studies to industry. Manchester’s ability to embrace the social science aspect has led to a tourism industry that has the potential to continue to expand (Ashworth and Page 2010, pp. 1). An associated increase in revenue and visitors is a positive credit to the underlying effort.
The implementing of the urban tourism plan has yielded substantial benefits to the social and cultural fabric of Manchester (Law 2010, p. 129). Underlying infrastructure such as road and regional travel has drastically improved as a result of the urban tourism drive. The establishment of stronger underlying elements enables the wide variety of non-sport related activities to benefit from the industry as well (Law 2010, pp. 129). Through the increased capacity to travel easily, more visitors have been attributed with coming to the city, providing a wealth of revenue for many of the industries that rest well outside of the sport focus. Yet, this also brings in the potential for related issues that could detract from the sport centred focus of the city (Law 2010, pp. 130.) The lack of proper application has the potential to result in the splitting of vital resources to the detriment of everyone.
Manchester was able to learn from their bids for the Olympic Games, adapt and make a successful bid for the Commonwealth Games (Cook and Ward 2011, pp. 2519). This is clear demonstration that the legislative and social perception was ripe for the development of an industry mechanism with the capacity to help them succeed. Combining the element of politics, social responsibility and ethical practice Manchester has managed to achieve a state of relative prosperity that will lend credence to the spirit of urban tourisms vital capacity to lend aid to struggling economies.
Competing Interests
Alongside the development of Manchester as ‘SportCity’, there are the separate industries that must compete in order to survive (Smith 2013, pp. 385). This recognition requires that any successful long term plan must include the capacity to bring in each of the disparate elements in such a manner that it promotes the whole. Modern studies on the benefits of creating a sport centred industry have been found to be beneficial, although the lack of adequate planning has the inherent capability of hobbling the industries that have little to do the with sport (Smith 2013, pp. 385). In the drive to enable the full range of economic benefits, ill-considered actions can have a tremendous impact on the remaining components of any cities combined industry.
An emerging market that has found turbulence in Manchester sport is the market for the gay community (Hughes 2003, pp. 152). Many argue that the perception of the gay lifestyle is in direct contrast to the effort to establish a sport destination spot. Targeting a market with substantial revenue, yet possessing potentially negative aspects when interacting with sport centred marketing, there is a real need to develop an overall approach that provides an inclusive element for progress (Hughes 2003, pp. 152). The ability to include the often contrasting positions of the competing groups in the city provides an ample illustration of the capability of the regional government to conduct large scale tourist attractions.
In an effort to address the diverse industries vital to the city, Manchester created a council referred to as the Employment in Construction Charter with the focus of linking the public sector to the private companies in order to distribute the growing revenue (Spirou 2011, pp. 206). This is a direct reflection of the effort to balance the division of power in order to promote a policy of growth for each of the separate factions. During the bid for the Commonwealth Games, Manchester was credited with not only appealing to the larger international community, but providing substantial providence for the local retailers as well (Cook and Ward 2011, pp. 2525). This demonstrates that Manchester learned from the prior Olympic Games Bid and adjusted to meet the requirements of the diverse elements in a successful manner.
Effectiveness of Policy
The City of Manchester efforts to revitalize the region through the utilization of the urban tourist area of sport has yielded significant results. The cities recognition that tourism is one of the highest revenue producing streams available has created a viable window of opportunity (Ritchie and Adair 2004, pp. 269). This approach has begun to yield a substantial return in both the financial and social perception areas. Sports tourism has the unique ability to both unlock the heritage elements that benefit that region of industry and the underlying natural and cultural depth that lies alongside the city (Ritchie and Adair 2004, pp. 269). These outcomes serve to illustrate the veracity of the path taken by Manchester in the effort to rejuvenate their city on every level.
Working towards goals that include the International Olympics and the Commonwealth Games are a very effective policy for a wide variety of reasons (Ritchie and Adiar 2004, pp. 269). Even the unsuccessful bids produce a litany of economic resources for the city. With national entities such as Tomorrows Tourism, Britain’s National Tourism concern, actively participating in the drive to establish a positive outcome, the underlying infrastructure benefited on every level.
Many of the internal improvements to the city are reflections of the efficacy of the urban renewal efforts. With the increased amount of visitors, the number of museums in Manchester is on the rise, with the subsequent impact of improving the outlook for the Greater Manchester Museum of Science and Industry (Law 2010, pp. 76). This is a direct result of the effectiveness of the policy in place. Manchester has successfully raised its profile to an international level that has the capacity to fuel the cities entire economic engine (Ritchie and Adair 2004, pp. 274). Forging trade alliances in several fundamental industries outside of the sport centred world served to broaden the Manchester business base, which in turn will balance the long term sustainability outlook for the cities programs.
Currently, Manchester boasts ultra-modern constructs such as the Lowry Centre, which alongside the rapidly developing art and culture industries have evolved into a very credible, and well balanced economic environment (Di-Toro 2010, pp. 1). This is a very apt demonstration of the ability of a savvy electorate to forge a business environment that is perceived to be beneficial by the majority of the populace. This concerted and progressive policy implementation has vaulted Manchester to third in the most visited cities in the UK, following London and Edinburgh (Di-Toro 2010, pp. 1). Together with the foundation of sport centred tourism, Manchester is rapidly becoming a well-rounded destination that has an appeal to many separate social levels, thereby increasing the cities overall value in terms of urban tourism potential.
Areas of Improvement
The ambitious drive by Manchester to lift their economic outlook via the instrument of sport centred tourism has not been without its significant detractions (Ritchie and Adair 2004, pp. 274). With the most glaring error being the single minded approach to the marketing method, the availability of associated markets in Manchester has been deemed to be small as compared to other regions. As a consequence, there is not a strong central or primary community that will allocate the overall distribution of income (Ritchie and Adair 2004, pp. 274). As the sport industry continues to thrive without proper planning, there is the real potential for the other un-associated industries to flounder. Davies (2010, pp. 1238) argues that there needs to be a far greater development of the role of sport within the underlying infrastructure before implementing any long term planning. The often volatile nature of the field itself can hamper the successful proliferation of progressive policy, instead hampering the growth due to poor performance.
The focus on the building of ‘Sportcity’ in Manchester, while producing an economic viability option, has taken over much of the city itself, irrevocably altering the face of the city forever (Berg, Braun, and Otgaar 2002, pp. 56). This fact has the potential to diminish the historical or creative aspects of the city’s tourism potential. The overall effort to instil a sense of long lasting progress will be reached through the development of a strategic plan that brings together the disparate elements of both the sport and tourism industries (Ritchie and Adair 2004, pp. 274). The arena of tourism is dominated by the area of commercialism, bringing the very real potential for the base interests of the commercial industries to begin to take precedence over the needs of the local population. The addition of the sport element, with its series of oversight mechanisms enables the creation of a credible system of checks and balances with the depth to take the city forward into the next era.
References
Ashworth, G. and Page, S. 2010. Urban tourism research: Recent progress and current paradoxes. Tourism Management, 32 (1), pp. 1-15.
Beioley, S. 2002. Metro land-The urban tourism market. Tourism Insights, 1 (1), pp. 1-3.
Berg, L., Braun, E. and Otgaar, A. 2002. Sports and city marketing in European cities. Aldershot, Hampshire, England: Ashgate. pp. 1-125.
Cook, I. and Ward, K. 2011. Trans-urban Networks of Learning, Mega Events and Policy Tourism. Sage Journals, 48 (12), pp. 2519-2535.
Davies, L. 2010. Sport and economic regeneration: a winning combination?. Sport in Society, 13 (10), pp. 1438-1457.
Di-Toro, M. 2010. Britain’s hip new tourist destinationsManchester, Glasgow, Birmingham and Liverpool. Visit Britain, 1 (1), pp. 1-3.
Hughes, H. 2003. Marketing gay tourism in Manchester. Vacation Marketing, 9 (2), pp. 152-163.
Law, C. 2002. Urban tourism. London: Continuum, pp. 1-200.
Ritchie, B. and Adair, D. 2004. Sport tourism. Clevedon, England: Channel View Publications. pp. 1-300.
Smith, A. 2013. The Development of “Sports-City” Zones and Their Potential Value as Tourism Resources for Urban Areas. European Planning Studies, 18 (3), pp. 385-410.
Smith, A. 2013. REIMAGING THE CITY: The Value of Sport Initiatives. Annals of Tourism Research, 32 (1), pp. 217-236.
Spirou, C. 2011. Urban tourism and urban change. New York: Routledge, p. 1-200.
Tallon, A. 2010. Urban regeneration in the UK. London: Routledge, pp. 1-200.
Weed, M. 2010. Sport, Tourism and Image. Journal of Sport & Tourism, 15 (3), pp. 187-189.

Categories
Tourism

What Impact Does Tourism Have in Coastal Areas in Spain

Impacts of mass tourism in coastal areas of Spain| | Sabine Alma 213772 Group TTM1M | | 2012 2012 Table of Contents Declaration 3 Introduction 5 What is mass tourism and how did tourism develop in Spain? 5 What are the cultural and social impacts of tourism in the coastal areas in Spain? 6 What impact does mass tourism have on the economy and environment in Spain? 7 Conclusion 9 Grading sheet10 Reference list12 Declaration I declare that: * I composed this work This work has not been accepted in any previous application for a degree or diploma by me or anyone else * All sources of my information have been acknowledged Date: Name: Signature: Word Count: “What impact does tourism have in coastal areas in Spain, since late 1950’s”? Introduction According to Bramwell (2004) a third of the income of the Mediterranean comes from the tourism sector, as tourism is mainly concentrated in the coastal areas of Spain. Nowadays, tourism is indispensable. This paper focuses on the impact that mass tourism has on the coastal areas in Spain.
Bramwell (2004) states that since 1960, there has been a major growth in the tourism sector. Tourists who go to Spain especially travel to the Spanish coasts. In addition, the author argues that tourism has an impact on these areas and this paper will analyse impacts on the coastal areas. First, mass tourism will be defined and discussed, as it is very important to know what it means in order to understand the topic. Secondly, the cultural and social impacts of mass tourism in the Spanish coast are stated. Lastly, the outcomes of the research will be explained in the conclusion.
What is mass tourism and how did tourism develop in Spain? According to Wahab and Pigram (1997) mass tourism consists of three basic elements which concerns mainly cooperative group of travelling, cooperative accommodation and mindful integration of the holiday maker in a group of travellers (Wahab & Pigram, 1997). Page and Connell (2009) claims that mass tourism is, “a high volume of tourism that appeals to a large market” (p?? ). Furthermore, they remark that it can change the area and its population which also concerns the coastal areas in Spain.

According to Gonzales (1996) general Franco dedicated his regime to the promotion of tourism as the main financial program in order to conquer the issues of their payments poverty in the country. Bramwell (2004) states that foreign investment tourism has developed expeditious centred primarily on the recreational zones of the Mediterranean coastline areas. Therefore, Bramwell (2004) maintains that international mass tourism began to develop in the coastal areas and islands of the Mediterranean Europe in the decades of the late 1950s.
The majority significant characteristics of Spanish tourism after the Second World War have been experiencing rapid growth in the visitor numbers and the combination of domestic and inbound middle and lower-class social groups, according to Bramwell (2004). The author discovered that large expansion in tourism came after the 1950s and the visitors totalled 47,7 million by the year 1986. Additionally, Spanish domestic tourism has subsidised considerably to the growth of mass tourism (Bramwell, 2004).
Bramwell (2004) discovered that another element that contributed to the growth of mass tourism was the introduction of package holidays, which are low priced. He states that the Spanish coastline became covered with hotels and flats funded by foreign financiers who presented low package holidays, which in return consumed less cash as well as not giving sufficient income for the countries balance of payment (Bramwell, 2004). What are the cultural and social impacts of tourism in the coastal areas of Spain? The influences on the civilisation and culture of these coastal areas are particularly multidimensional, intricate and contested.
Tourism has acquired and provided individuals more financial and social independence from their family. Besides fathers are less powerful in families than before, even supposing that the family has preserved importance, including as a small “economic unit” that combines diverse sources of income from tourism. Furthermore, it has been argued that tourism has led to depopulation from the villages and a concentration of population in the towns (Bramwell, 2004). Besides, the impacts and consequences of the commercialisation of culture for tourism purposes caused many academic discussions.
With some depicting this process as fundamentally destructive of the meaning through which local inhabitants organise their lives (Greenwood, 1989: 179). Certainly, this tourist commercialisation can affect inhabitants’ culture, however it must not be expected that people automatically are incompetent to withstand these pressures whether local cultures should somehow kept fixed. Nevertheless, mass tourism changes the behaviour of the inhabitants from the coastal areas. The inhabitants adapt to the tourists behaviour due to the fact that they want to make money out of these tourists.
Tourists wear different clothes, eat different food and interact differently with each other. An example is that in restaurants, Dutch, German food can be ordered. With the arrival of the first tourists in the late 1950s, bikinis were prohibited however an exception for tourists was made. The culture in an area changes slowly and finally can disappear due to tourism. Although, certain inhabitants of the coastal areas attach to the old-fashioned things, as tourists like to see cultural things such as traditional costumes and traditional dances.
Regularly, tourists think that inhabitants of the tourism areas still live like these old traditions, while this is not the case (van Rooden, 2010). Also other significant influences on changes in their society, in particular the effects of mass media, increasing living standards, and the evolving awareness of environmental concerns (Bramwell, 2003: 598). According to Salva Tomas(1991) the rapid growth of tourism in the Spanish Balearic islands has encouraged population expansion. Furthermore the islands’ appeared as one of the wealthiest regions in southern Europe.
Besides, Vidal Bendito (1994) is serious about focusing entirely on the impact of tourism on these islands, as a demographic and economical data shows that the Balearic society modernised already before the beginning of mass tourism. Regarding multinational food chains, McDonalds for example, are global and put an end to the unique quality of a location. Universal forms in music, fashion and films lead to a westernisation of civilisation and cultures. Furthermore, it brings down the tourist knowledge and harms the local cultural systems.
Above all, in certain countries religious dances may be commercialised and promoted, glamorised for western visitors and performed out of context. As well there may be trivialising of local trades such as woodworks and mass production of souvenirs (Bramwell, 2004). What impact does mass tourism have on the economy and environment of Spain? Mass tourism provides more jobs for the local inhabitants in the coastal areas of Spain. The inhabitants of the areas work in restaurants, hotels and cafes. Furthermore, they maintain beach chair rentals and sell souvenirs.
Many other benefits have been created through tourism, such as hotels, apartments, roads, railways, waterworks, and restaurants have provided many jobs. Companies from the coastal areas earn lots of money to manufacture and building. Likewise, cleaning companies, travel agencies, bus companies and information agencies are needed. The local citizen discovered methods and businesses to get income via mass tourism, mainly they own bike rentals, miniature golf courses, or amuse tourists with their speedboats. source) Previously, small fishing villages had a high unemployment however this totally changed by the development of mass tourism. Therefore, many people are happy with the development of tourism in the coastal areas of Spain (van Rooden, 2010) The socio-economic disadvantages of this industry contain the possibility for revenue leakage from the local economy to tour operators and carriers in origin countries, and its focus of low-level workers who are badly paid and employed aptly to the rise and fall in tourism (Bramwell, 2004).
Frequently, tourism is associated with complications of seasonal job losses and stages of long hours of intense work, according to Urry (1990: 66 – 88). Therefore, the low payments often contribute to the forms of differences among the populations of tourist areas. Furthermore, there can be critical differences in the distribution of tourism between parts of capital, for instance between tour operators which operate external, and local tourism businesses which are on a smaller scale, as well between different districts. Since the 1960s millions of tourists visit the Spanish coasts.
In order to meet the ever-growing demand, large-scale apartment complexes and hotels along the coasts resurrected. Furthermore, construction of new resorts is continuing nowadays. The result is that many of these beach destinations along the Spanish coast suffer from horizon pollution. This implies that hotels and apartment complexes will rise in the height and only front accommodations have sea views, which shows that the agricultural policy aimed at rapid growth rather than sustainability. A range of accommodations dates back to the 1950s or 1960s, which often are expired nowadays.
Consequently, outdated accommodations attract young travelers who bargain to for example Salou and Lloret de Mar. However, these inexpensive trips do hardly contribute to the local economy (Stichting Fair Tourism, 2012). To turn to the rapid growth, the environmental and temporal attentiveness of the industry often have enhanced its environmental influences (Shaw&Williams, 1994). The ability of infrastructure in an area exceeded the rapid increase of several resorts at that time. Particularly, the demanding summer months resulted to strong environmental concerns (Sharpley, 2000: 283).
Occasionally, these concerns display in defects in road facilities and substrates, collection and discard of refuse, sewage collection systems and water purification. Particularly, where local government is not used to the new intensities of demand, where is a lack of applicable competences or is underfinanced (Priestley & Mundet, 1998: 92). The conjunction of laws in pro-developments and the absence of implementation and enforcement of the principles of land-use and environmental regulation has occasioned in difficulties such as landscape ilapidation, sea pollution, devastation of ecosystem, loss of useful agrarian land and the mixing of inconsistent land usage (Bramwell, 2004). Moreover, almost all disposable products are imported, which in itself is harmful to the environment. Al disposable items are a huge waste. A tourist produces 50% more waste than a local inhabitant. Additionally, a Spanish citizen uses around 250 liters of water per day, while a tourist uses an average of 900 liters. These numbers include use of swimming pools and golf courses.
The huge water consumption of tourists in Spain is a major problem, since the coastal areas already suffer from water scarcity. The wastewater from hotels and other tourist facilities are not handled well. This, in fact is being dumped into the sea a view miles away from the coast (Stichting Fair Tourism, 2012). While developments along Spanish coasts in second-home and retirement home are frequently built at lower volume fractions, this reduced spatial concentration itself can have negative consequences. Including, the more major losses of agricultural land and pollution from traffic is an impact of increased travel distances.
Furthermore, the developments of tourism contribute to diverse pressures on environmental resources in coastal areas, including the stones and sand used for building materials (Bramwell, 2004). Conclusion Based on the findings presented in the previous part it can be concluded that tourism has played a tremendous role in the coastal areas of Spain. The development of tourism since the late 1950s has caused many changes in those areas and therefore it has numerous influences in various fields. Since tourism is indispensable, masses of tourists visit the Spanish coastal areas each year.
The tourism industry has left its traces and therefore it is important to be aware of this. There are undoubtedly economic benefits from mass tourism as families become more independent. Furthermore, villages become less inhabited as there are many sources of income in the coastal areas. Additionally, mass tourism leads to a westernisation of civilisation and cultures, wherefore it brings down the tourist knowledge and harms the local cultural systems. All in all, it can be said that tourism has many advantages and disadvantages.
When coming to all the above-mentioned facts, there are generally more disadvantages. It has been argued that, it is very important that tourists become more aware of the downside of tourism. Tourists depart every week however the Spanish inhabitants have to deal with all the consequences of tourism, as they will live there all their lives. Grading Sheet First Year Writing Assignment Assessment form: You must include a copy of this form (2 pages) with your Report. (Max 84 points)
Name:Sabine Alma English teacher: Dymphi van der Hoeven Formatting/ Structure: Correct Layout: * Font, spacing, page numbering, headers, numbered tables, graphs, charts| 1| 2| * Proper Table of contents (APA Style) * Title Page (title of report, student’s name, number, date, assessor’s name * Table of Contents * The paper (I. B. C. , not on separate pages) * List of Works cited * Grading Sheet and declaration| 1| | Introduction – Movement is from general to specific * General background to the topic * Statement of purpose * Preview of the contents of the report| 3| 12|
Body * Clear sections with standard phrases that introduce or link in each section * Sufficient support (examples, statistics, expert opinions, etc. ) * Ideas from outside sources are relevant, sufficiently elaborated, and synthesized * All findings develop the topic and relate to the purpose/problem statement (no irrelevancies)| 6| | Conclusion * Review/ summary of the findings (pulling it all together) * Outcome of work = answer to purpose/problem statement (if applicable) * Recommendations, future prospects, personal opinions (if applicable)| 3| |
Correct APA Referencing Evidence of PLAGIARISM = 0 marks for the whole assignment * In-text citation: paraphrasing (clearly in student’s own words) * Direct quotations (no more than 10% of final copy) * Reference list/ works cited or bibliography are correct according to APA| | 15| Style Formality (appropriate style of language for the assignment) * Written in an audience orientated way * Balance between formal and informal| | 12|Variety and accuracy of vocabulary * Correct choice of words * Vocabulary has variety and interest (avoids using simplistic expressions and or repetition)| | |
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Reference list Bramwell, B ( 2004). Coastal Mass tourism. Deversification and Sustainable Development in Southern Europe. Clevedon: Channel view productions. Bramwell, B. (2003) Maltese responses to tourism. Annals of Tourism Research 30 (3), 581 – 605. Greenwood, D. J. (1989) Culture by the pound. An anthropological persepctive on tourism as cultural commmoditization. In V. Page, M. , Page, S. , Connell, J. (2009) Tourism: A Modern Synthesis. n. d. Cengage Learning Emea Priesley, G. K. (1995). Evolution of tourism on the Spanish coast. In. G. J. Ashworth and A.
G. J Dietvorst Urry, J. (1990). The tourist gaze. Leisure and travel in contemporary societies. London: Sage Vidal Bendito, T. (1994) The Balearic population in the twentieth century. In M. R. Carli (ed) Economic and population Trends in the Mediterranean Islands (pp. 129-54). Collana Alti Seminari 5. Naples: Edizioni Scientifiche Italiane. Salva Tomas, P. A. (1991) La population des iles Baleares pendent 40 ans de tourisme de masse (1950-1989). Mediterranee 1, 74 -14. Shaw, G and Williams, A. M. (1994). Critical issues in tourism: A geographical persepecitve.
Oxford: Blackwell. Sharpley, R. (1998). Island Tourism Development. The case of Cyprus. Newcastle: centre for Travel tourism, university of Northumbria at Newcastle. Stichting Fair Tourism. (2012). Massa Tourism. Retrieved 30 March, 2012 from http://www. fairtourism. nl/index. php? pagimenu_id=25&pagimenu_Sid=7 Van Rooden, P. (2010) Gevolgen van massatoerisme. Retrieved April 04, 2012 from http://www. schooltv. nl/eigenwijzer/2157310/aardrijkskunde/item/2831006/gevolgen-van-massatoerisme/ Wahab, S, & Pigram J. J. (1997)Tourism, Development and Growth. The

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Tourism

Tourism and Malaysia

My task was to make country research with problem statement and in -depth analysis.
I choose Malaysia as my destination. Malaysia is a federal constitutional monarchy in Southeast Asia. It consists of thirteen states and three federal territories. It is separated by the South China Sea into two regions, Peninsular Malaysia and Malaysian Borneo. Land borders are shared with Thailand, Indonesia and Brunei and maritime borders exist with Singapore, Vietnam and the Philippines. Peninsular Malaysia is connected to Singapore via causeway and a bridge. The capital is Kuala Lumpura while Putrajaya is the seat of the federal government.
The population is over 28 million. Malaysia is the 43rd populated country and the 66 th largest country by the total land area in the world and land area of around 329,847 square kilometers. The biggest cities are: Kuala Lumpur about 1,448600 inhabitants Johor Bahru about 722200 inhabitants Ipoh about 561700 inhabitants The Malaysian constitution guarantees freedom of religion, Islam is the largest and official religion. Approximately 60,4% of the population practiced Islam, 19,2% Buddhism, 9,1% Christianity, 6,3% Hinduism and 2,9% practice Confucianism, Taoism and other traditional Chinese’s religions.Malaysia is one of the most ethnically and religiously diverse nations in the world, there are all worlds’ major religions. Malay – the largest ethnic group in the Malaysia. Chinese- the first Chinese arrived in Malaysia in the 15 th century.

Indian – the Indian community in Malaysia is the smallest of the three main ethnic groups, accounting for about 10% of the country’s population. First Indians came to Malaya for barter trade especially in the former Straits Settlements of Singapore Malacca and Penang. . Differences races and religions were Malay, Indians, and Chinese’s and many other ethnic groups live together in peace and harmony.Multiculturalism has not only made Malaysia a tasty food paradise, it has also made Malaysia home to hundreds of colorful festivals. No wonder Malaysians like to celebrating and socializing. Malaysia has been one of the best kept tourism secrets in the world.
Malaysia also offers a wide range of cuisine designed to appeal to all tastes, most importantly, at relatively affordable prices. Malaysia tourism obtained the fast development because of the result of it own higher in quality in natural and culture travel resources on top of governments forcefully hold up.Malaysia has become second biggest source of dealings in foreign money and third largest economy sector. But with the excellent scene, we should have a more clear understanding to the tourisms weaknesses and the issues in the Malaysia travel industry to keep on upward it more productively. Summary In this report I mention the vulnerably indicates that in a specific moment and region, because some of specific incidents, influence, the tourism industry appears the casual characteristic a produces a sequences of long time negative effect form this.The tourisms vulnerability usually hides under the travel business long term prosperousness, once meets some certain uncontrolled factors, then the negative effects is get ready to start off, and continuously accumulates and continually reacts. As of the require portion, tourism is based on the satisfaction of the request from people’s daily lives then produces the top level of request for vacations.
So the traveling demand is one kind of non-primary need, once people receive the threat the physiology, the non-primary need, must pass though unavoidably for the primary need.Since the provide portion, tourism is an inclusive industry that the traveling activities need many different industry departments management, if any link short will affect the overall situations. This had decided the tourism is a fairly weak industry in which the six big essential factors: food, hotel, transport, trip shopping and entertainment, make it extremely extends to other profession domains and of course any of the outside has accident will affect the entire traveling industry. Malaysia Malaysia is a federal constitutional monarchy in Southeast Asia. It consists of thirteen states and three federal territories.It is separated by the South China Sea into two regions, Peninsular Malaysia and Malaysian Borneo. Land borders are shared with Thailand, Indonesia and Brunei and maritime borders exist with Singapore, Vietnam and the Philippines.
Peninsular Malaysia is connected to Singapore via causeway and a bridge. The capital is Kuala Lumpura while Putrajaya is the seat of the federal government. The population is over 28 million. Malaysia is the 43rd populated country and the 66 th largest country by the total land area in the world and land area of around 329,847 square kilometers.The biggest cities are: Kuala Lumpur about 1,448600 inhabitants Johor Bahru about 722200 inhabitants Ipoh about 561700 inhabitants The Malaysian constitution guarantees freedom of religion, Islam is the largest and official religion. Approximately 60,4% of the population practiced Islam, 19,2% Buddhism, 9,1% Christianity, 6,3% Hinduism and 2,9% practice Confucianism, Taoism and other traditional Chinese’s religions. Malaysia is one of the most ethnically and religiously diverse nations in the world, there are all worlds’ major religions.
Malay – the largest ethnic group in the Malaysia.Chinese- the first Chinese arrived in Malaysia in the 15 th century. Indian – the Indian community in Malaysia is the smallest of the three main ethnic groups, accounting for about 10% of the country’s population. First Indians came to Malaya for barter trade especially in the former Straits Settlements of Singapore Malacca and Penang. Best time to visit Malaysia In the Malaysia season in all year. Best time to visit Malaysia is from May to September. Rain months are from October-November and from April-May on the west coast and from November-January on the east coast and in Sabah and Sarawak; beach lovers avoid this time.
It is also not recommended to visit Malaysia since water sports too, don’t work in this season. Concerning the festivities and mega sale carnival, Malaysia obverses travel peak season during November-January. Temperature average is from 21-32o Celcius. Treats in Malaysia Vandalism and terrorism of churches will affect tourism industry. The government is worried that the latest inflammable attacks on churches might have implications on the tourism industry of the country and might threaten the growth of the sector and that she is saddened by the current spiritual anxiety, which will affect both the economy and the industry.The church attacks are sending the wrong message to foreign tourists when Malaysia was always advertised as a harmonious country regardless of its food paradise and multicultural society. Politics problems: safety and security Political instability has influence the tourism industry in Malaysia since many of tourists are fearful.
If the bad things or new continue to happen Malaysia would not be a grant destination for tourists to vacations. One more case Hindu protested in Klang. They are trying to fight for the right of Hindu. It consist of 5000 Barisan National Youth members in anti-Israel demonstration and it was an illegal demonstration.Thought this entire political problem occurs in Malaysia make the tourists fell not secure to bring their family come to vacation Malaysia. Environmental threats: Beauty and clean Malaysia is a country with beautiful beach heaven originates the seashore of Teregganu and Sabah. The tourists are likely to come across these islands to take pleasure in the crystal clear water and experience to the beauty of marine life in the sea.
Malaysia certain incomes is generated from eco-tourism, government have authorities can enhanced those value coral reefs and marine Flora and Fauna.Nonetheless, careless organization and community unawareness had brought further damage to the sea than good. The following are pollutions that infect the environment, which has given an awful impression to the tourists. Rubbish Although several efforts have been made to decrease the quantity of rubbish, there is still no ways to prevent the public from littering the beach. A lot of rubbish at the washed by seawater will affected be alive of marine Flora and Fauna. Imagine that a lot plastic bag and bottle flow on the surface of sea can cause many marine Flora and Fauna lack of carbon dioxide and dead.Additional, imagine that tourists coming to the beaches in Malaysia and found a lot of rubbish littering around the impression in their mind that the beach paradise will be destroy.
Rivers Malaysia is Newly Industrializing country therefore many industries were build. Since, many industries were build, there are also many rivers have become polluted due to many toxic poured out into rivers. Such as the paper making industry, it needs lot of chemical when produce their productions. There are many radical original groups that still survive in Malaysia and the citizens depend on the rivers to stay alive.They depend the rivers for water supply, for food, bath and for their crops. Well, river have become their main important natural resources for their live without rivers their continuous their life generations to generations. The rivers have become a tourist attraction and this has promoted the construction of hotels and resorts around the area.
As a result, many of the forests surrounding the river areas have been cropped down. The surrounding soils have not roots to hold on to and soon erode when the rains come.The soil runs into the rivers and soon the rivers become murky and shut out all the sunlight from reaching the aquatic life in the rivers and streams. This causes them to die. Solutions to threats of Malaysia tourism Social problem and politician problem: Safety and security With the purpose to solve the political instability in Malaysia, a few steps are taken to avoid tourism decline in Malaysia. In this, governments enforce the Anti hopping law. This law establish with it objective: no one can party hopping, where there is no person in the party, who resign from one party is because to join another party.
For example: this happening to be show in Peark. Anti terrorism legislation has being implemented in Malaysia in order to overcome the problem due to terrorism which is call the Internal Security Act (ISA) The ISA also with it objective for restriction on the autonomy of assembly, and freedom of movement for the tourists. Encourage to live in harmonies by government, like recently Malaysia Prime Minister Najib come out “Satu Malaysia” policy. This policy with objective: encourage people live in peace, tolerance between each races, respect each other races religion and cultural and help each other when face problem.With all this, tourism in Malaysia will be increase because Malaysia gives a good example and impression to foreigner that many differences live in one country also can be peaceful. Environmental problem: Beautiful and clean Rubbish To prevent people littering rubbish around the beach, government need to enforce some law to punish the people who simply throw rubbish at the public place in order to reduce the amount of rubbish. Such like beaches, super market, playground, etc.
Establish a campaign like gather several groups of people to clean up the rubbish along the beach.Private or government sector and school can do this campaign. This campaign will let the children to learn how to protect the beauty environment. Encourage to use more recycle paper, less to use plastic bag or bottle. For example: like recently many Sates in Malaysia implement “Recycle Day” that encourage they citizens use recycle bag rather than use plastic bag. To beauty the clean environment will attract more tourists come to visit country and thus help to booming Malaysia economy. Rivers Solutions of rivers pollution can be done by government.
Government can encourage smart agriculture practice use the right sizing applications of fertilizer and using techniques like biodynamic farming, non- till planning, settling ponds, and riparian buffer zones can help keep polluted excess from entering rivers. Enforce law to every industry using and improve sewage treatment, to avoid harmful toxic entering the rivers. For us, support organic food means that there were no pesticides or other harmful contaminants used in the growing of the food, thus the industry and farm will least to pour out that harmful chemical into the rivers.The preservation of natural wetlands provides a relatively simple water pollution solution. Wetlands serve as natures filter and create a natural safeguarding zone between the water and the land.Literature www. themalaysianinsider.
com www. grinningpanet. com Scippeps. com/water-pollution-solutions-for governments-and-us Library. thinkguest. org www. malaysiantoday.
com/vandalism-ofchuchces-will-affect-tourism-industry. html www. wikipedia. org/malaysia

Categories
Tourism

Unit 13: Special Interest Tourism

Explain how two relationships between special interests and tourism have developed Educational tourism is used by schools and colleges or any institution to allow student to go on trips, theses trips will only be for education purpose. It can be linked to a course in order to know more about certain things and acquire knowledge on different visits made to a museum for example, which will help student to learn about different artefacts, cultures, artist most valued painting and historical and cultural or even aquamarine depending on the type of museum and field trip.Changes in curriculum have led to an increase in the number of school tour operators. Nowadays, teachers do not have the time to organise trips, it is now impossible to accomplish, there are to many paper to fill in, they have to teach the children with lessons that takes time to put in place, give them the work, compulsory coursework and make correction, and for students taking GSCE which was first introduced in 1986, the length of the program is long there is more testing and exams everything has to be though.That is why the demand on school operator is increasing. School operator are used by institution to allow a field trip to be put in place, the company will help gather the entire component to make a package.
The component consist of the transport, transfer, the place they will be going, any paper document that need to be provided toward health and safety security. When all the assessments are made, they will be able to provide schools with an itinerary for the day trip or month trip depending on the duration from the departure, the detail, to the return.An event happened in 1993 concerning The Lyme Bay canoeing disaster where four children from a group of eight by errors were swept out to sea and drowned; they were accompanied by two instructors. The impact made, it scared teacher because of the lack of safety measure, they are scared because they are in charge of the children and all the responsibilities comes back to them in case an accident occur.Parents do not want to send their kids on trips if it is not safe, there is no insurance, where there is lack of information about the activities and what will the children be doing on that day. This is why after the disaster a new law was passed, The Activity Centres (Young person Safety) Act 1995 which states that anyone putting adventure activities for under 18 year old must hold a license. This was an advantage for specialist school operators, which is now popular because there are certified and has got the experience in that matter.
The type of product and services offered by school tour operators to their customers are, subject focused trips and tour, visits and trips designed for a certain age group, planning and booking information for teachers, they also state their experience with safety, experience and offer customer service and providing the teacher and students with the necessary financial protection, through ABTA and ATOL bonds. Tour operators allowed schools to go on more trips and to go to more unusual destination.Back in time schools could only organised trip inside the borough they live in or not to far so they can walk and come back walking, it was not really exiting for the children because they were spending half of their day walking, it consisted in visiting local museum, going to cinema, swimming pool, it was more general not related to education and knowledge purpose, but much more to get the kids out and have fun.Now with the school tour operator they are able to go to more destinations, which they were not thinking of, such as coach excursion, it is more specialised, they will know they are going to such place to learn about a subject. An example of college student studying history or politics will be able to have a school trip to Paris, tailored made by the tour operator which will allow students to discover over 2000 years of history, politics and culture on the French history life.From the Package Travel Regulations 1992 it is said that tour operators and travel agents are liable if the third parties that it works with, give customers poor products or services. Normally they should not have any difficulties and issues on the quality of service from airlines, hotel, guides, coach if they check that the company provider hold all the formal document to give the student a secure trip.

About NSTgroup overview Start up: NST was first formed and established in 1967 and is now the UK’s leading educational travel company for Primary Schools, Secondary Schools nd Colleges. Size: It is the largest tour operator for schools, and offer good prices for educational travel market. -They are part of the Education Division of Holiday break plc, the European specialist holiday group and PGL – Also have an associate company in Dublin – Bonded ATOL and ABTA No’ of employees: NST employs over 200 employees in Blackpool head office and Cambridge office How you book: You can book through their internet website: http://www. nstgroup. co. uk/contact-us By electronic email: [email protected] o.
uk By phone number: 0845 688 8988 and differ according each subject of the visit as shown below… |Art & Design |0845 293 7959 |email | |Business Studies & Economics |0845 293 7969 |email | |Classical Studies | 0845 293 7960 | | And more… Development of Dark TourismDark tourism is a special interest activity for tourist and anyone who wants to see and know more about the history of a destination. It include taking part and visiting site where an event happen, it can be a conflict sites, sites of death, shrine, castle and battlefields, sites where a disaster happened in the past, prisons and purpose built centres which promote dark tourism. These are some of the location around the world tourist can go to take place in dark tourism: – Ground Zero in New-York in remembrance of the 9/11 – The German extermination camp at Auschwitz in Poland Beaumaris Prison in Anglesey, Wales – Chernobyl in ex USSR – Ghost hunting tourism in Scotland – Camps of Genocide Before the 21st century Dark tourism, there used to be public execution where crowed was coming to see and assist to, also the Roman used to fight in sites and die there and people were still attracted to it and had the will to approach and assist. In the ancient time people have at all times been enthusiastic to stop to places where battles, massacres and wickedness were agreed. There are some Dark Tourism tour operators who only cater for Battlefield destination around the world.However Dark tourism Tour operator is not as much developed, tourist who will want to go to certain sites will have to do some research on how to get there independently and know what they will be doing and see and put together they own package holiday. The motivations of tourist taking part in Dark tourism: – Some tourist are fascinated with death and disaster – The media showing a certain place will influence on your choice – Maybe to feel the suffering – Preserve the site – Interest in history – Morbidity – Heritage to education – Remembrance of famous people that mark the historyThese are possible motivation on why tourists are visiting theses places.
The type of product and services provided by dark tourism operator as Holts Tours which offer coach tour departures, including the itinerary , flights, they care for special request, meals, accommodation facilities, disabilities and medical condition, safety, health, privacy and data, instruction on overseas standards. When going on Dark tourism holiday, tourists have the opportunity to discover and see a site where such event happen This is an example for an EXETER WEEKENDITINERARY Day 1 (Friday): Meet at the Southgate hotel from 14:30 onwards. Welcome drink at 18:00, dinner and a talk by a local historian. Day 2: A tour of the city including a visit to the Cathedral. After an early lunch, drive out to Castle Drogo designed by Sir Edwin Luytens. – Dinner in hotel. Day 3: The military element of this weekend is a visit to Slapton Sands where they will hear the story of Exercise Tiger, the rehearsal for the D-Day invasion that went so disastrously wrong.
– Lunch and return to Exeter by 15:30.For some people it can be ethically and morally right for them to take part in dark tourism, if it can help them reconnect with something or someone they have lost. If for example their parents took part in a war and died in such place, it can be a way of remembrance to go and visit such place. However I think it is not of use to visit these places for fun and being fascinated by disaster but it is useful if they use it for education purpose for the historical or cultural reasons. History of the War Research Society and Battlefield ToursThe War Research Society and Battlefield Tours was founded over 20 years ago by policeman retired police officers, ex-service personnel and friends, The War Research Society has taken thousands of pilgrims, veterans, widows and children to visit the battlefields, memorials and resting places to the areas of the First and Second World War in Northern France, Belgium, Turkey and Italy. How you book: The brochure contains details of all the battlefield and memorial tours and additional tour information, departure times, National Express connections, and booking forms, it can also be requested by email, phone or post.Ground Zero in New-York in remembrance of the 9/11 Times after the attack in New-York on World trade centre in September 2001, it been decided by the local and family of the victim to put up in place a place of remembrance which is now called Ground Zero and is a memorial place with picture of victims everywhere, on phone booths, street lights, walls of subway stations.
A museum has also been put in place showing pictures of the events. In 2011 there will be a new site opening ‘Reflecting Absence’, which ill have cascading waterfalls with illuminated reflecting pools at the site of the towers. The names of the 2979 people who died during the attacks that day will be inscribed around the edge of the waterfalls. It said that in 2008, 47 million of people came to visit New-York especially to come by Ground Zero which is a must see in the city. Since the opening it really is a benefit for the local, they even making profit on the visiting by charging visitors with a fee of $10 per entrance, which they use for charity and different need to help in the development.