A Study into the Effect of Varying Length of Warm Up on Performance of 400 Metre Sprint

A research proposal consisting of literature review outline and outline methodology. The proposed study looks at the effects of different lengths of warm up time on performance of the 400 metre sprint amongst athletes.
1. Introduction

The following is a proposal for a research study looking at the effects of different warm up times on performance of 400 metre sprint. Warming up, it is popularly thought, is beneficial for athletic performance, although there is a need for more empirical evidence to support this, as well as more research into the precise mechanisms whereby warming up benefits performance (Alter 2004). There are different ways to warm up, including dynamic and static moves, and some suggest mental warming up is as important as physical.
While the last 10 years have seen a number of studies looking at the impact of warming up on different types of sport, these studies have been primarily concerned with looking at the differences between ways to warm up. Very few studies have looked at the ways in which warm up time impacts on performance, and none have specifically examined the impact of different warm up times on the 400 metre sprint. In order to address this gap, and to help athletes achieve their optimum performance, the following briefly overviews the current literature on the subject, then sets out the methodology which will be followed in the full research study.
2. Literature Review
This section outlines some of the main ideas which will be explored in more detail in the final proposal.The study aims to examine the effects of various lengths of warm up times on the performance of the 400 metre sprint. The overall aim is to both add to our theoretical understanding of the relationship of warm-up time and running performance, but also to inform sports training by helping discover the optimum warm-up time to improve performance in sprinting. In order to fully understand how warm-up times can impact sprint performance, there is also a need to explore related areas, for example fatigue, motivation and the different possible types of warm-up available.
In broad terms, it is necessary to understand the mechanisms whereby sprinting can be improved through warm up. There is some debate about the precise way this happens, but reasons include the psychological: the runner is able to adjust and mentally prepare for what is ahead, and the physical. Physical mechanisms include increasing body temperature, thought to reduce muscle stiffness, increase the speed of conduction between nerves, change the force / velocity relationship in muscles, and increase the amount of energy available (Kramer et al 2011). Warm up also produces increased muscle temperature, increases the availability of oxygen to the muscles as well as the ability to take up oxygen. It also lowers the level of lactates in the blood. It is also thought to decrease the reliance upon anaerobic sources of exercise during the activity period. Because sprinting is a powerful activity which needs strong muscle contractions, warming up is thought to reduce the likelihood of tearing muscles (Carr 1999). Despite evidence that warm up activities are not uniformly good for sports performance, for example not necessarily correlating with improved speeds, warming up is generally recommended before sprinting (for example Dintiman and Ward 2003).
A number of variables seem to mediate between warm up and sprint performance. These include fatigue, motivation and the type of warm up performed. Fatigue is particularly relevant for this study. While it seems that warming up is broadly beneficial (Boyle 2004), it is likely that over-long warm ups may make the athlete over-tired and reduce performance. Additionally, Tomaras and Macintosh (2011) suggest that low intensity warm ups are better than high or moderate intensity ones, as they also are less likely to cause fatigue (Tomaras and MacIntosh 2011). The latter is corroborated by Stewart and Sleivert (1998).Motivation is also relevant.While long warm ups might demotivate athletes, there is a need to warm up mentally as well as physically, perhaps by running over certain movements mentally in advance (National Coaching Foundation 2007).Finally, the type of warm up performed seems to be important, and the bulk of research studies in the area look at the relative merits and drawbacks of different types. There has been particular interest in the differences between static and dynamic warm ups (for example Hilfiker et al 2007, Bradley et al 2007). Dynamic warm ups are those which involve motion, usually linked to the sports activity which is to be performed (Brooks 2004)
A number of empirical research studies look at related areas, with varied relevance for the present area under study. The area of sprint performance has been of particular interest to researchers from 2000 onwards, with a number of studies in this area. Stewart et al (2007) for example, compared different types of warm-up, finding that warm up was more effective than stretching. Vetter (2007) also compared warm up types, looking at 6 types of warm up in terms of their impact on sprint as well as jump, finding that warm up had a negative impact on jump performance, but not on sprint time. However, this study did not look at the impact of different times of warm up. Girard et al (2009) compared running as a warm up with strength-based warm ups, finding that both were equally effective, however this study looked at impact upon isometric knee extension, so is of only limited relevance for the current area of interest. Other studies, for example Binnie et al (2011) found no difference between types of warm up procedure on sprint performance. Nelson et al (2005) found that stretching can reduce the performance of high-power sprinting, but their tests were carried out over short distances only: 20 metres. O’Sullivan et al (2009) found warm up, as well as stretching, beneficial for injured athletes. Other researchers are concerned with the differences between stretching and other warm up techniques including jogging and exercises such as ‘jumping jacks’ (MacAuley and Best 2007). There is also some interest in the relative merits of low, medium and high-intensity warm ups (for example Mitchell and Huston 1993). Bishop (2003) suggests that ‘active’ warm up may have beneficial effects on performance, although should not be too intense.
Some research studies have already explored the link between warm up time and performance, however these are very limited. For example, Turki et al (2012) looked at stretch warm-ups performed for varying amounts of time before sprint. They found that sprints performed within 5 minutes of warm-up were adversely effected by sets of stretches, however their studies involved 10 and 20 metre sprints only, and their sample set contained only 16 athletes.There are relatively few studies exploring. Hajoglou et al (2005) look at the impact of warm up time, but upon performance in cycle trials. They found that 4-5 minute endurance cycling trials were performed better after warm up, but found no evidence for warm-up duration having an impact.Arnett (2002) looked at the difference between prolonged and reduced warm ups, and found increased duration of warm up was not beneficial to performance,but this study examined swim performance.
Therefore, while a number of studies explore the types of warm-up activities which work best, less attention has been paid to the relationship between time spent on warm-up and performance. Additionally, some studies use different types of athlete, and are hence less relevant to sprinters. For example, studies carried out amongst rugby players can offer only limited insights to sprint performance. To the extent that existing studies look at sprint, they also tend to look at short sprint performance, typically 30m or less.
In the light of this, it is felt that the current study will add new insights into the understanding of how to achieve optimum sprint performance.Not only has the link between warm-up time and sprint performance been under-investigated, there is no investigation at all of the impact of different warm up times on 400m sprint.There seems to be mixed evidence about the impact of warm up generally on performance, both in sprint and other types of sport. The following research hypothesis will therefore be tested by the study:
Length of time spent on warm up has an impact upon performance in 400m sprint.
A number of research questions will be investigated in the study:
Does length of time spent in warm up have an effect upon sprint performance
What length warm up time is associated with fastest sprint performance
What are the mechanisms linking warm up time and sprint performance
3. Methodology
This section sets out the way in which the research study will be carried out. It divides into logical subsections to cover the different areas involved.
3.1 Participants
The study will involve 40 athletes. For the purposes of this study, athletes are restricted to men and women aged 16-30 who take part in competitive running at least once a month, who are a member of a sports club or association, and who train daily for at least an hour.The researcher will contact a number of sports bodies including local running clubs and the university running association in the first instance, to find suitable participants to take part.Initially, contact will be made by the administrative secretary or similar by telephone or email to explain the purpose of the study, and to request help in finding suitable candidates to take part. Care will be taken to ensure that the sample is representative of the wider population of interest (sprinters), and that bias is avoided in the selection procedure (Monsen and Horn 2007).
3.2 Materials and Procedure
The study will involve 40 athletes performing the same warm up routine. The routine includes jogging as well as dynamic and static stretching. Each athlete will perform a 5 minute warm up, then their performance running the 400 metres will be timed. Two days later, the same athletes will be timed running, this time after a 10 minute warm up. This will be repeated twice, each time after two days, and each time increasing the warm up time by 10 minutes (to 20 minutes and 30 minutes).The aim is to investigate which warm up time produces the same results. One issue with this approach is ensuring that conditions are equivalent on each day that the test is carried out. If weather conditions differ, this may cause differences in running speed (Hawley 2000). Equally, diet variations or other variations personal to the athletes might cause changes in recorded running speed, but these are less of a problem as, unlike the weather, they will probably not affect all the athletes who take part.One way of dealing with results being impacted by variables aside from the one tested would be to randomly assign athletes into four groups, each of these are tested on the same day, and each warms up for a particular length of time. However, this would reduce the sample size for each group, and larger sample sizes yield more reliable results (Ware and Brewer 1999). The first procedure will therefore be adopted. Because the study involves human subjects, ethical considerations need to be observed to ensure that no one involved comes to any harm or gains unfair advantage by being included in the study.
3.3 Data Analysis
The data will be quantitative in nature (that is, expressed as numbers rather than text). It will be entered into a statistical computer programme, such as SPSS, in order to carry out descriptive and other statistical tests. The ANOVA test will be performed on the data. It is a widely used statistical procedure which compares data from investigations where there are more than 2 conditions. Rather than using several t-tests to compare means, the ANOVA test compares all sets of results, to indicate whether the results differ significantly from condition to condition (Brace et al 2006).
4. Conclusion
The above has given an overview of the methodology and relevant literature for this proposed research study, looking at whether variations in warm up time have an impact upon performance for athletes completing a 400 metre sprint.
4. References
Alter, M J (2004) Science of flexibility (3rd edn.), Human Kinetics, USA
Arnett, M G (2002) ‘Effects of prolonged and reduced warm-ups on diurnal variation in body temperature and swim performance’, Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 16:2, 256-261
Binnie, M J, Landers, G and Peeling, P (2011) ‘Effect of different warm-up procedures on subsequent swim and overall sprint distance triathlon performance’,
Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research.
Bishop, D (2003) ‘Warm Up II: Performance Changes Following Active Warm Up and How to Structure the Warm Up’, Sports Medicine, 33:7, 483-498.
Boyle, M (2004) Functional training for sports, Human Kinetics, USA
Brace, N, Kemp, R and Snelgar, R (2006) SPSS for psychologists: a guide to data analysis using SPSS for Windows, Routledge, London
Bradley, P S, Olsen, P D and Portas, M D (2007) ‘The effect of static, ballistic and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretching on vertical jump performance’, Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 21:1, 223–226
Brooks, D (2004) The complete book of personal training, Human Kinetics, USA
Carr, G A (1999) Fundamentals of track and field (2nd edn), Human Kinetics, USA
Dintiman, G B and Ward, R D (2003) Sports speed (3rd edn), Human Kinetics, USA
Girard, O, Carbonnel, Y, Candau, R and Millet, G (2009) ‘Running versus strength-based warm-up: acute effects on isometric knee extension function’, European Journal of Applied Physiology, 106:4, 573-581
Hajoglu, A, Foster, C, De Koning, J J, Lucia, A, Kernozek, T W and Porcari, J P (2005) ‘Effect of Warm-Up on Cycle Time Trial Performance’, Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 37:9, 1608-1614
Hawley, J A (2000) Running, John Wiley & Sons, USA
Hilfiker, R, Hubner, K, Lorenz, T and Marti, B (2007) ‘Effects of drop jumps added to the warm-up of elite sport athletes with a high capacity for explosive force development’, Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 21:2, 550-555
Kraemer, W, Fleck, S and Deschenes, M (2011) Exercise Physiology: Integrating Theory and Application, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, MD
McArdle, W D and Katch, F I (2009) Exercise Physiology: Nutrition, Energy, and Human Performance (7th edn), Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, MD
MacAuley, D and Best, T M (2007) Evidence-based sports medicine (2nd edn.), John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken, NJ
Mitchell, J B and Huston, J S (1993) ‘The effect of high- and low-intensity warm-up on the physiological responses to a standardized swim and tethered swimming performance’, Journal of Sports Sciences, 11:2, 159-165.
Monsen, E R and Horn, L V (2007) Research: Successful Approaches (3rd edn), ADA, USA
National Coaching Foundation (2007) Motivation and Mental ToughnessCoachwise 1st4sport, USA
Nelson, A, Driscoll, N, Landin, D, Young, M and Schexnayder, I (2005) ‘Acute effects of passive muscle stretching on sprint performance’, Journal of Sports Sciences, 23:5, 449-454.
O’Sullivan, K, Murray, E and Sainsbury, D (2009) ‘The effect of warm-up, static stretching and dynamic stretching on hamstring flexibility in previously injured subjects’, BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, 10:37.
Stewart, M, Adams, R, Alonso, A, Van Koesveld, B and Campbell, S (2007) ‘Warm-up or stretch as preparation for sprint performanceJournal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 10:6, 403-410
Stewart, I B and Sleivert, G G (1998) ‘The effect of warm-up intensity on range of motion and anaerobic performance’, J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 27:2, 154-161.
Tomaras, E K and MacIntosh, B R (2011) ‘Less is more: standard warm-up causes fatigue and less warm-up permits greater cycling power output’, Journal of Applied Physiology 111, p. 228-235
Turki, O, Chaouachi, A, Behm, DG, Chatara, H, Chtara, M, Bishop, D and Chamari, K (2012) ‘The effect of warm-ups incorporating different volumes of dynamic stretching on 10- and 20-m sprint performance in highly trained male athletes’, Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 26:1, 63-72.
Vetter, R E (2007) ‘Effects of six warm-up protocols on sprint and jump performance’, Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 21:3, 819-823.
Ware, M E and Brewer, C L (1999) Handbook for teaching statistics and research methods (2nd edn), Routledge, London


5 Performance Objectives of Wegmans

Performance objectives of Wegmans Today I decided to do my presentation about Wegmans main performance objectives, first of all I will describe what exactly Wegmans Company is and what are 5 objectives of operations. Wegmans Food Markets, Inc. is a privately-held, family owned company that was founded in 1916 by the Wegman family. Based in Rochester, NY, they have raised the bar on the customer shopping experience. The company prides itself on offering exceptional customer service, high quality goods, an abundance of choice, restaurant-quality prepared foods, and beautiful stores and displays.
Wegmans has appeared on Fortune’s annual “100 Best Companies to Work For” list since its inception in 1998, and has ranked among the top 10 for eight consecutive years. And about performance objectives I can say that it is a generic set of performance and indicators that can be used to set the objectives or judge the performance of any type of operation. There are 5 main performance objectives: Quality – “Doing things right”. Quality is very important aspect for customer satisfaction or dissatisfaction, it’s all about providing error free goods and services.
Speed – “Doing things fast” to minimize the time between the order and the availability of the product or service that gives the customer a speed advantage. Dependability –“Being on time”, means that customers will get their goods and services when they are promised. Flexibility – “Changing what they do”. It’s about that organizations can change their products and services and change the way they do business. Cost – “Doing things cheaply”. Low price is a universal attractive objective to customers, which can be achieved by producing goods at lower costs.

Let’s begin discussion about Wegmans performance objectives. Quality as I already said is most important from these five and of course it’s important for this company as well. The most important thing employers are doing is prevent problems from occurring in the first place by carefully partnering with suppliers who understand their expectations. Be it a grower, a Wegmans brand manufacturer or a seafood supplier, company makes it its business to know suppliers well, visiting their fields or facilities whenever possible.
If a supplier is making a product for Wegmans lebel, they must either be inspected by Wegmans’ own Quality Assurance Auditors or must be certified against one of seven “Global Food Safety Initiative (GFSI)” endorsed manufacturing standards. The first shipment of any new Wegmans brand product is scrutinized by company’s Quality Assurance staff to be sure it meets product specifications and food safety requirements. Tests are conducted in Wegmans Test Kitchen lab, or if necessary, by independent laboratories. Additional sampling and testing is done periodically, sometimes prompted by customer or employee comments.
Company also pays attention on friendly environment. Each store manager sets the tone for the warm, friendly work environment that employees expect when they work for Wegmans. And in turn, employees greet their customers with warm, friendly, helpful attitudes, which is crucial for any business whose employees regularly interact with customers. So as we can see Company cares much about safety and high quality of products, because the owners of the business know well that high quality can influence customer satisfaction and lead to stable and efficient processes.
For Wegmans Company it is very important to produce services and goods as fast as possible, and for this they are doing their best. As we know for fast production it’s important to have very good, qualified employees and good, modern technologies. So Wegmans company cares much about staff which works there, Wegmans’ Chairman Robert Wegman state that: “Respect, fairness, honesty, and concern are what’s important to people. To my way of thinking, the only way to achieve great customer service is by treating employees right.
They have qualified employees in technic and production departments and also they have different training programs for providing better performance of the staff. Wegmans puts a huge emphasis on being an innovator in retail technology. In 1974, Wegmans was one of the first companies to introduce bar-code scanning, and in 1990 Wegmans introduced electronic discounts. The company launched its web site, wegmans. com in 1996. The site not only helps customers save time and money through its on-line ad, but also offers meal solutions, recipes, and even provides the ability to apply for jobs within the company.
According to all these company is providing fast production and this is a huge way for the company success. Dependability is extremely important factor for customer trust and satisfaction, as i checked Wegman’s has strong position in it too. Customers are much satisfied how fast the company delivers its products, they love to go for shopping in Wegmans, some of them even said that: “A trip to Wegman’s is better than a trip to an amusement park”. All these is caused because firm provides additional ervices such as internet shops, which means that you can check out Wegmans products and services online, and even buy there, so save time by this, they also have recipes how to cook many different type and delicious food, they even provide these service by internet, if you go on their online page you can see many videos, about how to cook different foods, so as one Wegmaniac put it, “Shopping at Wegman’s is an experience. ” In addition to a unique shopping experience, including one-third of the space devoted to prepared foods, with another 15,000 sq. ft. or a liquor department, a 300-seat cafe, 70,000 products and some 30 checkout lanes, Wegmans brought relocated 75 Rochester employees to Massachusetts to ensure customers are treated the way Wegmans wants them to be treated. As an addition i would like to say that company managers said that for them it’s very important to know their consumer base and understand the demand. There’s so much diversity in Wegman’s markets these days, they need to know who their customers are and give them what they want. They said they have to give them not only what they are familiar with, but also explore other products that might not be a mainstream item.
And in their case, that’s unique vegetables and fruits. Flexibility helps the firm to change over between tasks quickly and without wasting time and capacity. Wegmans provide good flexibility, as the firm is changing over time, they are doing researches and are changing by customer needs, they can change techniques, operations, they are producing new products, are offering many different services. For example last year they did a research and find out that they can be successful in growing certain varieties of organic produce in the northeast.
CEO of the firm also said that last year they explored new techniques called a hoop house. It’s a metal frame with a plastic cover, and there they grow heirloom tomatoes and it was very successful. Every month they are offering new food products and for special celebration days they have special recipes, for example for thanksgiving day they offer which Turkey to choose, how to cook it, with what ingredients and so on, all these staff is very likable for customers and that’s a another factor why it is so popular.
And the final objective cost is described For Wegmans as follows, they are trying in all ways to keep medium costs and at this time keep all the customers as well. They are doing this very well, because they have many tools for this, for example at a time when commodity and fuel costs are rising dramatically, Wegmans Food Markets announced that it will not increase prices on 40 products that families buy most, to help customers and employees manage their grocery costs. “We considered the importance of an item to a family when choosing our list of 40,” said President Colleen Wegman. Such things as bananas, pasta, frozen vegetables, and laundry detergent are in most shopping carts every week. They are products that families can’t do without, so what they pay for these items really matters. ” The 40 products they selected to hold prices on were those that families buy week in and out. They were mostly Wegmans brand. Why? They have better access to information on the factors that determine costs for their own brand. Their quality makes them already the best value in their categories, and they’re often the top-selling brand.
Another good example of cost leadrship of Wegmans is that, In November of 2008, many families were feeling the economic shock of their lives as the nation’s financial system teetered, jobs melted away, and household budgets shrank. Wegmans announced a decision to lower hundreds of prices on frequently purchased products. If customers and employees were facing leaner times, the company reasoned, Wegmans should also live with leaner times. So by performance objectives described above we can see that Wegmans is successful company and is doing best for its customers.


Performance Development Plan

This development plan will focus on the characteristics of my learning team as well as my personal characteristics as their leader. This plan will allow me to assess the needs of my learning team as well as the ability to hone in on their strengths, areas for improvement, and resources needed to help them reach their career goals. This development plan will also allow me to determine how my leadership style will impact the success of the team and give me the ability to adapt to different behavioral styles by reviewing each individual DISC Platinum Rule – Behavioral Style Assessment.
Personal and Individual Team Characteristics

Personal Characteristics
Based on the DISC Platinum Rule – Behavioral Style Assessment that both my learning team and I completed, we fall into three major categories – Interactive, Dominance, and lastly Cautious Styles. In my personal assessment I was categorized primarily as Interactive in style and traits. Based on this knowledge my primary style includes persuading, motivating, and entertaining others; whereas the assessment states my growth areas include attention to detail, short attention p, and low follow-through. The main focus or priority for me is people and being interactive, busy, and personal in the workplace setting.
Individual Team Characteristics
Two of the team members, besides me, were also characterized as Interactive – “The Impresser”. Some additional characteristics in this category include wanting to achieve results with flair, judging people by their ability to make things happen, working harder when bigger risks or rewards are at stake, prefer to share in work and goals with people, wanting to do things the ‘best’ way, and become restless, short-tempered, lashing out when under pressure.
Two team members had the Dominance Style traits which include individuals being time-sensitive, organized, and to the point. The Dominance Style is driven by two governing needs: the need to control and the need to achieve. The D Styles are goal-oriented go-getters who are most comfortable when they are in charge of people and situations. They want to accomplish many things now, so they focus on no-nonsense approaches to bottom-line results.
The Dominance Styles seek expedience and are not afraid to bend the rules. They figure it is easier to beg forgiveness than to ask permission. The D Styles accept challenges, take authority, and plunge headfirst into solving problems. They take charge in a crisis. They are fast-paced, task-oriented, and work quickly and impressively by themselves, which means they become annoyed with delays. They are willing to challenge outdated thinking and ideas.
Lastly, one team member had the Cautious Style traits which include analytical, persistent, systematic people who enjoy problem solving. They are detail-oriented, which makes them more concerned with content than style. The C Styles are task-oriented people who enjoy perfecting processes and working toward tangible results. They are almost always in control of their emotions and may become uncomfortable around people who are very out-going, e. g. , the Interactive Styles. Strengths and Growth Opportunities of Behavioral Styles

Interactive Style leaders’ primary strengths are their enthusiasm, persuasiveness, and sociability. Dominance Style leaders’ primary strengths are accepting challenge, ability to take authority, and go head first into solving problems. They have an ability to get things done and their decision making skills are very high. Cautious Style leaders’ primary strengths are their accuracy, dependability, independence, follow-through and organization.
Growth Opportunities
Growth Opportunities for the Interactive Style of Behavior are broken into two categories with tasks and with people. Interactive Styles tend to underestimate the time and effort required by themselves or others to accomplish tasks. They also tend to be impatient, primarily when they are stressed or under pressure. Growth opportunities for the Dominance Style of Behavior include being broadening their perspectives.
They need to learn to be effective outside of their comfort zone by considering different points of view and other ways to achieve their goals. Growth opportunities for the Cautious Style of Behavior include being more attentive to details and timely follow-through. Curiosity of these leaders may lead to digressions while at work. These leaders are found to be intense by nature and tend to be impatient with themselves and others, especially when things aren’t going well.
Development Plan for Each Behavioral Style
Development Plans for the Team based on Behavioral Style
Interactive Style Development Plan
In order for Interactive Style leaders to be successful they need to be more selective about tasks that they take on and not be afraid or hesitate to ask others for help. When dealing with others they need to learn how to relax and enjoy regular recreation to ensure that they can handle their reactions in a proper manner to stress. Delegating tasks instead of taking everything on, asking for assistance on projects while coaching staff, will allow them to grow in their organizations, while still feeling like they are in the know.
Not only will this allow and them to focus on other opportunities they are developing their staff. In order to be successful in the work environment they need to prioritize, organize, see tasks through completion, and write things down. As their leader, I will show them that I admire their hard work and accomplishments, support their feelings when possible, interact with them, support their ideas and show them my positive side. Being that I am an Interactive Style leader this will come naturally to me in dealing with other leaders of this style in my group.
Dominance Style Development Plan
In order for these leaders to be successful they need to consider viewpoints of others and look outside the box for other ways to achieve goals. These leaders would benefit from being flexible in their decisions and this would help them solve problems more creatively. This not only allows for the leader to grow, but also develops more trust in the associates they are leading. As their leader I can provide precise data on projects that they are working on, allow them to work independently and do things within their limits, look for opportunities to modify their work-load focus, and allow them to take the lead.
Being that both this style and the Interactive style both preferring faster pace we will get along well with pacing the workflows. Cautious Style Development Plan For Cautious Style leaders to be successful they need to learn to pace themselves. Taking time-outs during the workday may help allay their natural intensity. They need to remain positive when dealing with situations and people under pressure. If they are able to control their thoughts and emotions in such cases, then they can use their creativity to discover workable solutions.
These leaders will benefit from staying focused on key priorities, sorting out tasks, outline expectations for associates, and allow others to take control of projects. This will not only allow the leader to balance their growth opportunities but will also allow their associates to gain more trust in the leader. As their leader, when I approach them for questions or projects I will ask them in a direct manner, show reasoning, provide explanations in writing, compliment them on their thoroughness, and ask tactfully how I may assist them if needed.
In conclusion, after reviewing each individual assessment of my learning group as well as my personal assessment through the DISC Platinum Rule Behavioral Style Assessment, I have been able to review how each Style has their own strengths and weaknesses, and how to create a professional performance plan on helping each team member to be successful in their organization. The assessment has allowed me to have a better understanding of different behavioral characteristics as well as my own personal traits, strengths, and weakness. This will give each of us the ability to balance, adapt, and grow in our roles within our organizations.


Elizabethan Playhouses and Performance Conventions

When Elizabeth became Queen of England in 1558, there were no specially designed theatre buildings. Companies of actors (usually small, made of 5 to 8 members) toured the country and performed in a wide variety of temporary acting spaces, mainly in inn yards, but also in churches, Town Halls, Town Squares, great halls of Royal Palaces or other great houses, or anywhere else that a large crowd could be gathered to view a performance. It is true that they continued to tour throughout Elizabeth’s reign (especially during the Plague in London, when theatres were closed or earned but little money).
Nevertheless, given the laws passed by the Queen to control wandering beggars and vagrants – which implicitly affected the acting companies as well – many actors were encouraged to settle down with permanent bases in London. The first permanent theatres in England were old inns which had been used as temporary acting areas when the companies had been touring. E. g. The Cross Keys, The Bull, The Bel Savage, The Bell – all originally built as inns.
Some of the inns that became theatres had substantial alterations made to their structure to allow them to be used as playhouses. The first purpose built theatre building in England was simply called The Theatre, eventually giving its name to all such building erected in the outskirts of London and functioning until the closing of the theatres in 1642 during the Civil War. The Theatre was built in 1576, at Shoreditch in the northern outskirts of London, by the Earl of Leicester’s Men who were led by James Burbage, a carpenter turned actor.

It seems that the design of The Theatre was based on that of bull-baiting and bear-baiting yards (as a matter of fact, bull baiting, bear baiting and fencing shows were very popular by that time, and they were often organized before the plays started. ). The Theatre was followed the next year (1577) by The Curtain, in 1587 by The Rose and in 1595 by The Swan (to mention but the most famous theatres). In 1599, a dispute over the land on which The Theatre stood determined Burbage’s sons to secretly tear down the building and carry away the timber to build a new playhouse on the Bankside which they names The Globe.
By this time, the Burbages had become members of Lord Chamberlain’s Company, along with William Shakespeare, and The Globe is famously remembered as the theatre in which many of Shakespeare’s plays were first performed. (The Globe was destroyed in 1613 in a fire caused by the sparks of a cannon fired during the performance of Shakespeare’s Henry VIII. Rebuilt, it was closed and demolished in 1644 during the Civil War. The modern reconstruction of Shakespeare’s Globe Theatre in London was completed in 1997. )
Before going into more details regarding the structure of the Elizabethan theatre, distinction should be made, however, between two categories of playhouses: the public (outdoor) theatres and the private (indoor) theatres. The former were amphitheatre buildings open to the air and therefore cheaper – The Globe, for instance, charged two pence for a seat in the galleries or a single penny to stand in the yard. The latter (e. g. Blackfriars; The Cockpit) were built to a hall design in enclosed and usually rectangular buildings more like the theatres we know today.
They had amore exclusive audience since they charged considerably more – the cheapest seat in a private theatre cost sixpence. The adult companies did not start to use the private hall theatres until after Elizabeth’s death, but they were used by the boy companies (made up entirely of child and teenage actors) in Elizabeth’s reign and were used by Shakespeare’s Company – by this time the King’s Men – and other adult companies in the Jacobean period. Structure and Design of Public/ Outdoor Theatres
Public theatres were polygonal – hexagonal outside and round inside (“a wooden O” as Shakespeare puts it in Henry V). An open-air arena – called “pit” or “yard” – had, at one end, a wooden stage supported by large pillars, with trap doors for special effects (to allow ghosts, devils and similar characters to be raised up) and was surrounded by three tiers of roofed galleries (thatched, later on tiled roofs) with balconies, overlooking the back of the stage. The rear stage was covered by a roof – which they called “Heavens” through which, by means of ropes, they ould lower down the actors playing the gods/ angels, etc. , for flying or dramatic entrances – held up by massive pillars and obstructing the view of audience members from various angles. The stage wall behind these pillars was called “Frons Scenae” (taken from the name given by Imperial Rome to the stage walls of their amphitheatres) provided with doors to the left and to the right and a curtained central doorway – referred to as the “discovery space” – which allowed characters to be suddenly revealed or a play within a play to be acted.
The rear wall of this inner stage was covered by tapestry, the only usual “scenery” used on the stage. Immediately above the inner stage, there was the stage gallery which could be used for multiple purposes: – as an acting space: on either sides, there were bow-windows used for the frequent window/ balcony scenes (e. g. Romeo and Juliet). Thus the arrangement of a front stage and two-storeyed back stage permitted three actions to go on simultaneously and a life-like parallelism of events. – another part of the gallery could be used as a music-room.
Music was an extra effect added in the 1600’s. The musicians started playing an hour before the beginning of the play and also played at appropriate moments throughout the performance. – when necessary, some of the boxes of the stage gallery were used for audience seating. They were referred to as the “Lord’s rooms” and considered the best (and hence the most expensive) seats in the ‘house’ despite the poor view of the back of the actors. (Nevertheless, the audience at large would have a good view of the Lords and the Lords were able to hear the actors clearly.
There were also additional balconies on the left and right of the “Lord’s rooms” called the “Gentlemen’s rooms”, also meant for the rich patrons of the theatres. As previously mentioned, the stage wall structure contained two doors (at least) leading to a small structure, back stage, called the “Tiring House” used by actors to dress, prepare and wait offstage. Above the stage gallery, there is a third storey connected with the “Heavens” extending forward from the tiring-house over the rear part of the stage, which was often used to represent the walls of a castle or a city.
Last but not least, on top of this structure, there was also what might be called a fourth storey of the tiring-house, referred to as the “Hut” presumably used as a storage space and housing suspension gear for flying effects, while the third storey stage cover served as a loading room for players preparing to ‘fly’ down to the stage. On top of the “hut”, a flag (a black one, if it was a tragedy, a white one, if it was a comedy, or a red one, if it was a history) was erected to let the world know a play was to be performed that day.
The access to the playhouse was ensured by one main entrance, where playgoers had to put the admission fee – i. e. 1 penny, for those who watched the play from the yard, standing, called the “Groundlings” (shopkeepers, craftsmen, apprentices), or more, up to 4-5 pence for the gentry and the great lords sitting in the galleries. The galleries could be reached by the two sets of stairs in the structure, on either side of the theatre. The first gallery would cost another penny in the box which was held by a collector (“gatherer”) at the front of the stairs.
The second gallery would cost another penny. At the start of the play, after collecting money from the audience, the admission collectors put the boxes in a room backstage, called the “box office. ” The Players There were invariably many more parts than actors. Elizabethan Theatre, therefore, demanded that an actor be able to play numerous roles and make it obvious to the audience by changes in his acting style and costume that he was a new person each time.
When the same character came on disguised (as, for example, many of Shakespeare’s female characters disguise themselves as boys – e. . The Merchant of Venice or Twelfth Night) speeches had to be included making it very clear that this was the same character in a new costume, and not a completely new character. All of the actors in an Elizabethan Theatre company were male (which might explain the scarcity of female roles in Elizabethan drama). There were laws in England against women acting onstage and English travellers abroad were amused and amazed by the strange customs of Continental European countries that allowed women to play female roles.
Exceptions : One woman – Mary Frith, better known as Moll Cutpurse – was arrested in the Jacobean period for singing and playing instruments onstage during a performance of a play about her life (Middleton and Dekker’s The Roaring Girl) and some suggest that she may actually have been illegally playing herself in the performance, and women sometimes took part in Court Masques (a very stylised and spectacular sort of performance for the Court, usually dominated by singing and dancing), but otherwise English women had no part in the performance of Elizabethan plays.
The male actors who played female parts have traditionally been described as “Boy Actors” – they were actually boys whose voices had not changed. The rehearsal and performance schedule that Elizabethan Players followed was intense and demanding. Unlike modern theatres, where a successful play can run for years at a time, Elizabethan theatres normally performed six different plays in their six day week, and a particularly successful play might only be repeated once a month or so. For example, in a typical season, a theatrical company could perform thirty-eight different plays.
The Elizabethan actor did not have much time, therefore, to prepare for each new play, and must have had to learn lines and prepare his blocking largely on his own and in his spare time – probably helped by the tendency of writers to have particular actors in mind for each part, and to write roles which were suited to the particular strengths and habits of individual actors. There were few formal rehearsals for each play and no equivalent of the modern Director (although presumably the writer, theatre managers, and the most important actors – who owned shares in the theatre company – would have given some direction to other actors).
Instead of being given full scripts, each actor had a written “part”, a long scroll with nothing more than his own lines and minimal cue lines (the lines spoken by another actor just before his own) to tell him when to speak – this saved on the laborious task of copying out the full play repeatedly by hand. There was a bookholder or prompter who held a complete script and who helped actors who had forgotten their lines. Costumes, Scenery and Effects
Elizabethan costuming seems to have been a strange combination of what was (for the Elizabethans) modern dress, and costumes which – while not being genuinely historically or culturally accurate – had a historical or foreign flavour. Strict laws were in force about what materials and types of clothes could be worn by members of each social class – laws which the actors were allowed to break onstage – so it would be immediately obvious to the Elizabethan audience that actors wearing particular types of clothes were laying people of particular backgrounds and types.
The colours were also carefully chosen so as to suggest: red – blood; black – gloom, evil; yellow – sun; white – purity; scarlet – doctor; gray – friar; blue – serving men. Extensive make-up was almost certainly used, particularly for the boys playing female parts and with dark make-up on the face and hands for actors playing “blackamoors” or “Turks”. There were also conventions for playing a number of roles – some of which we know from printed play scripts.
Mad women, like Ophelia, wore their hair loose and mad people of both sexes had disordered clothing. Night scenes were often signalled by characters wearing nightdresses (even the Ghost of Hamlet’s father appears in his nightgown, when Hamlet is talking with his Mother in her chamber). The Elizabethans did not use fixed scenery or painted backdrops of the sort that became popular in the Victorian period – hence the playwrights had to provide the actors with spoken descriptions of landscape which with Shakespeare represent memorable poetry.
That does not mean, however, that the Elizabethans performed on a completely bare stage. A wide variety of furniture and props were brought onstage to set the scene as necessary – ranging from simple beds, tables, chairs and thrones to whole trees, grassy banks, prop dragons, an unpleasant looking cave to represent the mouth of hell, and so forth. Death brought out a particular ingenuity in Elizabethan actors and they apparently used copious quantities of animal blood, fake heads and tables with holes in to stage decapitations.
Heads, hands, eyes, tongues and limbs were dramatically cut off onstage, and probably involved some sort of blood-drenched stage trick. A number of other simple special effects were used. Real cannons and pistols (loaded with powder but no bullet) were fired off when ceremonial salutes or battles were required. Thunder was imitated by rolling large metal cannon balls backstage or by drumming, while lightning was imitated by fireworks set off in the “heavens” above the stage. One thing that Elizabethan theatres almost completely lacked was lighting effects.
In the outdoor theatres, like the Globe, plays were performed from two o’clock until about four or four thirty in the afternoon (these were the times fixed by law, but plays may sometimes have run for longer) in order to take advantage of the best daylight (earlier or later performances would have cast distracting shadows onto the stage). Evening performances, without daylight, were impossible. In the hall theatres, on the other hand, the stages were lit by candlelight – which forced them to hold occasional, probably musical, breaks while the candles were trimmed and tended or replaced as they burned down.
Elizabethan actors carried flaming torches to indicate that a scene was taking place at night, but this would have made little difference to the actual lighting of the stage, and spectators simply had to use their imagination. The nearest that the Elizabethans came to lighting effects were fireworks, used to imitate lightening or magical effects. Performance Techniques We know very little, unfortunately, about how Elizabethan actors actually played their roles. Performances probably ran continuously without any sort of interval or Act Breaks.
Occasionally music may have been played between Acts or certain scenes, but scholars think this was quite unusual except in the hall playhouses, where candles had to be trimmed and replaced between Acts. We do not even know how long Elizabethan plays usually ran. The law (mentioned above) expected plays to last between two and two and a half hours, but some plays – such as Hamlet, which in modern times runs for more than four hours – seem much too long to have been performed in such a short time.
What props and scenery there were in the Elizabethan Theatre were probably carried on and off while the scenes continued, while actors were continually moving forward and backward into the midst of the surrounding audience. All entrances and exits were through the doors at the rear of the stage proper: one actor left through one door while a second actor would appear through the second door to swing into the next scene. That means that there would have been no need to wait for scene changes.
The actors were kept in constant motion and, given the design of the stage, they had to face in as many different directions as possible during a scene. Another aspect of Elizabethan performance that we know a little about was the use of clowns or fools. Shakespeare complains in Hamlet about the fact that the fool often spoke a great deal that was not included in his script, and in the early Elizabethan period especially it seems to have been normal for the fool to include a great deal of improvised repartee and jokes in his performance, especially responding to hecklers in the audience.
At the end of the play the Elizabethan actors often danced, and sometimes the fool and other comic actors would perform a jig – which could be anything from a simple ballad to a quite complicated musical play, normally a farce involving adultery and other bawdy topics. Some time was apparently put aside for the fool to respond to challenges from the audience – with spectators inventing rhymes and challenging the fool to complete them, asking riddles and questions and demanding witty answers, or simply arguing and criticising the fool so that he could respond.
With no modern stage lighting to enhance the actors and put the audience into darkness, Globe audience members could see each other exactly as well as they could see the performers and the Groundlings in particular were near enough to the stage to be able to touch the actors if they wanted to and the front row of the Groundlings routinely leaned their arms and heads onto the front of the stage itself. The Groundlings were also forced to stand for two or three hours without much movement, which encouraged short attention ps and a desire to take action rather than remain completely immobile.
This means that the Groundlings frequently shouted up at the actors or hissed the villains and cheered the goodies. Elizabethan audiences seem to have been very responsive in this way – as their interactions with the Fool suggests – and were particularly well known for hurling nut shells and fruit when they disliked an actor or a performance. The Elizabethan audience was still more distracted, however, since beer and food were being sold and consumed throughout the performance, prostitutes were actively soliciting for trade, and pickpockets were busy stealing goods as the play progressed.
Elizabethan audiences may have “viewed” plays very differently, hence the origin of the word “audience” itself. The Elizabethans did not speak of going to see a play, they went to hear one – and it is possible that in the densely crowded theatre – obstructed by the pillars and the extravagant headgear that richer members of the audience were wearing – the Elizabethan audience was more concerned to hear the words spoken than to be able to see the action.
This idea is given extra weight by the fact that in the public outdoor theatres, like the Globe, the most expensive seats were not the ones with the best views (in fact the best view is to be had by the Groundlings, standing directly in front of the stage), but those which were most easily seen by other audience members. The most expensive seating was in the Lord’s box or balcony behind the stage – looking at the action from behind – and therwise the higher the seats the more an audience member had to pay. (Some Elizabethan documents suggest that the reason for this range of prices was the richer patron’s desire to be as far from the stink of the Groundlings as possible. )
Specific aspects of Elizabethan performances: bear-baiting: three bears in ascending size are set upon by an English hound in a fight to the death! fencing: less gruesome, this civilized sport also took place before plays. umb-shows/processions: parades or spectacles, these formal groups used all the most ornate costumes they owned, including crowns and sceptres, torches and swords. Dumbshows appeared at the end of each act to summarize the events of the following act. By the turn of the century, dumb-shows were considered old-fahsioned and corny. Processions were more solemn as actors moved mannequin-like across the stage. jigs: at the conclusion of a play, the actors would dance around the stage.
Separate from the plays, these were bawdy, knockabout song-and-dance farces. Frequently resembling popular ballads, jigs were often commentaries on politics or religion. masques: masques were plays put on strictly by the royals. These were celebrations, i. e. royal weddings or winning a battle. Designed as banquets of the senses, these celebrations pned several days during which each member of the party played a part in the allegorical theme of the banquet. Masques were always held in private playhouses.


Periodic Performance Review

Periodic Performance Review A Periodic Performance Review is a compliance evaluation instrument used to assist organizations with their ongoing observation of performance and routine development actions. The PPR is an outlines for constant standards compliance and concentrations on the direction and processes that affect patient safety and care. Noncompliant Trends The Joint Commission medical staff standards defines evaluation standards, the commission pushes hospitals toward unbiased and evidence-based decisions in credentialing and privileging.
In this scenario the rules and policies are clearly mapped out, yet they are not being properly followed. The verbal order audit results seem to have no consistency. These standards now outdate a lot of hospital policies and practices prevailing equally internal and external peer review, and call for a comprehensive revision to comply with Joint Commission performance evaluations. The month of March is the highest, while August is the lowest month. The months in between were about the same from eighty-two to eighty-eight. The issue that needs to be address is what took place between March and August.
After carefully looking over the charts provided for both 3 & 4-east, there isn’t a huge indicator that supports the similarity for falls vs. nursing care hours per patient. November and April were the only two months that a noticeable improvement was made, meaning the nursing hours increased and the falls decreased. Although, the very next month the falls increased drastically, it went from two to eleven falls, while only one hour was increased. Staffing Patterns The safety and quality of patient care is honestly correlated to the size and experience of the staff.

These working conditions have deteriorated in this facility because the hospitals have not kept up with the growing demand for medical staff. The Joint Commission along with some state regulations measures some bare minimum level of staffing that all hospitals must meet regardless of the types and severity of patients. Pressure ulcer prevalence vs. nursing care hours was more of a parallel comparison, as the staffing hours increased the pressure ulcer prevalence decreased. While the intensive care unit was very noticeable in relating the falls vs. ours. In September when the nursing hours per patients dropped it was evident that the number of patient falls increased and they came was with VAP vs. hours. The corrective action plan should take this data into consideration to improve the staffing model, to also decrease patient falls which was be shown through this root cause analysis. The hospital requires at least one fire drill per shift per quarter. It seems that only the 1st shift is in compliance. Both the 2nd and 3rd shift have no rhyme or rhythm to how they are conducting the fire drills.
This needs to be address immediately by a member of management. Also, a manager or assistant should be required for scheduling the fire drill and must sign off on completion. Moderate Sedation Monthly Audit is overall in the ninety percentile there are still many areas for improvement. Any of the area that was below the ninety marks is an area for opportunity. Such as Mallampati Classification, ASA, Sedation Plan. Reassessment, and oxygen saturation monitored for thirty minutes, all of these area were below ninety percent for all for quarters.
Therefore, it’s a trend that needs to be addressed. The number of falls in the 4-East wings is disturbing when it’s put next to the targeted number, this is unacceptable. A substitute process that has the possibility to improve staffing issues and improve payment to hospitals would be to frankly connect the costs and billing for inpatient health care with hospital reimbursement. The action plan needs to provide that appropriate equilibrium and to make sure that the correct nurse is providing the right care to every one of the patients.
Staffing Plan There are two sides to the staffing issues. One side would be the nurses point to confirmation linking quality patient care to higher nurse-to-patient staffing ratios. While the other side would be hospital economic teams are being asked to discover ways to improve manage costs in expectation of declining expenditure under health development. The argument is not new. Nursing and financial management have had long debates on how to staff efficiently and make certain the right number/mix of nurses to meet patient needs.
An action plan needs to be put into place and monitored extremely closely by a member of management. There is no reason why they actually and targeted number are so off track. A patient care assistant should be there to assist patients with movements, especially for those patients who have a history of falls or injuries. Reviewing the overall hospital falls and injuries I noticed that it’s closer to the targeted number, but there are still many areas for development. The suggestion is that hospital must address conflict of interest when credentialing, privileging and conducting peer reviews of physicians. |


The performance of this sector

Bangladesh are primarily an agrarian economy. Agriculture is the single largest producing sector of economy since it comprises about 30% of the country’s GDP and employing around 60% of the total labor force.

The performance of this sector has an overwhelming impact on major macroeconomic objectives like employment generation, poverty alleviation, human resources development and food security.

Meeting the nation’s food requirement remains the key-objective of the government and in recent years there has been substantial increase in grain production. However, due to calamities like flood, loss of food and cash crops is a recurring phenomenon, which disrupts the continuing progress of the entire economy.
Agricultural holdings in Bangladesh are generally small. Through Cooperatives the use of modern machinery is gradually gaining popularity. Rice, Jute, Sugarcane, Potato, Pulses, Wheat, Tea and Tobacco are the principal crops. The crop sub-sector dominates the agriculture sector contributing about 72% of total production. Fisheries, livestock and forestry sub-sectors are 10.33%, 10.11% and 7.33% respectively.
Bangladesh is the largest producer of Jute. Rice being the staple food, its production is of major importance. Rice production stood at 20.3 million tons in 1996-97 fiscal year.
Crop diversification program, credit, extension and research, and input distribution policies pursued by the government are yielding positive results. The country is now on the threshold of attaining self-sufficiency in food grain production.
Land Use by Agriculture
Government has the primary responsibility of ensuring optimum use of land. Although land is a privately owned property in general, its use has to be compatible with the overall social goals and utility. Moreover, it is important to consider that the interests of small and marginal farmers and the sharecroppers are protected, as they constitute the majority of farmers.
Following steps will be taken to ensure planned utilization of land for crop production:
Land zoning programme will be taken up by the Soil Resources Development Institute SRDI) on a priority basis. Integrated approach of SRDI will be further strengthened for this purpose.
To ensure maximum utilization of land, bottom up planning through people. Participation and its implementation will be started from the mouza or village level.
In most areas the same land is suitable for more than one crop. Therefore, farmers will be encouraged to grow more profitable crops as an alternative to only rice-rice cropping pattern.
Fertile agricultural land is going out of cultivation due to its use for non-agricultural purposes such as private construction, house building brickfield, etc. Appropriate measures will be taken to stop this trend in the light of the Land Policy of the government.
Maximum utilization of land will be ensured through promotion of inter-cropping with the main crops.
Acquisition of land in excess of requirement for non-agricultural purposes will be discouraged.
Programmes will be taken up to motivate the landowners not to keep their land unused without any acceptable reason.
Appropriate measures will be taken in the light of the Land Policy so that the interests of small and marginal farmers and the sharecroppers are protected and that the agricultural land is not kept fallow for a long period.


Price performance of Marks and Spencer

The purpose of this report is to analyse the share price performance of Marks and Spencer and relate to this any news announcements during the period between the 29th of October 2000 and the 1st November 2001. This report will compare the performance of Marks and Spencer with the FTSE 100 and FTSE All Share Index, highlighting any abnormal rises or falls in Marks and Spencer’s share price and will relate these to certain news or press announcements. Such announcements may have ultimately contributed to the change in share price of Marks and Spencer specifically or the stock exchange more generally.
Instead of using the actual share price of Marks and Spencer the total return index will be used to show changes in the companies share price. This is an index that calculates the performance of a group of stocks assuming that all dividends and distributions are reinvested. It measures the growth in value of a shareholding over the period. When comparing the companies return index with that of the FTSE 100 and All Share average the index will be rebased to a value of 100 at the start of the period. This allows a simple comparison to see how the share price has done over the period. A similar thing will be done when comparing Marks and Spencer to selected competitors namely Next and Sainsbury’s.

The share price and return index of Marks and Spencer has done remarkably well between October 2000 and November 2001. This may come as a surprise to some people as between 2000 and 2001 operating profit excluding tax fell by an unprecedented 224% to 145.5 million. This would have been partly due to the fact that overall turnover fell despite a rise in turnover of 8% in international sales. During the same period earnings per share fell from 9.6p to (0.2)p however the dividend per share of 9.0p remained the same, which was important as this gives a clear indication of the strength and stability of the organisation.
The graph on the following page (Graph 1) compares the rebased return index of Marks and Spencer, the FTSE 100 and FTSE All Share Index over the desired time period. The graph clearly illustrates how successful Marks and Spencer’s share price has been especially when compared to the more general FTSE index. Whereas the rebased return index has increased by over 50% for Marks and Spencer to 169.13, the FTSE 100 and All Share return index has fallen nearly 20% to 81.67 and 81.69 respectively.
The graph above shows that over the year concerned the return index and therefore share price has generally increased for Marks and Spencer whereas the FTSE 100 and All Share Index has declined albeit at a slower rate than M;S has grown. However, there are exceptions to this and the share price may have risen or fallen sharply due to news announcements as I will now explain. For example on October 9th 2001 the return on an investment in Marks and Spencer increased by 9.84%.
The reason for shares in the troubled retailer jumping 10% was because it revealed its first quarterly sales increase in three years. The figures were being interpreted in some quarters as the first sign of a turnaround in the retailer’s fortunes and chairman and chief executive Luc Vandevelde said the company “had made a step in the right direction”. However, even though an increase in sales has sent Marks and Spencer shares soaring, some analysts were urging investors to treat the figures with caution.
Unfortunately the news wasn’t good for M;S on April the 9th 2001. On this day City stockbrokers were set to downgrade M;S after a leaked report stating the company would make �20 million less profit than was expected, suggesting that the problems that M;S was facing were more serious than first thought. However, even this bad news didn’t affect the return on the investment that day as it only fell by 1.05%.
More bad news reported in the Financial Times on June the 19th 2001 didn’t adversely affect the return index for M;S. On this day the retailer announced it was pulling out of continental Europe and selling its US clothing and supermarket chains. Unfortunately the company was forced into this decision and has ultimately decided to focus on its core British retailing. On this day the investment in Marks and Spencer has grown nearly 2%. This was in spite of the fact that the French government is threatening legal action after the struggling retailer announced plans to close all its stores in France.
Some other news announcements which have affected the return index of Marks and Spencer include when M;S announced its new group strategy on the 27th April 2001. This strategy basically entailed focusing on its UK retail business and restoring the trust and confidence of its core customers. This news leads to a 7.03% increase in the value of an investment in M;S for that day. On April 27th 2001 Marks and Spencer announced that Luc Vandevelde waived his entitlement to a bonus and to underline his confidence in the future prospects of the company, he reduced his notice period entitlement from 12 to 9 months. However, such news didn’t increase the companies return index as expected and for approximately a month after this announcement the return index for the company gradually declined before picking up again at the end of May and the beginning of June.
The graph below (Graph 2) shows that Marks and Spencer has outperformed some of its retailers despite suffering from tumbling profits and bad reviews in the press. The average daily return on an investment between October 2000 and November 2001 has been 0.22%, compare that with the FTSE 100 and All Share index of (0.07) and Next and Sainsbury 0.13 and 0.02 respectively and it shows how remarkably well Marks and Spencer has done during this period despite all the setbacks it has faced.
Another major date which occurred in the bounds for this report was of course September 11th. Obviously the terrorist attacks had a major adverse effect on share prices generally. The day after the terrorist attacks the FTSE 100 fell by 288 points- the largest one day point’s fall in the 20 year history of the index. The total return index for Marks and Spencer fell by 4.11% on that day and there were similar losses in the days following the terrorist attacks.
However, it wasn’t just Marks and Spencer that was affected by this even but the FTSE 100, All Share and stock exchanges generally. Each of the three graphs shows how the return indexes seem to follow a general downward trend after September 11th. The graph labelled graph 3 on the following page simply shows the actual share price for Marks and Spencer, as well as the FTSE 100. It paints a similar story to the return indexes in that the share price for Marks and Spencer rose considerably during the period studied whereas on the other hand the FTSE 100 index fell by over 20%.
In conclusion between October 2000 and November 2001 Marks and Spencer shares have increased by approximately 50%, which is in complete comparison to the FTSE 100 index where the shares have declined by roughly a fifth. However, during this period Marks and Spencer was really struggling with most analysts reluctant to recommend buying M&S shares, as the company profits more than halved since 1998, when they topped 1bn. Most UK and for that matter overseas shares fell in value last year. The FTSE 100 index ended the year lower than it had started for only the third time since it was set up it 1983.
There were also no signs of recovery. This would have been largely due to September 11th; as such events can not be compensated for or predicted, however in saying that the FTSE was also on a downward trend in the year prior to September 11. Despite all the gloom and doom associated with shares, Marks and Spencer came out smelling of roses. Even though their share price was helped by the company buying back its own shares it has still done remarkably well. After all its share price hitting a 10 year low in 2000, since then it bounced back 50%, making them easily the best performers in the FTSE 100 index of blue chip shares, which is quite an achievement.


Manage Performance

As a Human Resource Performance Management Implementer, discuss the prior training you would give to line the four group head with reference to Identifying performance gap? Training Is the most Important factor In order to achieve goals more effectively. Head of groups need to be able to develop a AMPS by setting objectives and standards. They should also be able to monitor these AMPS and Identify the weaknesses.
Once these weaknesses Identified, they must have the skill to monomaniac effectively with the staff when Glenn Instructions and providing feedback. B. Determine the possible reasons for Panel’s poor performance. What would be your recommended solution to each of these possible causes? 1. Frustration and lack of motivation Pamela has been working as the assistant of the head of department for more than eight years. She had lots of responsibilities and had owned the respect of the other employees.
The authority that she had, has been removed and she must be engendering her present secretary Job as not important or too simple for her. Giving her more responsibilities would make her feel more important in the organization. 2. Lack of supervision She has been sharing the same office with Frank for eight years and even if she did not want to work, she was under the close supervision of her manager. A AMPS must be put in place in order to monitor her performance and identify what Is the problem. 3. Poor performance from secretaries The secretaries working with Pamela might not be performing as required.

The clapped-out equipment’ and errors left In the documents brought down Panel’s performance. Training should be provided to the staff of Pamela and appropriate equipment must be bought so that they can work effectively. C. As an HER advisor, what steps would you recommend to Ben that he take In order to lift Pamela level of lob performance? I would recommend Ben to introduce a performance management system which he will have to develop in order to monitor the performance of Pamela. With this system, he will be able to identify the weaknesses and the strengths of Pamela.
He must set key performance indicators and explain clearly in a planning discussion what is expected trot near and what are the goals that sane needs to achieve . At the end to the year, she will be evaluated in appraisal discussions and they will see together if the goals have been met and what are the actions to be taken. D. Assuming that the final outcome is the termination of Panel’s contract, discuss the measures [setup and documentation that would need to be in place in accordance to organizational policy and law?
The first step would be to seek for legal advice before terminating contract. If the performance improvement plan has not brought its results, the collected evidences can be used during the dismissal process. The information obtained must be analyses, and appraised. Pamela should be given a written warning if she has not been able to reach the agreed improvement requirement. Upon issue of three written warnings, she must be terminated. The federal workplace relations act 1996 must be taken into consideration so as to avoid unfair dismissal.