Categories
Religion

What Was More Important In Choosing A Successor Religion

Although, source B and D have evidence that religion as still a slight factor that was taken into consideration. Source B is a historians summary of the events surrounding Lady Jane Grey brief reign. It begins to state how towards the end of Edwards reign he and Northumberland were very aware that his successor would be his catholic sister, Mary. They planned to alter the succession in order to ‘secure Protestantism. ‘ This part of the source clearly shows how determined Edward and Northumberland were at keeping the protestant rule over England.
This is because they had spent Edwards rule converting the country to Protestantism and building up power under this religion and if this were then to be changed to Catholicism then the main concern would be the loss of power for some, including Northumberland. In a way, the reason religion was being considered over legitimacy is because Northumberland had convinced Edward to do so. There is no hiding the fact that Edward would do most things that Northumberland would tell him to so what would stop him from altering the succession act if that is what Northumberland wanted.
If Protestantism were to continue as the ruling religion then Northumberland loud be able to keep his position of power and if this religion were to be continued with the rule of Lady Jane Grey then Northumberland powers would have increased due to the fact that his son was married to Jane Grey. Whereas in the second half of the source it says how Mary was decided as successor and done by the power of her legitimacy. She was crowned successor because she made it so there was ‘a much wider appeal to legitimacy and a careful avoidance of religious issues. People appealed because she avoided religion, showing that is was not an influential aspect cause people didn’t have a great concern towards her being a catholic, and because she based her appeal on the fact that she was legitimate because her father was Henry VIII, the people cared more for the relationship of royal blood. The fact that this source is written by a historian is beneficial to the comparison Of which was more important, religion or legitimacy, because he’s able to give a over view of the events without the influence of any bias compared to if the source were to be written by someone of the time.

Overall this source shows how although religion may on been put into consideration ND may of been really important to others, it doesn’t stop that legitimacy became the final decider of who would be successor; going against that ‘in 1 542 and 1 558 religion was more important consideration then legitimacy in settling the succession to the crown. ‘ Source D is also showing how both religion and legitimacy were used to decide a successor. Source D is written by a servant of the king of Spain from the courts deciding on the arrangements for Mays successor.
Although it’s written by a slave I doubt there would be much bias because he is a servant of the King of Spain who as no interest in the succession and the fact that he will not gain anything from this due to the arrangements in his and Mar’s marriage contract. The source begins by saying how the Privy Council had to persuade Mary to agree to Elizabeth as her successor because Mary did not want this to be the case seeing as Mary had converted England to Catholicism after Edwards rule as a protestant and now another protestant would be placed in rule causing her efforts to become meaningless.
However, she did agree but with the terms that Elizabeth will: ‘maintain the Old religion as the Queen had restored it; and he other that she will pay the Queen’s debts. ‘ Therefore, Elizabeth is chosen as successor completely due to the fact that she has the highest standing of legitimacy but Mary does not want her efforts as Queen to be over looked and disregarded which is why she wishes for Catholicism to be maintained. This agreement is carried out even though Mary knows that Elizabeth is most likely to break those promises which show that all Mary truly cares about is legitimacy.
As long as the Tudor blood line continues in power, religion does not alter the choice of successor. Again, religion may be considered and important to some yet the decision of successor will always depend on their legitimacy because that’s what everyone knows truly counts. Both of sources B and D show how religion may of been important to certain individuals but legitimacy would always over rule. The power of legitimacy is shown within sources A and C; Source A is from the third succession act written by Henry VIII with the permission of the Privy Council.
It states how after Henry and Edwards death, then the thrown should pass to Mary and her heirs, then onto Elizabeth and her heirs if Mary were to die without any children. Religion is not mention once within this source because Henrys main concern was to provide the thrown with Tudor successors for years to come. We can tell that religion plays no part with Henry because he willing left the Catholic Church and created the Church of England just so he would be able to have control and grant himself a divorce from his first wife and another to come.
His many wives also show his determination to provide heirs to the throne because he had 6 wives in order to create a son who would rule England after his death. Henry was so committed to making sure that the throne would continue with the Tudor name. Also due to this act being passed with the permission of the Privy Council shows that they too do not care about the religion someone has, as long as they fit the part of being ruler of England. No mention of religion and no concern towards what the future successors religious preference may be, the only thing that matters is who will be in control of England in the future.
Now for the third time its going against the original statement. Source C is also going against religion being more important than astigmatic. It is a response to Marry letters claiming her right to the throne. The Privy Council are telling Mary that it is Jane Grey who is the rightful successor to the throne due to letters Edward wrote before his death and that due to the divorce of her mother and Henry VIII it causes Mary to be illegitimate.
Legitimacy is used within this source to strengthen the position of Lady Jane Grey and weaken the position of Mary. They use it to say that Jane Grey is clearly the right successor because she has a relation to Henry VIII, yet even though Mary is his daughter they choose to disregard her because of a succession act that called her illegitimate even though later on that succession act was over thrown by the third succession act.
Even though religion isn’t mentioned we know that this response has been written because Edward was desperate to have a protestant as his SUccessor which is why so much weight is put on Edwards ‘Great seal of England. ‘ The PRI,y Council know they have a very slim chance at making Jane Grey successor over Mary’ but they were willing to try. Yet in the sense of this source it heavily relies on legitimacy, even though Jane Grey isn’t the true person to be next in line. The Privy Council have an agenda and purpose that they are trying very hard to fulfill.
However, we know that they actually failed to place Lady Jane Grey as the rightful ruler of England because Mary was able to gain the support of the people who believed and knew she was the rightful successor due to her father being Henry VIII and Lady Jane Grey only being a cousin. This source shows how true legitimacy is much more powerful than the word of an existing King. Over all, there is without a doubt that between 1542 and 1 558 elision was not more of an important consideration over legitimacy when it came to choosing a successor.

Categories
Religion

Hindu Religion And Women

Hindu goddesses are traditionally conceived to be strong figures,even indomitable ones. By comparing his female characters to these goddesses, Rushdie attributes them with a force of character. He perceives India as a matriarchy, where maternal power, energy, and love is the means to social cohesion. (Jennifer Takhar) Durga, the washerwoman who had nursed Saleems son in his sickness, is an important figure in Saleems life. As we understand from the description of her (pg:445), she is a powerful woman who is an opposite image of the docile Indian woman. She may be representing the power that is repressed in these women.
Saleem fears her as she symbolizes the hope that he has lost. Her name, even before I met her, had the smell of new things; she represented novelty, beginnings, the advent of new stories, events, complexities, and I was no longer interested in anything new. (pg:445) She is again the one who foretold Saleem’s death. So, these kind of women as witches inspired fear in Saleem. Like Durga, Parvati-the-witch, who is Shivas wife, is another important figure. She causes in creating their child which is necessary for the continuation. Mother was seen as a nation.
There is parallelism between continuity of nation through having children. Women have roles in productivity; that is why they are important. Parvati acts as somebody restoring order. She helps Saleem return to Delhi by using her magic basket, making him invisible. Parvati reminded Saleem of things he had tried to put out of his mind. (pg:389) So, we can say that she influenced Saleem as other women, as being representator of a nation. When we come to other women in Saleems life, for example Mary Pereira. She is the one who gives birth to Saleem; she creates him in both biological sense and metaphorical sense.

She changes the babies and at the same time fates. Out of guilt, she attaches her whole destiny to Saleems life by becoming his caretaker. She also influences the class positions of the babies. (Saleem and Shiva) The pickling process which is a process of preservation, linked to preservation and continuity of traditions metaphorically, is significant. This food process is under control of females and it is an important source of authority and identity for the women. It is the preservation of the past. The womens way is practical, oral; it is a way of transmitting tradition we can say.
Pickling process is only a symbol of this transmission. So, Mary P. , like the other women in Saleems life has great effect on Saleem. Reverend Mother, on the other hand, who is the bride behind perforated sheet turns out to be the head of the family. She is also very powerful. She becomes the head after the marriage. She preserves identity of the nation. She is like the other women; asserts her authority in cooking. Her food, for example, revives Ahmed Sinai after freeze. She uses food as battleground where she wages her battles against her husband.
We see the monitoring of food, so simple and practical but can influence men. It is this simplicity of mothers, their affection influnces Saleem. To Saleem women, like India, is nothing without its past. no escape from past acquaintance. What you were is forever who you are. (pg:368) And this connection to past is through these women. They are the ones who create nation and preserve it like the pickles. Amina, Saleems mother, changes and influences his life also. He sees her naked in the bathroom and witnesses her unfaithfullness on the phone.
All this causes him to have some kind of explosion in his head and that explosion causes him to hear voices in his head. It is the birth of Midnights Children.. He sees mother, motherland, the nation-India-,earth is not pure as he identifies women with the nation. Identification is between the country and the body of the woman, especially mother. He sees the body of woman as the country and he should protect country as well as honor of mother. But seeing her motheris not pure, the discovery of impurity in mother will bring crisis in his head- the multiplicity of nation-.
The body is homogeneous as anything. Indivisible, a one-piece suit, a sacred temple, if you will. It is important to preserve this wholeness. (pg:237) Padma,whom Saleem exchanges opinions about how to tell a story is another significant figure. While he writes, his illiterate listener, Padma, sits beside him showing her emotional responses to his stories, questioning their credibility. When Padma shows interest on her face, Saleem speeds on telling his story. She keeps questioning what is next.. She encourages him to write which is the only gift Sallem has for continuity, preservation.
Padma is important as a caretaker; providing warmth, food, human kindness to Saleem. She is India for him, connected to all country as a mother. She has earthly characteristic. She emerges as an earthly, stable, real, practical woman that ties her to the motherland. That is why, according to me, she is the most important character in this novel. But although she is a preserver for Saleem, she unwillingly poisons him by feeding him with things she thinks hell be ni love with her. It is a poison which is also a cure; both nourishing, reviving, perserving and also poisonous,destructive.
She is like India creating him. And ceratinly Padma is leaking into me. As history pours out of my fissured body, my lotus is quietly dripping in, with her down-to-earthery, and her paradoxical superstition, her contradictory love of the fabulous (pg:38) In short, women had important role in Saleems life. They are the mothers, the creators of men. If they were not on earth, no continuity would take place; there would be no world. Saleem is afraid of them also because although they create him as nation creates men; they also prepare the fall of men.
They both give significance and at the same time destroys. They can take away the identity as in Saleem. Saleem is the nation also as he creates; he writes. He tries to create meaning and form. And women help Saleem create himself, his identity like the nation does to all human beings. But it can also unmake people. The women try to hold on to past and keep it safe as past is a country from which we have all migrated; that its loss is part of our humanity. (Imaginary Homelands; Essays and Criticism 1981-1991.
London: Granta Books, 1991) And this statement teaches the migrants that reality is an artifact and it doesnt exist until it is made and it can be made well or badly, and it can also be unmade, like women did to Saleem. When we come to the question of why White Castle didnt give place for women might be because the childhood theme ook great importance in the book. For example, the grandfathers looking for his childhood at homeThat is why it gives much space for the child king. There is the continuous looking for the simple, untouched ide before recognizing sexuality, leaving the mother, to have potency.
There is again the fear to lose the pureness, wholeness of the childhood. And because of it there are the speeches in this novel that tells about the childhood naughtiness. It is like the fear of the child. And if we relate this to the women ,as we said women are the creators and they are connected to past, there is no escape from it and when it involves naughtiness and things like a child fears. So, as the Hodja did, there is both an escape from it and at the same time looking for the past innocence. That is why there is no sexuality with women in the book. As they are feared, they can unmake men.
The dangerous influence of women is not given permission in the book; only limited and innocent ones are implicitly told. Consequently, women and sexuality are barred and not given much importance as in Midnights Children happened the contrast. According to me, it is because it is known how influential women are and can be dangerous in creating. And when you want something wholly new and create your own identity, as the characters in White Castle wanted, it is not a good idea to include women and sexuality. The women can bring fall of men while creating them.

Categories
Religion

Religion Assignment

Religious Background My family is fairly religious and my views have certainly been influenced by their beliefs. I was brought up in a Christian household and the majority of my relatives are Christian as well. All throughout my life this has been the only religion that anyone in my family has followed. Most families have some sort of differing beliefs however mine lacks this and there is very little that differs in any of the family’s belief systems. Though my parents wanted me to attend church regularly I was never forced into anything whether it be attendance or belief and I truly appreciate that.
Religion is not the center of my life but it still has a strong presence and influence on my life. Though my family does acknowledge most traditions we have never strictly adhered to them. Of course we celebrate the main events such as Easter and Christmas and partake in the events that go with them. My parents would make sure that we knew the reason that we were celebrating these holidays and though presents still seemed to reign supreme there was always the thought of something bigger. We would always attend the evening church services and the large (and usually dull) family gatherings on these special occasions.
Going to church every weekend was not something that was a necessity for us however I believe most would still recognize us as regular attendees. It was always my belief that going to church was not an essential part of my religion and we would occasionally choose football or even sleep over the usual Sunday morning service. Earlier in my life we attended an Evangelical Christian church and my family agreed with the belief system for the most part though my parents seemed to have issues with some of the smaller aspects of the Evangelical church. It was at this church that I first began to form my set of beliefs and my opinion of religion.

I have always been prone to asking questions and even at a young age I somewhat philosophical (now I realize that even though I have learned a lot over the years I am still asking some of the same questions that I was asking at the age of eight). My mother was raised in a Christian household but her family was more traditional than ours is. Both of her parents are Christians and that belief filtered down to their children. Overall they seem to be a bit stricter in their beliefs and going to church was emphasized much more than it is in my family now.
It seems that with every generation gets slightly more liberal with their beliefs and morals. With my mother church was a large part of her youth and I was hardly involved. It seems to me as if there are three types of churchgoers, the ones who attend regularly (every Sunday), those who only go on Christmas and Easter, and those who live church. She was one of the people who lived church. My father grew up without a belief system but when his sister began searching for answers she became a Christian and that got him thinking and he joined a Bible study because of it.
After a while it began to make sense to him and he accepted the religion as well. After both of his children had this new found faith my grandfather decided to “investigate” as he calls it. He was incredibly skeptical at first as religion had never been a part of his life, but he decided that the best way to find out would be to read the Bible. After much deliberation and consideration he decided that there was some truth to it and he became a Christian as well, with his faith based entirely off of the Bible. My grandmother followed suit and thus my aunts’ change in belief lead the entire family to reconsider their belief.
In a way I dislike calling myself a Christian because of some of the connotations and countless different belief sets that the word Christian brings to mind (such as the people who stand at the street corner telling people that they are going to hell if they don’t repent their sins), and I feel as if labels can sometimes be problematic and inaccurate. The Bible is a large part of my belief system as it is one of the few things that make sense to me (if the Bible is the basis of the religion then I feel like it should be the basis of my faith).
It seems as if so many different churches try to impose their own set of beliefs and morals on their attendees and it has always made sense (at least for me) to deduct things for myself through reading the Bible. Many of the main points of the Bible seem to get lost in translation and I have always disagreed with Churches that constrict themselves to a specific ideology and I prefer being a part of a non-denominational church or a ‘congregation’ that is a little bit more open-minded than most. I base my beliefs off of the Bible and I feel that this is the inspired word of God.
I believe that the main message in the Bible is one of love and that getting to heaven isn’t based on works but is instead based on faith. There will always be questions and many people with different viewpoints all believe that they have the answers. Religion interests me because it seems to me as if there will never be an positive answer to life and our purpose. Religion is one way to try to begin the attempt to explain what exactly life is. I think for many people religion is a way of coping with the fact that no one really knows for sure what death will bring.
The search for meaning has always fascinated me and this drive reoccurs continuously throughout history. Many people devote their entire life towards finding the meaning of life and while it is not my intention to do the same, I still find it an interesting subject and I believe that studying the history of religion is a great way to expand your mind and gain some insight into what has unfolded in the past. I want to continue to learn about not only my own religion but other religions as well. It is my goal to keep an open mind about everything and really begin to understand and study all religions.