Motivation Report

Describe the motivational problems of the staff at Health-Time using Maslow’s Needs Hierarchy.
The staff at Health-time will be worried because Matthew’s first action as manager was to go in and fire most of the office staff. This will have them feeling that their safety, their need to feel secure and stable is being threatened. When Matthew puts a complete stop to idle chatter on the job he is taking some of the receptions chance to interact with other people. When you sit at a desk and answer phones all day it is nice to have that little time of interaction with customer or clients when you can.
When Matthew starts the meeting off immediately complaining about the workers they are not going to be receiving the esteem that they need to feel that they are getting recognition for what they have done. Instead Matthew is only telling them what to do. He is not giving his workers any kind of respect or recognition for what they have done and then moving on to what could be done to make them even better at their jobs. 2.Describe the motivational problems of the staff at Health-Time using the expectancy theory of motivation. Discuss the staff’s outcome valences, effort-to-performance (E-to-P) and performance-to-outcome (P-to-E) expectancies.

The E-to-P theory objective is “to increase the belief that employees are capable of performing the job successfully.”(Book) Matthew was already ahead of the game when it came to his staff. The E-to-P theory tells you to select people with the skills needed to accomplish the job. When Matthew became manager he already have workers in place that had the skills and the know how to accomplish the jobs they were assigned. Matthew was so quick to try to lay down staff rules that he did provide the staff sufficient time and resources for them to be able come to terms with all the changes that were happening in the club.
He needed to give the staff fewer changes at a time and work the staff up to where he felt that they need to be. In the P-to-O expectancy theory the objective is “to increase the belief that good performance will result in a certain outcome.” (Book) To do this Matthew needed to do was give his workers example of workers who are already doing the things that he feels need to change for everyone and show them how these workers are receiving higher rewards.
This could be that they have received a pay raise or they have a demand from clients for more classes or even individual classes that could pay more. 3.Describe the motivational problems of the staff at Health-Time using the equity theory of motivation. Discuss whether the staff is in a situation of underreward inequity or overreward inequity, and how they are attempting to restore a feeling or sense of equity.
The staff at Health-Time is underrewarded. The receptionist are only being paid minimum wage to check people-in, write receipts, answer phones, and clean up the facility during downtime. Along with Matthew not showing them any respect and reward other than a sweatshirt they are feeling that they are not valued and that they are not needed. They realize that they could work other places for the same pay and have a more sense of equity.
Most of Matthew’s workers are students at the local university and they have to be able to make changes at last minutes. They could have a change is schedule or a test that have to be taken at a certain time of day. If Matthew is not going to let them do this then they are going to leave and find a job that understands the demands of a college student and let they feel rewarded and that they are receiving equity out of their job. 4.What strategies would you recommend to Matt to deal with the problem?
First of I would suggest that Matt take the time to make a survey that cover all of the problems that he feel Health-Time is having; then take the time and get feedback from customers and see how they feel that Health-Time needs to change. This would also be a good time for Matt to get his employees involved in making Health-Time a top in the Fitness industry. He needs to have each employee give feedback on how they think that they daily run of Health-time could be increased. Have each employee make their own goal setting, they could set specific goals for themselves and how they could start to accomplish these goals.
Matt needs to take all this information and see what is top priority to customers and employees and slowly start implementing ways to make Health-Time better. Employees feel more secure and needed when they are in some way included in changed made around a facility. I can give an employee a sense of accomplishment that they were one of the reasons their company is used by more people.


Incentives based motivation

Introduction The concept of incentives-based motivation is predicated upon the idea that persons are inclined to perform actions that lead to outcomes that they find favorable (Huseman, Hatfield & Miles, 1987; Muchinsky, 2005). Managerial theories of motivation utilize this concept of incentives in order to explore methods of stimulating employees to perform optimally in the workplace. Motivation can be classified into two types: internal and external (Bateman & Crant, n. d. ).
Internal motivation involves a person’s self-stimulation toward the performance of an action. In such a case, persons are inclined to act because the job itself is a form of incentive or reward for him or her. External motivation, on the other hand, involves the addition of a benefit as an outcome that attends the completion of a job. Therefore, though the particular job may hold no charm for a person, the promise of a benefit to be given by another upon the completion of the job serves as an external motivating factor.
Current ideas that drive incentive-based motivation within organizational management include equity, Vroom’s expectancy, reinforcement, and needs-based theories. Motivational ideas have also been encapsulated also in Young & Rosen’s Theory O and Douglas McGregor’s Theories X, which focus on the development of employees and the improvement of their positions within the company. These theories use the ideas of intrinsic (internal) and extrinsic (external) motivation as strategies for motivating employees and which lead to the overall benefit of the company.

The incentives involved in these theories range widely: from exploring the goals and talents of employees and matching them with those of the company, to creating incentives to match these goals where they do not exist otherwise. Literature Review Equity and expectancy theories as incentive-based theories are formulated on the idea that persons expect an incentive to result from the effort that they make on the job. For the expectancy theory of motivation, the person works under the impression that he or she will be rewarded at the end of the job.
Expectation theory links the overall outcome of the situation within the organization to that which the individual gets from his or her input (Muchinsky, 2005). Therefore, it is to the benefit of the entire body that the individual be rewarded in the way that he or she expects. Equity theory takes expectancy theory a step further in that it quantifies the expectation. The person hopes to get a certain level of compensation from the job that is equal to the effort that he or she puts in at it (Huseman, Hatfield & Miles, 1987; Muchinsky, 2005).
Reinforcement theory is based on the ideas put forth by Albert Bandura, which states that a person’s current actions regarding a certain project will be guided by previous reinforcement given towards those same actions. Therefore, if rewards or incentives are given for acting in a particular way, persons will usually continue in that course. Reinforcement of this type may be experienced first-hand or vicariously by persons. According to this, individuals are likely to change their behaviors to accord with other behaviors that have been positively reinforced (through incentives) in the past (Muchinsky, 2005).
The needs-based theory of motivation put forward by David McClelland stipulates that certain needs are present within managers and workers within an organization (Pardee, 1990). It is a theory geared specifically toward managerial and organizational behaviors, and it postulates three specific needs: the need for achievement, the need for power or authority, and the need for affiliation. The achievement aspect of the theory describes the person in question as desiring to achieve goals that are at once realistic and challenging.
This need is strongly tied to the idea of advancement, which may accompany or even define such a goal. The person’s need for power or authority is defined by his desire to be in charge within certain areas of his personal and professional life. He or she needs to have influence over people and to have an impact within his/her surroundings. This coincides with a person’s desire to lead and to have their ideas sanctioned and implemented within a given setting.
The need for authority is also tied to the desire for advancement, as promotions generally involve increase in rank and responsibility (Pardee, 1990). Persons’ need for affiliation represents their desire to be a part of something greater themselves. This includes the formation of friendships and working relationships in which a certain level of synergy exists. It also refers to the need to be regarded by others and held in their esteem. Such persons are content to work as part of a team and are always ready to provide their input as part of the team’s collective effort (Pardee, 1990).
This need can be catered to within organizations that provide a culture of involvement and collaboration between and among employees and managers. Theory O is a theory of motivation that is specifically geared toward organizational management. This theory, developed by Karen Young and Corey Rosen finds management working to create a more harmonized environment within the company (Winther, 1999). The incentive involved here is one of ownership of the project in question.
A major goal of managers who operate according to Theory O is human capital development and the utilization of the organization’s own human resources in formulating and implementing strategies. This places the employees in such a position of involvement that a sense of ownership is created, and this sense further motivates the employee to work diligently in his or her own field. The managerial position according to theory O is that the organization and its employees hope to benefit through the opportunities for learning and enrichment provided through the implementation of these harmonization strategies.
The managers therefore involve the employees in key processes of the company’s decision making, and change emerges gradually and spontaneously, usually keeping pace with the growth and development of the human resources themselves. As a result of the employees’ investment in the company, according to this theory, the growth of the company itself becomes their incentive as they feel that such growth would be of benefit to themselves (Beer and Nohria, 2001). Theory O takes a participative approach to the role of the employee within the organization.
Theory O is concerned with building a culture among employees through inclusion and widespread collaboration within the environment (Beer and Nohria, 2001). The theory seeks to increase the company’s profits, but takes a more longitudinal approach of seeking first to strengthen the stakes of the employees and increase productivity. Here, one finds that theory O accords with McClelland’s needs-based theory in that it caters to the employees’ need for affiliation within the organization and so becomes an incentive for continued loyalty and effort.
Theory Y, propounded by Douglas McGregor, holds managers responsible for organizing production elements toward the goal of economic profit-making. However, it operates under the belief that people are naturally inclined to work toward the needs of the organization and need only to be probed and motivated in order to uncover this natural tendency. Management therefore directs its efforts toward creating an environment in which people may realize their own propensity for completing tasks that benefit the company. The behavioral theory behind this is that humans seek and are able to find self-actualization in their work.
Employees can be self-motivated to do their jobs and accept changes to it given the right atmosphere and the proper encouragement from their managers. The incentive involved in this theory is the achievement of the individuals’ goals through the completion of projects mandated within the organization (Barnett & Droege, 2005). Application to Organizational Behavior Incentive-based management capitalizes on expectation and equity theories through the employment of a psychological contract, in which managers understand precisely what this equity entails and offers it to the employee.
Employees, in turn, understand that this reward is in store and are therefore motivated to continue working (Morrison & Robinson, 1997; Muchinsky, 2005). The inputs involved in equity theory include effort, commitment, and skill, while outputs include financial rewards, promotion, and job security (Huseman, Hatfield & Miles, 1987). Managers plan their incentives under the knowledge that employees expect better rewards for harder work.
Therefore, to encourage increased effort and commitment, managers take care to record and reward overtime or other displays of effort. Managers will also reward employees’ skills in certain areas by allocating to them more of the projects that fit their expertise and compensating them well for the proper performance of these jobs. Managers within an organization also have the opportunity to utilize reinforcement theory in the workplace, as employees are likely to continue behaviors that are positively reinforced through the use of incentives (Muchinsky, 2005).
Such incentives may be financial or positional, and because employees are likely to appreciate such rewards, managers are able to promote the desired behaviors by providing these incentives. Openly offering rewards also utilizes reinforcement theory, as employees who have not been practicing desired behaviors will have the chance to view the positive reinforcement and adjust their work attitudes and habits accordingly. Employers and managers may also capitalize on McClelland’s needs-based motivational theory as a means of providing incentives to employees in order to assure their optimal efforts and support.
Since employees express a need for achievement, tasks and challenges equal to an employee’s abilities may be provided for him or her in order to promote a sense of accomplishment that will encourage him or her to keep working hard. The employee’s need for authority and power may also be gauged and satisfied by providing incentives that accord him/her jurisdiction over certain projects. When the employee finds him-/herself in charge of a given project, it usually has the effect of inducing him/her to perform well in that office (Pardee, 1990).
The organization that is managed according to Theory O places itself in the position of having a strong foundation, through which employee satisfaction leads to increased productivity and eventually to greater shareholder value. One pitfall of implementing this managerial theory within an organization is that the effects (monetary gain) for shareholders, as a result of the method, might be slow in materializing. Necessary investment capital is often lost before such profitable economic ends can be realized.
However, organizations that manage change without implementing such employee incentives, while they possess the ability to survive in the short run, usually prove to be unstable over the long run. This occurs because their human capital base often displays a lower level of development, loyalty, and commitment to the organization’s goals (Beer and Nohria, 2001; Winther, 1999). Theory Y presents a favorable view of the human individual and, therefore, employees hired by managers who subscribe to this theory garner a high level of trust from their employees through the provision of incentives.
The environment created by those who view the human as having the ability to be self-motivated would appear to resemble a Theory O environment, and the incentives created in such an organization would occur in the form of human resource development initiatives. Efforts made by the managerial staff to discover and enhance the capabilities of employees acts as an incentive in that it allows employees to self-actualize within the job. This means that an alignment of employee goals and organization goals would be effected, so that the objectives the organization presents to employees would be seen as a means of achieving their own goals.
In effect, employee development would uncover their own drive to achieve their own goals, which would in fact be almost identical to those of the organization. Conclusion Organizations can utilize a wide range of incentive-based motivational theories in order to cater to the needs of its members. Such theories include equity and expectation theories, which are based on the idea that employees expect to get rewards that are at least equal to the effort they put into their work.
Reinforcement theory points toward the idea that rewards or incentives received or witnessed by employees will motivate them to act in a similar manner in order to receive such incentives. The needs-based motivation theory serves a method of demonstrating the types of rewards that are suitable for or likely to be appreciated by different employees. Finally, theories O and Y demonstrate methods of including employees in decision making and increasing their ownership of the goals and visions of the organization.
They also highlight the fact that employee development can become an incentive by pointing out ways in which the achievement of the organization’s goals can coincide with the achievement of employees’ own goals.
References Barnett, T. & S. B. Droege. (2005). “Theory X and Theory Y. ” Encyclopedia of Management. Accessed on May 5, 2007. Available: http://www. referenceforbusiness. com/management/Str-Ti/Theory-X-and-Theory-Y. html Bateman, T. S. & J. M. Crant. (n. d. ) Revisiting intrinsic and extrinsic motivation.
Charlottesville: University of Virginia. Retrieved on May 5, 2007 from http://www. commerce. virginia. edu/faculty_research/Research/Papers/IMOBHDP24. pdf Beer, M. & N. Nohria. (2001). “Breaking the code of change. ” Working Knowledge. Harvard Business School. Accessed on August 4, 2006. Available: http://hbswk. hbs. edu/item/2166. html Huseman, R. C. J. D. Hatfield, E. W. Miles. (Apr. , 1987). “A New Perspective on Equity Theory: The Equity Sensitivity Construct. ” The Academy of Management Review, 12(2), 222-234 Morrison, E. W. , & S.
L. Robinson. (1997). “When employees feel betrayed: A model of how psychological contract violation develops. ” Academy of Management Review, 22(1), 226- 256. Muchinsky, P. M. (2005). Psychology Applied to Work. Belmont: Thomson’s Higher Education. Pardee, R. L. (1990). “Motivation Theories of Maslow, Herzberg, McGregor & McClelland. A Literature Review of Selected Theories Dealing with Job Satisfaction and Motivation. ” ERIC. NO: ED316767 Winther, G. “Theory O—Is the case closed? ” Economic and Industrial Democracy. 20(2). 269- 293.



This paper presents the findings with regards to the motivation levels of Officers in the Defense Sector under several parameters. The Indian Army serves as the ultimate instrument for maintaining the unity and the integrity of the nation in the face of external threats and internal unrest and disturbances. Teamwork breeds comradeship which, in turn, leads to pride in belonging to a team and fosters esprit De corps. Motivation thrives on a continuing sense of purpose and it is the Job of the commander to instill this purpose.
Skill in the techniques of leadership is the foremost quality in the art of command and contributes very largely to success at all levels of war. The basic structure and motivational ethos of the armed forces in general and the Indian Army in particular, has remained rooted in the colonial context. The entire basis of military motivation has been focused around the Zeta/ honor and martial traditions of the sub-nationality based Regiment. The pride in the “Guam” (substantiation) has been the primary basis of the military motivational ideology. The history and achievements of the “Guam” have used to inspire the older.
The Indian National Army (NINA) of Subtask Chancre Bose provided a readmes model for the Indian context. It had tried to apply the German and Japanese techniques of military motivation to the Indian context with considerable success. The relation between employee motivation level (dependent variable) with the extent of leadership behavior, organizational culture, team spirit, personal effectiveness and effect of financial motivators (independent variables), as reflected through analysis of data by using Crossbar and Chi-square method is presented as follows:

Extent of Leadership Behavior
Level of Employee Motivation Table 6. : Crossbar of Extent of Leadership Behavior * Level of Motivation in Defense Crossbar Level of Employee Motivation Low Medium High Total Autocratic Count 23 11 0 34 % within Extent of Leadership Behavior 67. 6% 32. 4% 100. 0% Participative Count 6 64 9 79 7. 6% 81. 0% 11. 4% 100. 0% count 18 1937 Extent of Leadership Behavior Charismatic 48. 6% 51 100. 0% Total count 2993 28 150 19. 3% 62. 0% 18. 7% 100. 0% Table 6. 2: Chi Square of Extent of Leadership Behavior * Level of Motivation Chi- Square Tests Value UDF Assam. Gigs. (2-sided) Pearson Chi-Square 94. AAA 4 . 000 Likelihood Ratio 87. 164 4 .
OHO Linear-by-Linear Association 65. 070 1 . 000 N of Valid Cases 150 a. O cells (. 0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 6. 35. 124 Fig. 6. 1: Graph for Extent of Leadership Behavior
Level of Employee Motivation Table 6. 1 presents the information related to the extent of leadership behavior and level of motivation of the employees. It is evident that 81% of the employees falling in participative leadership behavior have a medium level of motivation, whereas in al other leadership behavior categories, around 41% of the employees have medium level of motivation.
Autocratic leadership style and behavior has sizeable 68% respondents in low level of motivation, whereas the relative percentage of participative and charismatic leadership behavior is much less. Hence, it seems that as the close-control leadership behavior is increasing, the level of employee motivation is decreasing. To test this association between extent of leadership behavior and level of employee motivation, Chi Square test (Table 6. 2) has been seed, Here, the null hypotheses is that there is no relationship between leadership behavior and level of employee motivation.
A high Chi Square value, I. E. 94. 085 confirms this relationship. Asymptotic significance value has been 0. 000, which shows that the relationship is statistically significant at 5% level of significance. Thus, the null hypotheses, stating no relationship between leadership behavior and level of employee motivation stands rejected. Hence, it may be concluded that leadership behavior plays a significant role in employee motivation. As the close control of dervish behavior increases, the level of employee motivation tends to decrease.
Organizational Culture
Level of Employee Motivation Table 6. 3: Crossbar of Organizational Culture * Level of Motivation Crossbar Level of Employee Less count 2429 1 54 Conducive % within Organizational Culture 44. 4% 53. 7% 1. 9% 100. 0% Moderately count 5 37 7 49 10. 2% 75. 5% 14. 3% 100. 0% count 0 27 20 47 Organizational Culture Highly 57. 4% 42. 6% 100. 0% % within 19. 3% 62. 0% 18. 7% 100. 06 Table 6. 4: Chi Square of Organizational Culture

Level of Motivation Chi-Square Tests Pearson Chi-Square 54. 60AAAikelihood Ratio 60. 297 4 .
OOOHOinear-by-Linear Association 47. 912 1 . 000 a. O cells (. 0%) have expected c oumountess than
The minimum expected count is 8. 77. Fig. 6. 2: Graph for Organizational Culture

Level of Employee Motivation Table 6. 3 presents the information related to the organizational culture and level of motivation of the employees. It is evident that 76% of the employees falling in moderately conducive organization culture have a medium level of motivation, whereas in all other organizational culture categories, around 55% of the employees have medium level of motivation.
Less conducive organizational culture has sizeable 44% respondents in low level of motivation, whereas the relative percentage of moderately and highly conducive organization culture is much less. Hence, it seems that with more conducive organization culture, the level of employee motivation is increasing. To test this association between organizational culture and level of employee motivation, Chi Square test (Table 6. 4) has been used, Here, the null hypotheses is that there is no relationship between organizational culture and level of employee motivation.
A moderately high Chi Square value, i.I. 54. 060 confirms this relationship. AsAsymptoticignificance value has been 0. 000, which shows that the relationship is statistically significant at 5% level of significance. Thus, the null hypotheses, stating no relationship between organizational culture and level of employee motivation stands rejected. Hence, it may be concluded that organizational culture plays a significant role in employee motivation. With more conducive organization culture, the level of employee motivation is increasing.
Team Spirit
Table 6. : CrCrossbarf Team Spirit * Level of Motivation LOW count 24 24 0 48 within -ream spirit 50. 0% 50. 0% 100. 0% Moderate count 5 48 5 58 % within -ream spirit 8. 6% 82. 8% 8. 6% 100. 0% count 0 21 2344 Team Spirit High % within -ream spspent7. 7% 52. 3% 100. 0% % within -ream spirit 19. 3% 62. 0% 18. 7% 100. 0% Table 6. 6: Chi Square of Team Spirit * Level of Motivation Chi-Square Tests Pearson Chi-Square 80. 60AAAikelihood Ratio 83. 585 4 . OOOHOinear-by-Linear Association 62. 774 1 . 000 a. O cells (. 0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 8. 21 . 129 Fig. 6. : Graph for Team Spirit
Level of Employee Motivation
Table 6. prPresentshe information related to the team spirit and level of motivation of the employees. It is evident that 83% of the employees having moderate team spirit have a medium level of motivation, whereas in all other team spirit categories, around 49% of the employees have medium level of motivation. Low team spirit has sizeable 50% respondents in low level of motivation, whereas the relative percentage of high team spirit is much less. Hence, it seems that as the team spirit is increasing, the level of employee motivation is increasing.
To test this association between team piprintnd level of employee motivation, Chi Square test (Table 6. 6) has been used, Here, the null hypotheses is that there is no relationship between team spirit and level of employee motivation. A high Chi Square value, i.Ie.E80. 607 confirms this hypotheses, stating no relationship between team spirit and level of employee motivation stands rejected. Hence, it may be concluded that team spirit plays a significant role in employee motivation. As the team spirit of employee increases, the level of motivation tends to increase. 6. 4 Personal Effectiveness * Level of Employee Table 6. CrCrossbarf Personal Effectiveness
Level of Motivation
CrCrossbarOW count 1260 18 % within Personal Effectiveness 66. 7% 33. 3% 100. 0% Medium count 14 564 74 18. 9% 75. 7% 5. 4% 100. 0% count 3 31 2458 Personal 5. 2% 53. 4% 41 100. 0% 19. 3% 62. 0% 18. 7% 100. 01 Table 6. 8: Chi Square of Personal Effectiveness * Level of Motivation Chi-Square Pearson Chi-Square 58. 544aAAAelihood Ratio 55. 162 4 . OOO OHOear-by-Linear Association 44. 284 1 . 000 a. 2 cells (22. 2%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 3. 36. Fig. 6. 4: Graph for Personal Effectiveness
Level of Employee
Motivation Table . presPresents information related to the personal effectiveness and level of motivation of the employees. It is evident that 76% of the employees having medium personal effectiveness have a medium level of motivation, whereas in all other personal effectiveness categories, around 43% of the employees have medium level of motivation. Low personal effectiveness has sizeable 67% respondents in low level of motivation, whereas the relative percentage of high personal effectiveness is much less. Hence, it seems that as the personal effectiveness is increasing, the level f employee motivation is increasing moderately.
To test this association between personal effectiveness and level of employee motivation, Chi Square test (Table 6. 8) has been used, Here, the null hypotheses is that there is no relationship between personal effectiveness and level of employee motivation. A moderately high Chi Square value, i. eI 5E. 544 confirms this relationship. AsymAsymptoticnificance value has been 0. 000, which shows that the relationship is statistically significant at 5% level of significance. Thus, the null hypotheses, stating no relationship between personal ffeceffectiveness level of employee motivation stands rejected.
Hence, it may be concluded that personal effectiveness plays a significant role in employee motivation. As the personal effectiveness of employee increases, the level of motivation tends to increase moderately. 6. 5 Effect of Financial Motivators
Level of Employee Motivation
Table 6. 9: CrosCrossbarEffect of Financial Motivators
Level of Motivation
CrosCrossbar count 10 27 1047 Affected % within Effect of Financial Motivators 21 57. 4% 21 100. 0% count 1966 18 103 Effect of Financial 18. 4% 64. 1% 17. 5% 100. 0% Table 6. 0: Chi Square of Effect of Financial Motivators * Level of Motivation Pearson Chi-Square . 12a AAA 736 Likelihood Ratio . 608 2 . 738 Linear-by-Linear Association . 008 1 . 929 a. O cells (. 0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 8. 77. Fig. 6. 5: Graph for Effect of Financial Motivators
Level of Employee Motivation
Table 6. 9 presents the information related to the effect of financial motivators and level of motivation of the employees. It is evident that 64% of the employees affected by financial motivators have a medium level of motivation, whereas those unaffected by inanuncialivators, i. eI aEouAround of the employees have medium level of motivation.
Of the employees affected as well as not affected by financial motivators, sizeable 20% respondents have low level of motivation. Hence, it seems that there is no much variation in motivation level of the employees affected by financial motivators and the ones not affected by financial motivators. To test this association between effect of financial motivators and level of employee motivation, Chi Square test (Table 6. 10) has been used, Here, the null hypotheses is that there is no elatlegislationween financial motivators and level of employee motivation.
A low Chi Square value, i. eI 0E 612 confirms this non-relationship. AsymAsymptoticnificance value has been 0. 736, which shows that the relationship is statistically insignificant at 5% level of significance. Thus, the null hypotheses, stating no relationship between financial motivators and level of employee motivation stands accepted. Hence, it may be concluded that financial motivators have no significant effect on employee motivation. Hence, there is no relationship between financial motivators and level of employee motivation.


The Motivational Factor

Motivation is a process in which the individual’s attention and interests are aroused and directed towards definite goals. One’s attention and interest can be evoked to the extent that the person’s needs, May it be basic or acquired are the ones involved (Bustos, 1996).
Learning is a process inferred from relatively stable changes in behavior that result through practice or interaction with and adaptation to the environment (Goodwin and Klausmeier, 1975; 1978). It is the modification of organism’s behavior as a result of maturation and environmental experiences (Garrison and Magoon, 1975).
It has been said that the most effective learning takes place when there is a maximum mental activity on the part of the learner. This mental activity can be best achieved through strong motivation thus motivation is basic to learning.

A motivational factor varies according to age, needs, attitudes, intelligence, training and experience. An individual may respond to a particular stimulus due to some changes in his/her environment or something unusual is noticed. These factors that catch the attention of the learner can be utilized by the teacher in order to motivate learning.
Since motivational factors varies, the  teacher should take into consideration then the nature of the child, past experiences, the environment, the needs and wants, as well as the individual differences. For instance if you are teaching 3rd graders the teacher should look into their developmental tasks so he/she (the teacher) would be able to associate his/her activities to the subject matter which the students attention are evoked.
An intrinsic motivation are internal desires to perform a particular task, people do certain activities because it gives them pleasure, develops a particular skill, or it’s morally the right thing to do. However extrinsic motivations are external factors that are not related to the task they are performing.
The more attached the person to the task he/she is performing the eager he/she does the work for the sense of fulfillment while people who are awarded with external things in order to perform a particular task (Deci and Ryan, 1985) would not be able to appreciate the job he/she performed but more likely to be bribed and would not feel fulfilled with his performance but rather with the thing he/she got because of it.
Teacher’s especially teaching children who are still in their formation years should be very careful as to how they deal with their students. Intrinsic motivation should likely be done in order for them to grow as responsible human beings who will do good things without bribing them of anything just to provoke them in doing a particular stuff. On the other hand, parents as well must do the same thing at home since discipline starts at home. Activities at school must possess more on the affective domain of the learner and the rest follows.
Motivation at this early stage on the development of the child lies more on his/her environment. The very concern of the teacher now is the knowledge and application of motivation and its sustainability. A lesson plan without a motivation is considered as incomplete. A teacher carries out the potentialities of the students with the motivation he/she has in store and so therefore he/she should be very well oriented with the factor that affects motivation to motivate his/her learners effectively.
Bustos, Alicia S.Ed.D and Espiritu, Socoro PhD. (1996). Anthrpological, and Sociological Foundations of Education.  Quezon City, Philippines. KATHA Publishing Inc.
Deci  and Ryan.1985.Intrinsic Motivation. ChangingMinds.Org.


It is widely acknowledged that pay plays only a small part in the motivation of employees.

Motivation is the process that initiates, guides and maintains goal-oriented behaviours (Price, 2000).Motivation is the inner drive that plays a vital role in employee satisfaction. Different source of motivation in workplace are pay, monetary or non-monetary reward such as verbal or non-verbal appreciation, promotion, rewards etc. Motivated employees deliver superior performance where as de-motivation creates job diss-satisfaction and reduces productivity. Like all other motivational instruments, Pay is also vital instrument for employee motivation in every organization. Satisfaction is the good feeling that you have when you have achieved something or when something that you wanted to happen does happen. Fair and equal payment motivates every employee and unfair pay structure creates severe dissatisfaction.
The primary reason why people have to work is because of money. Employers acknowledge this, and many companies reward outstanding employees with bonuses and cash rewards.

Motivation is important to an individual as:
? Motivation helps him achieve his personal goals.
? If an individual is motivated, he will have job satisfaction.
? Motivation will help in self-development of individual.
? An individual would always gain by working with a dynamic team.
Similarly, motivation is important to a business as:
? The more motivated the employees are, the more empowered the team is.
? The more is the team work and individual employee contribution, more profitable and successful is the business.
? During period of amendments, there will be more adaptability and creativity.
? Motivation will lead to an optimistic and challenging attitude at work place
Employees are essentially the most important aspect of an organization. Managers strive to motivate employees so that they are willing to perform at their highest levels. When employees work hard, come to work regularly and continue making positive contributions to the organization, the business will be able to cut costs and yield more profit, both of which are the ultimate goals of any organization. On the contrary, unmotivated employees will mean the organization will have people that are not willing to do well in the jobs or have to hire more people to do different jobs, which contribute to higher operating costs and a reduction in profit.
Role of Pay/money as a motivational instrument
Money makes the world go round, this is mostly applicable for the workplace. Around the world employers consider money as one of the biggest motivators. However, bonuses or cash awards also play significant role in employee motivation.
Many people argue that cash incentives are an unfair means of motivating employees. Others love the simple, practical, down-to-earth gift of money for a job well done (Judiesch, 1994). In my view, while there are some circumstances where money is the best recognition for extra work, there are other times it is inappropriate.
Meta-analysis completed by Judiesch, (1994) found that individual pay incentives increased productivity by an average of 43.7%. Results were even larger (48.8%) when the sample was restricted to studies in real organizations (as opposed to laboratory experiments). Other interventions were not studied, but we know of no meta-analysis that has presented findings for other motivational interventions that come close to approaching these effect sizes
Locke,,(1980) conducted Metaanalysis of productivity-enhancing interventions in actual work settings and found that introduction of individual pay incentives increased productivity by an average of 30%. In contrast, job enrichment produced productivity increases ranging from 9–17%, while employee participation programs increased productivity by less than 1%, on average.
Of course, if an employer pay some enough money, the employees will do almost any job. And when you give bonuses to reward past behaviour, the recipients are usually very happy. The staff does a better job following the glow that accompanies added money.
However, studies found this happiness is short-lived. Within six months, individuals have difficulty recalling that bonus and it does not seem to have the same impact it did within the first few weeks or months of receiving it. That’s because money, in and of itself, will not continuously motivate individuals (Judiesch,1994).
People in an organization are motivated by different things. Many people argue nevertheless that money is a primary motivator. Some employees have financial goals, others have professional goals, and others have personal goals. The same incentives cannot work for all (Dessler, 2008). Some of the reasons why cash is not always a suitable motivator for excellent employees are:
For most people money is not a motivator – despite what they might think and say.
Surveys and research studies repeatedly show that other factors motivate more than money. Examples appear in the newspapers and in other information resources every week. For instance, a survey by Development Dimensions International published in the UK Times newspaper in 2004 interviewed 1,000 staff from companies employing more than 500 workers, and found many to be bored, lacking commitment and looking for a new job. Pay actually came fifth in the reasons people gave for leaving their jobs.
The main reasons were lack of stimulus jobs and no opportunity for advancement – classic Herzberg motivators – 43% left for better promotion chances, 28% for more challenging work; 23% for a more exciting place to work; and 21% and more varied work (
It’s the recognition and status that are the true motivators for the increased output. Take for example, the high tech salesperson who sold more product than anyone else in the department. The boss rewards that employee with a bonus. Everyone knows who the bonus recipient is, and she is proud of her accomplishments–the high earner gains recognition from colleagues and clients. Recognition and status are two key sources of motivation. So while money can serve to motivate, its effects are often short term at best (Feldman et al,1978).
Fairness in the job and payment also determines the amount of motivation in the job. Generally before entering into an agreement a person wants to know that he/she will be treated fairly (Turban,1993).
? The individuals concern with salary, benefits, perks, etc. is a part of the concern about a fair agreement.
? The salary and benefits do not serve as motivators. The workers motivation doesn’t depend on the salary. The workers view is that she/he is entitled to the salary and benefits. It is an entitlement, not an incentive.
? If the agreement is perceived as unfair, the worker will be dissatisfied and poor morale will result. But if the agreement is fair, it will play little role in determining whether she/he is a motivated/satisfied employee.
For example, Feldman and Arnold (1978) found that pay was fourth out of six job attributes (opportunities to use important skills and abilities was first) when graduate business students were asked to rank them from “most preferred to least preferred” (p. 707).
Value and Appreciation: The key to motivation and satisfaction:
Several researchers argued, even when the agreement is fair and understood it takes something more to motivate the worker– to keep the worker interested and committed to perform. It is quite common for someone to be getting an excellent salary and benefits, to not have to work too hard, and to hate every minute of their job. Some of these individuals quit that job and take one with lower salary and worse benefits because it is motivating to them (Banfield et,al 2008).
According to Kiersy, what motivates people is appreciation (Kiersy and Bates, 1978). A motivated employee is one that feels appreciated. Most people will spend a lot of time (after work and on weekends) working for no pay, and often working a lot harder than they do at their job, to do something that will be appreciated.
Morale problems can result if the employee does not feel appreciated.
? This can happen if manager fails to communicate appreciation to the employee. The manager must convince the workers that their skills and knowledge are valued.
? This can happen if the worker feels that management does not care about their input.
? The easiest way to deal with this type of problem is to increase the participation of the workers in management decisions and to increase communication.
Cases where pay can not motivate
If an employer provides an incentive to an employee who doesn’t feel appreciated she/he will label him a fool and take the employer’s money and curse him from behind. A merit increment given to this employee will not result in increased productivity. In fact it may result in increased alienation.
However if an employee feels appreciated already, then a bonus or incentive increment is an ideal way to prove to that employee that she/he is appreciated. It is putting money where your mouth is. And then the employee will work even harder to achieve the objectives of the organization. But it is not the incentive that produces the increased productivity. If the incentive works to improve the employee’s performance, it is because it confirms her/his feelings of being appreciated–a valued member of the organization (Turban, 1993).
Depending of the nature and types of business of organizations, different motivational factors can be used by the managers. For some of the sales oriented business where employees are looking for appreciation/financial rewards based on their unit of sales or productivity; whereas, in a non-profit organization it might be difficult to motivate employees with financial rewards.Indeed, it is clear that many of the other factors mentioned by researchers such as Maslow and Herzberg,for example, interesting work and participation in decision making are also important motivators to many people. Even though employees appreciate increase pay or financial rewards in the short-run they respond most to opportunities for achievement, recognition, growth, job enrichment and job enlargement in the long-run.
A few techniques that managers could use to motivate employees are:
? Get enough payment for the job done.
? Praise the employee for a job well done–or even partially well done.
? If an employee is bored, involve that individual in a discussion about ways to create a more satisfying career path, including promotions based on concrete outcomes.
? State clear expectations for task accomplishment.
? Ensure that the employee sees that what she’s doing impacts the whole process or task that others will also be part of.
? Provide the employee with adequate opportunity to succeed.
? Make sure that the employee feels that what he/she is doing is meaningful.
? Provide feedback along the way, pointing out both positive and negative aspects.
Banfield, P. & Kay, R. (2008) Introduction to Human Resource Management.
Oxford: Oxford University Press
Bretz, R. D., Jr., Ash, R. A., & Dreher, G. F. (1989). Do people make the placeAn examination of the attraction-selection-attrition hypothesis. Personnel Psychology, 42, 561–581
Dessler, G. (2008) Human Resource Management (11th ed.) Pearson/Prentice Hall
Feldman, D. C., & Arnold, H. J. (1978). Position choice: Comparing the importance of organizational and job factors. Journal of Applied Psychology, 63, 706–710
Judiesch, M. K. (1994). The effects of incentive compensation systems on productivity, individual differences in output variability and selection utility. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Iowa
Locke, E. A., Feren, D. B., McCaleb, V. M., Shaw, K. N., & Denny, A. T. (1980). The relative effectiveness of four methods of motivating employee performance. In K. D. Duncan, M. M. Gruenberg, & D. Wallis (Eds.), Changes in working life (pp. 363–388). New York: Wiley
Keirsey, D. and Bates, M (1978) Please Understand Me: Character and temperament types.Prometheus Nemesis Books, Delmar CA. (Third Edition)
Kreitner R. (1986), ‘Motivating Job Performance’. In Kreitner R. ‘Management’, (3rd edn), Houghton Mifflin Company
Price, Alan (2000) Principles of Human Resource Management: An Action Learning Approach, Blackwell and Oxford
Turban, D. B., & Keon, T. L. (1993). Organizational attractiveness: An interactionist perspective. Journal of Applied Psychology, 78, 184–193
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Best Motivation for Internal Promotion

Through management leadership and strong coaching and mentoring the banking institutions in the UAE can easily identify the talented employees that they could promote to higher responsibilities (Yogesh 2009). This would go along way in motivating not only the employees who have been promoted but also the others who have not to perform even better. In other words, by promoting the internal employees, the other employees are also likely to get motivated to improve their performance in order to win the recognition of the management.
In this case, the organizations will have filled the staffing needs from internal sources (Lee 2007). Look After the Expected Losses Due To Retirement, Transfer and Other Issues During the human resource planning process it would be necessary that the banking institutions in the UAE critically examine the potential sources of manpower losses (Yogesh 2009). In other words, the banks will have to examine issues of voluntary retirement, turnover and transfers among others (Bratton & Gold 2003).
It would be very important that the business organizations examine these potential loses of manpower for the reason that when knowledge employees leave the organization for whatever reason, the organizations are bound to lose a significant element of their intellectual capital (Bratton & Gold 2003). See For Replacement Due To Accident, Death, Dismissals and Promotion In this case, the concern of the banking institutions in the UAE will be to examine the potential sources of supply from where the can fill the vacancies that may have been left as a result of some employees leaving the organization.

What is meant here is that the organizations need to forecast the future shortages they are bound to experience and to take measures for curbing them by examining the potential sources of supply (Lee 2007). This would call for the banking institutions in the UAE to undertake a HR audit to establish the exact number of employees remaining as a result of the vacancies thereby knowing the exact number of vacancies that need to be replaced and with what kind of employees (Bratton & Gold 2003).
In this case, the main purpose of the HR audit would be replacement planning. The banking institutions in the UAE could come up with short-run replacement mechanisms more so in the case where the need for replacement is urgent. Otherwise the banks can also engage in the process of succession planning in the event that the replacement is to be gradual and long-term in nature (Lee 2007). Technology Used Technology plays a very significant role in manpower planning more so when it comes to the banking institutions in the UAE.
This is because the banks have a major concern of providing better customer services by exploring the manpower requirements. It is important to recognize that projecting the manpower requirements is significantly influenced by the kind of transactions that the customers demand (Suri et al 2007, p. 322). If the customers demand many transactions, then it would be imperative that banking institutions in the UAE employ more human as way of coping with the customer demands.
Technology plays a significant role in human resource planning by reducing the employees requirement (Bhasin 2002), thus increasing the business per every worker. Similarly, IT infrastructure can play a very significant role in supporting the process of talent identification more so in the case where talent identification is supposed to be positively correlated with performance. Technology can also be used in human resource planning for the reason that it can assist the banking institutions in the UAE to manage wider customer bases (Swain 2005, pp.
87-95). Besides, technology has led to less pressure on the workers especially when it comes to customer entertainment and reducing their tasks that are done in a repetitive manner (Swain 2005, pp. 87-95). In other words, technology when used in human resource planning goes a long way in minimizing the requirement of employees (Bratton & Gold 2003). Therefore technology can play a significant role in forecasting the demand and supply of labor when embraced by the banking institutions in the UAE (Lee 2007).


The Five Different Approaches to Motivation

The first being instincts which are the patterns of behavior that are biologically determined rather than learned. Fact: people and animals are born preprogrammed with sets of behavior’s essential to survive. The second being the drive-reduction approach. It suggests that a lack of some basic biological requirement such as water produces the drive to obtain the water. The third being the arousal approach in which each person tries to maintain a certain level of stimulation and activity.
The forth would be the incentive approach which it suggests that motivation stems from the desire to obtain valued external goals, or incentive. The fifth would be the cognitive approach and it suggests that motivation is a product of a person’s thoughts, expectations, and goals-their cognitions. The one approach i chose would be the incentive approach. I feel that i am more motivated when there is some incentive involved because i know at the end of the day i am going to be rewarded for my assistance.
For example: My boss wants me to do some work for him that might take two hours. The two hours would be over-time at twenty for dollars an hour. Fortunetly he say for the work, off the clock he would give me two sixty-five dollar tickets to the season opener for The Pistons at The Palace of Auburn Hills. The offer of the tickets gave me incentive to do the work and it only took me an hour and fifteen minutes to finish it.