Categories
Seasons

Report of Seasonal Goods

————————————————- American Library Association From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia American Library Association| ALA Logo| Abbreviation| ALA| Formation| 1876| Type| Non-profit NGO| Purpose/focus| “To provide leadership for the development, promotion and improvement of library and information services and the profession of librarianship in order to enhance learning and ensure access to information for all. “[1]| Headquarters| Chicago, Illinois| Location| Chicago, Illinois andWashington, DC| Region served| United States| Membership| 59,675[2]|
CEO| Keith Michael Fiels| President| Maureen Sullivan| Budget| $33. 5 million[3]| Staff| approx. 300| Website| American Library Association| The American Library Association (ALA) is a non-profit organization based in the United States that promotes libraries and library education internationally. It is the oldest and largest library association in the world,[4] with more than 62,000 members. [5] * | ————————————————- [edit]History Founded by Justin Winsor, Charles Ammi Cutter, Samuel S. Green, James L. Whitney, Melvil Dewey (Melvil Dui), Fred B.
Perkins and Thomas W. Bicknell in 1876 in Philadelphia and chartered[6] in 1879 in Massachusetts, its head office is now in Chicago. During the Centennial Exposition in Philadelphia in 1876, 103 librarians, 90 men and 13 women, responded to a call for a “Convention of Librarians” to be held October 4–6 at the Historical Society of Pennsylvania. At the end of the meeting, according to Ed Holley in his essay “ALA at 100,” “the register was passed around for all to sign who wished to become charter members,” making October 6, 1876 to be ALA’s birthday.

In attendance were 90 men and 13 women, among them Justin Winsor (Boston Public, Harvard), William Frederick Poole (Chicago Public, Newberry), Charles Ammi Cutter (Boston Athenaeum), Melvil Dewey, and Richard Rogers Bowker. Attendees came from as far west as Chicago and from England. [citation needed] The aim of the Association, in that resolution, was “to enable librarians to do their present work more easily and at less expense. “[7] The Association has worked throughout its history to define, extend, protect and advocate for equity of access to information. 8] Library activists in the 1930s pressured the American Library Association to be more responsive to issues put forth by young members involved with issues such as peace, segregation, library unions and intellectual freedom. In 1931, the Junior Members Round Table (JMRT) was formed to provide a voice for the younger members of the ALA, but much of what they had to say resurfaced in the social responsibility movement to come years later. 9] During this period, the first Library Bill of Rights (LBR) was drafted by Forrest Spaulding to set a standard against censorship and was adopted by the ALA in 1939. This has been recognized as the moment defining modern librarianship as a profession committed to intellectual freedom and the right to read over government dictates. [10] The ALA formed the Staff Organization’s Round Table in 1936 and the Library Unions Round Table in 1940. The ALA appointed a committee to study censorship and recommend policy after the banning of The Grapes of Wrath and the implementation of the LBR.
The committee reported in 1940 that intellectual freedom and professionalism were linked and recommended a permanent committee – Committee on Intellectual Freedom. [11] The ALA made revisions to strengthen the LBR in June 1948, approved the Statement on Labeling in 1951 to discourage labeling material as subversive, and adopted the Freedom to Read Statement and the Overseas Library Statement in 1953. [11] In 1961, the ALA took a stand regarding service to African Americans and others, advocating for equal library service for all.
An amendment was passed to the LBR in 1961 that made clear that an individual’s library use should not be denied or abridged because of race, religion, national origin, or political views. Some communities decided to close their doors rather than desegregate. [12] In 1963, the ALA commissioned a study, Access to Public Libraries, which found direct and indirect discrimination in American libraries. [13] In 1967 some librarians protested against a pro-Vietnam War speech given by General Maxwell D.
Taylor at the annual ALA conference in San Francisco; the former president of Sarah Lawrence College, Harold Taylor, spoke to the Middle-Atlantic Regional Library Conference about socially responsible professionalism; and less than one year later a group of librarians proposed that the ALA schedule a new round table program discussion on the social responsibilities of librarians at its next annual conference in Kansas City. This group called themselves the Organizing Committee for the ALA Round Table on Social Responsibilities of Libraries.
This group drew in many other under-represented groups in the ALA who lacked power, including the Congress for Change in 1969. [14] This formation of the committee was approved in 1969 and would change its name to the Social Responsibilities Round Table (SRRT) in 1971). After its inception, the Round Table of Social Responsibilities began to press ALA leadership to address issues such as library unions, working conditions, wages, and intellectual freedom. The Freedom to Read Foundation was created by ALA’s Executive Board in 1969. 15] The Black Caucus of the ALA and the Office for Literacy and Outreach were set up in 1970. [16] In June 1990, the ALA approved “Policy on Library Services to the Poor” and in 1996 the Task Force on Hunger Homelessness, and Poverty was formed to resurrect and promote the ALA guidelines on library services to the poor. [17] The ALA archival materials, non-current records, are currently held in the University of Illinois archives. [18] These materials can only be used at the University of Illinois. ————————————————- edit]Membership ALA membership is open to any person or organization, though most of its members are libraries or librarians. Most members live and work in the United States, with international members comprising 3. 5% of total membership. [19] ————————————————- [edit]Governing structure the ALA is governed by an elected council and an executive board. Since 2002, Keith Michael Fiels has been the ALA executive director (CEO). [20] Policies and programs are administered by various committees and round tables.
One of the organization’s most visible tasks is overseen by the Office for Accreditation, which formally reviews and authorizes American and Canadian academic institutions that offer degree programs in library and information science. The ALA’s current President is Molly Raphael (2011–2012). [21] Notable past presidents of the ALA include Theresa Elmendorf, its first female president (1911–1912),[22] Clara Stanton Jones, its first African-American president (1976–1977),[23] Loriene Roy, its first Native American president (2007–2008),[24][25] Michael Gorman (2005-6), and Roberta Stevens. 26](See List of presidents of the American Library Association. ) [edit]Activities The official purpose of the association is “to promote library service and librarianship. ” Members may join one or more of eleven membership divisions that deal with specialized topics such as academic, school, or public libraries, technical or reference services, and library administration. Members may also join any of seventeen round tables that are grouped around more specific interests and issues than the broader set of ALA divisions. [edit]Notable divisions ALA Editions (book publishing)[27] * American Association of School Librarians (AASL) * Association for Library Collections and Technical Services (ALCTS) * Association for Library Service to Children (ALSC) * Association of College and Research Libraries (ACRL) * Library Information Technology Association (LITA) * Public Library Association (PLA) * Reference and User Services Association (RUSA) * Young Adult Library Services Association (YALSA) [edit]Notable offices * Office of Intellectual Freedom (OIF) * Office for Accreditation (OA) Office for Literacy and Outreach Services (OLOS) * Office for Information Technology Policy (OITP) [edit]Notable sub-organizations In 1970, the ALA founded the first lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender professional organization, called the “Task Force on Gay Liberation”, now known as the GLBT Round Table. [28][29] In the early 1970s, the Task Force on Gay Liberation campaigned to have books about the gay liberation movement at the Library of Congress reclassified from HQ 71–471 (“Abnormal Sexual Relations, Including Sexual Crimes”).
In 1972, after receiving a letter requesting the reclassification, the Library of Congress agreed to make the shift, reclassifying those books into a newly created category, HQ 76. 5 (“Homosexuality, Lesbianism—Gay Liberation Movement, Homophile Movement”). On July 23, 1976, the Committee on the Status of Women in Librarianship was established as a Council Committee of the ALA on recommendation of the Ad Hoc Committee with the same name (which had been appointed by the President of the ALA in December 1975) and of the Committee on Organization.
The Committee on the Status of Women in Librarianship works to “officially represent the diversity of women’s interest within ALA and to ensure that the Association considers the rights of the majority (women) in the library field; to promote and initiate the collection, analysis, dissemination, and coordination of information on the status of women in librarianship; to coordinate the activities of ALA units which consider questions of special relevance for women; to identify lags, gaps, and possible discrimination in resources and programs relating to women; in cooperation with other ALA units, to help develop and evaluate tools, guidelines, and programs designed to enhance the opportunities and the image of women in the library profession, thus raising the level of consciousness concerning women; to establish contacts with committees on women within other professional groups and to officially represent ALA concerns at interdisciplinary meetings on women’s equality; and to provide Council and Membership with reports needed for establishment of policies and actions related to the status of women in librarianship; and to monitor ALA units to ensure consideration of the rights of women. ” [30][31] In 1979 the Committee on the Status of Women in Librarianship received the Bailey K. Howard – World Book Encyclopedia – ALA Goal Award to develop a profile of ALA personal members, known as the COSWL Study. In 1980 the Committee on the Status of Women in Librarianship was awarded the J. Morris Jones – World Book Encyclopedia – ALA Goals Award with the OLPR Advisory Committee to undertake a special project on equal pay for work of equal value. [31] [edit]National outreach The ALA is affiliated with regional, state, and student chapters across the country.
It organizes conferences, participates in library standards development, and publishes a number of books and periodicals. The ALA publishes the magazines American Libraries and Booklist. Along with other organizations, it sponsors the annual Banned Books Week the last week of September. Young Adult Library Services Association (YALSA) also sponsors Teen Read Week, the third week of each October, and Teen Tech Week, the second week of each March [edit]Awards Main article: List of ALA awards The ALA annually confers numerous book and media awards, primarily through its children’s and young adult divisions (others are the Dartmouth Medal, Coretta Scott King Awards, Schneider Book Awards, and Stonewall Book Award).
The children’s division ALSC administers the Caldecott Medal, Newbery Medal, Batchelder Award, Belpre Awards, Geisel Award, and Sibert Medal, all annual book awards;[32] the Odyssey Award for best audiobook (joint with YALSA), and the (U. S. ) Carnegie Medal and for best video. There are also two ALSC lifetime recognitions, the Wilder Medal and the Arbuthnot Lecture. The young-adult division YALSA administers the Margaret Edwards Award for significant and lasting contribution to YA literature, a lifetime recognition of one author annually, and some annual awards that recognize particular works: the Michael L. Printz Award for a YA book judged on literary merit alone, the William C. Morris Award for an author’s first YA book, the new “YALSA Award for Excellence in Nonfiction for Young Adults”, and the “Alex Award” list of ten adult books having special appeal for teens.
Jointly with the children’s division ALSC there is the Odyssey Award for excellence in audiobookproduction. [33] The award for YA nonfiction was inaugurated in 2012, defined by ages 12 to 18 and publication year November 2010 to October 2011. The first winner was ‘The Notorious Benedict Arnold: A True Story of Adventure, Heroism ; Treachery by Steve Sheinkin (Roaring Brook Press, November 2010) and four other finalists were named. [34][35] Beside the Alex Awards, ALA disseminates some annual lists of “Notable” and “Best” books and other media. The annual awards roster includes the John Cotton Dana Award for excellence in library public relations.
In 2000 the Office for Literacy and Outreach Services (OLOS) launched the Jean E. Coleman Library Outreach Lecture in tribute to the work of the first OLOS director, Dr. Jean E. Coleman. Barbara J. ford gave the inaugural lecture, “Libraries, Literacy, Outreach and the Digital Divide. ” From 2006 the ALA annually selects a class of Emerging Leaders, typically comprising about 100 librarians and library school students. This minor distinction is a form of organizational outreach to new librarians. The Emerging Leaders are allocated to project groups tasked with developing solutions to specified problems within ALA divisions. The class meets at the ALA Midwinter and Annual Meetings, commonly January and June.
Project teams may present posters of their completed projects at the Annual. [36] [edit]Conferences The ALA and its divisions hold numerous conferences throughout the year. The two largest conferences are the annual conference and the midwinter meeting. The latter is typically held in January and focused on internal business, while the annual conference is typically held in June and focused on exhibits and presentations. The ALA annual conference is notable for being one of the largest professional conferences in existence, typically drawing over 25,000 attendees. [37] ————————————————- [edit]Political positions ALA Seal|
The ALA advocates positions on United States political issues that it believes are related to libraries and librarianship. For court cases that touch on issues about which the organization holds positions, the ALA often files amici curiae briefs, voluntarily offering information on some aspect of the case to assist the court in deciding a matter before it. The ALA has an office in Washington, D. C. , that lobbies Congress on issues relating to libraries, information and communication. It also provides materials to libraries that may include information on how to apply for grants, how to comply with the law, and how to oppose a law. [38] [edit]Intellectual freedom See also: Book censorship in the United States
The primary documented expressions of the ALA’s intellectual freedom principles are the Freedom to Read Statement[39] and the Library Bill of Rights; the Library Bill of Rights urges libraries to “challenge censorship in the fulfillment of their responsibility to provide information and enlightenment. “[40] The ALA Code of Ethics also calls on librarians to “uphold the principles of intellectual freedom and resist all efforts to censor library resources. “[41] The ALA maintains an Office for Intellectual Freedom (OIF) headed by Barbara M. Jones, former University Librarian for Wesleyan University and internationally known intellectual freedom advocate and author. 42] She is the second director of the Office for Intellectual Freedom, succeeding Judith Krug, who headed the office for four decades. OIF is charged with “implementing ALA policies concerning the concept of intellectual freedom,”[43] that the ALA defines as “the right of every individual to both seek and receive information from all points of view without restriction. It provides for free access to all expressions of ideas through which any and all sides of a question, cause or movement may be explored. “[44] Its goal is “to educate librarians and the general public about the nature and importance of intellectual freedom in libraries. ” [43] The OIF compiles lists of challenged books as reported in the media and submitted to them by librarians across the country. 45] In 1999, radio personality Laura Schlessinger campaigned publicly against the ALA’s intellectual freedom policy, specifically in regard to the ALA’s refusal to remove a link on its web site to a specific sex-education site for teens. [46] Sharon Presley said, however, that Schlessinger “distorted and misrepresented the ALA stand to make it sound like the ALA was saying porno for ‘children’ is O. K. “[47] In 2002, the ALA filed suit with library users and the ACLU against the United States Children’s Internet Protection Act (CIPA), which required libraries receiving federal E-rate discounts for Internet access to install a “technology protection measure” to prevent children from accessing “visual depictions that are obscene, child pornography, or harmful to minors. [48] At trial, the federal district court struck down the law as unconstitutional. [49] The government appealed this decision, and on June 23, 2003, the Supreme Court of the United States upheld the law as constitutional as a condition imposed on institutions in exchange for government funding. In upholding the law, the Supreme Court, adopting the interpretation urged by the U. S. Solicitor General at oral argument, made it clear that the constitutionality of CIPA would be upheld only “if, as the Government represents, a librarian will unblock filtered material or disable the Internet software filter without significant delay on an adult user’s request. “[50] [edit]Privacy
In 2003, the ALA passed a resolution opposing the USA PATRIOT Act, which called sections of the law “a present danger to the constitutional rights and privacy rights of library users”. [51] Since then, the ALA and its members have sought to change the law by working with members of Congress and educating their communities and the press about the law’s potential to violate the privacy rights of library users. ALA has also participated as an amicus curiae in lawsuits filed by individuals challenging the constitutionality of the USA PATRIOT Act, including a lawsuit filed by four Connecticut librarians after the library consortium they managed was served with a National Security Letter seeking information about library users. 52] After several months of litigation, the lawsuit was dismissed when the FBI decided to withdraw the National Security Letter. [53] In 2007 the “Connecticut Four” were honored by the ALA with the Paul Howard Award for Courage for their challenge to the National Security Letter and gag order provision of the USA PATRIOT Act. [54] In 2006, the ALA sold humorous “radical militant librarian” buttons for librarians to wear in support of the ALA’s stances on intellectual freedom, privacy, and civil liberties. [55] Inspiration for the button’s design came from documents obtained from the FBI by the Electronic Privacy Information Center (EPIC) through a Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) request. The request revealed a series of e-mails in which FBI agents complained about

Categories
Seasons

A Man For All Seasons

The change from night to day (81 ) Is conveyed using a simple change of lighting. Light conveys the notion of change. Many scene changes are followed by the subsequent change in lighting. Like the setting of the sun indicating the change into night. Bolt’s use of light gives the viewers an ability to feel the mood of the next scene and foreshadow the outcomes. The candle is used many times throughout the play and is a source of focused light. It Is small and casts a dim light, bringing the feeling of darkness and conspiracy. When taken away or blown out, it represents a change; the end of something.
Wolves exits the stage, ” taking most of the light from the stage as he does so” (13) giving the scene a dark and sinister feeling. It foreshadows the change of Lord Chancellor to Thomas More, and how this new position is going to be troublesome and fatal. Cromwell “[seizes] Rich by the wrist [and] he holds his hand in the candle flame” (46) frightening Rich and Introducing the feelings of cruelty and horror Into the atmosphere. Cromwell frightening action reflects what has happened In that scene; how Rich has now switched sides, ending his relationship with More.
Their friendship smoldering away eke a slow burn. Silences are as Important as dialogue in a play?discuss the most significant silent moments In the play and their Importance. There are many silences In the play, such as those of the common Man, who chose to maintain silence Instead of revealing the plotting against More. More had also kept silent as Rich took the silver cup which signifies corruption instead of the teaching Job, a way to benefit society. In Act II, More remains silent about Norfolk until he is sure that the friendship should be ended.

When Norfolk states that More should take the oath, More ends his silence s well as the friendship. The biggest silence Is Mere’s, which had kept him alive through the ordeal of King Henrys divorce until the very end. This silence, according to the bible, cannot be seen as dissent towards the king. He wittily uses this silence to his advantage in order to protect himself and his family against the law, as well as to prevent perjuring his beliefs. However, Cromwell argument that silence can signify affirmation with the example of the silent murder witnesses cost More his life.
More also protects his family from the law by refusing to answer them. The silence e maintains about his opinions with the Act of Supremacy Is foreshadowed by the takes offence, by staying silent in front of them, they are able to truthfully answer in a court of law that they do not know his opinions. Stage directions convey a great deal: how do the stage directions for the Common Man convey the plays ideas? The Common Man is used by Robert Bolt to change the setting of the stage in the play. Many times in the play, he changes the setting while in character.
He also addresses the audience and comments on the action as a character within the play. Robert Bolt uses the Common Man as a narrator through he stage directions to help the play to flow as a story rather than a play. Due to the Common Man’s stage directions, he is meant to draw the audience into the play rather than alienate them. He begins the first act by saying, “It is perverse! To start a play made up of kinds and Cardinals in speaking costumes and intellectuals with embroidered mouths, with me. (1) The Common Man is to represent the common type of people and through his actions and different characters throughout the play, the Common Man is relatable for the audience members and his reliability is conveyed through his stage directions. The Common Man is also used to highlight the traits of the other characters. As the boatman, he is used to demonstrate mere’s generosity. (15) The Common Man is also used to connect the two acts. At the beginning of Act II, the Common Man is used by Bolt to describe the change of time and setting, he sets up the scene by giving the audience some background.
The foreign water is emphasized by the Common Man’s speech at the beginning of Act II, “a lot of waters flowed under the bridge” (47). The Common Man is used as a tool to help bring the play together and to help develop the other characters within the lay. Thematic Questions: On page 1 5-16–More has a conversation with the boatman. Explore the ethical implications of ;their discussion. How does the imagery of the boat and water reflect those ideas? In the preface to the play, Robert Bolt addresses his usage of water “as a figure for the superhuman context. The sea is unpredictable, unknown and alien giving it a sense of supernaturalism. He states that his main metaphors are the sea and water; that the “references to ships, rivers, currents, tides, navigation” (xvi) are all used to create a poetic image with philosophical depth. He compares society by contrast figures as dry land. Although Thomas More grasps onto the safety of the law and land, his faith takes him out into the chaos of the sea. Within the play, the symbolism of Mere’s faith in God as water and his belief in the law as the land is explored.
Since Bolt intended the land to be considered to be a safe and known concept within the play, it can be compared to Mere’s knowledge in law. More is educated in law and he constantly uses the law to back his arguments. Due to mere’s knowledge of the law, he knows that he cannot be accused of high treason. “The law s a causeway upon which so long as he keeps to it a citizen may walk safely. ” (92) More is comparing the law to a citizen’s walkway, if the law is kept, the citizens should “When a man takes an oath, he’s holding his own self in his own hands.
Like water and if he opens his fingers then- he needn’t hope to find himself again. “(83) Since More refuses to take the oath towards King Henrys divorce, he is avoiding the law. He is choosing his faith and religion over the law; water over land. By not taking the oath, More doesn’t open his fingers and he doesn’t lose himself. He stays rooted in his faith. Only God is love right through, Howard; and that’s my self. “(71) In the end, More explores the extent of his faith and he learns to walk on water, by putting all his trust in God and putting God above the law.
Character Questions: Compare and contrast Thomas More and William Roper. Thomas More and William Roper were both upright men who had a strong sense of morality and goodness. More and Roper differ in terms of religion. While More is unwavering in his Catholicism, Roper has swayed towards the Lutheran Church before turning back to Catholicism. More is modest in his dress, refusing to change even when the king visited. However, Roper is bold in clothing, changing into a magnificent black robe and cross after his conversion back to Catholicism. Bolt calls More “a hero of selfless. (xiv), referring to how he keeps his morals intact even when his life is threatened. Both men were well educated in law and put in service of the crown, with More as the lord chancellor and Roper “[being] called to the bar. ” (16) Thomas More is a conservative, sensible man with a solid foundation on his morals and beliefs. He is not outspoken about his ideas, and he tries to guide people in the eight direction by posing questions and choices instead of being direct. William Roper, however, is more liberal, and energetic. More is older and more experienced with life, careful with his speech and loyal to his conscience.
Roper speaks his mind, thinking little of the effects of his words. He is constantly voicing his opinions at every opportunity, leading to Mere’s warning to protect his family. He also stands very firm on his beliefs and what he feels is right. Roper is one to take quick action, doing what he wants to do. However, More is thoughtful about his actions, staying out of harms ay and hiding behind his knowledge of the law and having faith in it. Through Roper’s actions within the play, Roper is Mere’s foil and emphasizes Mere’s strong belief in God and the Church in contrast to his passion for whichever church he was in at the time.
Compare and contrast Cardinal Wolves and Thomas Cromwell. Cardinal Wolves and Thomas Cromwell were both key figures in this play, as influential members of government. They were both practical, politically aware men that played important roles in the affair of the kings divorce, and recognized the importance of having an heir to the throne. There are many physical differences between Wolves and Cromwell. Wolves is “Old. A big decayed body in scarlet” (xx), whereas Cromwell is in his late thirties, and dressed in black.
Beyond the physical, the name of effective action” (xx), while Wolves is ambitious and intelligent, although his character is not well-developed before his death early in the play due to pulmonary pneumonia. His death serves as a warning for anyone else that did not follow the wishes of the king, and foreshadows the eventual death of Thomas More. Both Cromwell and Wolves try their best to complete what the King wants. “When the inning wants something done, [Cromwell] does it. ” (21). Cromwell doesn’t stop to question the kings desires, nor does he try to compromise with those who are against the King.
He wished to gain power through the affairs of the king despite the immoral consequences. Wolves tries to find alternate paths to the same outcome for the king, he looks at all aspects of the situation before drawing a conclusion. His wisdom is shown when he tells More that “Letting [King Henry] without an heir and we’ll have them back again. Let him die without an heir and this ‘peace’ you think so much of will go out like that! (12) Wolves takes other’s opinions into account whereas Cromwell only cares for the result that will make himself look best.
Wolves failed to obtain the Pope’s dispersion, and therefore did not succeed in fulfilling the Kings wishes for divorce, while Cromwell devised many plans that led to the achievement of the divorce through force. Compare and contrast Lady Alice and Lady Margaret. Alice and Margaret are the ones closest to Thomas More. Both women are intelligent and righteous. This is shown when they agree that Rich was to be arrested when it became apparent that he had betrayed More. Alice is Mere’s wife, an understanding and caring woman that trusts in More beyond simple reasoning.
She understands that he values morality over his life,and she feels that “[More] the best man that [she] ever met. ” (86) Alice is sad to see her loved one go, but accepts his final resolution and painfully comes to terms with his decision. Unlike her stepmother, Margaret does not understand his reasons for sacrificing his life. “Meg [is] under oath to persuade [More]” (83) to choose life over morality. Alice is an impressive woman in her forties with an incredible ability to understand and worship her husband” (xx) as well as society, leading to trouble and defiance towards both.
Margaret is a beautiful girl in her twenties with a naivety that is fostered by the care of her father. Both Alice and Margaret possess a unconditional love and care for Thomas More that they act upon in many occasions in the play. For instance, they repeatedly asked him about his conversations with Cardinal Wolves. Also, they prepared a feast for the King’s visit on his behalf. Although More is evasive and silent on his affairs, they think nothing but good of him, and support him to the end.