Online Shopping

An Investigation Of Nigerian Consumer’s Online Shopping Behaviour

This research proposal deals with an investigation of the online shopping behaviour among Nigerians living abroad. It has been established from research that a few Nigerians embrace technology in doing business. The research paper starts with an introduction about the problem statement to be addressed in the research. The objective is to find out the factors that contribute to the unique online shopping behaviour among the Nigerians.
The proposal highlights trends to be investigated that are online shopping in Nigeria. Data to be used in the research will be gathered through the use of a questionnaire given at random to 100 respondents. The obtained data will be analyzed based on the scaled factors given for each response by the participants. The representative sample gives the best results because it uses respondents of diverse fields who are in a position to use online shopping systems. The results can be used by any developing country because the online shopping trends for developing countries are the same.

1. Introduction
The nature of how individuals do business has changed from time to time due to individual needs and the emerging business technologies. Electronic commerce is one of the recent forms of online shopping that has been adopted by many business individuals in the world. According to Ghosh (1997, p. 1), “E-commerce provides consumers the ability to bank, invest, purchase, distribute, communicate, explore, and research from virtually anywhere an Internet connection can be obtained.” Therefore, electronic commerce can be defined as doing business through the internet. This trend of doing business has gained momentum in the global business world because of the increased web advertising (Jackson et al. 2003). This research proposal aims at determining the effect of web advertising on the Nigerian consumer’s online shopping behaviour.
1.1. E-commerce development in Nigeria
The basis of electronic commerce depends on the level of technology in a country. Nigeria is a developing country that has experienced improvements in its technological aspect in the recent past with a total population of about 16 % embracing the use of the internet (Internet World Stats, 2009). However, most of the Nigerians have not exploited the full potential of using the internet fully. In addition, the recent advancement of technology has enabled many Nigerians to see the need to embrace technology in doing business. As such, internet usage has started gaining familiarity among the Nigerians. A research by Folorunso et al. (2006, p. 2226) shows that only 32% of Nigerians who had heard about electronic commerce had embraced the technology. This low number of Nigerians using the internet to do business may contribute to the Nigerian online shopping behaviour.
1.2. Problem statement
The use of the internet in doing business in Nigeria is slower than other countries in the world. This is contrary to the vital importance provided by the use of the internet in advertising the product. Most of the Nigerians are ignorant about online shopping, but those who embrace the internet do not prefer to do online shopping because they assume products advertised in the internet are either expensive or strange to their traditional culture. This consumer behaviour has reduced efforts of globalization into the Nigerian markets. The question, then, is what should be done about this online consumer behaviour to promote globalization
Research objectives
This research is carried out to find out the online shopping behaviour among the Nigerians. The objectives of the study will be:
To Investigate the behaviour of online shopping among Nigerians
Determine whether web advertising has an influence to the online shopping behaviour among Nigerians.
To investigate the risks associated with online shopping.
1.3. Research structure
This research will start by introducing the problem statement why it is an important study among the Nigerians. This will be followed by outlining the objectives of the study. The existing literature review sets to give the research the basis on which the factors being studied will be based. The methodology section will propose a how the factors can be investigated and why the chosen methods for study are preferred. Lastly the research will highlight the limitations that are likely to affect the results of the study and how they can be reduced to make the results more validated. The main chapters will be as follows;
Literature Review
Data Analysis and Findings
Conclusions and Recommendations
2. Literature review
Folorunso et al. (2006, p.2224) suggested that the factors that affect online shopping behaviour are: “establishing cost, accessibility, privacy and confidentiality, data security, network reliability, credit card threat, authenticity, citizens’ income and education.” The shopping behaviour of Nigerians living abroad is unique as it can be identified as unique among the rest. Among the factors suggested by Folorunso income levels and data security was established as the major factors contributing to the unique behaviour of the Nigerians. In another research by Ayo (2006, p.2), he argued that cyber-crime as the major factor behind the low rate of adopting the electronic commerce technology. Further, other important factors have been established as contributing to this unique behaviour among the Nigerians. These factors are inferior online payment methods, lack of trust in web retailers, poor technological infrastructures, and fear of insufficient security in online environments (Adeshina & Ayo, 2010).
In contrast to the slow rate at which online shopping has been embraced by the Nigerians, they have increased use of electronic banking and payment systems as they regard these technology issues as more secure. The major use of electronic banking is to pay bills, money transfer activities and obtaining banking statements at any time they wish to have the statements for their daily activities. The major factors identified on the previous research do not point to the exact situation because even through the electronic banking services provided by this technology, users are also likely to be exposed cyber crimes (Egwali, 2009).
Advertising is used as a marketing strategy to familiarise the consumers to the products in the market. In a global market, advertising through the internet gives the consumers an avenue to consider a varied field of products that will satisfy their specific demand. Although internet advertising comes with a lot of advantages to both the consumer and the advertising agency, it has not been fully embraced in the Nigerian market. This indicates that the consumers in the Nigerian market have varied perceptions about web advertising. According to Wohn and Korgaonkar (2003), “males exhibit more positive beliefs about web advertising and more positive attitudes toward web adverting than females. Additionally, male are more likely than females to purchase from the web and surf the web for functional and entertainment reasons, whereas females are more likely to surf the web for shopping reasons.” From these findings, it can be deduced that there are specific online shopping behaviour among Nigerians. The research will carry out a detailed review of the existing literature on the behaviour of online shopping among Nigerians. The researcher will critically analyse the literature both that are in support of the research and those that are not.
This research will use qualitative approach to establish an in-depth description of the problem of the study. This method will be the most appropriate because it does not apply any mathematical judgment of the results (Higgs & Cherry, 2009). According to Miles and Huberman (1994), qualitative approach is the best because it is concerned with meaningful characteristics, stories, visual renders, observations and words. This study will be based on the individual behaviour on online shopping.
Consequently, the research sample will be identified among them Nigerian Diaspora students, professionals and business people. The research sample will be conducted to 100 Nigerians. The research sample gives a good study population because of the sample size. In addition, the use of this type of respondents will give basis to the research because these are people who have the know-how of technological matters. Additionally, since online shopping is based on the use of technology this type of respondents is the best research population because they are quite aware of the online shopping activities using the internet. Thus, the results of the findings will give a true reflection of the real behaviour of the Nigerians online shopping.
3.1.Research approach and strategy
The research will be conducted for 100 Nigerian. The respondents will be selected at random both that live in UK and those that are in Nigeria. The respondents will be supplied with questionnaires to investigate their online shopping behaviour. The data that will be used in this study will be sourced from both primary and secondary sources. The primary data will be collected by sending questionnaires to the respondents. The researcher will conceal the identity of all respondents for confidentiality purposes. All respondents will be given unique ID numbers like P1, P2, and P3 that will represent participant one, two and three respectively. Secondary data will be collected from existing literature that is in the public domain. This means that there will be no permission sought to access the materials or cost incurred to collect data.
3.2.Data collection
The data for this research will be collected through the use of questionnaires. The questionnaires will be subdivided into three sub-groups as follows: online shopping, electronic commerce and internet usage. Each of the sub-categories will be aiming to investigate the behaviour of online shopping among Nigerians. (See appendix 1)
3.3.Data analysis
Qualitative study does not involve numerical values, and thus, an analysis tool will be used that will give correct interpretation and description while at the same time avoiding biases (Sewell, 2008). Therefore, the data will be analysed using case descriptions of the phenomenon. A detailed report will then be developed based on the analysis of the data collected through questionnaires. After, conclusions will be drawn from the analysis of the study, and more so the researcher will give recommendations that for future studies.
3.4. Ethical issues
The ethical issue in this research study will be to keep the anonymity of the respondents. Each of the involved respondent’s information will be treated with great privacy based on individual data protection policy.
3.5.Research limitations
The sample used to represent the Nigerians is comparably small. A bigger representative sample should be used to determine the real factors. The random sampling method is good, but is faced with the challenge of some respondents failing to cooperate. The best approach would be to administer the questionnaire directly to the respondents to ensure that there is 100% response from the targeted representative sample.
This research is an important finding that can be used to implement developmental changes in developing countries. Nigeria is one of the developing countries and the trends shown by its abroad citizens can be used as a model for other developing countries. Also, since technology implementation in the business environment is inevitable then it is important to identify these factors in order to make the required adjustments to make the developing countries able to embrace technology. The representative sample will give accurate results of the research study because it will use a study population that can embrace technology.
Adeshina, A & Ayo, C .2010. An Empirical Investigation of the Level of Users. Acceptance of E-Banking in Nigeria. Journal of Internet Banking and Commerce, 15 (1), 1-13.
Egwali, A. 2009. Customers Perception of Security Indicators in Online Banking Sites in Nigeria. Journal of Internet Banking and Commerce, 14 (1), 1-15.
Folorunso, O et al. 2006. Factors Affecting the Adoption of E-commerce: A Study in Nigeria. Journal of Applied Sciences, 6 (10), 2224-2230.
Ghosh, A .1997. Securing E-Commerce: A Systematic Approach. Journal of Internet Banking and Commerce, 1-4.
Internet World Stats, 2009. Nigeria Internet Usage and Telecommunications Reports. Retrieved from < http://>.
Jackson, P. et al. 2003. e-Business Fundamentals. London: Dorset House Publishing Company.
Miles, M.B. & Huberman, A.M. 1994. Qualitative Data Analysis: An Expanded Sourcebook, 2ndedn, Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
Sewell, M., 2008. The Use of Qualitative Interviews in Evaluation, Tucson, AZ: The University of Arizona.
Sewell, M., 2008. The Use of Qualitative Interviews in Evaluation, Tucson, AZ: The University of Arizona.
Wohn, L & Korgaonkar, P 2003, Web advertising: gender differences, gender differences in belief, attitude and behavior. Florida: MCB UP.
Appendix 1
The questionnaire
Online shopping
Have you been using online shopping in Nigeria?
Do you use online shopping in the UK?
If yes how many times did you shop online while in Nigeria per week?
How many sites do you visit per week while in the UK or Nigeria?
What products do you shop for with this service in Nigeria or the UK?
What are the risks associated with online shopping?
2.0 Electronic commerce
Have you been using electronic commerce while in Nigeria?
Do you still use electronic shopping in the UK?
If not, what are the reasons?
What functions do you use the service for in Nigeria or the UK?
3.0 Internet usage
Do you use internet regularly?
What do you use the internet for?
Do you think there are risks associated with internet usage?
How often do you use the internet for online shopping?

Online Shopping

Men vs. Women: Online Shopping Habits

Online shopping is very common these days. With all the amenities this activity offers, it’s not surprising why more and more people are taking advantage of it. This trend is true for both men and women, as what you may be observing this time. As a person ages, he / she tends to spend a greater amount and time to buy online. At the age of 18, many people consider buying online not only for the convenience it provides, but also for the excellent offers it offers.
Most women prefer to buy online with a desktop computer while men prefer mobile devices. Men limit their research to certain products they have in mind when they buy, while women find other products in addition to their intended purchase interest. Both sexes consider price as a factor to be decided, but men tend to easily engage in quality over price, while women value the price and make a purchase with the best available offer.
When you consider advertising, social networks, advertising on paper, word of mouth, etc., they have the same effect. However, in some areas, men are different from women, like e-mails with offers that work best for women when they are looking for a product, while men randomly search for a product while they are browsing online. It is a good marketing strategy to send emails with product details and discount coupons for women. Women buy online in a relaxed atmosphere at home after completing all their domestic activities. If they receive an email with a good offer, they will be attracted to it and could close the deal.

Men tend to buy mostly food and drink when they are depressed. Women, when they are depressed, depend on retail therapy and the purchase of clothes and related items.
Women, in general, have a higher percentage of charitable contributions than men, except when the taxpayer turns out to be a widower or a widower. A widower is one who contributes more generously than any other category.
According to statistics, women between 45 and 54 are in the best moment of their career and may have less time to buy online, while men who are aging may be too busy having their middle-aged crisis to buy online. In fact, the hobby of people shopping online could change due to a number of reasons, which certainly include their individual busy careers.
There is also a specific moment of the day when men and women make large purchases online. According to the report, it is between 7 and 8 p.m. when most purchases are made by men, while it is between 12 and 1 p.m. for the women. Therefore, if you ever suspect that some of your coworkers are shopping during breaks for lunch, you probably are right. This time of committing to freedom in the middle of your workday could be just the mere free time that some women have to buy online.
There is also a variation in the average time when women and men complete their purchases. It is observed that men have a faster time with 10 minutes compared to women with 14 minutes. It is considered that a man’s decision on the purchase is a strategic execution, while the decision of a woman is a kind of philosophical examination. However, even with this consideration, men seem to have a higher average online purchase price of around $ 67.82 compared to women who spend around $ 51.84.
Women tend to be more participatory when it comes to shopping. They share trends, opportunities, sales information, etc. Conversations begin among their peers and are more likely to be affected by product reviews. They also tend to buy for the future, and not only in the need to buy. They are also more likely to make purchases for others than themselves. For women, shopping seems to have a lot to do with social interaction.
It is likely that men are online shoppers more headlines than women. That’s why they are more comfortable buying high-value products online. Men can also simply buy more items simultaneously to decrease shopping trips. Therefore, that extravagant entertainment system brought by that guy next door was completed with a click, including the game system, TV, Blur-Ray player and surround sound. This is not so crazy in any way.
It seems that men are more committed to the trend of online shopping. They even consider doing it even when they are at work. Men consider doing their weekend search on netbooks and iPads or even in an offline store, and then immediately go to their PCs to work when Monday arrives. This is to find the best price and complete your transaction with the full screen in front of them.
There are also variations in the return of a purchase in which men take 21 days, while women take more time with an average of 30 days. Obviously, men and women have different preferences when it comes to online shopping, but one thing is for sure, they both love doing the activity.
Who buys more men or women?
According to a new survey by First Insight, women are increasingly dependent on the Internet for shopping, while men still prefer bricks and mortar.
The survey found that men are less likely to use Amazon to buy the best price. Fewer men also subscribed to Amazon Prime, and fewer people adopt mobile shopping, according to the study.”Men are the destination drivers … They go to stores to touch and feel,” Greg Petro told First Insight. “They like to make a deal [in stores] and then take the items home with them.”
Women shoppers, he said, do not necessarily feel the need to go to stores in the same way. “This changes the way that retailers and brands need to react,” he said.
First Insight, a technology company that helps retailers select the best price for their products, is publishing the results of their study on Monday morning at the ShopTalk conference in Las Vegas. Survey of 1,000 consumers in December on their purchasing behavior, online and offline.
With a gender gap that opens a gap between how women and men make purchases, retailers must realize.
Companies should re-evaluate the inventory they carry in stores at a more segmented level, Petro said. With men looking for more products in person, for example, brands should have more options for them on the floor. Women, however, might only want to see a few of the best-selling items on display. Chances are they’ve already looked online or they’re planning to make a decision online later.
“I think the data suggests that women are more price sensitive and more bargain hunters … and are more apt to execute a value or price deal than men,” Petro said. Whereas “men are willing to wait longer”, but they do not necessarily do their research ahead of time.
According to the First Insight survey, men are more likely to shop at full-price stores (42 percent), at discount retailers or out-of-price stores (18 percent). Women prefer discount retailers (38 percent) over full price brands (31 percent).
“You do not want to give Jeff Bezos a seven-year lead.”
Listen to what Buffett has to say:
Some of the female shoppers’ favorite stores include TJ Maxx, Marshalls and Home-goods, the study found, while fewer men mentioned visiting these places as often. These three brands are property of TJX Cos.
Companies still have a long way to go to meet the expectations of online and in-store buyers, given this “gender gap,” Petro said.
“I do not think the industry is doing a good job, frankly, to differentiate itself,” he said. “Retailers that used to be able to establish their own trends now do not have the listening mechanisms to understand where consumers are going, they’re used to leading rather than responding.”
The preferences of buyers today are changing faster than ever. Most want new products, and fast, constantly.According to John Foster, marketing consultant and retail coach, “Men generally shop alone and seldom compare prices, they don’t care about the product being on sale, or what color it is, and they only compare quality”.
Difference between the shopping’s outcome of men and women: Men Women

For men shopping is always need based. Whatever they buy, mostly needed by them. Women don’t focus on need. Their shopping generally depends on wants.
Satisfaction or dissatisfaction. Happiness, excitement, disappointment.

Consumer Shopping Characteristics Approach and Gender Difference in Pakistan:
A journal published in 2014 by Ms. Javeria Shabbir and Dr. Nadeem Safwan named “Consumer Shopping Characteristics Approach and Gender Difference in Pakistan” included a research conducted on the differences and similarities between the two genders when shopping Pakistan. The research was conducted in comparison to the international theories of the gender based buying behaviors based on six characteristics of consumers’ buying patterns.
According to the study, women in Pakistan are more typically brand, hedonic, and fashion conscious and are more prone to impulse purchasing compared to men when shopping, in support to the Darley and Smith study in 1995. Whereas, both genders showed equal importance to the quality factor of products when making a purchase.
The results from the study stated that male population in Pakistan is more brand conscious than female. There is a significant difference in the shopping characteristics between the consumers of both genders. Therefore, men being more brand conscious in regard to apparel, marketers have to try to appeal more women and stress the value of branding to bring about brand consciousness.
Product quality, being another characteristic of consideration, is mostly used to differentiate a brand from the competitors. Most people consider a product’s quality in terms of it functionality with respect to its expectation to satisfy their need or desire. The study concluded that Pakistani consumers in general, without discrimination between men and women, consider product quality an important factor in purchase decision. Thus, marketers should emphasize on promoting their product quality and advertising it to appeal the national consumers.
Fashion is another important factor for customers; however, not much research has been conducted in Pakistan. But, fashion and style are something that differs on the basis of trend and its likeability to complement the respective customer’s personality and style. Consumer’s decision to obtain a particular product depends on the shopper’s amount of fashion awareness, so choice will be accustomed by their belief of what is currently up-to-the-minute.
Consumers use shopping to gratify an amount of needs, not just their need for the goods they attain during the shopping expedition. Therefore, the act of shopping in itself satisfies particular needs of the customers, and purchasing without any anticipation during these trips, fall into the category of impulse purchase behavior, that is another characteristics of buying behaviors of customers.
A number of researchers have expanded the description from a one-dimensional unplanned buying to include more of an emotional factor or an immense urge to make the acquisition. In Pakistan, according to the research women are more likely to buy on impulse compared to male consumers; who are impulsive buyers of clothing but in comparison to females, are not as much impulsive.
When consumers are shopping they are motivated by list of needs, apart from those that particularly relate to obtaining a product or service. Hedonic products are those consumed for intrinsic and emotional reasons and the consumers of such products are less price conscious I comparison to those who are more utilitarian.
On what men and women spend more money?
The results from the survey showed than women in Pakistan, are more likely to reach out for goods that satisfy their symbolic reasons or need compared to men; who show signs of hedonic consciousness but on a lesser degree than women in Pakistan.
The six characteristic derived hypothesis, were inspired from international methodologies which were used ideally in a number of other countries. The result of the research was also in support of the statements from international studies from around the world.
Relevant Marketing Strategies for Women (Intl)
Family oriented or employed statuses are the most vital factors regarding how to attract women; most ‘housewives’ act in a similar manner when compared to career oriented women, regardless of age, which, in comparison to men, is completely opposite. For men, age, education and revenue are the most important factors. The distinction in what each sexual category makes a vital factor is explained by the diversities of purchasing choices men and women make.
The majority of decisions made my male consumers are mainly for them, whereas, women purchase In consideration of those around them. A female consumer may on a usual note, spend her finances for herself, her partner, her kin, and/or her parents. Women are more often in charge of family finances than in previous generations.
The study in regard, mentioned that women make up to 85% of purchase decisions, which is a fairly recent finding, regardless the stereotype of female consumers always shopping. The research stated the marketers, till now, do not target their female consumers’ right. It said that companies differentiate their marketing plans for women so much that they believe a separate brand must be launches in order to reach them, which in most cases backfires since the brands tend to lose the true value and message of the company and, as a result, they lose valuable loyal female consumers.
Effective marketing strategy to target female consumers is all about setting high bars of quality and constantly delivering on your (the company’s) promises. The perceptive nature of women, and the ability to interpret body language and facial expressions better when compared to men, as discussed in the research, makes female consumers outstanding at sensing inconsistencies and being more receptive to contextual brand messages.
According to the study, if the company’s product quality and retail experience to don’t go with the company’s message, the company might as well have lost that female consumer’s trust she will have switched brands in result. Whereas, on the other hand, if female consumers trust the product and find it to be a quality product, they will be willing to pay a premium for that item for consumption.
Apple, Volvo, and Whole Foods are examples of companies that have it right with women. All three guarantee quality products that justify the price and are able to demand a market premium. Apple is without fail delivering on their market promise of high quality, ease of use, and a passionate everyday life. Volvo has fully understood women’s wants and developed key elements imperative to women such as easy to load trunks and color-coding fluid lids.
They have also paid attention on safety and reliability in their objective and delivered on that promise. On the other hand, Whole Foods has put an emphasis on conveying an enjoyable shopping ambiance with superior quality healthy foodstuffs, friendly sales personnel, and hard-to find foodstuffs.
All of the above companies have successfully determined what is of most importance to their female target consumers and directed themselves on delivering quality meaningful results in the particular areas. Since, the companies have backed their statements with their performance, women can walk into any of their physical or online stores and discover a number of features very easily.
Relevant Marketing Strategies for Men (Intl)
Marketing to men, according to the research is considered more stereotypical mainly focusing on comical or bad-boy contents. Sullivan, Higdon & Sink, SHS is most famous for their marketing campaigns targeted to men. They have seemed to identify five universal facts about men that may aid in targeting men. Those are “men seek enlightenment, they seek experience, they seek success on their own terms, men happily define themselves as principle-driven and men identify themselves as family-centric.”
Nevertheless men also make impulsive purchases frequently. Men shop to please extrinsic rewards, or in a utilitarian regard. They review factors such as the availability of parking, rush at checkout lines, and the stockpile of the things they intend to purchase. Also, it is essential to market to genuine male consumers, the type of men who are “normal” are ones that do more than go out, and look for partners.
The research stated that marketing has lost touch with targeting and appealing male consumers. In latest years, the study affirmed, there were fewer websites designed directly for men because of the difficulty to be gender unbiased. Sites such as Popular Mechanics and others have faced heavy criticism as a result of their dominantly male publications.
On the other hand, women targeted comparable sites have not faced any denigration. Famous marketing methods like social networking sites have noted a development that male consumers are far less prone to slot in on marketing on these sites. Differing trends in well-known marketing and public views have caused targeting men more difficult.
According to the journal, the fluctuations in the view of males and their role in society and home are major factors that have contributed to the variation in the kinds of goods that can be successfully targeted to male consumers. As an example, there has been a significant increase in the recent demand for plastic surgeries and skin care routines among.
In regards to Frank Westerbeke of Skin Inc., the report stated, men rather seek pleasure in taking care of their personal outlook. Male consumers actually like to feel satisfied about their looks, however, in a subtle manner that does not seem like they are giving up on their manly demeanor and belonging to the crowd.
Significantly, momentous female influences in male consumers’ lives are often the ones to direct men on the path of beauty acquisitions. Marketing to women, in the company’s’ live has been discovered to be more effective because a male consumer’s first spa session usually arises from a desire to get hairless body, shaped eyebrows or an updated hairstyle.

Online Shopping

Online Shopping Analysis

Minor Research Project ON “Present Scenario of E-Shopping; A Study on Youth of Indore Region” [pic] (2012-2014) Prestige Institute of Management and Research GUIDED BY:SUBMITTED BY: Prof. DEEPAK JAROLIYADivya Mathankar Monica Sharma Naina Rawat Nida Khan Piyush Soni MBA(FT) Semester II Batch 2012 – 2014 INTRODUCTION
Online shopping is the process of buying products through internet without going to store or shop’s location physically. Here people use their credit/debit or other bank card for payment. The Internet has undoubtedly changed how people go about their daily lives, but perhaps the most dramatic change has come in how we shop for goods and services. Sure, it’s fun to go into a store to browse and try things on, but you have to admit that nothing can beat the convenience of shopping from home The younger generation seems to have recognized the perks of online shopping and has picked up this new and cool form of retail therapy.
Generally speaking the trend of e-shopping has been increased rapidly in the recent years with the development of internet and due to the easy accessibility of internet usage. Easy access to internet has driven consumers to shop online in fact according to the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) communication policy (2001), online shopping is third most popular activity on the internet after email using and web browsing. Globally more than 627 million people have done online shopping so far, World’s biggest online shoppers include Germans and British.

Books, airline tickets/reservations, clothing/shoes videos/games and other electronic products are the most popular items purchased on the internet. (ACNielsen Report on Global Consumer Attitudes towards Online Shopping, 2007). Through e-shopping business firms are coordinating different marketing activities such as market research, product development, inform customers about product features, promotion, customer services, customer feedback and so on.
Online shopping is used as a medium for communication and electronic commerce, it is to increase or improve in value, quality and attractiveness of delivering customer benefits and better satisfaction, that is why online shopping is more convenience and day by day increasing its popularity. Not only benefits but also risk is associated with online shopping. Generally speaking internet users avert online shopping because of credit-card fraud, lack of privacy, non-delivery risk, lack of guarantee of quality of goods and services.
Concerned authorities are devising policies to minimize the risk involved in e-business. In Liao and Cheung (2000) words:”Fraud- free electronic shopping” was introduced by UK in the early 1995 and after two years Europe and Singapore introduced secured electronic transaction (SET). On the other hand E- commerce has been grown very fast because of many advantages associated with buying on internet because of lower transaction and search cost as compared to other types of shopping.
Through online shopping consumers can buy faster, more alternatives and can order product and services with comparative lowest price. (Cuneyt and Gautam 2004). Therefore Marketers have carefully analyzed the consumers’ attitude and behavior towards the online shopping and spend billions of dollars to facilitate all the demographics of online shoppers. Consumer’s attitude towards online shopping refers to their psychological state in terms of making purchases over the Internet. Online buying behavior process refers to the products purchased online.
The process of online buying behavior consists of five steps and it is similar to traditional shopping behavior (Liang and Lai 2000). For instance, consumer recognize the need for buying some product (book), they refers to the internet to buy online and start to search for the information and look for all the alternatives and finally make a purchase which best fits to their needs. Before making final purchase consumers are bombarded by several factors which limits or influence consumers for the final decision.
The main theme of the study is to know the factors that influence the consumer’s attitudes and behaviors towards online shopping. Researchers will also focus on how consumers form such attitudes with the help of models and who are truly the online shoppers. According to the online survey within few American students, Case, Burns, and Dick, (2001, p. 873) concluded that “Internet knowledge, income, and education level are especially powerful predictors of Internet purchases among university Students”.
Our problem area that is Consumers attitude towards online shopping will determine the attractive factors that influence consumers to shop online and those factors will help marketers to formulate their strategies towards online marketing respectively. As our area of research will be on Sweden and specifically on Gotland so our research thesis will not only be helpful for the marketers in general but specifically will be helpful for the marketers in Sweden.
Researchers will precede this work with primary data which will help them in covering the subject area in more diversified way. REVIEW OF LITERATURE Benedict et al (2001) in his study on perceptions towards online shopping reveals that perceptions toward online shopping and intention to shop online are not only affected by ease of use, usefulness, and enjoyment, but also by exogenous factors like consumer traits, situational factors, product characteristics, previous online shopping experiences, and trust in online shopping
Dabholkar and Bagozzi et al, (2002) O’Cass and Fenech, (2002); Childers et al. , (2001); Davis, (1993). Their study reveals that if more attractive online stores were developed. This raises the issue of examining what factors affect consumers to shop online. Therefore, a framework is needed to structure the complex system of effects of these different factors, and develop an in-depth understanding of consumers’ perceptions toward Internet shopping and their intentions to shop online. Burke et al. (2002); Relevant exogenous factors in this context are “consumer traits” “situational factors” “product characteristics” “previous online shopping experiences” and “trust in online shopping” By incorporating these exogenous factors next to the basic determinants of consumers’ perception and intention to use a technology, the framework is applicable in the online shopping context. Together, these effects and influences on consumers’ perception toward online shopping provide a framework for understanding consumers’ intentions to shop on the Internet.
Menon and Kahn (2002). Whereas “arousal” is the degree to which a person feels stimulated, active or alert during the online shopping experience. A pleasant or arousing experience will have carry-over effects on the next experience encountered If consumers are exposed initially to pleasing and arousing stimuli during their Internet shopping experience, they are then more likely to engage in subsequent shopping behavior: they will browse more, engage in more unplanned purchasing, and seek out more stimulating products and categories.
Childers et al (2001) concluded that “enjoyment” results from the fun and playfulness of the online shopping experience, rather than from shopping task completion. The purchase of goods may be incidental to the experience of online shopping. Thus, “enjoyment” reflects consumers’ perceptions regarding the potential entertainment of Internet shopping found “enjoyment” to be a consistent and strong predictor of attitude toward online shopping. Davis (1993) in his study reveals that we build up such a framework based on previous research on consumer adoption of new self-service technologies and Internet shopping systems.
The research suggests that consumers’ perception toward Internet shopping first depends on the direct effects of relevant online shopping features. Venkatesh (2000) online shopping “Computer playfulness” is the degree of cognitive spontaneity in computer interactions. Playful individuals may tend to underestimate the difficulty of the means or process of online shopping, because they quite simply enjoy the process and do not perceive it as being effortful compared to those who are less playful “Computer anxiety” is defined as an individual’s apprehension or even fear when she/he is faced with the possibility of using computers.
This influences consumers’ perceptions regarding the “ease of use” of the Internet as a shopping medium in a negative way, since using a computer is one of the necessary requirements for online shopping RATIONALE BEHIND STUDY For better understanding the factors of internet and youth shopping behavior towards e-shopping, this study would provide academic research reviews and relative ideas expressed in the literature that associated with this subject. Furthermore, a number of hypotheses will be tested for getting results of the study.
Due to the recent researches, shows that e-shopping becomes a full and effective business model, therefore there are several studies that already investigated more or less related on internet shopping and consumer behavior. In the following study, some point of view will be taken from literatures, and needs careful review to achieve them as the basis of the subsequent research investigation. OBJECTIVES OF RESEARCH • To study the recent status related to e-shopping of youth in Indore region To study the factors affecting youth towards e-shopping • To study the current scenario of e-shopping by analyzing the collected data in Indore region. REASEARCH METHODOLOGY The study will be conducted with the objective of finding out the present scenario of e-shopping in Indore region The population for the study consists of online purchasers of Indore region For the purpose of testing hypothesis, Z – test will be used to test the hypothesis. Additionally, percentage analysis will be used to analyze the sub objectives.
RESEARCH DESIGN: – This Study is Descriptive one and for exploring the result Survey is to be conducted. SAMPLE DESIGN:- Sampling Unit:- Data will be collected from youth e-shopping users from Indore Region 1) Sample Size:- A sample of around 50 youths from Indore Region 2) Sampling Procedure:- Convinient sampling TOOLS FOR DATA COLLECTION:- Data collection is an important tool. It should be collect very carefully because all the analysis & out comes depends on it. It was collected by following method.
Field procedure for gathering primary data included the structured questionnaires were filed by the respondents. Data Source:- The present study is based on primary data. Primary data:- Primary data is that which is collected for the first time and thus happen to be originated in character. Questionnaire survey: In the studies a questionnaire is prepared. The questionnaire consists of different close ended questions. Secondary data:- Secondary data refer to the data that has been already collected . he secondary data, which has been use to carry out this study, are as follow: Books, journals, magazines, newspapers, industry Reports Company’s internet site other relevant studies material and Website. Research Instrument:- Questionnaire. TOOLS FOR DATA ANALYSIS:- For the purpose of study, we will make use of SPSS software and also the Z – test will be used for analysis. REFERENCES Webliography 1. http://www. freepatentsonline. com/article/International-Journal-Business-Research/178900254. html 2. http://www. abhinavjournal. com 3. http://www. thejakartapost. com 4. http://www. apecdoc. org