Assessment of Ell Students

Running head: Assessment Assessment of English Language Learners Student Name Grand Canyon University: ESL 534 August 8 2012 With the implementation of the No Child Left behind Act of 2001, states are required to assess ELL students to determine if students are making adequate progress towards their language development goals. The purpose of the NCLB act is to challenge students to meet higher standards, close the achievement gap, and ensure that all students have the same opportunities to reach their full potential.
There has been much criticism regarding the NCLB act and the high stakes testing that has developed as a result, especially when it comes to ELL students. ELL students not only have to learn required content objectives as other students, but have the challenge of learning the English language simultaneously. Students, schools, and teachers are evaluated with standardized test annually to ensure the initial goals are met.
The concern that many have with standardized testing is they do not show the overall progress of the student which may lead to inaccurate results regarding a student’s language proficiency. English Language Learners are a diverse group with different languages, cultures, and backgrounds. Their language acquisition can be effected by many things including socio-economic factors and educational backgrounds. Understanding language acquisition theories can give critical insight into how assessments should be developed.

Some of the popular theories of language acquisition include the threshold hypothesis, which states that a student’s language skills need to reach a critical level before students can benefit from bilingualism (Cummins, 1979) and the Critical/ Sensitive period hypothesis which states that students who are not exposed to a second language before puberty will never reach the proficiency of a native English speaker (Bailey & Heritage, 2010). According to Hakuta 2000, it takes several years for ELL students to reach the level of proficiency needed to learn new academic content through a second language. This theory and others hould cause educators to question the current objectives that we have for ELL students and the time frame that ELL students have for meeting those objectives. Language proficiency assessments are an important tool used to measure students’ progress as well as record their starting point. Stiggins and Chappuis 2005 argue that students make conclusions about their capability of learning based on the assessments that teachers provide. and that “feedback delivered once a year from standardized district, state, national, or international is far too infrequent and broadly focused to be helpful (Stiggins& Chappuis, 2005 p. 2). Stiggins and Chappuis believe that our current educational system places far too much emphasis on assessments and that one test does not provide an accurate measure of a schools or students success. Instead, they argue that student involved assessments are more beneficial for the student and teacher and set the student up for success. With student involved assessments student and teachers work as partners to monitor their achievement creating an environment where students feel secure and know what is expected of them and what it takes for them to meet their goals Stiggins& Chappuis, 2005).
Within the last ten years there have been numerous debates centered over how or if ELL students should participate in standardized testing. Some have argued that standardized test can be biased against ELL students because they don’t take into account cultural differences in language structure. Standardized test provide only a snap shot of the learning and growth that has taken place for ELL students and is not a way to accurately monitor the progress of students. With standardized testing we shift the attention from learning and building knowledge for the future to focusing on short term results.
With unrealistic goals for standardized testing it can be difficult to tell the difference between schools that are serving the needs of ELL students and those that are not. References Bailey, A. L. and Heritage M. (2010). English Language Proficiency Assessments Foundations: External Judgments of Adequacy. Evaluating the validity of English language Proficiency Assessments. (An Enhanced Assessment Grant). Retrieved August 2, 2012 from http://www. library. gcu. edu Stiggins, R. and Chappuis, J. Using Student-Involved Classroom Assessment to Close Achievement Gaps Retrieved August 2, 2012 from http://www. library. gcu. edu


How a Mature Student Should Write an Application Sample Essay

An application sample essay is an etalon for making more emphasis on your admission. In fact, a student should be mature in paying attention to application sample essays. It is extremely necessary if one wants to pursue education. This guide can help you in understanding the peculiarities of such essay samples.
An application sample essay is a visual practical aid that is especially helpful for enrollees. Their problems can be solved by means of an application sample essay. It is so, because an application sample essay is:

Structurally correct

Your hopes about successful writing of an application essay may come true due to the schedule that is represented in an application sample essay. Hence, you may get involved into the whole educational process due to reading application sample essays carefully. Looking at such perspective, you can make conclusions that application sample essays can give you:

More ideas on writing
Possibility to succeed in operating with thoughts
Deep concernment of an admission committee
Successful enrollment
Motivation for studying excellently
Best career prospects

Thus, you see that your success is near. You solely need to follow the requirements illustrated in your application sample essay. One more point is your desire to do more than it is expected. If you are capable to shift expectations of surrounding persons, you can make your application essay really unique and informative. In this case your successful future in an educational establishment is guaranteed. So do not beat about the bush. Just start working on your application essay right away!


Impact of Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs on Students

This report will attempt to tell that how Maslow’s (1962) hierarchy of needs theory has made a major contribution to teaching and classroom management in classroom.
The research follows through the development and learning course in learners with learning disabilities. The learners are of different ages and abilities. The lesson where I was a spectator first and foremost focus on how learners learn. Here most of the lessons are done by teamwork or working in pair or by fellowship to create research and share result.
Before going to co-teach the sessions I carefully observe the lessons for few weeks and in the end took over the section. Throughout the time I follow the instruction of my mentor and engaged with learners at the same time as they take tasks. The purpose of the report is to assess the effectiveness of using Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory to teaching.

While performing this research drawback have appeared that could have an impact on the results. Because no access to learner profiles,that were not given to me due to our DBS check was still progress, there is incomplete knowledge of learners and only my own observation and discussion with a mentor and supporting staff.
Because I was observing and shadowing the lessons at the time of research, lesson was planned by lecture and I had restricted input into the sessions. This made it hard to assess if group work was the ideal teaching style for the learners as there were no substantive evaluation that could be made. Permission for research to carried out was given by lecturer and learners as well as members of supporting staff.
All involved were made aware of the confidentiality and identity of those involved were kept anonymous (BERA, 2011). Then things got more difficult and complicated when after few weeks of observing college rearrange the learner groups that mean i have to deal with a whole new group of learners.
Literature Review
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs was developed by Abraham Maslow in his 1943 paper ‘A Theory of Human Motivation’ also known as Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs which expresses that people purpose to get together their desires in the shape of a hierarchy.
When these basic needs are not met, learners will not be able to focus on learning.

Physiological Needs

These are the fundamental needs food, clothing, shelter, and adequate sleep etc for each learner at infancy. Complimentary lunch programs have helped a lot however there is still a concern to ensuring that learners have clothing, healthy personal hygiene habits, and adequate sleep at school.


Safety and security needs endeavor to reduce injustice, irregularity, and the risk of emotional or physical harm. Teachers can help make learners feel safe by providing a routine or a predictable world and by clearly define procedures and rules for learners. Belongingness
Learners seek to defeat belief of isolation and want to feel loved and cared from teachers or other learners. As teachers ensure that our learners are appreciated and take advantage of every opportunity to reinforce positive learner behaviour and self-esteem.

Self Esteem

Learners feel confident in themselves and that they have a place in the world it is admiration and appreciation from oneself and from those around them.


A teacher can have a great effect on the students path towards self-actualization. Learners become creative and begin to discover and form, designing information outside their basic needs and serving others.
Links with other theorists
Maslow’s theory of motivation theory is easy to understand and can be easily grasped and applied. It is theory is dynamic because it presents motivation as a changing force. It accounts for both interpersonal and intra-personal variations in human behaviour.
Like Maslow, Rogers (1951) developed his own theory of self-actualization by using empirical evidence from his own clinical observations to develop his theory. Both Maslow and Rogers believe that gaining recognition more important than gaining self-actualisation.
Frederick Herzberg (1964) developed a two-factor motivation theory related to satisfaction in the workplace. It could be clam that Maslow’s work was then the motivation for Herzberg’s theory.
Maslow was very affected by the work of Alfred Adler. Adler assume that the driving force behind all human behaviour was to strive for perfection which he saw as the desire to fulfil one’s potential.
Clayton Alderfer developed Maslow’s hierarchy of needs by categorising the hierarchy into his ERG theory (Existence, Relatedness and Growth).
Contemporary research by Tay and Diener (2011) has tested Maslow’s theory {From 2005 to 2010} by analysing the data of 60,865 participants from 123 countries representing every major region of the world.
Maslow’s theory rapt on a biased sample of self-actualised highly educated individuals (such as Thomas Jefferson, Abraham Lincoln, Albert Einstein, William James, Aldous Huxley, Beethoven) later (1970) did study females, such as Eleanor Roosevelt and Mother Teresa. This makes it difficult to generalise his theory to females and individuals from lower social classes or different ethnicity.
In making causal relationships it is very difficult to empirically test Maslow’s concept of self-actualisation.
Wahba and Bridwell (1976) taken in-depth review and concluded that the proof for the hierarchical order of the needs proposed by Maslow is light.
Hofstede (1984) stated that hierarchy was costly in ethnocentricity and based upon a Western ideology and does not consider the disagreement in the cultural needs of societies and their unique social and academic needs.
Cianci and Gambrel (2003) said that HON is too simple and it does not reflect on societal needs at a picky time.
Kenrick Griskevicius Neuberg and Schaller (2010) said Maslow does not consider complexity to sex caused from both physiological and psychological needs across the hierarchical range.
Tay and Diener (2011) have verified that the ranking of needs varies with age and does not appear to be the same across all age groups
Methodology and Findings
Taking care of physiological needs is duty that is shared between teacher and students.The teacher must be aware of the student’s needs, however the students must also keep the teacher informed of their needs, such as if a student is having a difficult time breathing, or if they are thirsty. Water bottles and water breaks, Focused attention practices,  Physical surroundings,  Food,  Instrumental Music.
At my placement first 5 weeks I had group strength of  16 learners from different ethnic backgrounds. This strength of learners considered as a very large group and at times three learners with wheelchairs users. we were only 3 supporting staff including myself helping the teacher, with every learner with different needs and support required.
Without having access to ILP it was hard for me to understand the behaviors of these learners that how they react to things a time but one thing was common in them that they all wanted to be there that is what I understood after having a conversation with some learners and staff.
College was the place where they feel safe a sense of belongingness and express themselves loudly, you can see them talking to everyone doesn’t matter which class of group they belong to but at the same time, there were some learners struggling to adjust to the environment.
There was one learner I interacted was very difficult to start with but when I had chance to spend some time with him during the lesson I find out he was very keen to learn new skills and want to live independently, work and earn his living like every normal person while struggles to understand his limitation which frustrates him a times. but he tries to give his 100% when he asked to do any activity.
What I understand from the interaction with this learner I can clearly see he was working through the third and fourth stage of Maslow’s pyramid of need where he was showing touch of belongingness and trying to accomplish his psychological needs to be on the track of living  an independent life. there was another learner who was also very keen to move on with life but he keep walking out of the class saying he can’t do this, support staff usually leave him with the counseling officer.
After having a word with the counseling officer I found out he was upset because of going through break up situation which again related with stage three of belongingness. By rearranging the groups last week made things hard for them as they all are now in different group and different learners which did make this difficult for some of them.
In all honestly, changes are not easy for almost everyone and with persons with learning disabilities it makes thing even more difficult for them as most of them its very hard for them adjust with new group and even new teachers and supporting staff. But only things keep them coming back to college they want to move with life but this kind of changes put them one step back of that pyramid of needs and start to work on things again which is not always easy for everyone.
I think that group exercises increase one’s feeling of belongingness in a classroom environment. Keeping a light hearted and fun class will improve affectionate bonds between classmates. Some teachers did recommend either online or face to face groups activities to their learners can help them create friendships with each other. Some teachers arrange Games, group work and teamwork exercises  to apply this stage of the hierarchy, because interaction helps students feel more involved, such as
Expert Day: Students get to demonstrate personal expertise.
Display skills as a class: Create and design quizzes, assignments, and instruction for peers.
The teacher encourages the student when they have done well, but also push them to achieve their highest potential. Students can use lesson plans incorporated with technology to step outside of the classroom and realize their potential in real world scenarios. Some institute find it as way to apply this in education is to have students who are very good in a subject.
Applying Abraham Maslow’s theory of hierarchy to education is a very effective way to assess lesson plans, SOL and educational programs. Like the rungs of a ladder, each need has to be met before progressing to the next level. By asking whether the five needs are being met in their school or classroom, educators can assess how well they are applying Maslow’s hierarchy to their teaching practice. Students may move back and forth on the hierarchy, so it is important to have ongoing assessments of how well their needs are being met.
A new study suggested Abraham Maslow was right. University of Illinois researchers tested Maslow’s theory and revealed that people actually do feel happier when their basic needs are met.
The researchers used data collected over five years from over 150 countries. The information gathered pertained to positive and negative emotions resulting from various basic needs, including food, shelter, money, safety, respect, social relations, and autonomy. The researchers also discovered that those who felt their life was positive did so more when their most basic needs of food, shelter, and money were met. The higher needs, autonomy, respect, and social support, were linked to a feeling of joy.
Professor emeritus of psychology at the University of Illinois, Ed Diener, and lead author of the study said
Diener said.
“Thus life satisfaction is not just an individual affair, but depends substantially also on the quality of life of one’s fellow citizens,”
Diener further said.
“Our findings suggest that Maslow’s theory is largely correct. In cultures all over the world the fulfilment of his proposed needs correlates with happiness”.
He added, “Another revision of his theory is that we found that different needs produce different types of well-being.”
So, as a teacher, how can you make sure your learners’ physiological needs are met? Make sure you provide adequate lighting, space, ventilation (heating or cooling), refreshments or drinking water at least, offer toilet breaks, etc.
Each level allows students the ability and motivation to increase. Each student can move up in the hierarchy with the proper support of the teachers and school staff who must focus on Maslow’s hierarchy of needs in teaching and education.
Maslow’s hierarchy of needs is still a major, well-known aspect of modern psychology. The hierarchy of needs has recently been adapted for use in hospice care (Zalenski & Raspa, 2006), for use in urban planning, development, and management (Scheller, 2016), and even for the study of policing (de Guzman & Kim, 2017).
Interestingly, the Scheller and de Guzman & Kim papers both adapted the hierarchy of needs to communities rather than to individuals. These recent studies show that the hierarchy of needs has influenced modern psychology in ways that Maslow may not have predicted.


Student Motivation

Student motivation is a critical educational issue that districts all around the country should deal with on a daily basis. More and more students are unmotivated for several reasons, for example they might have problems at home, they lack good teachers, parents don’t encourage them enough or they just began to lose interest in school or don’t find school amusing. Students should be the main priority to a district or school but instead money is.
Districts are so focused on saving money that they just don’t care much about their schools, and schools more often try to save as much money as they can since their city has cut how much money they are getting, thus impacting how schools handle their money. Schools in a desperate way to keep their school open have to make critical changes to how they run their school knowing that their staff and students will suffer greatly.
Schools are now cutting off teacher’s salaries, they have shut down their transportation to students, they have to shut down during and after schools programs, they don’t buy new materials for students, and they have to close down tutoring for students who need it. All of this issues impact the students dramatically in on way or another. Teachers, more than any district or school wide programs, have the most power to motivate students because they’re on the front lines (Annie Condron). She explains that teachers can influence students in a way that kids can actually understand.

She is a teacher and she gives ways in which other teachers can motivate their students for example to praise students in big and small ways, expect excellence, or assign jobs. I found these methods really interesting, it would be nice if my teachers could use 1 or more of them. Especially when giving students a job in the class, which they have to be present and be active everyday in order to keep it. Michigan was rank number 3 in teacher salary, with the average of $56,000 a year in 2006(Thomas White).
But things have changed and now they are all getting paid less causing teachers to not put much interest in their job because of their income. Many teachers in DPS don’t care for their students, many of them just give out paper work or bookwork without explaining the subject. Students need teachers who will work with them and actually have expectations for them, teachers who would actually enjoy teaching and come with a positive attitude toward their students everyday. Perhaps one of the main reasons students are unmotivated is because of boredom (Ethan Yazzie-Mintz-HSSSE).
This center measures engagement in the classroom, and identifies why or why not students find school stimulating. It found out, through surveys, that 66% of students surveyed in 2009 indicated being bored in class at least every day and in fact, only 2% of students reported never being bored. Boredom in class is caused from students not finding the materials interesting or relevant, finding work unchallenging, and listening to uninteresting lectures. This survey also allowed for students to put how they feel about school, with the majority criticizing teaching methods. I don’t find the work interesting, don’t enjoy being talked at, and hate that everyone teaches to standardized tests” said one of the students who were surveyed. The idea of education has always been to give a broad base of learning to students, but teaching to standardized test limits the way that information is presented, this type of education is designed to teach children to think only about those things that test makers have deemed important a decade ago when the test was being constructed (Allan Teal) he also states that “Current way that standardized tests are used does not measure the learning ability of the student.
It only measures whether the school system is able to write curriculum that produces good test takers” this method will benefit average and below average students because they have less information to process, but above average and gifted students will be held back from ever achieving their potential because of the mediocrity of the information that they are exposed to. So this means that any goal of producing brighter and higher achieving young people cannot be reached. Sports, especially school sports, can be highly motivating for students to perform well in school and encourage them to attend school and try their best. Enhanced blood flow throughout the body caused by regular physical activity can improve a child’s mental sharpness and acuity” (R. Scott Kretchmar, a professor of exercise and sports science at Pennsylvania State University) he states that a person who moves well is also likely to perform well in school. Sports can also improve a child’s mind and body connection since they will need to train their mind to help their body react quickly and accurately on the sports field. So by doing sports students are training their mind to learn topics faster.
Relatedly students who participate in school sports also have a higher chance of getting accepted to a good college while increasing their chance of getting more scholarships. Students who are in a school sport have to keep their grades steady all semester in order to remain in the team. “Many schools do not allow children to participate in school sports teams if they have failing grades. This policy can motivate students to go to class each day and do their homework regularly” (Eric Carson) in order for a student to remain in a school team they cannot go below the required GPA for the school.
This statement is completely true since in my school, western international high school, students have to have a 2. 5 GPA or above if they want to remain in the team. If a student really enjoys playing soccer, baseball, basketball, or whatever their favorite sport is they have to try their best to not drop their grades, similarly if a student is not on a team but wants to be, they have to attend school and do their work in order to achieve their desired GPA. The environment of the school can also influence students to attend school.
In some schools the environment is not the best. A better campus outside makes the school look more professional and a better learning environment for the student. A school with better grassland for sports, like soccer, can encourage the students to attend school and want to play a sport. All students would like to play in grass then in a hard substance. Many schools in Detroit or other districts don’t have good arenas where students can play their desired sport. Most of them have dirt land or cement where they let the students play all kind of sports.
For basketball is fine since they play indoors, but what about soccer? Baseball? Softball? If they play those sports in cement or dirt they can get injured quick, or they cannot play to their fullest potential. So grassland can encourage students to give it their all and play in a construable place. Motivation is an extremely important for a student best determination. Schools have to find a way to motivate their students to perform well and try their best. They can offer reward to those who have good grades or good attendance.
Teachers have the highest power to motivate students, they posses the power to change how they handle their class. They could make up fun activities for students to actually want to attend class, like giving jobs to students. They have to be positive all the time and show they love teaching and want each of their students to succeed in life. Parents also have an essential job to motivate their child, they can offer rewards for good grades or simply just talk with them and explain why school is such an important part of their lives.