Consumers’ Perception about Different Research Organizations

Research Proposal for Internship Program Proposed Title: Consumers’ perception about different research organizations. Prepared By: Saumitra Kumar Paul Roll No. 060007 5th Batch, Evening Institute of Business Administration Rajshahi University. Submitted to: Dewan Sazzadul Karim Senior Manager, MRPC Square Pharmaceuticals Ltd. Square Pharmaceuticals Ltd. Square Centre, 48, Mohakhali C/A, Dhaka- 1212 Background of the study: Square Pharmaceuticals limited, located in Dhaka, is the number one Bangladeshipharmaceutical company and one of the most recognized Bangladeshi brand amongconsumers.
This high degree of recognition is one of the main reasons SquarePharmaceuticals Limited has been so successful. For the 2007 fiscal year, ending December 30, 2007, this firm continued to soar, with sales of Tk. …………. Started as a tiny organization, the above statement is the present landscape ofSquare Pharmaceuticals Limited. But this is not the end of the story, yet has a longway to run. To consistently and constantly grow and stay on the competition in thehighly competitive market, right decision must be taken in right time. Here comesthe importance of market research organizations.
They generate and provideinformation to be used as input into pharmaceutical’s management decision makingregarding the product-market characteristics and functions. In order to determine customer needs and to implement marketing strategies andprograms aimed at satisfying those needs, marketing managers need information. They need information about customers, competitors, and other forces in themarket place. In recent years, many factors have increased the need for more andbetter information. As firms have become national and international in scope, theneed for information on larger and more distant markets has increased.Asconsumers have become more affluent and sophisticated, marketing managersneed better information on how they will respond to products and other marketingofferings. As competition has become more intense, managers need information onthe effectiveness of their marketing tools.

As the environment changes morerapidly, marketing manages need more timely information. The task of marketing research is to assess the information needs and providemanagement with relevant, accurate, reliable, valid, current and actionableinformation.Today’s competitive marketing environment and the ever-increasingcosts attributed to poor decision making require marketing research to providesound information. Sound decisions are not based on gut feeling, intuition, or evenpure judgment. In the absence of sound information, an incorrect managementdecision may be made. Some organizations have their own research wing and others depend upon thirdparty research organizations for such data. Several research organizations like 4P,ACNielsen, Sirius etc.
exist in the research industry of Bangladesh. So, it isimperative to determine their reputation and efficiency.In this study, my main purpose is to make a comparative analysis between differentresearch organizations of Bangladesh and rank them based on some relevantattributes. Problem definition/objectives of the research: Broad objective: This study will be designed to make an assessment of the consumers’ perception about different research organizations. Specific objectives: In course of the study, for the accomplishment of the primary broad objective, fulfillment of the following set of specific objectives are required: 1. To explore Customers’ perception of the set of benefits they are receiving from the third party research organizations. .
To identify the existing research firms. Page 2 of 4 P. T. O. 3. To identify the strengths and weaknesses of various research firms. 4.
To compare the capability, efficiency and performance of various research firms. 5. To recommend appropriate research firm/s to charter in future. Dependent variable: Perception about the research firms. Independent variables: 1. Specifications. 2.
Error. 3. Currency. 4. Objective. 5. Nature 6.
Dependability of the data. 7. Flexibility of data collection 8. Diversity of questions 9. Use of physical stimuli 10. Sample control 11. Control of the data collection environment 12.
Control of field force 13. Quantity of data. 14. Response rate. 15. Perceived anonymity. 16.
Social desirability/sensitive information. 17. Potential for interviewer bias. 18. Speed 19. Cost Research Approach: A descriptive research is being proposed to perform the study. Kind of information to be obtained: This study will be based on both primary and secondary information.
Primary data: Structured questionnaire will be provided to collect information from respondents. Secondary information: Secondary information will be collected by reviewing web sites, journals, brochures, publications, newspapers and other relevant documents.Research Methodology: Survey method is being proposed in which a structured questionnaire given to a sample of a population and designed to elicit specific information from respondents. Mode of administration of the survey: Face-to-face or telephone or email interview may be used. To know the customers’ perception about the research firms, this proposed studywill be conducted by a constructed questionnaire with those persons who will beselected as sample for the study. All participation will be voluntary. Page 3 of 4 P.
T. O.


Market-Driven Organizations

The value of BCG Matrix is that it offers strategic insights on how the company can achieve both growth and profitability (Henderson and Zakon 1980). The fundamental advantage that a multi-business organization possesses is the ability to transfer cash from businesses that are highly profitable but have limited potential for growth to others that offer expectations of sustained future growth and profitability.
The integrative portfolio management approach enables executives to achieve greater results than the sum of its parts. To obtain this synergistic result, resource allocation must be centralized and designed to produce a balanced portfolio in terms of the generation and uses of cash (Hambrick et al. 1982). Hax and Majluf (1983) explain that the BCG matrix is helpful in three ways. First, the graphic display offers a powerful and compact picture of the strengths of the businesses in the firm’s portfolio.
Second, it identifies the capacity of each business to generate cash and also reveals its requirements for cash; this it assists in balancing the firm’s cash flows. And third, because it shows the distinct characteristics of each business unit, it can suggest strategic directions for each business. In terms of cash flows, the BCG Matrix offers a picture of each business in relation to its cash generation and cash requirement characteristics.

In associating relative market share with experience curve, it is implicit that those businesses holding stronger shares will also enjoy higher profitability and, consequently, higher cash generation. Conversely, businesses in industries with high growth rates require higher levels of cash for their future development (Davidson 1985). In terms of strategic direction, the BCG Matrix illustrates the desired strategic trust for each business, which can be to: (1) to increase market share, to defend market share, to harvest, and (4) to withdraw or divest.
Although realizing these strategic thrusts would require spelling out complex programs for each business, expressed in terms of market share, the BCG Matrix convey a basic message for positioning a business in a competitive environment (Davidson 1985). Recommendations Clearly, Harrah’s Entertainment growth strategy is acquisition of established brands to further improve its current brand portfolio seems to be working as revenues have increased by 56 percent in 2005. Harrah’s top three best-recognized brands are strategic assets that allows the company to differentiate its service offerings to customer.
While Harrah is clearly still reliant on the United States market for its revenues, the company have set up casinos overseas such as Conrad Windsor (Ontario, Canada) and Conrad Resort & Casino (Uruguay) to expand its current operations. With its strong financial position, Harrah’s Entertainment still has ample cash to expand in the next five years. Should management be able to realize the integration of Caesars and Imperial Palace to Harrah’s Entertainment operations, financial position should further improve and strengthen its market position.
Datamonitor (2005). Global Casinos and Gaming: Industry Profile. Davidson, K. (1985). Strategic Investment Theories. Journal of Business Strategy p. 16-30. Day, G. (1994). The Capabilities of Market-Driven Organizations. Journal of Marketing. 58 (4): 37-53. Hambrick, D. C. , I. C. MacMillan, and D. L. Day (1982). Strategic Attributes and Performance in the BCG Matrix – A PIMS-Based Analysis of Industrial Product Businesses. Academy of Management Journal 25 (3): 510-531. Harrah’s Entertainment website. [Online] Available:


Ufone Organizational Development

Introduction of Organisation PTML is a subsidiary of PTCL (Pakistan Telecom Company Limited), the largest operator in Pakistan. PTML was established to operate cellular telephony. The company commenced its operations, under the brand name of Ufone from Islamabad on January 29 2001. Since Etisalat took over PTCL in 2006, during the year as a consequence of PTCL’s privatization, 26% of its shares were acquired by Emirates Telecommunication Corporation (Etisalat). Being part of PTCL, the management of Ufone has also been handed over to Etisalat.
In September 2006, Ufone selected Huawei to deploy the nationwide GSM network at a contract value of above USD550 million. Ufone adopted Huawei’s new-generation GSM solution, including All-IP core network and BTS, to construct a GSM network covering 1,500 cities and towns of Pakistan. Ufone has a subscriber base of 20. 23 million as of September 2010. During2006 Ufone successfully completed the network expansion of Phase 4 in existing as well as in new cities and towns which amounted to more than US Dollar 170 million. As a result the asset base of the Company has increased from Rs. 0 billion to Rs. 27 billion. Ufone adopted the policy of simplified tariffs with no hidden charges, which resulted in positive impacts on total subscriber base, Ufone currently caters for international roaming to more than 195 live operators across 119 countries and introduced International roaming facility for Prepaid subscribers in Saudi Arabia, United Kingdom, United Arab Emirates, Singapore, Portugal and Kuwait with lowest rates, featuring no security deposit and activation charges. GPRS roaming facility is available with more than 75 Live Operators across 59 countries.
The Company has also been awarded a new License for providing cellular services in Azad Jammu ; Kashmir and the Northern Areas. Organization structure Organizational structure defines how job tasks are formally designed, grouped and coordinated. Ufone is a decentralized structured organization at branch level but overall the whole setup is centralized. The organizational structure is horizontal or lean. In this way flow of communication becomes very easy and simple. It is divided into different departments and each department has a head which take decisions. All departments are interlinked.

The concept of departmentalization is effectively practiced at ufone. All departments contribute to the overall goal of the organization. Ufone has 7 departments. 1. Finance 2. Marketing 3. Information technology department 4. Customer operations department 5. Engineering dept 6. Sales dept 7. Human resource dept. Formal Structure or Informal Structure? When a company wants to compete in innovation, it needs to maximize flexibility. Flexibility is maximized by aggregating work into larger, holistic pieces that are executed by teams of higher wages, high skilled workers.
Giving the units their own support systems and decision-making authority to take advantage of local opportunities in regional or specialized product markets also enhances flexibility. Keeping in view of all these factors the structure of Ufone is designed i. e. the overall Structure of the Ufone is Divisional (More flexible and innovative). Mainly Ufone has four regions and within those regions the structure is functional . The decision making authority is centralized at the top but within the regions it is decentralized i. e. egional heads have to inform top management before making any decisions. This is what Ufone looks from the organizational hierarchy point of view. There are 7 different departments each headed by a Project Director. They report directly to the CEO. There are four BU (Business Unit) each Project Director is responsible for these eight divisions. BUs are divided geographically into three divisions: * BU North (Peshawar to Jehlum, including Islamabad) * BU Central-1 (Gujranwala till Sialkot) * BU Central-2 (Multan till Rahim Yar Khan) * BUM South (Sindh and Balochistan)
Nature of Organization Cultural Dimensions Organizational culture refers to a system of shared meaning held by members that distinguishes the organization from the other organization. Ufone is following clan culture which competitors are lacking in that term. Oriented organization looks like a very personal place, employee relations are shaped around mentoring and nurturing, workplace looks like an extended form of family, a general encouragement of participation is the building block of day to day routines of organization, and work is designed around flexibility and self sufficiency.
Human development with high trust and openness is the basic agenda of clan oriented organizations. Ufone has hierarchy culture dominance, the only organization having a substantially different cultural orientation, to be singled out, is U-Fone, which is a public sector organization. People find their jobs more secure in public sector, moreover the workload and timings of job are much relaxed mostly in public sector organizations. These might be some of the reasons why U-Fone is perceived to be a Clan oriented organization by its employees.
The disparity in the current and preferred culture is prevalent in individual organizations and industry as well. Clan is the preferred culture by most of the organizations, leading towards an industry preference as well. Ufone culture is very innovative due to a dynamic organization with a powerful culture that allows people to make the most of their skills, personality and career in very less time. Ufone empower their employees to compete with others in term of innovation and bringing new ideas. People in ufone utilize their team effort optimally and their marketing strategies are the concrete evidence for that.
Communication Communication can flow vertically or laterally. The vertical dimensions can be further divided into downward and upward communication. 1. Internal Communication in Ufone: Internal Communication of Ufone is given below, Downward and upward communication is called vertical communication within organization: Upward communication in Ufone: Upward communication is the flow of information from subordinates to superiors, or from employees to management. In Ufone communication is an important source that is considered for success.
Upward Communication in Ufone is a mean for staff to: * Exchange information to management, Ufone having organic structure employees does not feel hesitation to exchange information. * Offer ideas in which they already have edge like their advertising strategies and package offering are very effective. * Express enthusiasm as the matter of fact they have been given empowerment so they come up with interesting ideas. * Achieve job satisfaction that is related with the satisfaction employees achieve from the job. * Provide feedback on the internal system.
Downward Communication Information flowing from the top of the organizational management hierarchy and telling people in the organization what is important (mission) and what is valued (policies). Employees working in Ufone are instructed clearly on the most important issues and policies. This has encouraged two way discussions to discuss employee’s problem and customer relationship issues. Normally Ufone announces important decisions and it falls in this category of communication where employee needs to get all clear information on what to do in the organization.
Upper level management motivates employees and gets feedback and if any policy or issue is not being resolved is discussed to remove. Horizontal/Lateral Communication in Ufone: Ufone has always been serious for having efficient teams working for different objectives like promotion and other important issues. Communication among employees at the same level is crucial for the accomplishment of work. Ufone has always encouraged team effort and innovation. Ufone has one more thing to get to its credit is building goodwill by boosting efficiency and improving teamwork. Employees always cooperate and perform well. . External Communication in Ufone Communication with people outside the company is called “external communication”. Supervisors communicate with sources outside the organization, such as vendors and customers. It leads to better; * Sales volume * Public credibility * Operational efficiency * Company profits Ufone believes in Integrated Marketing Communication which is a carefully blended mix of promotion tools. Ufone employ different marketing activities and channels to communicate and deliver value to customer. These activities are coordinated to provide maximum communication output.
These communication channels includes:-Advertising, sales promotion, public relations, direct marketing ; personal selling. Ufone strategize to carry out promotion in order to increase its market share. Strategies: Ufone strategize to widen its coverage to all places in Pakistan in order to meet the requirements of its increasing customer base. Now Ufone is heading from cities to remote northern areas in expanding its network and also has developed some sites there. Ufone has intensive promotion in cities, but it is also considering improving its promotion in rural areas as well.
Customer Relationship Management Ufone focuses on the 10 commandments rule it has posted on its office wall. Ufone believes in “SERVICE FIRST” rule and trains to its employees (personnel) to follow this rule. It treats its customers as a king because one dissatisfied customer dissatisfies the other customers as well. Ufone personnel are taught to deal with the customers with the courteous attitude. Also promotion policies are developed from time to time to retain the customers lost. This is done by giving discounts on calls rates, giving free SMS bundles, free minutes etc. to the customers who don’t use their SIMs for 2 to 3 months. Call centre records the calls done by customers to maintain quality assurance. Greeting messages are sent to customers on religious events. Also, birthday messages or cards are sent to the loyal customers. Door step services are provided to the customers. These services give a competitive edge to Ufone. Sales Promotion: Ufone strategize to take aid of sales promotion whenever it sees a minor drop in its usage by its customers. They mostly go for pull strategy in promotion i. e. hey spend a lot on advertising and consumer promotion to induce final customers to avail their services. Ufone applies sales promotion schemes continually in order to keep its customers loyal and happy. Sales promotions are short term incentives to encourage the purchase or sale of a product or services. Ufone utilizes sales promotion activities to boost its sales. It follows all four of the promotion budgeting methods viz affordable method, percentage of sales method, competitive parity method and objective ; task method. Ufone uses following sales promotion tools.
Contests, Games, Premium tickets and promotional packages. Which type of Network Ufone follows? Type of network which Ufone is following is all channel network, where employees coordinate with each other but still there is central authority and team work is more encouraged. It is rather blend of wheel and all channel network, self managed teams are made and all objectives being performed are checked by central authority. Interpersonal Relationships Individual in Ufone share common goals and objectives. They have more or less similar interests and think on the same lines.
Since they come from the similar background and so they develop good relationship. It has always been better for Ufone. Employees in Ufone respect each other point of view and maintain humble climate throughout. There is most important factor associated with interpersonal relationship is having transparency which plays a vital role and since all relation must not be biased and so they also focus on honest relationship. Since they have teams that perform most of the time on different issues and they do not indulge in criticism, backbiting and do not interfere each other. This creates a pleasant environment.
Baseless rumors are always discouraged and since they have been motivated all the time from upper management and their productivity increases and they try to perform even better and come up with some innovative ideas and they are also satisfied employees. According to a survey conducted, most of the employees do not want to leave this organization for the only reason that they have become satisfied and all the policies and procedures are quite good and criticism has been very low. The reason being the Ufone success could also be the interpersonal relationship which encourages efficiency.
Ethics The word “ethics” is often in the news these days. Ethics is a philosophical term derived from the Greek word “ethos” meaning character or custom. This definition is germane to effective leadership in organizations in that it connotes an organization code conveying moral integrity and consistent values in service to the public. Ufone always consider ethics while making their policies and recruitment policies. Even marketing strategies are made in the way that shows ethical behavior as compared to competitors so they are strictly following it.
Customer relationship management is another important thing which should be taken seriously for ethics. Your customer is your only way for making your organization survives in the market. So ethics are important for Ufone to maintain good relationship with customers and in this regard customer service has been given clear instruction on how to deal customers and they have even promoted ten codes for customers in different franchise of Ufone and also customer complaint cell has been formed if someone behaves wrong then it should be taken in to consideration. How Ufone encourages ethical behavior?
Also quality service department checks the ongoing calls of customer support and also feedback is checked so these are all the policies in regard for customer relationship and to maintain ethics so customer should feel respected. Recruitment policy of is designed in way that makes sure that everyone should apply for different position in organization and no gender discrimination is made. Even training is given to new employees rather leaving them alone in initial stages. They even hire diverse people and they think it is for the best interest of the company to follow such steps.
Ufone also holds different issues for showing their love for Pakistan. The events like cultural diversity and workshops are good steps taken by Ufone. Employees are given motivation good extrinsic and intrinsic rewards to make them efficient. Performance Appraisal Objective of the Performance Management: The basic objective for performance UFONE employees circles around the following: * To look at Performance system as a means to an end * Setting an individual’s goal * Aligning goals across the company * Ensuring employees get coaching from managers Determining merit pay * Identifying training and development needs * Providing data for promotion decision * Input from multiple source on worker performance The performance appraisal process: The Performance appraisal system used by UFONE for reviewing the performance status of its employee starts with identifying specific appraisal goals set by each Group for each cadre. After this a detail job analysis is done with looking in account the job expectation and then matching the actual performance with the desired performance.
Afterward the performance is appraised according to the set standards and this appraisal is not done by the supervisor alone, their major focus is on taking into the account the employee’s perspective as well. Therefore whenever the appraisal is done employee is fully participative in the process. Performance Appraisal Method Use by UFONE UFONE is using 180-Degree Performance Appraisal Method. Within this method, managers, peers, customers or colleagues are asked to complete questionnaire on the employee being assessed. In UFONE, performance of an employee is appraises twice a year. Once in June while other in December.
In the questionnaire there are five sections and in each section there are five questions related to the performance of employee. There are total 100 points from which an employee gets. Performance appraisal: 360° Behavior 20% Results 80% Total 100% Total 500 Marks| Best ;400| Good ;300| Average ;250| Compensation Responsibilities of Ufone HR Department Compensation Administration (designing and installing job evaluation program, pay structure, analyzing jobs and their dollar-worth, maintaining suitable records, wage and salary surveys of the labor market). * Health and Safety (health programs, safety programs, Medical facility). Employee relations (wages, rates of pay, hours of work, conditions of employment, negotiation, contract interpretation and administration, grievance handling, allocation of overtime). * Benefits and Services (insurance programs, Transportation facility, sick leave pay plans, loan funds, LFA salary, Yearly bonus programs along with special bonuses for achieving high targets). Employees Reaction to the system As mentioned above that Ufone follow the job based and competitive structure, so this thing is in the nature of human that to react against any system because by implementing structure everybody in the organization thinks that e or she is doing much and organization is not treating them well with the comparison of others. But at Ufone as we observed mostly of the permanent employees are quite satisfied with this system as compared to the contractual employees. Their reaction towards the system is cooperative because of their appraisal system; the Ufone performance appraisal system is very effective after every six months everybody knows that what their score is.
Ufone is a performance oriented organization so they compensate their employees on the basis of their performance so everybody know that if they show the results then the organization will compensate them good if not then they will never expect, This is a good approach for performance oriented organizations to implement the system like this because of this system everybody interests involves in it. And the Ufone also adopted the Competitive approach for compensation, because of this system every employee know what the other organizations are paying for the same job and what they are getting is fair or not.
Some are not satisfied because they think that we are very senior and the organization should have to compensate us for our seniority not for our work done, (Loyalty factor involves). Satisfaction Reward System at Telecom Sector: There is a department which looks after the motivational factors of the employees. Rewards are performance based. But incentives are something related to job tenure and attached to every job title accordingly. They offer both type of rewards 1. Extrinsic 2. Intrinsic Intrinsic rewards are motivation, making them feel good and giving them empowerment and extrinsic rewards are salary, and different pay plans.
Salary at telecom sector: According to the field of experience and job description every employee is compensated. Salaries are reviewed every year in January. Beside these fixed salaries there are various ways of rewarding one 1. If the employers complete their tasks within time and with quality they are recognized at the end of the year and they get bonuses accordingly, 2. If they show excellent performance in their departments, they can be promoted before seniors, 3. There are some commissions given to their employees on the basis of revenue they generate or the customers they make, they get more money. . Medical care,( the employees get medical for their husband/wife/children and parents) 5. Life insurance, 6. Vacations, 7. Relocation, 8. Credit advance policy provident policy/ advance against provident fund and occupying of gratuity, 9. Recreation, 10. Club policy travel, 11. Education assistance policy, 12. Mobile phone, 13. Business mobile phone policy, 14. Official blackberry policy, Supervisory Support At Telecom Sector: Supervisory support is excellent in these companies. They guide their employees about their customers, about the company, about their rights and help them in every manner.
Even if the performance of employees is not satisfactory, their supervisors ask them to look for the department of their choice. In the call centers of these companies the agents are constantly monitored by their supervisors, in case agents get stuck with a caller question then the supervisor come to them and help them with the answer because supervisors are senior persons, the supervisors appreciate their agents before the whole team if an agent takes more calls in their group. Empowerment Empowerment is the transfer of authorities from a senior to a junior or we can say delegating powers to another person is empowerment.
Ufone is a very friendly employer and lets every personnel work efficiently. It lets every individual have the authority of taking decisions and performing tasks at his own level in the best possible way. This freedom creates a sense of ownership in each employee and he becomes more concerned about his job. When the freedom level is created, employees feel happy to work with the organization and hence interact in a friendly way with the customers, thus enhancing the organization’s goodwill. Teams Work Teams:
Rather than having people attend committee meetings where very little gets done, or relegate people to their workspace where work may or may not get done, Ufone assign people to work teams. People can share the workload with each other and competition between work teams will help to encourage productivity. This will allow you to share some of your resources rather than buy one for every desk (like a stapler, for example. Sure, it’s a small expense but it adds up quickly). Because responsibility is spread among team members, work won’t get missed because someone goes away on holidays.
Work teams should be semi-permanent arrangements between people. Self managed team: The phrase self-directed work team — or self-managed team — doesn’t mean that the team doesn’t need a leader or manager. It just means that the team is responsible and accountablefor its decisions, as opposed to proposing action that will be approved or denied by someone outside the team. So Ufone always go for self managed team to resolve different issues and if some package plan has to be introduced in case competitor has introduced some cheap package.
Virtual Teams: Ufone often go for Virtual teams that help to reduce expenses and increase productivity. While meetings are essential, it’s not always necessary for one person to fly to another city or drive to another office to attend the meeting. Virtual teams take care of that by using technology (like Webex or GoToMeeting) to connect teams. The first 3 types of teams are specific groups of people who get together to do the work they’ve been mandated to do. The 4th team is simply a mindset to improve productivity while reducing travel expenditures.
So lot of team member without traveling to other city gets their work done in no time. Leadership Leadership style What makes a good leader or manager? For many it is someone who can inspire and get the most from their staff. There are many qualities that are needed to be a good leader or manager. Ufone upper level management has certain qualities to deal with employees. * Be able to think creatively to provide a vision for the company and solve problems * Be calm under pressure and make clear decisions * Possess excellent two-way communication skills Have the desire to achieve great things * Be well informed and knowledgeable about matters relating to the business * Possess an air of authority Managers deal with their employees in different ways. Some are strict with their staff and like to be in complete control, whilst others are more relaxed and allow workers the freedom to run their own working lives (just like the different approaches you may see in teachers! ). Whatever approach is predominately used it will be vital to the success of the business. An organization is only as good as the person running it”. There are three main categories of leadership styles: autocratic, paternalistic and democratic. Ufone follows democratic style of management that will put trust in employees and encourage them to make decisions. They will delegate to them the authority to do this (empowerment) and listen to their advice. This requires good two-way communication and often involves democratic discussion groups, which can offer useful suggestions and ideas. Managers must be willing to encourage leadership skills in subordinates.


Understand the Relationship Between Organizational Structure and Culture.

Task 1: Understand the relationship between organizational structure and culture. P1. 1: Compare and contrast different organisational structure and culture. According to Buchanan and Huczynski, an organisation is a ‘social arrangement for the controlled performance of collective goals’. Chester Barnard described an organisation as ‘a system of co-operative human activities’. Organisation are can be define as; ‘A deliberately formed group of human being with known boundaries and common goal’. Or, a group of people working together to achieved a common goal.
There are 2 types of organisation: i. formal organization and ii. Informal organisation. A formal organization is one which is deliberately constructed to fulfil specific goals’. It is characterized by planned division of responsibility and a well-defined structure of authority and communication. ‘An informal organization is one which loosely structured, flexible and spontaneous, fluctuating with its individual membership’. Examples of an informal organization are colleagues who tend to lunch together. Organizational structure: There are many types of organisational structures exist.
Following are the common types that include their advantages and disadvantages: A. Geographical organisation: In a structure of geographical, regional or territorial departmentation, some authority is retaining at head office, but day to day operations are handled on a territorial basis. Example: northern region, western region. Advantage: i. There is local decision-making. ii. It may be cheaper to establish local factories or office. Disadvantage: i. Duplication and possible loss of economies of scale might arise. ii. Inconsistency in stander may develop from one area to another. B.

Functional organization: functional organization involves grouping together people who perform similar tasks or use similar technology or materials. Primary functions in a manufacturing company might be production, sales, finance marketing and general administration. Advantage: i. Expertise is pooled and related technology/equipment or materials accessed more efficiently. ii. It avoids duplication and offers economies of scale. iii. It makes easier the recruitment, training and motivation of professional specialists. Disadvantage: i. It is organization by inputs and internal processes, rather than by output and customers demand. i. Communication problems may arise between different specialism, with their own culture and language. iii. Poor co-ordination may result, especially in a tall organization structure. C. Product-based organization: Some organizations group activities on the basis of product or product line. Some functional departmentation remains but a divisional manager is given responsibility for the product or product line. Example: manufacturing, distribution, marketing and sales. Advantage: i. Accountability. ii. Specialization. iii. Co-ordination. Disadvantage: i.
It increased the overhead costs and managerial complexity of the organization. ii. Different product divisions may fail to share resources and customers. D. Matrix organization: Matrix organization crosses functional and product, customer and project organization. Advantages of the matrix organization: i. It attempts to retain the benefits of both structures ( functional organization and project team structure ). ii. Coordinates resources in a way that applies them effectively to different projects. iii. Staff can retain membership on teams and their functional department colleagues.
Disadvantages of the matrix organization: i. Potential for conflict between functional vs. project groups. ii. Greater administrative overhead. iii. Increase in managerial overhead E. Centralization and decentralization organization: In a centralised organisation head office (or a few senior managers) will retain the major responsibilities and powers. Conversely decentralised organisations will spread responsibility for specific decisions across various outlets and lower level managers, including branches or units located away from head office/head quarters.
An example of a decentralised structure is Tesco the supermarket chain. Each store of Tesco has a store manager who can make certain decisions concerning their store. The store manager is responsible to a regional manager. F. Multi-functional and Multi divisional organization: In a functional structure jobs become differentiated around areas of specialty. For example, accounting and human resource specialists are hired to handle these specialized tasks. These specialists (functional line managers) report to the CEO, but usually have autonomy for day-to-day decision-making, e. . , hiring and firing personnel. The multidivisional structure centres on the use of separate businesses or profit centres. The M-Form is used by many organizations that compete in the global economy. General Electric is an example of a company that uses this structure. Each unit is operated as a separate business with its own corporate staff including President. Some parent companies do little more than provide capital and guide units to an organizational-wide strategy. The overall goal is to maximize the overall organization’s performance.
In order to accomplish this, managers at the “parent” use a combination of strategic and financial controls. G. Internal and external network structure: ‘A behavioral view is that a network is a pattern of social relations over a set of persons, positions, groups, or organizations’. ’ Network organizations are defined by elements of structure, process, and purpose’. A network organization maintains permeable boundaries either internally among business units or externally with other firms. H. Organizational charts: Organization charts, such as those used to traditional way of setting out in diagrammatic form: i.
The units (department etc. ) into the organization are divided and how they relate to each other. ii. The formal communication and reporting Chanels of the organization. iii. The structure of authority, responsibility and delegation in the organization including. iv. Any problems in the above: insufficient delegation, long lines communication or unclear authority relationships. I. Span of control: The p of control refers to the number of subordinate immediately reporting to a superior official. The right Span of control is depended are those things: i. A manager’s capabilities limit the p of control. i. The nature of the manager’s work load. iii. Subordinates work. iv. The interaction between subordinates. J. Flexible working: A useful definition of flexible working relates to when, where, how and what work is done: Flexible time:Work is performed at times that better suit the employer and/or employee Flexible place:Work is carried out wherever is most appropriate and effective for the employer and/or employee. Flexible contract:Workers are employed and/or rewarded in non-standard ways. Flexible tasks:Multi-skilled workers are able to undertake a variety of tasks according to need.
Organizational culture: Organizational culture (in the sense organizational climate) is the collective’s self-image and style of the organization; its shared values and beliefs, norms and symbols. In the bellow we discuss about various organizational culture: Power culture: This is also known as web structure. This is usually associated with the small organizations. This is where the central character, usually the founder has all authority and is typically surrounded by people they get on with and usually seen with empowerment since there is lot of trust between the webs.
There is a central power source and the rays of influence spread out from that central figure. In this type of organization individuals rather than a group make all the decisions. The danger of this sort of culture is that, because it is autocratic, there can be a feeling of suppression and lack of challenge in the workforce. Since this is associated with small organizations there are not many theories associated with it and are only seen in smaller companies, which shows it, will only work on small scale. Role culture: The role culture is typical of bureaucracies.
In the role culture, the jobs that people do- their roles – are more important than the people themselves. Managers have power and influence due to their status within the organization and not because of personal influence or expertise. Business would be divided into various functions (e. g. finance, marketing, production etc. ). These would then have a hierarchical ordering of offices (e. g. Finance director, Production manager, Supervisors, operators etc. ). Role cultures can only be successful where the environment in which the business is operating remains stable.
Where a business faces rapid change, the role culture is likely to collapse. The large organizations, which can be difficult to control often, have a role culture. Task culture: Task cultures have become very important in business in the first decade of twenty first century. The task culture focuses on getting the job done. Groups or teams within this culture are not fixed but are made up of individuals brought together to achieve a specific task. In the task culture there is a strong emphasis on building the team. Team members will need to share values and aspirations. They will also need to feel valued by the organization they work for.
In task culture, teams will often have considerable input in determining how a particular job will be done. Their views and opinions will be listed. Person culture: In a person culture, individuals are central. Person culture is also known as cluster structure. This is very rare and is only associated to small organizations with very short structures and an extremely wide base. This is because they are usually conjoined with the organizations that are specialist in many different areas (universities, many lawyers and scientific researching) there is no real rules, only law associated with the types of experimenting and research.
Organizational cultures values and beliefs: i. It affects the motivation and satisfaction of employees. ii. It can aid the adaptability of the organization, by encouraging innovation, risk taking, sensitivity to the environment, customer care, willingness to embrace new methods and technologies. iii. It affects the image of the organization. Development of organizational culture: There are many factors which influence the organizational culture, including the following: i. Economic condition. ii. The nature of the business and its tasks. iii. Leadership style. iv. Policies and practices. v. Structure. vi.
Characteristics of the work force. P1. 2: Explain how the relationship between an organizations structure and culture can impact on the performance of the business. Broadly, we can say that a behavioural problem is anything in the behaviour of people-individual, interpersonal and group. At first we discuss about various type of diagnosing and interpersonal behavioural problems; Diagnosing behaviour problem: Diagnosis is the thorough analysis of facts or problem in order to gain understanding. Principles of diagnosis: i. Distinguish the symptom from the problem. ii. Look at the facts. iii. Don’t be simplistic about causes. iv.
Focus on the problem, not the person. v. Don’t impose your own judgments. vi. Respect privacy and confidentiality. Methodology of diagnosis: i. Observation. ii. Interview. iii. Questionnaires. iv. Reports. Perception: Perception is the psychological process by which stimuli or in-coming sensory data are selected and organized into patterns which are meaningful to the individual. Perceptual selection: Perceptual selection as determined by any or all of the following: i. The context. ii. The nature of the stimuli. iii. Internal factors. iv. Fear or trauma. Perception and work behavior: Perception and work behavior do are following way: i.
Consider whether you might be misinterpreting the situation. ii. Consider whether others might be misinterpreting the situation or interpreting it differently from you. iii. When tacking a task or a problem, get the people involved to define the situation. iv. Be aware of the most common clashes of perception at work. Such as, manager and staff, work culture, race and gender. Attitudes: An attitude is a mental and neural state of readiness, exerting a directive or dynamic influence upon the individual’s response to all objects and situations with which it is related.
Ability and aptitude: there have been many attempts to make a useful distinction between: i. Abilities-thins that people can do or are at- largely believed to be inherited. ii. Aptitudes-the capacity to learn and develop abilities or skill. Intelligence: Intelligence is a wide and complex concept. There are many forms of intelligence: i. Analytic intelligence. ii. Spatial intelligence. ii. Musical intelligence. iv. Physical intelligence. v. Practical intelligence. vi. Intra-personal intelligence. vii. Inter-personal intelligence. P1. 3: Discuss the factors which influence individual behaviour at work:
In the bellow we discuss about various type of individual’s behavior: Personality: personality is the total pattern of characteristic ways of thinking, feeling and behaving that constitute the individuals distinctive method of relating to the environment. Traits and types: Traits are consistently observable properties or the tendency for a person in a particular way. Self and self-image: Self: self has a two component: A. T- the unique, active, impulsive part of the individual, which rises above conformity. And B. Me- the mental process which reflects objectively on the self and measures it against the social norms, values and expectation.
Self-image: People have a subjective picture of what their own self is like, this called a self-image. Personality and work behavior: Obviously personalities are complex and individual. Personality and work behavior conflicted in organization; manager will have to consider the following aspect: i. The compatibility of an individual’s personality with the task. ii. The compatibility of an individual’s personality with the systems and management culture of the organization. iii. The compatibility of the individual’s personality with that of others in the team. Where incompatibilities occur, the manager will have to: . Restore compatibility. ii. Achieve compromise. iii. Remove the incompatible personality. Organizational structure and Culture of Sainsbury and Tesco: Sainsbury’s organization structure: The organizational structure of Sainsbury’s is hierarchical because there is series of levels of people and the level above controls each level. Each level is the responsibility of the level above. For example senior managers are responsible for the line managers and line managers are responsible for sales assistants. The diagram below shows the downward flow of communication in Sainsbury’s.
I think Sainsbury’s structure is between hierarchical and tall structure. Tall structure has many layers but not as many layers as matrix structure and as less as flat structure and this means the information is not a s fast in flat structure and not as slow as in matrix structure. Due to fast flow of communication it is easier and clear between each layer. This when decisions are made they will be specific to order instructions. Strengths of Sainsbury’s structure: i. It gives them a greater sense of unity and purpose as they can see themselves as members of a team. i. It is easier to get help, as they can ask experienced colleagues or take more difficult problems to boss. iii. It makes easier to carry out joint projects as everyone involved is working together. iv. There are economies of scale as specialist staff can do more work efficiently. v. Communications from top to bottom are better, as there are definite channels through which orders can flow. Weakness of this structure: i. Hierarchies usually have tall organizational structures with seven or eight levels of authority. This means that there is long chain of command. i. Each employee is concerned mainly with his or her own function, or specialized work, and often has only employees in other departments. iii. There is natural tendency for managers to protect the interest of their own department. This may make them more concerned with office politics than with the interests of the whole firm. iv. The hierarchical system emphasizes status. This creates divisions in the firm, which are reflected in separate car-parking spaces for managers, longer holidays for white-collar workers and separate canteen for blue-collar workers.
Tesco organization structure: Tesco has a hierarchical/pyramid structure. In Tesco organisational chart they have more levels and they have more employees at down level. In hierarchical structure each functional area has many staff to do a particular task they are specialised in the job. Each person has a job role and there will be a specific salary for the job. In a hierarchical structure the communication can be distorted because their chains of command are long. When messages pass from top level to the bottom level they receive a message slightly different message than the one they intended to receive.
In hierarchical structure the staffs at the bottom level feels that the manager at the top has no idea what they think or do. In a hierarchical structure many people have to be consulted before a decision is made. This means that the company is slow in responding to changes. The p of control is less in Tesco because they have many levels and the p of control explains the person who is responsible for you. For example if a store manager has 4 sections manager then his p of control are four. In hierarchical there is a good promotion prospectus because of many levels.
Sainsbury’s organizational culture: Sainsbury is a varied company and I don’t feel it can safely be placed into any of these categories, but I will say it’s a mixture between Role culture and Task culture. Since Sainsbury is a big organization there can be many things at once, I feel Sainsbury has taken the best attributes of the two and made their own Sainsbury’s culture. This includes: – i. Very tall and board structure but with many web links. ii. Strict communication channels low down. iii. Jobs, not people lowdown (but they do get their say when needed). iv. Jobs suited to the task in the central range. . Communication between departments by knowledgeable workers (not manual laborers). vi. Formal communication going up the hierarchy. All these are associated with the two cultures and so Sainsbury can’t be defined to one group. Since Human culture is a mixture of hundreds of separate culture trying to produce the best of all words. In my opinion Sainsbury’s would more suite the Role culture since the formal structure also emphasizes this by adding a rigid structure you add a formality quality or a freedom associated with the person, thus the job is more than the employee, which is the role culture.
These two also dictate the management style because Role culture has important job. There is communication with the job not the person, this is autocratic because the person has no say. The structure means there is a formality also so Sainsbury is a formal business and this means all jobs are done in formal and this should increase production by having quick workers who don’t have to think. All the difference influences each other because they all have an effect on certain aspects of the company. They all knock on to each other and manipulate the finer points of each.
Tesco organizational culture: Tesco’s corporate culture can be determined from its corporate responsibility statements, which describe its core values and core ideologies as well as some aspects of cultural artifacts. Tesco’s stated core priorities include: i. Ensuring community, corporate responsibility and sustainability are at the heart of our business. ii. Being a good neighbor and being responsible, fair and honest. iii. Considering our social, economic and environmental impact as we make our decisions. (Tesco, 2008) These values have had a significant impact on the way in which Tesco does business, as well as its inancial performance. For example, its expansion into California was designed to be not only profitable, but also socially responsible. As in the United Kingdom, American inner cities have a food supply problem wherein there are few large supermarkets and the smaller supermarkets do not have an adequate supply of fresh foods, including fruits, vegetables and proteins. How the relationships structure and culture can impact Sainsbury and Tesco’s performance: Tesco’s organisational structure is a hierarchical structure.
In a hierarchical structure the communication can be distorted as messages pass from one level to another means that the staff at the bottom level receive a slightly a different message than the message they intent to receive it. Many people’s have to be consulted before a decision is made so the company is slow in responding to changes and challenges. This means they cannot provides quick services to their customers and it is going to affect in terms of sales and profit but there is an advantage that if everybody is consulted they will come out with the best results.
In hierarchical structure there are specific functional areas and job roles. The employees can be easily identified and given training so they can provide good services to their customers. Hierarchical structure has good delegations because they are many people’s with specialised skills are working here so they can easily assign their subordinates for a particular task. The p of control is less than the flat structures. In hierarchical structures they have good promotion prospectus so the staff are motivated and they provides good services to their customers.
I think that the impact of the organizational structure has an excellent impact on Sainsbury due to the staff of Sainsbury working hard and being highly motivated in the work that they do, and the customer service that they provide for the customers that shop at Sainsbury. This is due to the human resources function of Sainsbury recruiting staff that they feel is suitable to work at Sainsbury, this could be due to the experience, qualifications, and availability of the member of staff working at Sainsbury.
The finance function helps Sainsbury by the accountants keeping accounts up to date, this is an advantage because this has an impact on Sainsbury by enabling it to see if the financial factors of Sainsbury are improving or declining, and if new targets should be set, and if new objectives should be made. The marketing function has an impact on Sainsbury by the way that it helps the supermarket grow bigger by the advertisement campaigns it launches to make potential customers of Sainsbury notice what Sainsbury has to offer them. Task2: Understand different approaches to management and leadership. P2. : Compare the effectiveness of different leadership style in different organizations. In the below we discuss about various type of management style: Scientific management: According to Fredrick Winslow Taylor, “Scientific management means knowing exactly what you want men to do and seeing that they do it in the best and the cheapest way. ” Classical administration: Henri Fayol was a French industrialist, according to him, the idea that all organizations could be structured managed according to certain rational principle. Bureaucracy: An organization structured on classical lines is often identified as a bureaucracy.
Human relations approach: The human relations approach emphasised the importance of human attitudes, values and relationships for the efficient and effective functioning of work organizations. Systems approach: Systems approach described as which consists of interdependent parts. Every system has a boundary which defines what it is ‘inside’ what is ‘outside’ the system. Contingency approach: The contingency approach to organization developed as a reaction to the idea that there are universal principles for designing organization, motivating staff and others.
In the below we discuss about some function of management: Planning: This essentially means looking to the future. It involves selecting the ends which the organization wishes to achieve. Organizing: The work to be done must be divided and structured into task and jobs. Commanding: Fayol called this maintaining activity among the personal. Co-ordination: this is the task of harmonizing the activities of individuals and groups within the organization. Controlling: This is the task of monitoring the activities of individual and groups. P2. : Explain how organizational theory underpins the practice of management In the below we discuss about various managerial role: Interpersonal Roles: Interpersonal roles process and outlined three basic roles. Those are: i. Figurehead. ii. Leader. iii. Liaison. Informational role: A manager is likely to have a wider network of contacts within and outside the organization than his subordinates. So he is the best parson to gather and spread information. Decisional roles: The manager’s formal authority and access to information put him in a strong position to take decisions.
In the below we discuss about nature of managerial authority: Power: Power is the ability to do something or get others to do it. Authority: Authority is the right to do something or to get others to do it. Responsibility: Responsibility is the liability of a person to be called to account for the way he was exercised the authority given to him. Delegation: Delegation is the process whereby superior A gives subordinate B authority over a defined area which falls within the scope of A’s own authority. P2. 3: Evaluate the different approaches to management used by different organizations.
Opportunist: The opportunist action-logic is aimed at controlling their environment in order to survive. Typically development has been blocked by a legacy of mistrust, egocentrism and manipulativeness. The title for this action-logic denotes a tendency to focus on personal wins and to see relationships as opportunities to be exploited. From the opportunist action-logic, the world is highly competitive. Only the fittest individuals survive and, since the opportunist assumes everybody else is also operating from this frame of reference, competition rather than collaboration is the only viable course of action.
Diplomat: Moving away from the “anything-goes-that-serves-me” framework of the Opportunist, Diplomats are aware of group strength over individual power. Thus, they seek to belong to established groups which may be based on kinship, club, church or profession. Since power comes from affiliation with others, rules and social norms are followed to seek approval and safeguard status as a group member. Achiever: Leaders who have developed this action-logic can be both challenging and supportive, creating a positive atmosphere both inside the team and external to the team.
They represent approximately 30% of the general managerial population and are tightly focused on deliverables. People whose developmental focus is on the Achiever action-logic have a more complex and integrated understanding of the world than do managers who display the previous three action logics. Strategist: At 4% of leaders, people who have developed to this action-logic are likely to be found in less conventional settings. If they have survived life in the Public service, they are likely to have developed a reputation as transformational leaders.
They distinguish themselves from Individualists through their focus on organizational constraints and perceptions, which they treat as discussible and transformable. Transformational: Transformational leadership occurs when the leader and the follower elevates one another to higher levels of motivation and morality. Carlson (1996) points out that Burns felt that leadership theories developed up to the mid-seventies were lacking ethical/moral dimensions so he elaborated on his exchange theory which maintains that followers play a crucial role in the definition of leadership.
This theory is made up of power relations and entails bargaining, trading and compromise among leaders and followers. Management styles and leadership used in Tesco’s: Tesco’s tend to use autocratic because the company needs too or the e tasks won’t be carried out within the business, also decisions need to be made quickly or they won’t be done for example a task that is set for a shelf filler to put the milk out but hasn’t been told to put the milk out because the management are still deciding who’s going to put what out, so the milk would be still sat in the storage room and the customers cant buy it.
So if the management didn’t use autocratic then Tesco’s wouldn’t be run sufficiently. Tesco also uses management by objectives. They use this because they state to each employee in their appraisals what their objectives are for a certain period. Also each manager is set objectives by their line manager for their team for example the sales team’s objective that has been set is to increase the amount of customers using Tesco by 25%. The way in which Tesco is structured and managed. (Management at Tesco. ” 123HelpMe. com. 05 Jan 2012 . )
Management styles and leadership used in Sainsbury’s: If a company adopts the consultative style, then the person may well set the objectives and this would mean a lesser extent of pushing to achieve objectives. In my opinion Sainsbury uses a mixture of two types of management style. First being autocratic means the objectives would be set up and to a good standard; they will want the most work out of their subordinates, to gain maximum value. For the key areas of operations: Sainsbury is using autocratic management style, for setting its objectives, policies at top management level. They also use democratic management style.
These would be set to gain maximum revenue they would want this and strive to get this because this style is associated with the managerial levels and will mean they get bonuses. For overall working of the organization at middle management levels and lower management levels, the style of Sainsbury is democratic, because the area of operations is widely decentralized and for the implementation of policies in three different segments, policies should be consulted with the local personal, which are specially appointed for this purpose. As they know the inner constraints, strengths of that particular segment.
Task3: Understand ways of using motivational theories in organization. P3. 1: Discuss the impact that different leadership styles may have on motivation in organizations in periods of change. Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs: The basis of Maslow’s theory of motivation is that human beings are motivated by unsatisfied needs, and that certain lower needs need to be satisfied before higher needs can be addressed. Per the teachings of Abraham Maslow, there are general needs (physiological, safety, love, and esteem) which have to be fulfilled before a person is able to act unselfishly.
These needs were dubbed “deficiency needs. ” While a person is motivated to fulfill these basal desires, they continue to move toward growth, and eventually self-actualization. The satisfaction of these needs is quite healthy. While preventing their gratification makes us ill or act evilly. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Chart As a result, for adequate workplace motivation, it is important that leadership understands which needs are active for individual employee motivation. In this regard, Abraham Maslow’s model indicates that basic, low-level needs such as physiological requirements and safety must be atisfied before higher-level needs such as self-fulfillment are pursued. As depicted in this hierarchical diagram, sometimes called ‘Maslow’s Needs Pyramid’ or ‘Maslow’s Needs Triangle’, when a need is satisfied it no longer motivates and the next higher need takes its place. Herzberg’s theory: Hygiene Factors Hygiene factors are based on the need to for a business to avoid unpleasantness at work. If these factors are considered inadequate by employees, then they can cause dissatisfaction with work. Hygiene factors include: – Company policy and administration Wages, salaries and other financial remuneration – Quality of supervision – Quality of inter-personal relations – Working conditions – Feelings of job security Motivator Factors Motivator factors are based on an individual’s need for personal growth. When they exist, motivator factors actively create job satisfaction. If they are effective, then they can motivate an individual to achieve above-average performance and effort. Motivator factors include: – Status – Opportunity for advancement – Gaining recognition – Responsibility – Challenging / stimulating work Sense of personal achievement & personal growth in a job McGregor’s theory X and Y: Theory X Theory X assumes that the average person: •Dislikes work and attempts to avoid it. •Has no ambition, wants no responsibility, and would rather follow than lead. •Is self-centered and therefore does not care about organizational goals. •Resists change. •Is gullible and not particularly intelligent. Essentially, Theory X assumes that people work only for money and security. Theory Y The higher-level needs of esteem and self-actualization are continuing needs in that they are never completely satisfied.
As such, it is these higher-level needs through which employees can best be motivated. Theory Y makes the following general assumptions: •Work can be as natural as play and rest. •People will be self-directed to meet their work objectives if they are committed to them. •People will be committed to their objectives if rewards are in place that address higher needs such as self-fulfillment. •Under these conditions, people will seek responsibility. •Most people can handle responsibility because creativity and ingenuity are common in the population.
Vroom and Expectancy theories: Essentially, expectancy theory states that the strength of an individual’s motivation to do something will depend on the extent to which he expects the result of his efforts, if successfully achieved, to contribute towards his personal needs or goals. Maccoby, Mccrac and costa: There is relative consensus on a five-factor structure of personality, based on a bipolar taxonomy of underlying traits, which is supported by factor analyses of extensive lists of trait adjectives.
The five broad personality dimensions are commonly labeled extraversion, conscientiousness, agreeableness, emotional stability, and openness. It should be noted that these dimensions are not types, meaning that personality is made up of scores on the five dimensions. Motivation and performance: Motivation, as it most nearly concerns the manager, is the controlling of the work environment and the offering of rewards in such a way as to encourage extra performance from employees. Rewards and incentives: A reward is a token (monetary or otherwise) given to an individual or team in recognition of some contribution or success.
An incentive is the offer or promise of a reward for contribution or success, designed to motivate the individual or team to behave in such a way as to earn it. Motivation and manager: Managers are constantly searching for ways to create a motivational environment where associates (employees) to work at their optimal levels to accomplish company objectives. Workplace motivators include both monetary and non-monetary incentives. Monetary and Non-monetary rewards: The purpose of monetary incentives is to reward associates for excellent job performance through money.
Monetary incentives include profit sharing, project bonuses, stock options and warrants, scheduled bonuses (e. g. , Christmas and performance-linked), and additional paid vacation time. Traditionally, these have helped maintain a positive motivational environment for associate. The purpose of non-monetary incentives is to reward associates for excellent job performance through opportunities. Non-monetary incentives include flexible work hours, training, pleasant work environment, and sabbaticals. P3. 2: Compare the application of different motivational theories within the work place.
Leadership in organization: This definition is similar to Northouse’s (2007, p3) definition — Leadership is a process whereby an individual influences a group of individuals to achieve a common goal. Managers and leaders: Influence is the process by which an individual or group exercises power to determine or modify the behavior of others. Leadership traits: People who believe that leaders are born are likely to buy into the Traits Theory. This theory basically centers itself on the leader. What are the qualities of a leader? Now if you look at the different leaders of the world, companies or armies they all carry certain traits.
It is believed that if one carries these characteristics then one is likely to become a leader. So, this theory defines what are the qualities that a leader should posses rather than leadership. If one is a leader then these leadership traits should be present. Management style: Managers have to perform many roles in an organization and how they handle various situations will depend on their style of management. There are two sharply contrasting styles that will be broken down into smaller subsets later: oAutocratic oPermissive Each style has its own characteristics:
Autocratic: Leader makes all decisions unilaterally. Permissive: Leader permits subordinates to take part in decision making and also gives them a considerable degree of autonomy in completing routine work activities. Contingency approach: The Contingency Theory takes in consideration the weaknesses of the previous theories. Since leadership functions in a dynamic situation, it is only logical that different styles and traits will work in different situations. The Contingency Theory takes into consideration the context where leadership is exercised. P3. 3: Evaluate the usefulness of a Motivation theory for managers.
Leadership and successful change in organizations: Pluralistic: inclusive enough consistent with the needs of pluralistic leadership. Such organizations emphasize hierarchy, authority and structure over participation and inclusiveness. Pluralistic leadership results in diversity and diversity results in pluralistic leadership (Bass, 1990; Millman and Kanter, 1986). Pluralistic leadership is very consistent with notions of participation of all in the leadership decisions and the understanding of multiple perspectives within the organization and outside it (Kezar, 2000).
Transformational: It depends on two main points of view: – The theoretical, and – The applied Theoretical definitions come from those that study leadership, who have the formal qualifications to write long dissertations on the subject. This body of knowledge is fantastic for grounding in the subject and to get into the depth of the potential implications, especially when it comes to the morals and ethics department. The applied is the interpretation, and then applied action in a specific field of endeavor. We’ll use the personal, organizational, and global contexts for this purpose.
You will have your own applied experience, or not, depending on where you are on your own personal Transformational Leadership journey. Communications: The closest definition of a communication leader is Gramsci’s definition of the organic intellectual – which Gramsci essentially sees as a leader. Gramsci sees in the intellectual not only as a leader but also as a poet, thinker, reader and activist. Sainsbury’s motivational theories: Sainsbury agree that employees are their most important assets and need to be treated fairly.
The good performance of employee’s management s has an effect on the organization’s success, in terms of profitability. Sainsbury give out financial rewords to most people who complete the training programme. Training is designed to keep employees motivated and is convinced to complete their training by rewarding them with financial gain. Motivation comprises of the need for employees and controls their action. Using motivation techniques can improve productivity and customer service. Also employee satisfaction leads to good service that leads to customer satisfaction.
Maslows- Hierarchy of needs This theory is based on meeting staff needs with in the workplace and suggests that meeting their needs can lead to be fill are: – Self- fulfillment- researching your full potential Self-esteem needs- status and recognition, achievement and independence Social needs- love, friendship, a sense of belonging part of a team Safety needs- protection against danger, fair treatment, job security Physiological needs- food, rest and shelter Mc Gregor- Theory x and theory y They are two types of main types of managers.
Theory x managers tend to have the point of view that the average dislikes and will try to avoid it. Therefore the managers must control direct and punish them to get them to work towards business objectives. Theory y suggests that the ordinary person does not dislike work; it all depends on the conditions in which the work takes place. If people are committed to objectives, they will be motivated towards achieving them the biggest motivation factor is the personal satisfaction of completing the job. (“A Report on Sainsbury’s Resource Management. ” 123HelpMe. com. 5 Jan 2012 . Tesco motivational theories: Tesco is Britain’s largest retailer. It now has over 2,200 stores. As well as food, it also sells other products such as insurance and banking. To support growth, Tesco needs staffs who are motivated. It achieves this by increasing their knowledge, skills and job satisfaction through training and reward systems. Needs: Self-fulfill: Tesco offers Personal Development Plans, recognition of skills and talents, opportunity for promotion and career progression programmed. Career discussions feed into Tesco’s Talent Planning meetings.
The Options fast-track management programmed provides a route for capable staff to reach higher levels. Self-esteem: Tesco values emphasize self-respect and respect for others and praise for hard work, its self assessment, 360 degree feedback and appraisal system help to recognize individuals’ contributions and importance and celebrate achievement. Social needs: Tesco promotes team and group working at various levels; The Company ‘Steering Wheel’ assesses individual and group work and enables store staff to work as a team. Working conditions and a home-from-home ethos encourages long service. Basic/physical needs
Security needs: Tesco provides the security of formal contracts of employment as well as pension and sickness schemes and the option to join a union to give people a sense of belonging. It ensures health and safety in the workplace. Basic/physical needs: This would include a place of work, regular monthly pay and essential facilities such as a restaurant or lockers for personal belongings. Tesco provides motivation for its staff through many different routes. Reviews and personal development plans ensure that employees are able to develop and grow. This benefits both staff and the business. (The Times 100 Edition 15 | www. hetimes100. co. uk) EDITION Task 4: Understand mechanisms for developing effective teamwork in organizations. P4. 1: Explain the nature of groups and group behavior within organizations. Groups: Groups in business organizations are, in effect, sub-organizations and they require management for controlled performance of collective goals, not only their own collective goals, but those of the business organization as a whole. Definition of group is ‘A group is any collection of people who perceive them to be a group’. Informal group and formal group: Informal groups will invariably be present in any organization.
Informal groups include workplace cliques and networks of people who regularly get together to exchange information, groups of mates who socialize outside work and so on. Formal groups, put together by the organization, will have formal structure and a function for which they are held responsible, they are task oriented and become teams. Team: A team is a formal group established to achieve particular objectives. Purpose of teams: i. Team allows the performance of tasks. ii. Team encourages exchange of knowledge and ideas or creation of new ideas. iii. The power of the team over individual behavior can be both: control and motivator.
Selecting team members: A manager is able to select team members, he or she shuld aim to match some requirement: i. Specialist skills and knowledge. ii. Experience. iii. Political power in the organization. iv. Access to resources, v. Competence. Team roles: RM Bellbin researched business-game teams at the Carnegie Institute of technology. He developed a picture of the character-mix in team, which many people fine a useful guide to team selection and management. Bellbin suggests effective team is made following eight roles: i. The Co-coordinator. ii. The shaper. iii. The plant. iv The monitor and evaluator. . The resource investigator. vi. The implementer. vii. The team worker. Viii. The finisher. Multi-disciplinary teams: Multi-disciplinary teams bring together individuals with different skills and specialism’s, so that their skills, experience and knowledge can be pooled or exchanged. Teambuilding: The team building goal in this learning journey is to help participants develop increased awareness of team dynamics, practical skills for maximizing team performance, and developing a belief in the power of teamwork. Team building assists participants in planning specific improvements in the way the team operates.
Participants will gain an integrated set of skills that can be applied anytime and anywhere, while enhancing their team performance, leadership abilities, and team unity. The result of applying these skills will be serious TEAMWORK – not teamwork in the ordinary sense, but something stronger, more committed, more productive, and more personal. Team identity: A manager may be able to increase his work groups sense of itself as a team by any or all the following means: i. Giving the team a name. ii. Giving team a badge or uniform. iii. Expressing the team’s self-image. iv. Building a team mythology.
Commitment to shared belief: All team members must agree on what the team is trying to accomplish. Teams work much harder if members have a say in team goals and focus. Having team members discuss and decide on team goals would foster this sense of team commitment. P4. 2: Discuss factors that may promote or inhabit the development of effective teamwork in organizations. Group norms: The rules of behavior that are part of the ideology of the group. Norms tend to reflect the values of the group and specify those actions that are proper and those that are inappropriate, as well as rewards for adherence and the punishment for conformity.
Group decision-making behavior: As we noted, empowerment involves groups in decision-making. This can be having benefited where: i. Pooling skills, information and ideas. ii. Participation in the decision-making process makes the discussion acceptable of the group. Dysfunctional team: Dysfunctional is defined as “abnormal or unhealthy interpersonal behavior or interaction within a group”. Most definitions state that a team is dysfunctional when individuals strive to conform to the prevailing thought processes or decisions within the group, at the expense of feelings of individual responsibility or personal views.
Cohesiveness: Cohesiveness is generally defined as “the resultant of all forces acting on all the members to remain in the group” (Cartwright, 1968, p. 91). Group cohesiveness is one of the essential concepts for understanding group dynamics (Zander, 1979) studied for its conceptual similarity with teamwork. P4. 3: Evaluate the impact of technology on team functioning within a given organization. Technology: Technology teams share a common goal: all members are dedicated to helping writing project site leadership meet local needs and priorities through the wise integration and implementation of technology.
But while these tech teams generally have a similar purpose, the ways in which writing project sites have gone about establishing and using their technology teams are as nuanced as the sites themselves. Communication: One way to start developing a communications strategy is to look at the nature of the different kinds of work the team will be doing and what kind of communication is needed to support that work. There is a continuum which describes how individuals (or sub-groups) on the team are working from autonomously to interdependently.
For example, there may be some tasks unique to a specific country which team members can do on their own without interacting with anyone else on the team. Other product-related projects may require more collaboration among team members in different parts of the region. Change: All these changes in organizations have changed how teams are formed and how they operate. Teams have changed: From fixed team membership all team members drawn from within the organization team members are dedicated 100% to the team team members are co-located organizationally and geographically teams have a fixed starting and ending point eams are managed by a single manager To shifting team membership team members can include people from outside the organization (clients, collaborators) most people are members of multiple teams team members are distributed organizationally and geographically teams form and reform continuously teams have multiple reporting relationships with different parts of the organization at different times Network and virtual teams: The nature of teams has changed significantly because of changes in organizations and the nature of the work they do. Organizations have become more distributed across geography and across industries.
Relationships between people inside an organization and those previously considered outside (customers, suppliers, managers of collaborating organizations, other stakeholders) are becoming more important. Organizations have discovered the value of collaborative work. There is a new emphasis on knowledge management – harvesting the learning of the experience of members of the organization so that it is available to the whole organization. Global and cross-culture teams: Cross-cultural training usually occurs as an integral component of training that’s designed primarily to attain a broader objective.
Two of GROVEWELL’s Global Leadership Programs provide examples. •Influencing Colleagues across Organizational Units & Mindsets is primarily about influencing colleagues within global organizations, but is infused with the intercultural perspective. •Working Effectively on International Projects is primarily for the managers and staff of global projects; it, too, is infused with the intercultural perspective. Effective teamwork in Sainsbury: General theories of work design suggest that groups can humanize work with group tasks designed to create meaningful work.
Team working is associated with higher job satisfaction according to job characteristics and participative management theories. The variety of tasks in teams encourages workers to learn and use different skills and rotate between jobs to reduce the boredom of repetitive work. This enables team members to share a sense of collective responsibility for work in their area and to develop the mix of skills necessary for effective work teams who share both identification with a common task and mutual beliefs. Teams also make possible employee participation in goal setting, thereby enhancing intrinsic motivation for team members. www. sainsburys. co. uk J Sainsbury plc Annual Report and Financial Statements 2005 accessed through www. sainsburys. co. uk) Effective teamwork in Tesco: We treat people how we like to be treated. We want our people to enjoy working at Tesco. Our people do a great job each and every day by giving our customers the best possible shopping trip. By creating an open environment of trust and respect, our people feel supported, they share their knowledge and experience and work hard to give our customers great service.
We support our people, trusting in their ability to deliver while helping them to reach their full potential. We encourage our people to learn on the job and take responsibility from day one. Giving our people an opportunity to get on in their careers is very important. With the increasing breadth of the Tesco business, our people have a great opportunity to develop their skills and experience across new product areas, services and countries. Every year, we build our plans for the year around our People Promises.
We want all of our people across all of our markets to: • be treated with respect; • have an opportunity to get on; • have a manager who helps them; and • have an interesting job. It’s through our People Promises and our benefits package that we are proud to say that our people stay with us for a long time. Around half of our Director population has at least 12 years’ service. Effective teamwork in Asda: Asda changes Norman outlines – in the way people work together and communicate with each other – are more complex.
The company’s goal is to become a genuine leader in fresh foods and clothing – making the George brand a ‘real brand’, second in the UK to Marks & Spencer’s St Michael – and also to create an ‘organization which is the preferred place to work’, offering customer service ‘with a personality derived from the heart of the company’. One change has, accordingly, been in the approach to recruitment, which now aims to seek out people for the stores who really do want to serve the customers and who genuinely like selling. There is no point, he remarks, in employing people who won’t like the ‘Asda Way of Working’.
This is the name given to the new approach, intended to transform the old culture, which had grown autocratic and slow-moving, to one where all members of Asda feel involved in improving the business – the equivalent, within the context of a corporation, of market-stallholders, who run their own show, and who engage actively with their customers. (http://www. managementtoday. co. uk/news/410110/UK-ASDAS-OPEN-PLAN Bibliography: Reference: 1. HNC, HND BTEC Business Course Book, Organization behavior, Unit-3, first edition September 2000, publishing BPP, ISBN 0 7517 70337.


How important are the employees to the organization?

Table of Contents
Assignment Topic
Look at various corporate and organizational websites and notice how important employee are to the organization. Questions

Are there indicators that employees are a key concern?
Or are the employees merely a means to helping the company succeed? What are some methods of building relationships with employees? What communications can help with that relationship-building? Methodology
To answer the above question, I am collecting data regarding the respective companies from the websites and provide my opinion based on the collected data. Companies under study are:
About the company:
Harley-Davidson, Inc. is a motorcycle manufacturer that produces heavyweight motorcycles and a complete line of motorcycle parts, accessories and general merchandise. Company culture:
Harley Davidson believes that employees are the long term competitive advantage of the organization. They provide employees with opportunities for growth and professional development. Employee benefits:
Medical Plan
Prescription Drug Plan
Dental Plan
Vision Plan
Retirement Plan – 401(k) and/or Pension Plan
Life Insurance
Disability Benefits
Employee Assistance Plan
Flexible Spending Accounts
Vacation and Holidays
Tuition reimbursement
Harley-Davidson Stock Purchase Plan
Discounts and/or Financing on Company products
Wellness Resources
Variable Compensation Programs
Employee feedback:
Positives points
Free lunch are provided
Exercise/workout room is available for the employees
Good Pay comparable with other industry standards
Work 4 days a week
Free clothes
Free accomodation
Negative points:
Weird work schedule
Job Rotation
No Paid Holidays & Benefits
Over time
About the company:
Group Danone is a food company that primarily produces fresh milk products, baby foods, biscuits, cereal products and medical nutrition products. It also co-produces bottled water. The Company operates through numerous subsidiaries in Europe, Asia and Americas. Company culture:
Danone values the employees and offers benefits in terms of equality (comparable to other industry) and equity (based on individuals performance) Employee benefits:
Remuneration based on Geography and Economy
Social Protection
Pension Policy
Profit Sharing
Employee feedback:
Positives points
Good Pay
Challenging Job
Good Social Benefits
Negative points:
Work Time
Bad Logistics
About the company:
NIIT is an information technology (IT) solutions organization engaged in application development and maintenance, managed services, cloud computing and business process outsourcing to organizations in the financial services, insurance, travel, transportation and logistics, manufacturing and distribution and government sectors. The Company delivers services across continents directly and through its network of subsidiaries. It is servicing customers in North & South America, Europe, the Middle East, Asia and Australia. Company culture:
NIIT values employees as the most important and strongest asset. Employee benefits:
Healthcare and Insurance
Retirement Plan – 401(k)
Holidays and Vacation
Tax free Commuter Program benefits
Dependent Care Employee Assistance Programs
Family Medical Leave
Health Club
Take a break scheme – eEmployee gets refunded for going on vacation once in a year Dating allowance – Rs:3000/- per year paid on birthday for dating/going on dinner with family Work from Home – 24 days a year an employee can work from home with approval from supervisor Happy Nappy Day – birthday is a compulsory holiday for an employee Employee feedback:
Positives points
Employee friendly policies
Good growth opportunity
Negative points:
Rigid internal process
Very slow decision making
Low pay
Are there indicators that employees are a key concern?
Yes, all the companies under study had indicators that employee are the key concern of the organization in their HR policies.
Or are the employees merely a means to helping the company succeed? No, the companies believe that employees are the long term advantage and asset, it can have. And they provide necessary training and benefits to the employees
What are some methods of building relationships with employees? The commonly used method of relationship building with employees are good remuneration
social and health benefits
vacation and additional resources
career growth options
What communications can help with that relationship-building? Relationship building can be communicated through or as a part of the companies culture, HR Policy and among employees through forums or unions.
Harley-Davidson–davidson/reviews Danone
Employee – Personal Feedback


Security organizations and counterterrorism

It is explicitly declared in the manual that Muslim religious goals and quests can not be attained except by force though bombings, assassinations, as well as wanton slaughter of human beings. Anti-terror professionals are thus warned that it is almost futile to try to engage such extremists in any from of dialogue since it has been implanted into their conscious selves that only force and aggression can yield fruits. Counterterrorism efforts should thus not have discussion as one of the ways to manage terrorism since the militias are not responsive to dialogue.

The manual declares that Muslims can only resist the alleged condition of unawareness by being united and conforming to Muslim religious ideals. Counterterrorist experts are thus informed to be vigilant and wary of Islamic groupings since such are the ideal places where Islamic militias congregate, strategize, and share ideas. The terrorism guidebook offers three key principles necessary for establishing Islamic military organizations, which include: organization advisory committee and commander; soldiers; and a clearly-defined plan.

This informs counterterrorism experts that Islamic terrorists are well-organized groups with a clear hierarchical power struc6ture. It is thus prudent to carry out a systematic dismantling of such organizations for effective handling of terrorism. Such measures would include firsts identifying the actual persons involved in terror activities, from planners to implementers, and then directly dealing with individual persons (Terrorist Training Manual, 2000).
Several requirements for the Islamic military organizations are listed including: counterfeit money and fake documents; apartments plus hiding quarters; means of communication; means of transport; ammunition and arms; information; and transport. This implies that such Islamists are well prepared and hence counterterrorism personnel ought to have superior preparedness and planning in order to effectively tackle terrorism. Among the missions of Islamic military organizations is to kidnap enemy documents, personnel, arms, and secrets.
Counterterrorism experts are thus required to be vigilant in securing such entities at all times, particularly those belonging to nations which are ideological enemies with Islamic regimes. The assassination of overseas tourists and enemy personnel is another mission of Islamic militias. Counterterrorism should therefore seek to ensure the safety of tourists abroad by either offering guidelines on safe places to visit or issuing travel advisories if there is reason to fear for the safety of tourists while overseas.
Another mission of Muslim jihadists is the spreading of rumors as well as issuing statements that incite the masses against he perceived enemy. Counterterrorism should thus aim to try to prevent the publication of such inciting statements, intercept and destroy them before they reach their target audience or destroy the places where they are produced. The jihadists as well have the mission of bombing and obliterating embassies plus attacking important financial centers.
This calls for heightened and vigilant surveillance on the overseas facilities such as embassies and business premises owned by regimes which the Muslim jihadists consider as enemies. The jihadists also aim to blow up bridges linking cities with neighboring areas as one of their missions. It is vital for counterterrorism personnel to be on the lookout and secure vital bridges to avert any possible strikes. Recruits into the jihadist movement ought to be Muslims. This implies that counterterrorism personnel ought to concentrate on Muslim characters when managing terrorism.
Members as well should be mature, that is of the age of majority. Counterterrorism should thus focus on mature Muslim persons when investigating terror activities. One requirement for membership is the ability and commitment top keep secrets even from the closest persons. Counterterrorism experts ought o be therefore aware that it is hard to extract information from such terrorists and hence devise efficient methods of getting such information (Terrorist Training Manual, 2000).
Regarding operational moneys, it is stated that they are to be split into 2 parts, with one segment going into schemes that provide monetary returns, while the other is kept to be spent only in the course of operations. This informs counterterrorism experts that the jihadists operate decoy projects which they use to earn cash for furthering their military objectives. Therefore, any enterprises having Muslim connections ought to be fully investigated to establish their owners, financiers and beneficiaries.
The jihadists’ photos on traveling documents ought not to have a beard according to the manual. This should inform counterterrorism experts that the old notion that Muslims and jihadists always wear beards should be discarded so as to be able to effectively investigate the activities of suspect Muslims. Agreements are to be rent4ed preferably on ground floors to permit easy escape as well as digging ditches. Counterterrorism experts should thus be on the lookout particularly for suspects who live on ground floors when investigating terrorism activities.
Apartments are to be rented preferably within newly-developed localities because people in such areas generally do not know each other and hence strangers are not as easily identifiable as in older neighborhoods. Counterterrorism experts therefore should particularly carry out surveillance in such neighborhoods for any suspicious characters. Organization members are instructed to offer information that is bound to mislead security agencies when they discover that their telephone conversations are being tapped into.
This further complicates the work of counterterrorism agencies since they ought to be wary of volunteer information that is purported to implicate militants. Proper vetting and scrutiny of any informer-derived information is important to make sure that security agencies do not fall into the tricks of the jihadists and hence end up unnecessarily wasting time and possible resources (Terrorist Training Manual, 2000). The guidebook states that training venues for Islamic military organizations ought t to be located far away from areas with may people.
Counterterrorism agencies therefore have got to conduct searches for such training sites away from major cities and towns preferably in the countryside where there are few people residing therein. The Islamic organization generally avoids overcrowded place such as, train stations, cafes, and recreation places. Security and counterterrorism agencies ought to specifically target less crowded places when carrying out anti-terrorism activities. Members of the organization carrying out strike operations are instructed not to appear Muslim-like and if possible, to completely disguise themselves.
This is a challenge for security and counter-terror agencies since it appears like it is pointless to target and investigate overt Muslims regarding terrorism. Priority should be placed on members of the public who do not have outward Muslim appearances. Fighters in the Muslim military organization are taught beforehand about the answers to provide to security forces in the event that they are intercepted. Security agencies thus ought to be a bit more creative and flexible regarding the questions they field to suspects during interrogations.
Routine, standard, and typical questions ought to be avoided. Questions should be asked depending on the environment so as to gather useful facts and surprise the Islamists into disclosing valuable information. The guidebook contains instructions to the effect that surveillance vehicle number plates and make should be similar to those of target vehicles. This should appropriately inform security agencies to be cautious when trailing or attacking suspicious vehicles as innocent persons, with cars matching the terrorists’ vehicle, may be involved.
The Islamic organization is seemingly using ciphers according to the guidebook. Security organizations and counterterrorism personnel ought to be well versed with the various systems of cipher text currently employed so as to accurately and speedily interpret information when it is intercepted to facilitate quick and appropriate action (Terrorist Training Manual, 2000). Members of the Islamic organization are instructed not to confess of their involvement with the jihadist movement if they get arrested and are brought to trial.
Security agencies should be aware that such characters will not provide any useful information that could lead to the dismantling of the terrorist cells. Other methods of obtaining information, other than interrogation and questioning ought to be developed to ensure effective handling of the terrorists and their activities. Members are as well instructed to be observant, alert, and watchful of the places they are interrogated at, which mostly are security facilities, so as to relay information to the jihadist movement regarding the physical set up of such buildings.
This should ring a bell in security circles and appropriate places of interrogation should be created to avoid letting the Islamic militia get to know the set up of government facilities in case they plan future attacks on the same. Reference Terrorist Training Manual (May 2000). Provided courtesy of the Behavioral Analysis Program, Operational Training Unit, Counterintelligence Division, FBI Headquarters.


Business Organizations

Founder’s syndrome: When founders try to hang on to control to the detriment of the organization is widely identified as an issue for non-profit and for-profit organizations. Recently, it’s emerged as a concern in the world of tech start-ups, where founder identification with the business or product is often as passionate and personal as that of social entrepreneurs (Linnell, 2004; Rowat, 2007).
The common thread in founder’s syndrome across sectors is the type of person who establishes a non-profit, tech firm, or social entrepreneurship. In all instances, these individuals tend to be passion-driven people with a sense of personal mission that translates to their organization.
They are, understandably, highly identified with the organizations they create, and this individual sense of commitment is often critical to bringing the organization through its early growth stages.There is no doubt the founder is central in the early days of social entrepreneurship.

Later, during the growth stage, the founder may retain leadership importance to a significant degree and, according to Johnson (2014), there is evidence that founders, with their charisma and persuasive ability, are vital to attracting investor capital during the scaling stage (Johnson, 2014).
At the critical growth stage, it is necessary for businesses to replace individual leadership with corporate leadership, establishing the governance systems and processes required by larger, more complex, and necessarily more accountable, organizations. Founders who cannot or will not let go of personal influence when this moment arrives inadvertently endanger the future of their organization and its mission with their determination to stay in control.
None of this may ultimately be the founder’s fault. In fact, rather than being seen as a failure on the part of the founder, founder’s syndrome is seen as a failure of a more extensive organizational leadership that allows a focus on the founder to distract from a focus on business strategy and mission (Schmidt, 2013).
Businesses that neglect to create governance systems create a climate where founder’s syndrome (among other issues) can adversely affect the company. Good governance practice provides a way for organizations to make a smooth transition from founder-led to governing board-led organization.
Establishing a strong, unified, independent board with robust accountability and decision-making systems makes companies capable of avoiding some of the worst negative impacts of founder’s syndrome without destroying the positive benefit the founder brings to the organization or sacrificing the connection between mission and business established by the founder.


Does the Balanced Scorecard Add Value to the Organization and BSC’s Effect on Performance?

This report is about to find the effectiveness of Balanced Scorecard (BSC) on the company’s performance and how much the BSC is going to add value to the organization.
BSC is a strategic planning and management system, used by organizations to communicate, prioritize and measure their goals and strategies. It is mostly used in industry, business, government and non-profit organizations around the globe. Fifty percent of the large firms in the US and other countries have adopted BSC and is one of the most influential, innovative ideas in the business field over the past 75 years.
Due to the rise in popularity of BSC, and benefits attributed to its usage, Atkinson and others (1997) stated that in management accounting, BSC is a key advancement which requires attention in research.

This report is prepared to find out whether BSC is positively correlated with value creation for companies that are using it. This research can be structured around three main issues:

The characteristics of the predominant diffusion
The analysis of the contribution of BSC to firm’s performance and
The way BSC affects this contribution.

But according to the research from few of the articles; like in one of the article BSC has been used to investigate the effects of its adoption and its impact on workplace attitudes and behaviours. BSC has been considered as a good practice in the United Arab Emirates(UAE) and the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia(KSA). From, this article it was concluded that the adoption of BSC has positively increased the abilities of the companies and also has enhanced their performance in different perspectives;

Learning and Growth Perspective: the adoption of BSC has allowed the companies to effectively understand customers’ needs and helped in improving their corporate reputation and brand image.
Internal Process Perspective: the adoption of BSC has efficiently improved the alignment of service department and strengthened the overall working environment.
Customer Perspective: the adoption of BSC also increased customer satisfaction and loyalty.
Financial Perspective: the adoption of BSC also improved the profitability and productivity of the company.

From another article, BSC has been tested as a five-level taxonomy to classify firm’s performance measurement systems(PMS). The five-level taxonomy was used to categorize the PMS of 149 organizations and it was found that 111 organizations (74.5%) PMS met the criteria to be classified as a basic Level 1 BSC, while 61 organizations (40.9%) have systematically achieved Level 3 BSCs and 36 organizations (24.2%) have fully developed Level 5 BSCs.
This article clearly defines the differences between Level 1 and Level 5 BSC organizations. To conclude, both the planned and emergent approaches to implement BSC are acceptable, it also appears that organizations move up the BSC levels, many make a deliberate decision to implement BSC, while almost others do not (56% of the Level 5 BSC organizations said that their performance measurement system was a BSC).
If at all organizations wish to progress to higher levels of BSC implementation, greater involvement of senior management is required. It also assists the managers to guide and measure their organization’s BSC implementation process when compared to BSC taxonomy.
So, from the overall research from various articles it was found that, BSC approach positively adds value to the business by improving its PMS and by increasing the firm’s ability, capability, profitability and enhancing a good working environment.

Davis,S. and Albright,T.(2004),”An investigation of the effect of Balanced Scorecard implementation on financial performance”, CIMA Management Accounting Research, 15(2), pp. 135-153.
Geuser,F.D. Mooraj,S. ; Oyon.D(2009), “Does the Balanced Scorecard Add Value? Empirical Evidence on its Effect on Performance”, European Accounting
Review, pp.93-122.Jabeen.F, Behery.M(2017) “Exploring the status and effects of Balanced Scorecard adoption in the non-western context: Evidence from the Middle East”, Journal of Management Development, Vol.36 Issue: 8, pp.1063-1075.
Soderberg.M, Kalagnanam.S, Sheehan.N.T, Vaidyanathan.G, (2011) “When is a Balanced Scorecard a Balanced Scorecard?”, International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, Vol.60 Issue: 7, pp. 688-708.


Technology and Organization Structure

Technology has invaded every aspect of our lives. In the past new technologies were meet with resistance that has since subsided and in many ways have become a part of standard operating procedure in our daily lives. The business world has not escaped the advancements of technology; in fact many companies have embraced the innovations and use them to their benefit. Employees in one office can communicate with their counterparts, clients and others almost effortlessly and in real time in other offices, states, and on other continents.Olsen & Pedersen (2009) postulate that modern technology is enveloping, multifaceted and rapidly changing as is evident in every area of our lives. As a result leaders have used technology in a variety of ways ranging from conducting long distance meetings to making informed decisions about the organization, and allow employees to work in teams irrespective of their locations.
Organizations in many industries are face with the decision of how best to incorporate technology into their organization’s structure.While technology is available to an organization, it is most effective when the technology enhances the organization’s strategy, structure, communication, employee relationships and the company’s overall performance. Technology today has moved from what Henderson & Venkatraman (1993) refers to as a “back office” position to a more focal and significant role that has brought about change and has the potential to bring about greater transformation. Technological advancements could possibly bring about new strategies for some organizations and change the way they conduct business.In some instances companies are started because of the specific technologies. One example of this is a small business in near my office that creates, hosts, and maintains websites. If it were not for technology there would be not websites therefore it would be reasonable to assume that there would most likely no need for such a business.
Organizational structures My organization is based on a centralized management structure. The leaders of SWRC have a vision for our organization and they do not stray from this vision or what is referred to as “their tried and proven strategy”.As a leader it is my responsibility to carry out the vision of the leaders, positively influence and empower employees, help the organization move forward, and elevate my leadership skills. My input is welcomed and sometimes implemented once it does not stray from the organization’s core beliefs, mission, and strategy. Hence leaders below the CEO had limited decision making powers. A&M on the other hand operates under more of a decentralized company structure. According to a leader (Mr.

Phillips) in that company the decision making process is more shared; this approach has played a major role in A&M’s success. Mr. Phillips expressed that empowering leaders has brought out the best in the leaders within his company. Additionally, these leaders have in turn empowered employees creating a sense of ownership in the company, which translates to greater commitment to the company and increased employee self worth. Mr. Phillips’ sentiment on leadership and the empowerment are shared by Lashley (1995) who asserts that employees who are empowered tend to be more committed to success.Literature Review In the 1970s Mohr (1971) expressed that the relationship between technology and organizational structure was not clearly established.
Technology forth years ago was limited in scope especially in comparison to what is available today and what is on the horizon. It is almost impossible to imagine what technology will encompass forty years from now in general or within organizations. Mohr (1971) postulated that both organizational structure and technology are not simple concepts to address, and this is certainly evident even today as the definition of technology varies.Despite the varying views on the technology’s extent, it is evident that technology exists and plays a role in our private lives, the business world, science, education, philosophy, politics, ethics, and will continue to become more expansive in the future (Olsen, Pedersen & Hendricks, 2009). One major aspect of the relationship between technology and organization structure is efficiency. There is growing consensus that their needs to be a strategic alignment between technology and organizations.Henderson and Venkatraman (1993) suggests that their needs to be a connection between promising technology and strategic management and “continuous adaption and change” (p.
4). This idea is valid because with the rapid changes in technology, the changing needs of organizations, and the constant demands from the public both the organization and their technology should be cohesive and equipped to change. McCullough’s (2004) compiled data from 110 companies in two emerging markets to determine whether or not there is a relationship between organizational effectiveness and technology.The study found that among the firms examined information technology positively influenced the organizations’ effectiveness. Comparisons of technological interactions between organizations The first of the two organizations is an international multifaceted non-profit that provides a wide array of services to disadvantaged individuals and families across the world. For privacy purposes this organization will be referred to as SWRC. Contrary to popular belief and many other non-profits, my organization pays close attention to the many advancements in technology.
As a leader within my organization (SWRC) I am a part of a forward thinking group of individuals who while conservative, they embrace advancement and remains relevant. The second company which I will refer to as A&M is much less conservative in their operation and leadership and is also a forward thinking for- profit organization. A&M is a multinational consulting firm specializing in Turnaround and Restructing, Performance Improvement, Dispute Analysis and Forensics, Transaction Advisory and Tax Advisory.According to the company’s website the firm’s clients include 95% of AmLaw 100 firms, 25% of the S&P 500, 40% of all Fortune 100 companies and 18 of 20 of the largest banks in the U. S. The firm employees approximately 1700 employees and last year’s billings approach $1 Billion dollars. The corporate structure of A&M plays a very important role in the firms’ technological needs.
Specifically, most of the employees are analysts who spend a significant amount of their billable time at client sites.Therefore every employee, even support staff who spends all of their time in-house, is issued a laptop. There are no desktops in the environment. The mobility of the staff drives the need for secure remote access to resources back at the corporate headquarters or the specific local office. VPN technology is therefore of utmost importance. Even with remote access provide some client site, for secure purpose, do not allow VPN access from their site. The technical staff of A&M therefore turned to a VPN technology that utilized commonly allowed web protocols.
Mobility of the workforce also required a means to secure the information that is stored on the analyst laptops. A&M deployed a laptop encryption technology to protect against stolen or lost laptop revealing private data. In addition the data contained on the laptop needed to be backed up in case of accidental or intentional destruction of that data. The firm chose an online service that allowed the data on the laptops to be backed up and restored when necessary. Mobility of most of the firms’ employees almost drives the adoption of mobile phones and mobile messaging.Both these needs are achieved with the use of Blackberry mobile messaging devices. The analyst and support staff needs to be able to respond to emails from any location at almost any time.
The blackberry devices provide mobile access to the firms email system and with a service offered by the mobile provider, a call to a desk phone simultaneously rings on the mobile phone. Therefore, the analyst will not miss a call or an email unless they are not in a coverage area. Analysts also travel and work for short and extended period of time in other A&M offices.With a feature of the Voice over IP technology the user can log into any phone and his phone profile, like phone number and speed dials, follows them to that phone. These are only two examples of how the corporate structure of A&M determines the type of technology it uses. Technology serves as an enabler for the structure of A&M. Scott and Davis (2007) suggest that technology is one of the means by which an organization accomplishes their work.
Securing documents, financial and other record, etc of A&M as well as their clients is vital to them remaining reputable in their line of business more so than some other companies.SWRC’s success is hinged on their ability to meet the needs of the disadvantaged and their aggressive fundraising; technology plays a significant role in attaining these accomplishments. My organization also uses technology to respond to emails, on desktop computers, laptops and mobile devices; however the need for swiftness and being attached to an electronic leach is not at the same level. Advance technologies have opened up new methods of communications, fundraising, advertising, reaching the community, and improved efficiency for the employees of SWRC.My organization’s client list is not listed on our website nor is it widely discussed throughout the organization. Complex technologies have also created opportunities for business development at A&M through greater collaboration, increased accessibility to information, and information sharing. According to an article in Business Week back in 1995, technology has a large appeal and when designed well leads to people and organizations more efficient, profitable, and knowledgeable.
Conclusion The three articles used in this paper indicate that technology has played a significant role in organizational structure for several years.Both of the organizations discussed have experienced increased effectiveness, broaden the channels of communication, responsiveness to customers and clients, and has improved employee productivity as a result of technological advancements. While the two organizations discussed are of differing organizational structures, technology has played a significant role in each. A&M is certainly a more technology savvy company than my non-profit organization with more advanced technology needs and systems, but both organizations’ structures are enhanced by their respective technology configurations.It is important that my non-profit organization be prepared to continue to move with the projected technological advancement in the interest of remaining relevant.References Lashley, C. (1995).
Towards an understanding of employee empowerment in hospitality services. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality, 7, 27-32. McCullough, J. (2004). Effects of organizational structure and information technology capability on organizational effectiveness in emerging markets. Journal of Academy of Business and Economics. Retrieved from http://www.
allbusiness. com/technology/300264-1. html Mohr, B. L. (1971). Organizational theory and organizational structure. Administrative Science Quarterly, 16, 444-459.
Olsen, J. K. B. , Pedersen, S. A. , & Hendricks, V. F.
(2009). A companion to the philosophy of technology Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell. Scott, W. R, Davis, G. F. (2007). Organizations and organizing: Rational, natural and open systems perspectives.
Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.


Successful and unsuccessful organizations

The success rate of a business organization is determined by the level of satisfaction it has being able and is still capable of rendering to those who patronize its services or products. It also9 depend on the level of trust the clients or buyers have for the service or product from the organization. This will form the bases whether they will continue to patronize the organization. The quality services and product has always being the reckoning force for successful business organizations.
Thus, most successful business organizations have adopted the Total Quality Management (TQM) as a tool for the expansion of their success rate and also curving an edge for themselves over their counterparts in contemporary business world. Total quality is about bringing about a fundamental culture change within an organization. The foundation of the new culture has to be faith- that there is a better way of doing things, and that we are really fully committed to it.
According to KPMG (2005), “Total quality means adopting a customer- oriented business strategy. ” This write- up tends to be base on Hilton International as a case stu7dy. Here, the organization operations in the past, present will be studied to see whether it will be successful or not in the next five years to come. HILTON INTERNATIONAL ORGANISATION Hilton International organization is a name to be reckoned with when it comes to hostel industry world over.

It has spread its tentacles to developing programmes such as esprit and Hilton University used in training its manpower. The organization is a Multi- International Corporation. Hilton International (HI) owns the right to the Hilton brand name throughout the world, with the exception of the USA, where the Hilton brand is owned and managed by Hilton Hotels Corporation (HHC). The Hilton International operates 403 hotels, with some 261 branded Hilton and 142 under the mid- market Scandic brand.
The Hilton International and the North American Hilton Hotel Corporation has a global alliance which extends the number of hotels operated by both companies worldwide to over 2,700- over 500 of which are branded Hilton. Also, both organizations share responsibility for the Conrad brand which includes 17 hotels in 12 countries (national business awards, 2005). Hilton International started its operation in hotel business in postwar cities, with its modest services of offering a clean environment, air- conditioned respite and a cheeseburger.
The Hilton hotels were designed for political impact during this time. The hotels were seen as “little America”, where businessmen and tourists in Europe and the Middle East could retreat from the disturbingly alien into the comfortable services provided by the Hilton hotels. These same features lent the Hilton a utopian aura, for the economically exhausted local population where a space of luxury and promise which realized permanently and prominently, the new and powerful presence of the United States (Wharton, 2001)
The Hilton International built 16 luxury hotels abroad between 1953 and 1966. “All were planned according to the Hilton programme and styled as ‘corporate modern’- the same form that distinguished the American embassies and consulates proliferating in the period” (ibid). The Hilton was the first significant modern structure, introducing a striking visual contrast to the vernacular fabrics of places such as Istanbul, Cairo, Athens and Jerusalem. The new architecture impact was amplified by the hotel’s unprecedented siting and scale.
As already stated, the ideological base of the creation of Hilton International was not only for profit maximization, but also for political considerations. According to Conrad Hilton, “Hilton International Hotels were constructed not only to earn Hilton shareholders a profit, but also to make a political impact on host countries; an integral part of my dream was to show the countries most exposed to communism the other side of the coin…. the fruits of the free world” (ibid). Hence, the American government had assisted the corporation in no small measure in expanding its base internationally.
The capital for the construction of the earlier Hiltons was commonly provided not by the corporation itself, but by institutions in the host countries, with occasional subsidies from the American Economic Co-operation Administration with the support of the US Department of state. Hilton envisioned a global peace where universal capitalism reign. The consistent modernity of the original Hiltons has made it lost its authority and bears no utopian meaning. This has to do with the remodeling of Hilton International in order to make it remain fashionable.
THE ORGANIZATION’S STRATEGY AND PRESENT STANDING. The Hilton international is recognized presently as the world best known hotel. It triumphed at the prestigious UK National Business Awards for a second year by winning the coveted ‘Broad-system Customer Focus Award 2005’. Previous year the organization won the Best Marketing Strategy Award. (National business awards, 2005). The Hilton International has operated a business strategy that makes its customers to have the best quality of service. The organization embrace a creative marketing agency, campaign works.
This has supported Hilton’s new brand strategy. The strategy first embraced industry and customer research. Innovation Hubs were set up to turn lifestyle analysis and research into a contemporary hotel experience and conventional thinking was challenged which contributed to the creation of the new customer brand promise. The next phase saw the development of innovative internal and external marketi9ng tools that communicated and delivered the brand strategy throughout the organization and to the customer.
The embraced strategy of Hilton International has led to its outstanding success with significant commercial returns. Hilton is now the number one hotel brand in every global market with higher guest satisfaction, improved team member satisfaction and increased financial perfo4rmance (ibid). The Hilton International is expanding its manpower knowledge through its Hilton University. Currently, there are 8000 team members, team leaders, departmental managers and general managers in 70 countries in the Hilton University.
The university is recognized as a world standard for management development in the hospitality industry. It has a primary focus of a web- based delivery of core management and skill development with the goal of maintaining world-class customer service throughout the Hilton International organization. The Hilton International sees it as a challenge to increase and broaden the reach of the university to serve even more emp0loyees worldwide, to increase the sophistication of learning activities it offers and to more directly link learning and skills development with the company’s business results.
The Sum Total learner management system is aimed at developing more in-depth, blended learning programs, incorporating employee competencies by job role and function, and aligning them with specific content and business goals. (elearnity. com, 2004) According to John Guthrie, head of International management development at Hilton International, ‘what sets Hilton apart is the immense pride we take in the standards of service we deliver to all our guests. Sum-Total will help us measure the effectiveness of certain training programs- for example in e-commerce and reservations – in increasing customer satisfaction”(ibid)
In year 2000, Hilton International unveiled a plan to double the speed at which it opens hotels around the world. The shares of the organization enjoyed a massive 40 per cent rise since Hilton announced plans to expand Ladbrokes, into internet betting. The online betting becomes interesting to investors, even though its hotel business accounts for more than two thirds of the group’s profits. (Lindsay City, 2000) The present crave for internet betting has made the organization take its turn in partaking in the business.
Turnover of the Hilton in 2000 slipped to 4. 23 billion pounds from 4. 68 billion pounds, mostly as a result of selling off the Corals betting shop chain. The hotel division, bolstered by Stakis, saw profits rise from 181 million pounds to 264 million pounds. In year 2003, the Hilton International sees the increase in its revenue. Hilton reported a pretax profit before exceptional and goodwill for the first half, of 110. 5 million pounds, down from 130 million pounds the previous year.
Hilton plans to open 17 new hotels in 2003, with most of them incorporating either management contracts or franchises, and will continue to open around 20 each year going forward. HILTON INTERNATIONAL POTENTIELS FOR SUCCESS OVER THE NEXT FIVE YEARS. The historical and present operations of the Hilton International have shown that the organization strategy is a strong base for its success in years to come. Total Quality Management as a management tool is used by the organization to continue to win its customers’ patronage.
The strategy sees that customers are given the best standard quality of services. This business strategy has made the Hilton International to win the UK National Business awards for 2004 and 2005. The Hilton Business strategy, as discussed earlier on, has a creative marketing agency, campaign works which help in supporting industry and customer research, innovative internal and external marketing tools that communicate and delivers brand strategy throughout the organization and to the customer. This is in practice in the organization.
Also, the divers and expanding business operations of the Hilton International would make the organization to continue to succeed. Even, if one or more business unit of the Multi Corporation experiences a d own ebbs in its operational level, other chains and units that is successful would keep the organization going. As already discussed the Hilton International operates a university where its manpower are trained and equipped with the professional skill in delivering standard services to its customers.
In this instance, the practice of Strategic Human Resource Management is put in place, where the workforce of the organization are integrated into the strategic operation of the corporation, in order to attain the organization’s objectives and long term goals. This practice tends to bring the achievement of best results, and thereby making the Hilton International organization to succeed over the next five years to come and more.