Basic areas of leadership

The method employed in the analysis of the nine stories consists in asking three basic questions: 1. What are the basic challenges/problems faced by the leader? 2. How did the leader went about facing the challenges/solving the problems and the characteristics and wisdom the person exhibited? 3. What made the leadership a defining moment, the key elements that spell success or failure and why or how it could be inspiring or a source of valuable lessons?
The above questions were posed as analytical tool because they, in concert, best identify the leadership elements involved in turning the challenges towards successful resolution and provide leadership data that can serve as model for other leaders or students of leadership strategies. Knowing the basic challenges or problems needing solution posed a demand on the person of the leader that could give a clue to the varied directions or approaches available to the leader or they could put a question mark to the attitudes, principles and other internal characteristics of the leader.
By understanding and identifying the actions and approaches done by the leader in facing the challenge or in solving the problem being faced and how they affect or impact the result, the strength and weakness of the leader is discovered and identified. Making a deeper analysis of the dynamics of the leader’s personal interaction with the challenge or problem can bring about insight as to the wisdom of the leader’ s responses that define the inspirational nature of the leadership moment in its wider or more comprehensive context.

These are only three questions but they can provide a rich array of leadership lessons and insights because each leadership moment as well as each leader is unique; and the confluence can bring light the many facets of leadership challenge and leadership qualities and responses. And this will be apparent in the discussion of the result of the analysis. DISCUSSION Selective survey of the result of analysis confirmed the fact that a definitive identification of leadership quality will be exhibited by an understanding of the nature of the challenge.
The kind of challenge faced by Roy Valegos at Merck, for example, already points to the quality that is being demanded of the leader and which he exhibited with extraordinary power and commitment – that of moral intelligence, moral courage, sterling fidelity to company vision and long range appreciation of the situation; qualities lacking in John Gutfreund at Solomon and which cost him his career and tremendous losses for his company.
Analysis further revealed three basic areas of leadership which served like a tri-sided prism that reveal the uniqueness of each leader notwithstanding their commonality in manifesting leadership in these basic areas. These areas are character and personality, relationship with others, particularly the organization they lead and an over-all grasp or understanding of the whole situation. How the leader manifests himself in these areas of leadership determines the unique quality of his or her leadership.
Eugene Kranz of the Apollo 13 crisis reveals a person with solid faith and confidence in the members of his team and expects the best to minutest detail from each, while Joshua Chamberlain at Gettysburg deals with the mutineers by appealing to their sense of aspiration to noble ideals yet is realistic as to their ambivalent state of mind and deals with them in a carrot and stick fashion.
In the face of challenge for survival Wagner Dodge in Mann Gulch muster an instinctive intelligence honed by years of experience and created an unconventional means to shield himself from towering fires through creating a circle of fire. But he failed in leading his men to his safe haven; revealing a relational and communication weakness in his leadership. The same instinctive intelligence alerted Arlene Blum on Annapurna of the perils of the second attempt at scaling the summit but she failed to assert leadership for life over freedom to choose and lost two of her fellow mountaineers.
Clifton Wharton at TIAA-CREF, Nancy Barry at Women’s World Banking and Alfredo Cristiani in El Salvador distinguished themselves in leadership for the depth and breath of their grasp of the actual situation of the organization and people they lead and their respective responsibility as a leader and catalyzed the change that their respective situation needed. Each leadership moment revealed the kind of leader each of them have become, just as the intensity of fire reveals how strong and powerful a sword has become.


Sources of Power in Leadership

The chairman of Shell Australia, Russell Caplan, has had many careers since graduating from Melbourne University in 1968—but all in one company. Most recently, Caplan led the restructuring of the company’s oil and chemical distribution and marketing into a global business from late 2004. Shell Australia’s profit before interest and tax increased almost 70 per cent, to $1. 23 billion, in 2005 after reforms at Victoria’s Geelong and Sydney’s Clyde refineries added to oil and gas production profits. But Caplan is facing a considerable test in helping Shell’s Gorgon gas joint-venture partners gain final approval from the West
Australian Government for the project, after concerns were raised by the WA Environmental Protection Agency. Here is what he says: ‘In all of my time with Shell, the one constant is change. I say to my people, “You had better get used to it because that’s the way we work. ” The contribution I can make is to express things as simply and clearly as I can. People react positively if they are shown a clear way forward—it doesn’t have to be a new or profoundly brilliant way; it just has to be clear. I find people have difficulty with priority setting, so giving them some guidance makes it legitimate to focus on ome things more than others. ‘When it comes to the challenges of depletion of natural resources and reducing emissions facing the oil industry, the first thing is to recognise sustainable development as a fundamental part of our philosophy. Triple-bottom-line reporting is real for us, not just talk. We would not be involved with the Gorgon project unless we could meet the social and environmental consequences too. I have personal targets associated with my remuneration. Triple-bottom-line reporting is embedded in our company, and that sometimes makes me a little sharp with some people who wish to take he view that we are big industry and therefore we couldn’t recognise those issues. ‘I have been continually surprised and pleased by the opportunities that I have had at Shell, and many were not of my choosing. If I said, when I joined in 1968, “I could have planned this,” that would be fatuous. I think that you should have two principles. The first is do the best you can. It annoys me when people focus on what they are going to do next rather than what they are doing now. I am very attracted to someone who delivers a little more than they say they are going to deliver, a little faster and is very etermined to succeed at what they are currently doing. That is the greatest indicator of what they can do. You also need a sense of good and bad. If you want to be in a legitimate business, Shell is a good place to be. There is a lot of good in Shell … it’s not perfect, but there’s a lot of good and it gives you opportunities. ‘In terms of my leadership style, I can think of a number of influences. I learned the importance of pushing yourself and doing the best you can do. I learnt from former Shell executive and Rio Tinto chairman Paul Skinner the benefit of clarity, consistency and moderation.
I have also learnt something remarkable from my wife; that is, the ability to stick to core values and express them simply. ‘Finally, I am conscious of the fact that I have come back to Australia after ten years away, and it is critically important to my effectiveness as a leader to reconnect with the Australian community, because my role as a leader is to bridge outside and inside. You get very remote if you are living away and following Australia by Internet, as opposed to smelling the dust—and seeing the pain of St Kilda losing. ’ Russell Caplan Position: Chairman Organisation: Shell Australia

Staff: 3200 Direct reports: Four Time in position: Four months Time in company: 39 years Activities for discussion, analysis and further discussion 1 Would you consider Russell Caplan to be an effective leader? Why? What characteristics of effective leadership do you identify in him from the case material above? 2 What characteristics does he appear to value in subordinates who he believes will be promotable? 3 Would you be prepared to work for this manager? Why? Source: Adapted from Tandukar, A. 2006, The good oil, Business Review Weekly, John Fairfax Holdings Limited, 22 June, p. 44.


Leadership revised

Answer to Question # 1
Sharon Daloz Parks, in his books entitled “Leadership Can Be Taught,” discussed leadership in an adaptive concept. Adaptive concept means that the word leader denotes to lead and in order to lead a group, you ought to be a procrastinator of time or think ahead of time. A person should have a view on what possible things might be encountered. Then think of the possible solutions for the upcoming problem. Anticipatory imagination is considering all the pros and cons of things.
In adaptive leadership, it is believed that leadership can be learned. It deals with understanding and about behaviors and actions. It is not in any way an inherent trait. The adaptability of the organization depends on having a widespread leadership. The ideas should not only come from the people on the top, but it should come from people within the organization. Practicing adaptive leadership means making a holding environment where discussions of certain issues are kept safe. In addition, the adaptive leadership consulting is about understanding adaptive pressures and dynamics, and using those insights in creating successful changes.

Adaptive leadership is a must in an organization because it paves the way for less problems to incur because in this process, the leader is futuristic, which considers the entire negative and positive things that will come their way. As a mentor or guide, the leader has to be likened to an eagle which soars high and sees all things below. Leaders should have focused determination and an attitude for winning. Indeed, leadership is not a position but disposition.
Answer to Question # 2
With regards to the to the character trait of embracing the negative, it is said that (a) Profit comes as a result of facing problems, so doing it is seen as a good thing, not a negative thing; and (2) The best way to solve a problem is not to have it to begin with.
Embracing the negative means embracing problems. The person who is pessimistic or negative is a type of person who is always looking at the negative side of life. It seems that problem is bigger than the solution. Man in his struggle for existence need not grope in the dark but always look at the bright side of life. The dark side is the problem and the light side is the solution. As we face different challenges in our life, we must always think positive, never give up easily when trials comes our way and look at the brighter side of life. Always remember that in every problem, there is always a solution. The best way to do is to give up the negative, and learned to motivate and encourage yourself to think positively or be an optimistic.
Thinking realistically and positively will become automatic in you as you go through your life. And the response to the problems when it comes to you the next time will be handled in a entirely a new way. It will then be easier for you to handle and face the next trials that will come to your life if you will become optimistic. It is indeed a long process and it will take some time for it to happen, but eventually, in the long run, it will happen. So it is better to start now on your journey to replace the negative thinking or being pessimistic with a positive thinking or being an optimistic.
Profit comes as a result of facing the problems. Like David who faces Goliath, in our lives facing problems and trials will determine our strength and failure in life. Indeed life is a choice; we either choose life or death, problems or solutions, negative or positive. The rest is up to us. The best way to solve a problem is not to have it to begin with which means that in solving problems we need to look at the solution of the problem because in this way more concrete ideas will come our way. Keeping a positive attitude and not considering difficult things as problems would greatly help in attaining one’s goals.
Sometimes when we have a problem, we keep on thinking that we have a problem and it is so hard to solve, how can I get over it? And in some cases, instead of solving the problem we engaged ourselves in drinking alcoholic beverages or taking prohibited drugs in order for us to forget that we have a problem. With these, we are not solving the problem. We keep on thinking about the problem not knowing that it will only aggravate the problem because emotionally we are affected by it.
Instead of thinking about the problem on and on without doing something, we should face the problem, know what causes the problem and find the solutions. In every little problems that we encounter we must find solutions immediately, before it gets worse or become big that we cannot handle anymore. When we follow this kind of solving/handling the problem it will be easier for us to face the trials next time.
If we continue with the way we do it the wrong way of solving the problem we will not gain something from it but if we start to face it now, and find solutions to the problem we will gain something from it and life would be easier.
Answer to Question # 3
Three Essential/Necessary for Success:
1.  Competencies
Competencies means being confident in whatever undertakings we had. Competencies means we are fully equipped to do things because of all the necessary ingredients of trainings, experiences and capabilities are stored within us. Successful people are confident people.
2.  Alliance Builder
Alliance builder means we are also a support group. We love networking, linkages and alliances with people who are also a builder like us. Builder means they help us to grow as a person in every aspect of our lives. The saying that no man is an island is a complement of this so called alliance builder. To be in allegiance with the right people is indeed a blessing. Successful people are building other lives or alliance builder.
3.   Character or Integrity
Character or Integrity is very important aspects for success. Character or integrity is the totality your whole being. Talents, riches and material things can make us on the top but character will make us stay there. Truly character depicts the real you.
Six Character Dimension:
1)  Gain the complete trust of the people they were leading and capture their full hearts and following
The saying that, “follow the leader,” means that a true leader is worth following for. They gain the trust and confidence of his followers and believe in every word he says. And being a good leader we should also be a role model to our followers.
2)    See all of the realities that were right in front of them. They had blind spots regarding themselves, others, or even the markets, customers, projects, opportunities, or other external realities that kept them from reaching their goals.  A true leader is realistic for their weakness and strengths. Blind spots means, that they are open to correction and suggestion because they don’t see everything like an imperfect person. They have teachable spirit and a humble heart to learn more things for their completion as a person. They want to learn more in areas like marketing, customer relations, projects, opportunities or other external realities in life because leaders are good followers.
3) Work in a way that actually produced the outcomes that they should have produced, given their abilities and resources Successful leaders are results driven and results oriented. They work in a way that their given abilities and talents were used and exercised and applied to the fullest.
4)  Deal with problem people, negative situations, obstacles, failures, setbacks, and losses. Successful people are not afraid to work with all kinds of people and situations. They consider it as a challenge and transcend their own interest and give themselves to larger purposes, thus becoming part of a larger mission a test for their testimony and they are winners and not losers in facing any failures, setbacks, and losses.
5.  Create growth in their organization, their people, themselves, their profits, or their industry. Successful people are part and parcel of growth in any organization and a contributing factor for the success of other people and the industry in general.
6)   Transcend their own interest and give themselves to larger purposes, thus becoming part of a larger mission This character trait for success is broadminded. Successful leaders want to widen his territories, his field of interest and horizons. He wants to connect with best minds and believe in the saying that “Iron sharpens Iron” for the betterment of themselves and others. Indeed, for them learning never ends from cradle to grave. Learning is a never-ending process we should never stop striving to learn more.
“Avoiding Pessimism May Be More Important than Being Optimistic.” 1998.Ohio State University.
“Ethics is our Religion: Creative and Optimistic Thinking.” 2006. North Virginia Ethical Society.
McGrath, H. Phd. “Teaching Students to Think Optimistically. Deakin University: Faculty Education.
Parks, SD. 2005. “Leadership Can Be Taught.”
“Positive Thinking: Practice this Stress Management Skill.” 2007. Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research (MFMER).
“Tips on Giving Up Pessimistic Thinking Habit.” 2006. Liesnet.
“What is Leadership?” 2007.


Leadership Management

APPLIED LEADERSHIP AND DEVELOPMENT COURSE BUS3023 ASSIGNMENT 3 CREDITS Please complete the following assignment and mail it with the copy of the assignment to be marked and for comments. Please use your discretion to determine the length of your answer. Keep the following criteria in mind: Did I demonstrate my knowledge and insight? Will the tutor be satisfied that I can apply the information (Skills)? Write answers in your own words as far as possible and refrain from copying from text books/handouts. 1. Define: Leadership. The process of influencing people while operating to meet organizational requirements and improving the organization through change. 2. Name the five practices of exemplary leadership. * Model the way * Inspire a shared vision * Challenge the Process * Enable other to act * Encourage the heart 3. Explain the relationship between management, vision and planning. * Management involves all the undertakings require planning, organizing, command, coordination and control to function properly, by focusing on producing change by developing a vision for the future along with strategies for bringing about the changes needed to achieve that vision. . Does every manager need to be a leader? Explain. * All good managers are leaders to various degrees. They need to carry out their leaders’ visions by creating their own visions that support the larger vision, and then getting their workers to accomplish the vision. For example, Howard Schultz, of Starbucks Coffee Company, had a vision of 2000 stores by the year 2000. This vision became one of the driving forces behind the company’s success. Did Howard Schultz build those 2000 stores himself? No way!
Schultz’s vision was achieved by managers and supervisors throughout the organization who had smaller scale visions that directly supported his 2000 by 2000 vision. They got these visions accomplished by delegating the means and authority to their subordinates. These managers and supervisors also supported their employees by giving them the means and opportunity to grow by coaching and mentoring; and providing training, development, and education opportunities. * A CEO cannot be the sole leader of a large organization. There are simply to many leadership tasks that must be accomplished… leader cannot do all of them herself. 5. It has been identified that there are 6 Pillars of Character that are important to adopting and ethical perspective in leadership development. Can you name four of the six? a) Trustworthiness, Respect, Responsibility, Fairness, Caring and Citizenship b) Ruthlessness, Drive, Determination, Toughness, Supportive, Action oriented c) Supportive, Intelligent, Insightful, Good Communicator, Toughness, Fair d) Caring, Softness, Intelligent, Decisive, Team Player, Communicator 6. Define: * Vision The ability to think about or plan the future with imagination or wisdom:the organization had lost its vision and direction * Mission * a strongly felt aim, ambition, or calling: his main mission in life has been to cut unemployment * Strategy * A plan of action or policy designed to achieve a major or overall aim. * The art of planning and directing overall military operations and movements in a war or battle * Leadership Values. * Leaders know what they value. They also recognize the importance of ethical behaviour.
The best leaders exhibit both their values and their ethics in their leadership style and actions. Your leadership ethics and values should be visible because you live them in your actions every single day. 7. What concepts of leadership are important to explain the difference in focus of leadership compared to management? * Leadership and management must go hand in hand, however they are NOT identical. Both are needed and they are linked and complement each other. Any attempt to separate the two is likely to cause more problems in a business without solving any. Many debates took place and is still taking place regarding the differences. Simply put the manager’s job is to plan, organize and coordinate and the leader’s role is to inspire and motivate * The following is from book published in 1989 written by Warren Bennis namely “On Becoming a Leader,” he composed a list of the differences as listed below: * The manager administers; the leader innovates. * The manager is a copy; the leader is an original. * The manager maintains; the leader develops. * The manager focuses on systems and structure; the leader focuses on people. The manager relies on control; the leader inspires trust. * The manager has a short-range view; the leader has a long-range perspective. * The manager asks how and when; the leader asks what and why. * The manager has his or her eye always on the bottom line; the leader’s eye is on the horizon. * The manager imitates; the leader originates. * The manager accepts the status quo; the leader challenges it. * The manager is the classic good soldier; the leader is his or her own person. * The manager does things right; the leader does the right thing. 8.

In which way do you see that new technologies will affect leadership and leaders? * I do not see technologies affecting leaders, or people for that matter. What I do see are good leaders achieving their goals by selecting the right tools (technology) to achieve their goals. Good leaders focus upon their goals and then do what is necessary to achieve it; they do not pick a technology and then try to achieve some goal with it. 9. What is the difference between ‘Interpersonal skills and Personal Learning Skills’? * Interpersonal Skills- The skills used by a person to properly interact with others.
In the business domain, the term generally refers to an employee’s ability to get along with others while getting the job done. * Personal Learning Skills – Is the way that a person will learn something either by making notes, creating a mind map, etc. 10. Write an essay of (one) A4 Page on the importance of the individual within the context of team practices. Organisations are made up of individuals brought together to enable the organisation to achieve its mission. The organisation’s structure will determine how these individuals are brought together and how they relate to one another.
The success of the organisation is dependent on each individual working together to achieve the common goal. If individuals are pulling in different directions, this will have a detrimental impact upon the organisation achieving its mission. It is the role of the manager to integrate the activities of individuals, ensuring that they are aware of the institution’s priorities and that they are working towards them. Managers achieve this through the authority delegated to them within the organisation’s hierarchy. We are all different.
We differ in many ways, some of them visual (age, gender) some of them non-visual (personality, abilities). These differences mean that we often have different values and attitudes on certain issues and individuals will perceive situations in different ways. It can be interesting and rewarding to discuss a topic from another point of view and to gain insight into other perspectives. But diversity can also be challenging and it can sometimes be difficult to understand things from a different point of reference.
From an individual perspective, it is important to understand and appreciate that not everyone will see things or value the things that you do, nor agree with your opinions. Different jobs require different abilities, skills and competencies. When we assign someone to a job that does not match their abilities, because the job is either not sufficiently demanding or too demanding, the result can be frustration and stress for both the individual and their work colleagues. In a situation where an individual’s abilities do not match the requirements of the job because they are in some way lacking, then the individual will feel out of their depth.
This has an impact on the individual who feels unable to complete their tasks to the required and expected levels of performance. The team will also be affected by the situation. They will often have to take on extra work and duties in order to support their colleague. In a situation where an individual’s abilities exceed those required for the job, then the individual may find the job too easy and become bored. This leads to a lack of enthusiasm and care for the job and a sense of frustration for the individual feeling unable to achieve their potential.
Again this frustration impacts upon the rest of the team and ultimately their performance. Stress is a very individual concept and our responses to it can vary considerably. We all find different situations stressful and we all react to them in a variety of ways. Some people are stress victims. They perceive almost every situation in life as a threat and they respond negatively to situations causing them anxiety, anger, self-doubt or frustration. Others view situations more positively. They assess situations and channel their energies into a proactive response spurring them on to achieve their goals.
Our response to stress depends on a balance between how demanding a potentially stressful situation is perceived to be and our ability to cope with it. Too big an imbalance and we will suffer negative stress. This ability to cope with stress is influenced by our outlook on life, our health and our support system which includes friends and relatives. Therefore, a situation that may be stressful to one individual, may be exhilarating and exciting to another, and indeed our reactions to stressful situations and how we cope with them varies throughout our life 11. Describe the three critical dimensions of team learning. First, there is a need to think insightfully about complex issues * Teams must learn how to tap the potential for many minds to be more intelligent than one mind * Second, there is a need for innovative, coordinated action * Third, there is the role of team members on other teams * A learning team fosters other learning teams through inculcating the practices and skills of team learning 12. Explain the requirements for leadership team learning. * Leadership in a non-team work environment is a top down structure where rules, not principles, govern participation.
In a team culture, leaders, guided by their principles of involvement, work to help team members find a level of confidence, trust, and cooperation so that they can achieve high levels of production * Both managing a department and leading a team involve the following skills and activities: * Providing direction and leadership to others * Planning * Meeting goals and objectives * Managing activities/tasks * Working with people * The key difference lies in the responsibility for performance management. * Team leaders, on the other hand, are responsible for leading teams of people who may not report to them. Without organizational authority, team leaders must influence others and inspire them to meet the goals of the initiative or project. * Following are five critical team leadership skills that will help team leaders (and managers) effectively influence and demonstrate respect for their team members. * Understanding behavioural styles * Listening and effectively communicating * Giving praise * Handling * criticism * Using problem – solving and persuasion instead of Criticism 13. What is the relationship between leaders and followers? Many people make mistake to separate leaders and followers. I think that no matter what position one has within an organization, he/she is playing a follower’s role to support someone else. Great leaders of an organization are following the profitable goals of their stakeholders. For a survival business, followers need to be effective and supportive for their leaders to be successful. Nevertheless, followers are more effective if they consider themselves active and independent * It is more important in my opinion that how follower’s view of their leaders is. According to Yukl et al. 2010), leaders’ effectiveness implies leader competence and intentions in the view of the followers. Followers who are closed to their leaders are often the most susceptible to the crucibles of their failed leaders. Additionally, followers who are so committed to their leaders are the most disappointed people when they see their leaders fail. 14. Distinguish between the following types of teams: * Problem Solving Teams; * A group of individuals assembled to work on a project that involves resolving one or more issues that have already arisen or to deal effectively with issues as they arise.
In a business context, a problem solving team will typically be formed for a limited time frame incorporating staff from different organizational levels with various relevant skill sets. * Cross Functional Teams; * Let us understand this with the help of an example. * Maria and Andy both were part of the branding team. They got an assignment from their superiors to be completed within two days. Unfortunately Andy met with an accident and was advised complete bed rest. To avoid delays, Peter from the operations team was shifted to the marketing team to assist Maria for the time being and form a team.
Such teams are called cross functional teams. Ideally the employees should be more or less on the same level to avoid ego hassles. Individuals from different areas come and work together for a common objective to form a cross functional team. In such teams, people from different areas, interests and likings join hands to come out with a unique idea to successfully complete a task. * Virtual Teams; * Virtual teams consist of individuals who are separated by distances and connected through computer. Here individuals communicate with each other online through internet.
Sam at Los Angeles can form a team with Mandy at Mexico and Sara at Denver all working for a common objective but the communication is totally digital through internet. Such teams are helpful when employees need to connect with each other and are located at different places. Individuals supporting any community in social networking sites such as facebook or orkut also form a virtual team as all the members are from different locations but support a common community. They all have a common objective -to support and promote their community. * Research and development Teams; Investigative activities that a business chooses to conduct with the intention of making a discovery that can either lead to the development of new products or procedures, or to improvement of existing products or procedures. Research and development is one of the means by which business can experience future growth by developing new products or processes to improve and expand their operations. * Self Managed Teams * Self Managed Teams consist of individuals who work together again for a common purpose but without the supervision of any leader. Here as the name suggests every individual is accountable for his individual performance.
The team members of self managed teams must respect each other and should never loose focus on their target. No leader is appointed and the team members have to take their own responsibility. Individuals take the initiative on their own and are their own guides and mentors. 15. What do you understand by ‘Quality Performance ; Collaboration’? * Quality Performance is also referred to as quality of service. Quality performance can be assessed through measurements of physical products, statistical sampling of the output of processes, or through surveys of purchasers of goods or services. Collaboration is working with each other to do a task. It is a recursive process where two or more people or organizations work together to realize shared goals, (this is more than the intersection of common goals seen in co-operative ventures, but a deep, collective, determination to reach an identical objective 16. Explain in your own words the phases of the mentoring relationship. * Building a relationship between the mentor and mentee * Discussing and developing clear expectations between the parties * The development of the Mentee * Closing of Ending the Formal Metor – Mentee relationship 17.
Why is the development leadership effectiveness important in the 21st Century? * The quality of leadership is an important element in an organization’s success, since leaders influence employees to work together toward the fulfilment of a company’s mission and the achievement of its goals 18. Describe the two leadership functions needed for effective group performance. Must the leader perform both of these functions? * To act as a counsellor of the people at work: When the subordinates face problems at work, which may be technical or emotional, the leader has to guide and advise the subordinate concerned.
There may be situation which are out of control, in that situation, leader must stand behind the subordinate to encourage and support and find a solution for the problem. * Time Management: Leader must ensure the timely completion of the work while ensuring the quality and efficiency of the work. At different stages, the work should be complete according to the plan. The timely completion of the individual tasks will ensure the completion of the group work. Leader should monitor and ensure the individual task at different stages are accomplished as per the plan. In my personal view I would think that a leader should perform in both of these mentioned functions 19. What is the “situational leadership theory”? How should the manager’s style vary in each of the four phases? * Situational Leadership Theory (S. L. T. ) is the idea that changing conditions often call for a rapidly evolving strategy with tactics to support the evolution of the team to meet the present challenges. S. L. T. also suggests that great leaders will recognize the special talents ; strengths of each team member and then adjust the tactical maneuvers around the strengths of each team member and the collective team. 0. In what ways, if any, have your views on leaders and leadership changed as a result of this course? Which leadership style do you feel is best suited to you? Which style would you be most likely to use? How flexible in leadership style do you believe you are? Do you think your answers to these questions will affect your career choice(s)? 21. Create a leadership time line for yourself (beginning with the end of high school) that depicts important turning points in your development as a managerial leader. Think of where you have been and where you are today on the time line.
What do you expect it to look like in five years? Ten years? 22. Describe in short the four principal forces of change. * Globalization * A convergence of international activities such as the increase in overseas production of goods and services; increasing consumer demands in emerging markets worldwide; declining barriers to international trade aided by rapidly changing technology, have created a globalized economy in which inter-dependency among countries has emerged as the norm today * Technological Change: * Technology is like a two-edged sword that can make our lives easier or worse.
The Internet has revolutionized the way in which information is exchanged, communication facilitated and commerce conducted. Technology is rapidly changing and effective management demands more knowledge in these areas in order for companies to manage their resources and develop, maintain or keep their competitive edge. * While technology has enabled firms to save time and money by conducting business such as negotiations, trade, and commerce in real time, it can also facilitate the dissemination of sensitive information about a company’s practices, trade secrets and new product development in a matter of seconds. Knowledge Management * Driving forces such as shifts in buyer demographics and preferences; technology, product and market innovation; changes in society, consumer attitudes and lifestyle all demand new ideas. This has created a need for knowledge workers. * Knowledge workers comprise a company’s intellectual capital and are made up of creative people with novel ideas and problem-solving skills. Managing its knowledge assets can give a company a competitive edge as it effectively utilizes the expertise, skills, intellect, and relationships of members of the organization. * Cross-boundaries Collaboration An important part of knowledge management is effectively managing organization-wide collaboration. Use of appropriate technology and applications such as a virtual private networks; VoIP, e-mail, social networking websites such as Face Book, and even company-sponsored blogs can facilitate communication between an organization and its stakeholders, and help in different types of internal and external collaborative processes. An example of a tool that can be used in cross-boundaries collaboration might be an easily accessible online database that provides a central source of information to employees, customers, or suppliers. 3. Briefly profile your company’s primary shareholders. What are their investment objectives? How much influence do they currently exert? If your organization is not publicly traded, identify the key stakeholders. How influential are they in the day-to-day operations? How might the influence of the key shareholders or stakeholders change in the next five years? With this level of analysis of the forces acting upon your company, what must the organization do differently in order to effectively address these influences? Where do you fit into that picture? 24.
What are the values that drive you in your job? 25. How do you keep people’s loyalty in a company that is downsizing? * Leadership is more about enabling people to do their best and become the best, than it is about loyalty. Leaders inspire people while managers set polices that buy loyalty. Besides, organizations that have effective leaders throughout their organization will find themselves downsizing much less than organizations that are lacking leaders. That is because they will be performing the necessary steps to carry them on to the visions they have created.
Also, if you have good leaders throughout the organization, you are going to find yourself doing the right things if and when it becomes cost-cutting time – being honest and compassionate 26. Is there any index of success for turning common managers into leaders, i. e. , a tax of effectiveness of training? * I’m not so sure if there is an index, since this type of training falls more into the development category, which can be extremely hard to measure at times. For example, if you train someone to operate a forklift, you can then go to the job site to see if that person actually learner some new skills.
But observing someone to see if they have gained some leadership skills is much more difficult. How do you effectively measure their visioning skills? Also, developing a leader is not accomplished in a two-week leadership course; that is where they learn the basics. The rest of what they learn comes through a trial and error period of practice. However, there are indicators that show how much value organizations place on leadership skills: * The March 2, 1999 edition of the NewsEdge had a story on an international study conducted by the HayGroup for Fortune magazine.
They found that corporate cultures of the world’s most admired companies are alike in many ways, but also differ from those of an average company. * This study reveals that the dominant values in the world’s most admired companies are teamwork, customer focus, innovation fair treatment of employees, global reach, and vision. These are mainly leadership skills! * In average companies, the overriding values are making budget, supporting the decisions of management, and minimizing risks. While these are mainly management skills! * Great companies have leaders while average companies are run by managers! Also, Aon Consulting of Chicago reported that the top five reasons for employee commitment are (notice that all five tasks are mostly leadership skills): * Employer’s recognition of personal and family time * The organization’s vision and direction * Personal growth * The ability to challenge the way things are done * Everyday work satisfaction 27. Describe your business strategy in less than 45 words. 28. Answer True or False: According to the recent literature, courage is one of the seven competencies of effective leaders. * False 29.
International management development involves the CEO and the senior team and other key elements. Which of the following is not one of the key elements? a) The global strategy b) Human Resource and line capabilities c) Senior Management involvement d) Performance Management 30. Explain why resistance to change is so prevalent in the workplace * Loss of Job: * In an organizational setting, any process, technological advancement, systems, or product change will include streamlining, working smarter, cost reduction, efficiency, faster turn around times. * Bad Communication Strategy: The way in which the change process is communicated to employees within the organization is a critical factor in determining their reactions. * Shock and Fear of the Unknown: * Employees’ responses to organizational change can range from fear and panic to enthusiastic support. During periods of change, some employees may feel the need to cling to the past because it was a more secure, predictable time. * Loss of Control: * Familiar routines help employees develop a sense of control over their work environment. Being asked to change the way they operate may make employees feel powerless and confused.
People are more likely to understand and implement changes when they feel they have some form of control * Lack of Competence: * This is a fear that is difficult for employees to admit openly. But sometimes, change in organizations necessitates changes in skills, and some people will feel that they won’t be able to make the transition well. Therefore, the only way for them to try and survive is to kick against the change. * Poor Timing: * Change must be introduced when there are no other major initiatives going on. Sometimes it is not what a leader does, but it is how, when and why she or he does it that creates resistance to change!
Undue resistance can occur because changes are introduced in an insensitive manner or at an awkward time * Lack of Reward: * There is a common business saying that managers get what they reward. Organizational employees will resist change when they do not see anything in it for them in terms of rewards. * Office Politics: * Every organisation has its own share of in-house politics. So, some employees resist change as a political strategy to “show or prove” that the change decision is wrong. They may also resist showing that the person leading the change is not up to the task. Former Change Experience: * Our attitudes about change are partly determined by the way we have experienced change in the past. For instance, if in your organisation, you have handled change badly in the past, the employees will have good reasons for rebelling. * Loss of Support System: * Employees already in their comfort zones, working with the managers they get along with, and who are operating within predictable routines know their support system will back them up during challenging times. * Empathy and Peer Pressure: * Whether we are introverted or extroverted, we are still social creatures.
Organizational stakeholders will resist change to protect the interests of a group, team friends, and colleagues. It is normal for employees to resist change to protect their co-workers * Lack of trust and support: * Successful organizational change does not occur in a climate of mistrust. Trust, involves faith in the intentions and behaviour of others. In organizations where there is a high degree of trust and each individual employee is treated with respect and dignity, there is less resistance to change. 31. How could cultural differences within an organization be better leveraged to enhance performance? Cultural diversity involves the differences in the composition of members of an organization in terms of nationality, race, color, gender, creed, religion or age — in other words, an array of culture found among people from diverse backgrounds. Organizational behavior refers to the nature of interactions among people and groups within an organization. The positive influence of cultural diversity facilitates members of the organization to build relationships and acknowledge each other regardless of their differences of origin and background. A typical organization has an extensive range of people who have cultural and personal differences. A small business interested in fostering cultural diversity among its employees endeavours to create mutual respect for the different cultures, along with enabling personnel to reach their full potential. Acknowledging diverse cultures enables the organization to positively influence the organizational behaviour that, in turn, enhances the performance and image of the organization.
The business should portray the cultural diversity aspect of the organization in the mission statement. * Cultural diversity is the biggest potential benefit to work teams with complex tasks and problems that require creativity and innovation. 32. Select the right answer: All of the following are differences in the inherent leadership styles between women and men except: a) Men are more likely to use a directive command and control style b) Man rely on formal authority for their position c) Women attempt to enhance followers’ self-worth ) Men share power and information e) Women tend to lead through inclusion and rely on interpersonal skills to influence others 33. Answer True or False: One limitation of path-goal theory of leadership is that some of the contingencies have not been sufficiently researched. * True 34. Describe the different stages of group evolution. * Forming * In the Forming stage, personal relations are characterized by dependence. Group members rely on safe, patterned behaviour and look to the group leader for guidance and direction. * Storming The next stage, called Storming, is characterized by competition and conflict in the personal-relations dimension an organization in the task-functions dimension. As the group members attempt to organize for the task, conflict inevitably results in their personal relations. Individuals have to bend and mould their feelings, ideas, attitudes, and beliefs to suit the group organization. * Norming * In the Norming stage, interpersonal relations are characterized by cohesion. Group members are engaged in active acknowledgment of all members’ contributions, community building and maintenance, and solving of group issues.
Members are willing to change their preconceived ideas or opinions on the basis of facts presented by other members, and they actively ask questions of one another. Leader ship is shared, and cliques dissolve. * Performing * The Performing stage is not reached by all groups. If group members are able to evolve to stage four, their capacity, range, and depth of personal relations expand to true interdependence. In this stage, people can work independently, in subgroups, or as a total unit with equal facility. Their roles and authorities dynamically adjust to the changing needs of the group and individuals. Adjourning * The final stage, Adjourning, involves the termination of task behaviours and disengagement from relationships. A planned conclusion usually includes recognition for participation and achievement and an opportunity for members to say personal goodbyes. 35. Select the right answer: The type of leaders who guide or motivate their followers in the direction of established goals by clarifying role and task requirements are: a) Transactional leaders b) Employee-oriented leaders c) Transformational leaders d) Process-oriented leaders ) Charismatic leaders 36. Explain in your own words what you understand by ‘Distributing Power and Status’ * Human societies develop pecking orders just as chickens do, but both the process and the outcome are, of course, far more complex and varied. We are used to a single powerful leader who operates through command and control is attractive in its simplicity. However it is much better to rely upon a wide range of individuals and leaders who share a common set of values and feel personal ownership for the overall success of the organization.
These responsible and empowered individuals will serve as much better watchdogs than any single, dominant leader or bureaucratic structure. I personally feel that status will not influence teams aa power is distributed evenly and most of the time these teams are composed of people that have the same status. It can also be useful to adopt a peer ranking system. All associates get the opportunity to rank members of their team, including their leaders 37. Define Group Boundaries and Identity. For a group to function and develop, one of the most important areas for clear consensus is the perception of who is in the new group and who is not in, and the criteria by which such decisions are made. New members cannot really function and concentrate on their primary task if they are insecure about their membership, and the group cannot really maintain a good sense of itself if it does not have a way of defining itself and its boundaries. * Initially, the criteria for inclusion are usually set by the leader, founder, or convener, but as the group members interact, those criteria are ested, and a group consensus arises around the criteria that survive the test. In a young company, there is often intense debate over who should be an owner or a partner, who should have stock options, who should be hired for key functions or be an officer, and who should be ejected because he or she does not fit in. In this debate, real personnel decisions are being made, and at the same time, the criteria of inclusion are being forged, tested, and articulated so that they become clear to everyone.
Such debate also provides opportunities for testing mission statements, goal clarity, and means clarity, illustrating how several cultural elements are simultaneously being created, tested, articulated, and reinforced. 38. Complete the following statement: With self-leadership, individuals and teams set goals, plan and implement tasks, evaluate performance, and _________________. * Solve their own problems, and motivate themselves. 39. What do you understand by ‘Moralism-Pragmatism’? Moralism means the notion that there is some intrinsically good way of living, or at minimum some intrinsically bad ways of living. To the moralist, the proper function is to reinforce the intrinsically correct way of living and to suppress the intrinsically incorrect ways of living. In contrast, pragmatism is not concerned with the intrinsic ways of living, but with outcomes: a way of living is good or bad only to the extent that it produces a good or bad outcome. To the pragmatist, the proper function of the is to produce a good outcome.
Both of these paradigms entail making moral judgments: the moralist must (somehow) judge which ways of living are good or bad; the pragmatist must (somehow) judge which outcomes are good or bad. 40. A more recently emergent theory of leadership holds that IQ scores and other historical qualifiers of “leadership” are not as important as being able to understand yourself and others in the context of varying situations. What is this theory known as? a) Motivation b) Self Awareness c) Emotional Intelligence d) Charismatic Leadership 1. Perhaps the first study of Organizational Leadership (Lewin et al, 1938) identified 3 behavioural leadership styles, which of the following is not one of the styles? a) Autocratic b) Democratic c) Laissez-Faire d) Task Oriented 42. The super leader model of leadership proposed by Afsaneh ; Nahavandi in a 2000 paper, does NOT include which of the following characteristics for a leader? a) Use self-managing teams b) Work as a facilitator c) Delegate to a team with goals and structure d) Trust the team to handle given work 43.
A critic of business school’s obsession with teaching of management as a science, this current professor at McGill University is also the co-author of a organizational structure known as an Organigraph a) Henry Mintzberg b) Peter Drucker c) James MacGregor Burns d) None of the above. 44. What are some advantages of a MBA Program focused on Leadership? * Help students develop skills that are essential to success in any field: critical thinking, problem-solving, communicating, negotiating, and acting ethically in professional situations. Programs are designed for mid-career professionals who want to step into leadership roles * It has flexible schedules 45. Which of the following theories of leadership postulates that people will be more focused and motivated if they believe they are capable of high performance, believe their effort will results in desired outcomes and believe their work is worthwhile? a) Contingency Theory b) Path-Goal Theory c) Transformational Theory d) Transactional Theory 46. The belief that people are either born or not born with the qualities for successful leadership can be classified as what type of leadership theory? ) Transformational Theory b) Situational Theory c) Skills Theory d) Trait Theory 47. The nominal group technique is a good way to allow all group members to have a say in the group’s final decision? a) True b) False 48. When faced with a difficult decision that directly involves the group you a) Avoid making the decision altogether b) Put it up for discussion and ask other members of your group for input c) Leave it to someone else to decide d) Pretend the problem doesn’t exist e) Keep postponing the decision until the problem becomes obsolete 9. You delegate a task. What defines the performance standards for the person who fulfills the task? a) How well you would do it b) The person’s past performance c) Criteria and standards set prior d) The job needs to be done as well as necessary (fitness for purpose) e) By giving others in the group authority, the manager/team leader loses control. 50. When working toward a goal a) You tend to focus on the big picture b) You tend to focus on the details. 51. Do you have a clear vision of where your group/organization is headed? a) Definitely ) To a large degree c) To a certain degree d) Not really 52. Why is effective communication so important for leadership? * Effective communication is an important element of success for every organization, leader, manager, supervisor, and employee. An organization whose people communicate effectively experiences fewer of the misunderstandings that create friction between people, waste time, and cause mistakes. The strategy of this enterprise is clear to all, and each person understands how his or her work contributes to that strategy.
Employees listen to customers and, in turn, are clear and persuasive in describing their company’s products and services. 53. Explain where does trust fit in terms of effective leadership? * Trust is one of the most critical elements in the leading-following equation. People who are in leadership roles in any organization cannot succeed over the long term unless there is some sense of trust from the followers in that organization. Force and coercion can replace trust as a glue that binds people together for a while, but not for the long haul. Followers need not love a leader. They need not like a leader. But to support a leader, and follow him or her, they need to have some sense of trust and confidence in that leader, both in their ability to perform competently and expertly, and confidence in the leader as a person 54. Explain where does power fit in leadership? * To answer the question we have to distinguish between two kinds of power. First there is the kind of power that is associated with a formal position in an organization’s hierarchy, such as the CEO, VP, Department Head, or Unit Supervisor.
Holding such a positions confers some ability to control reward, punishments, working conditions and other things that affect employees. We call this formal power, or you can also call it positional or role power. * The other kind of power doesn’t come from having a formal position, so both formal and informal leaders can wield it. We can call this form of power informal power, or influential power, since it is based on the ability to influence and not on the ability to control the rewards and punishment or the work environment.
Informal power is a result of others (peers, other managers, rank and file) choosing to follow because the leader creates trust, loyalty and inspires others. 55. What is a ‘thought leader’? * Thought leaders are people who have an influence on how people think about an issue or situation. Through their development of models, theories or ideas, they end up with a following that stems largely from the apparent truth and/or usefulness of their ideas. * Thought leaders do not “intend to lead”. Neither do they require formal power. Their “power to lead” lies with the apparent truth and effectiveness (and often innovativeness) of their thinking. Thought leaders can affect others on a grand scale, through the exposure of their thinking in the media, or through books, personal influence and so on, but they can also affect others locally, within an organization, by presenting their thinking in compelling ways, so that those around them approach problems or issues from a different perspective. Often thought leaders are best known for innovative or “new” ideas. 56. Answer True or False: According to organizational behaviour research, male and female leaders do not differ in their levels of task-oriented and people-oriented leadership. True 57. What is paternalistic leadership? * A type of fatherly managerial style typically employed by dominant males where their organizational power is used to control and protects subordinate staff that are expected to be loyal and obedient. A manager with a paternalistic leadership style might be appropriate for a business with a more formal and hierarchical structure where creative thinking is not required of staff. 58. Some authors say leaders must divide their time in three parts: one for handling finances, another for quality, and a third for relationships.
What do you think about? * Leaders have two “leadership continuum” scales that they must follow. Earlier, I talked about the people scale, and how we have been moving from Douglas McGreagor’s Theory X to Theory Y. This continuum can be seen as the vertical axis (concern for people) in Blake and Mouton’s Managerial Grid. The other axis is the “concern for task” and it is plotted along the horizontal axis. By focusing on the far end of the scales or continuum and developing goals to achieve the 9s, a leader can create her visions.
And then by developing great people (people scale) and giving them the means to accomplish your vision (task scale), you have ensured that the necessary ingredients are there for organization success. In other words, good leaders have “goal directed visions” and then achieve them by inspiring their people to work through change and challenges in order for task accomplishment. This, in turn, equals a successful organization. 59. What do you call the theory that some people have specific characteristics that differentiate leaders from non-leaders? * Trait Theories 60.
What’s the worst fault a leader can have? * A failure to see the benefits of diversity. This creates like-people throughout the organizations and leads to one-way thinking. If you do not have a diverse team, then you cannot come up with the creative brainstorming solutions to stay competitive. Also, you alienate your customers and consumers who can be quite diverse. 61. Complete the following statement: If trait research had been successful, we would ______________, whereas if behavioural studies were correct, we would ___________. * Select the right person for the job; * Train leaders. 2. Select the right answer: It is generally considered that leadership is important to an organization’s success. All of the following are actions that leaders take to make an organization successful except: a) Make rapid and firm decisions b) Control deviations from a standard c) Motivate employees to higher levels of productivity d) Practice charismatic standards e) Anticipate change and vigorously exploit opportunities 63. Answer True or False: Path-goal theory advocates servant leadership. * True 64. What is the shape of the perfect leader and does he or she exist? To paraphrase W. Somerset Maugham, “There are three rules for creating good leaders. Unfortunately, no one knows what they are. ” * There are no perfect leaders, that is why good leaders are always trying to improve themselves through self-study, training, education, mentorship, making mistakes and then learning from them, etc. Since there are no perfect leaders, it is hard to build a good leadership model, which is why there are hundreds of them. But, we can be sure of a few things that good leaders have: * A vision of the future (answers the question, “where are we going? ”). The ability to encourage followers to jump into that experience (work through the many changes that are required to achieve that vision). * A love of self-improvement for themselves and their followers. This love makes them good coaches and mentors. * Empowering their followers to get things done (delegates). 65. Does a leader need to be motivated? How can leaders maintain themselves to stay motivated? * A leader definitely has to be motivated; those who are not will quickly be seen as frauds in their followers’ eyes as they expect their leaders to be enthusiastic about their work.
Motivation comes in two forms: extrinsic and intrinsic. * Extrinsic motivators come from the outside. For example, one reason that I go to work is that I need to make a living in order to survive. Intrinsic motivators come from within. For example, another reason that I go to work is that I get a great deal of satisfaction when I accomplish a difficult task. * Good leaders set and achieve goals that allow them to get a healthy balance of both motivators. Although many people believe that intrinsic motivators are the best, that is not necessarily so.
Often, the extrinsic motivators lead us into new situations and then our love for doing it (intrinsic) carries us through and on to new heights. 66. As far as communication is a key point, how can a shy person be a leader? * Communication, from a leadership point, is more than just directing others (which shy people would draw back from), it is more about maintaining healthy relationships (which almost every shy person is capable of doing). One of my favorite quotes is from Captain Henry “Jim” Crowe, USMC.
While in Guadalcanal on 13 January 1943, he used the following words and actions to motivate his troops: “Goddamn it, you’ll never get the Purple Heart hiding in a foxhole! Follow me! ” It was more than an order — it was his action of not showing his fear by being in the front that motivated his troops. * Leaders use both actions and words to get things done. Bossing others is the act of directing others to get things done without having any concern for the employees. Shy persons do not normally become bosses, but many of them do become leaders… while the bullies become bosses. 67.
If so much material is written about leadership, why are there so few real leaders in companies? * Who says there are so few leaders? The only people who can call a person a leader are the followers. People outside the organization might call a person a leader, yet she might have just been a dictating tyrant who used her power of authority to get things done. This only made her the boss, not a leader. Only the people who work for another person have the authority to call that person a leader. * Too many people equate leaders with the power of authority, yet it is more about visioning and achieving goals through others.
Organizations that are lagging behind their competitors often have a lack of leaders throughout their ranks. While great organizations have leaders throughout the organization, from top to bottom. Just as I mentioned earlier about Starbucks’ goal of 2000 stores by the year 2000, it took a lot of leaders throughout the ranks to accomplish it. 68. The role of principles of leadership is so extensive that it puts one to think – isn’t a good leader a kind of superman or superwomen? How can that be? * Leadership is like many other difficult skills — it takes skills and practice.
That is why it is important to develop leaders throughout your organization; although you can learn the knowledge and the skills in a short period of time, it takes plenty of practice to get it right. Senior leaders should always be coaching and mentoring their subordinates on the leadership continuum. 69. Is a military model of leadership adequate to any company, as far as it based most on authority and discipline? * Researchers at McKinsey & Company and the Conference Board discovered that one highly effective route of leadership is demonstrated by the U. S. Marine Corps.
The Marines’ approach to motivation follows the “mission, values, and pride” (MVP) path, which researchers say is practical and relevant for the business world. A couple of other organizations that follow the MVP path are 3M, New York City Ballet, and KFC. There are four other valid paths to follow: Process and Metric (Toyota), Entrepreneurial Spirit (BMC Software) Individual Achievement (Perot Systems), and Reward and Celebration (Mary Kay). * The Marines invest in their front line by following five practices: * Over-investing in cultivating core value: * Make an investment by intensely focusing on core values.
Give your employees more than a brief introduction — assign some training to your most experienced and talented managers. One role model can influence 40 or 50 new hires. Also, focus on values after the training, i. e. Marriott prominently displays customer letters praising superior performance. * Preparing every person to lead, including frontline supervisors: * Training every front line person to lead has a powerful effect on morale. Do NOT write the followers off or give them superficial attention. You most embrace the notion that front line workers can lead. Learning when to create teams and when to create single-leader work groups: * Genuine teams are rare in the business world where a single individual leading a group is the norm. Real teams get most of their motivation from its mission and goals * Attending to the bottom half, not just the top half: * Find the time to attend to the poor and mediocre performers, even if it means personal sacrifice. Normally, it is cheaper and easier to rejuvenate under-performers than it is to replace them. Marine Drill Instructors, despite their legendary toughness, refuse to give up on any recruit. Encouraging self-discipline as a way of building pride: * Demand that everyone act with honor, courage, and commitment. For example, Southwest Airlines turns its planes around in less than half the time that is needed by most competitors; not by fear of punishment, but by a desire to be the best. * To emulate the Marines, many executives would have to embrace the notion that front-line workers can lead. (Jon R. Katzenbach and Jason A. Santamaria. Harvard Business Review “Firing Up the Front Line. ” May-June, 1999, pp. 107 to 117. ) 70. Is there an ideal percentage of leaders in a company?
Can an excess of leaders turn into a problem? * Every organization is unique, hence it will require a different percentage. But every leader and supervisor must display some form of leadership, they cannot simply be bosses and expect the organization to become a great organization. As far as excess, how can you have too much of a good thing; is there such a thing as a company having too much profit? 71. Which of the following g statements about leadership is false? a) Leadership does not necessarily take place within a hierarchical structure of an organisation b) Not every leader is a manager ) When people operate as leaders their role is always clearly established and defined d) All of the above 72. What is better for a company that does not have huge sums to invest in training: try to build a team of leaders, with all the failure possibilities, or concentrate on building a good team of efficient managers? * Why would there be more failure possibilities with a team of leaders than with a team of managers? Managers can get things done, but they have to have leaders and leadership abilities of their own. Otherwise, what will hey get accomplished? It takes leaders to have visions. Once you have your vision, it needs to be framed in general terms and communicated to your team. Your team then develops the ends (objectives), ways (concepts), and means (resources) to achieve the vision. Except for developing the means (resources), all of these are leadership tasks. 73. Can someone be a good leader, but not a good manager? Which is better for a company? * Just as there are many managers who cannot lead, there are many leaders who cannot manage. And neither is better for a company.
Both strip the company of a valuable resource — a leader who can get things done or a manager who can lead her employees. 74. Answer True or False: Anonymity inevitably has a negative impact on group members. * True 75. Select the right answer: Which of the following is a leadership activity? a) Reviewing and evaluating the delivery of a project b) Planning and undertaking performance reviews and monthly supervision sessions c) Empowering and inspiring others to take responsibility for aspects of the service they deliver d) Drafting a service budget and consulting the management team about it.


Leadership concepts

Expectancy theory has been proposed by Victor Vroom who has focused on the outcomes instead of focusing on the needs. It has been said by Vroom that for motivation, an individual needs to link effort, performance and motivation and three variables have been proposed by Vroom that are called valence, expectancy and instrumentality by him.
The belief that increased efforts leads to increase in performance is known as expectancy. If an individual will work harder, he will be better but there are three things that affect the level of expectancy an individual hold. An individual should have the right resources that are available to him, he should posses the right skills needed to perform the job and he should have the support necessary to complete the job.  (, n.d.).
The belief that one will perform well and a valued outcome will be received is called instrumentality and this is affected by certain factors such as the clear understanding of the link between performance and outcomes. Moreover, it is also important to hold trust on the person who takes the decisions and also the transparency of the process that decides the outcome. The importance that an individual places on the expected outcome is called valance.

The individuals change their level of effort with respect to the value that is placed by them on the outcome that they receive from the process. If any of these is perceived true, any increase in efforts will not increase ones performance nether will increased performance increase the rewards and this is mainly because one does not value the rewards.
It is thus, suggested by Vroom that the individuals will not be motivated and even if an organization is able to achieve two out of three, the employees will still not be motivated because all three are needed for motivation. People also compare outcomes for themselves with the other people and this is known as the equity theory and on the basis of the outcome; the people change their level of effort they put in to make the others perceive it as fair. Expectancy theory basically works on the perceptions of the people but even if the organization thinks that they are providing all the motivational tools to the employees there might still be some employees who might deny this fact.
The motivation of an employee depends on the fact whether the reward that is being offered to him is valued by him or not. Therefore, it is not just about self-interest but also about the associations that people makes towards the outcomes that are expected by them. (Leat, 2001).
In the given scenario, the expectancy theory of motivation can be applied in a way that since the employees of supervisor A are not doing well with the new production process, the reason behind this should be found out.
People who have mastered the new process are unwilling to put efforts while some are not concerned about achieving the goals and on inquiring the reasons, the management came to know that the new process needed a lot of dexterity that they were incapable of while some said that it was not worth putting in their efforts to reach the organizational goals as there were no prominent increase in the salaries of the people who met the goals and even if they get the bonus, the amount is not worth the efforts they are putting in.
This means that the employees are not putting in effort because they are not motivated and because of this, no improvements in their performance can be seen.
Reference (n.d.). Expectancy theory of motivation. July 11th, 2010. Retrieved from:   
Leat,M. (2001). Exploring Employee Relations. Butterworth-Heinemann.


Management and leadership analysis: RMIG

The company RMIG is one of the leading distributors worldwide of perforated metal. Perforated metal is found in many different aspects of human life – inside homes and buildings, in cars and other transportations and in other industrial designs and equipment. Because of this, RMIG has secured a niche and has been consistently delivering quality products and services to its long list of satisfied clients. Founded late in the 19th century, the company has changed hands in leadership after several years; it continues to remain as a very stable company.

The history reflects that RMIG as a company has been very solid and stable. Nonetheless, underneath these indicators of success are parts and aspects of the company management which reflects the strengths and weaknesses in leadership and management. The analysis of such parts can reveal possible avenues for change and development that can benefit the company in the long run. II. Discussion How good is the management? How good is the RMIG management?

When they say history speaks for itself, then one only needs to look at the history of RMIG to know how the company is managed and how the management has been effective all these years. Partnerships and deals with other industry players, a wide array of products distributed worldwide, a company known for high quality materials – these are all some of the products of the excellent management in the past, and even today. However, as an old adage says, nobody (or for this case, nothing) is perfect, and change (internally and externally) remains constant.
Thus, there is need for constant re-evaluation and adaptation methods in order for the company to survive and remain competitive and significant in the industry. While RMIG should be commended for its excellent management (which is expected), what is more important is to discuss and analyze points that identify where management is not performing well. For example, the closing of two production units this year in Switzerland and Italy is testament to the state of management of RMIG.
While it was mentioned earlier that it can reflect positive points when it comes to company leadership, it does not follow that it is also indicative of good company management because these are two different things. For one, the closing of the two production units is considered as a good move leadership-wise. It reflects the good decision making and leadership of the company based on the current situation, how the leadership acts and reacts to the current state of things inside the company.
However, the leadership of the company should not have been made or forced to decide regarding the closing of the production units if the management of the company has been on top of the situation. Remember that management is both long term and short term responsibilities. It is about handling the needs and demands of today and projecting what happens in the future and starting a foundation today to ensure that once the future becomes today, the conditions will remain favorable to the company. It appears that the management of the company has failed in that factor.
Sure, it is easy to blame economic depression, change or shift in supply-demand and other economic-related factors that necessitated the closure of two production units. For the good manager and the sound management paradigm, all of these should have been part of the consideration years ago and steps should have been made to make sure that this kind of situation does not materialize. Remember that in the area of management assessment, what is being assessed isn’t just the management of the processes guaranteeing sales and income or profit.
Part of how the management is being evaluated and how the management style is efficient or not efficient in how it handles its roles and responsibilities in the operation of the company also includes the consideration of the management of its resources, including its human and non-human resources. Definitely, it is very hard to consider RMIG as having an excellent display of management capabilities when two of its Europe-based production units have closed down.
This leave employees and their families with the problem on how to move forward when jobs that previously sustained them in the past has just been taken away from them. As Narayan (1999) explains, “good management… means effective direction by all those responsible for the work of others (Narayan, 1999, p. 2). ” With the closing down of the production units, RMIG appears to be guilty of poor management. This is not to say that RMIG as a company is characterized by constant poor management because the truth is, it is not. Evaluation is on a case-per-case and time-per-time basis.
There are times wherein leadership and management leaves a lot of room for improvement. For a company that was founded and has started operating since the 1890s, there is very little doubt that there are times in the past when the company showed excellent and commendable management skills. This allowed the company to be where it is now, an important entity in the perforated steel industry. Excellent management in the past has allowed RMIG to grow, expand and remain productive, efficient, and sustainable and to be a trusted industry name with reputation to stake.
What this paper points out are chinks in the armor that contributes to making its management performance less desirable because of the negative points that pulls it down. How good is the company’s leadership? It is important to assess if the leadership of the company is sufficient or not. Here, it is important to look at two important groups: first, the high-echelon top brass management team; and second, one of the most important company leaders and figures – the chief executive officer or CEO. In the case of RMIG, there are two important scenarios that need to be analyzed and evaluated in lieu of the issue of company leadership level.
In the case of the management teams, it is the consideration on which between long or short tenure is beneficial for the company. In the case of the CEO, the topic is about decision making and how it impacted the company and how it reflects management style inside the corporate culture of RMIG. a. Long term retention of management teams: healthy or not? – An important factor in the analysis of whether or not the company currently possesses a core with good and sound leadership qualities is looking at its leaders and the leader structure trend.
It appears that RMIG’s top management core team has not changed in the last 8 years. In analysis, it is important to see if that is a good thing or a bad thing, and what makes it good or bad all in all. There is no clear way to break this down; there are no facts to support that long leadership has been detrimental to the welfare of the company. On the other hand, the company also has no idea of the growth that could have happened inside the company if there was change in leadership in between the eight years the management team has stayed on its position.
It is important that the analysis is supported what professionals believe with regards to leadership, leadership transition and the pros and cons that go along with leadership succession and long leader tenure holding key management responsibilities. Thomas North Gilmore (2003), who wrote the book “Making a Leadership Change”, explained both sides of the coin. The analysis can be applicable (in both sides) to the case of RMIG. First, Gilmore points out the importance of long term leadership. “Organizations risk a succession of new leaders, each of whom do not serve long enough to fully implement a new strategy (Gilmore, 2003, p.
1). ” In this position, Gilmore wants to point out that sometimes, it is suitable for organizations to have a set of leaders and managers in position for a long period of time, in the case of RMIG, 8 years and running (Gilmore, 2003, p. 1). Leaders have long term visions and goals that can only be realized if they are given the chance to implement such full term plan over a long period of time. Looking at RMIG, the management appears to be under individuals who are handling long term programs for the company that helps the company survive and remain competitive.
If this is true, then the fact that the top management of RMIG remains unchanged over a period of 8 years or more is more of a positive characteristic than a negative. The leaders are given mantle of power, authority and tenure sufficient for them to realize their long term plans for the company. The fact that the plan can either be good or bad is outside of the equation, but considering how they have been performing in the recent years, it is safe to assume that the plan is more of a good plan than a bad one.
As mentioned earlier, there are always two sides of the coin, and the other side of this argument is also presented by Gilmore. “New leaders offer a powerful way for new values and behaviors to enter an organization, to revitalize working alliances, and to stimulate rethinking of outdated assumptions (Gilmore, 2003, p. 1). ” In short, what RMIG is risking by retaining management officers for a long period of time is the lost opportunity for positive chance and the dangers of being passe, outdated and stagnated.
The crucial idea here is change. While existing leaders can be catalyst of and source of change happening and spread over a long period of time, what new leadership can do is bring the atmosphere of change in the company. This can start a new wave of development and improvement that can push the company towards more prosperous years ahead. In the case of RMIG, management can be seen as somewhat sliding towards being stagnated and redundant, out of touch with what is new and is hardly influenced by new ideas.
The people in place are cocooned inside their own ideal, policies and philosophies in corporate management. Moving consistently towards a plotted direction is acceptable, but it is also important to consider that the market is very volatile and economic factors can quickly change the industry’s landscape. Without new ideas and visions coming from new leaders, continuing towards the same path as dictated by the characteristics and inclinations of the leaders can be disastrous, or at the very less counterproductive, to any company like RMIG. b.
CEO and decision making – Among the highest ranking officials in the company that can influence management and has a very important role in leadership is the CEO, or chief executive officer. For RMIG to continue to be prosperous and productive, excellent management is expected from the CEO. Included in the necessary skill set is decision making. In the recent years, the CEO of RMIG has been criticized for poor decision-making which eventually led to predicaments that is generally disapproved not just by the employees but by the stakeholders in general in the society/community.
A perfect example of this is the closing down of two production units in Europe just this year alone. It is important to point out that the decision making abilities of the CEO will impact significantly how the company is manage and the results of this style in management. If RMIG continues to suffer from poor decision making of its CEO in the future, the board of directors should address this problem immediately or else risk losing a lot and becoming less and less competitive and productive in the industry.
In the process, it loses its partners and clientele, which is the lifeblood of the company and its enduring success in the past. Summary: Identifying the good and bad points, and the areas for change RMIG is one of the multinational companies that prides with a long history and a commendable portfolio. Over the years, the company has been a major supplier of different big companies and have partnered in projects that has defined the level and quality of products and services that RMIG offers to customers and business-to-business clients.
Still, it is important that there are close examinations of the management and leadership characteristics of the company for RMIG to be able to pursue a productive and competitive future. It is not new that a very stable company ends up in pieces in a blink of an eye because of its leaders and the quality of leadership present inside the company which went unscrutinized for a period of time. For RMIG, any chance of monumental collapse can be avoided if it can identify some of the company leadership and management strengths as well as weaknesses and explore which areas the company can improve to develop the company.
This is indeed a changing world. While it is not necessary for everything to be changed immediately, it is important to know the significance and role of change, what needs to be changed, how and why. a. Strengths – There are two important strengths found in RMIG Company that is essential in successful overall management. These are: (1) management of products and its quality; and (2) management of business strategies. Looking at RMIG and its performance in the industry, RMIG continues to win contracts and secure projects and partnerships with companies that rely on what they provide, like automotive brand Audi, for example.
This is because of the level of management they put in on monitoring the quality of products and services they provide to the clients. Despite internal and external issues and concerns that they have to face and address, they remain consistent in the quality of their products and services which allows their clients to trust them consistently. This is an important management strength of RMIG that they can build from. Besides this, another noticeable strength found in the company is the management strength when it comes to business strategies.
Looking at RMIG, they offer perforated metal, definitely not one of the most highly in-demand products that consumers worldwide are in desperate need of. However, because of their business strategy, they manage to expand the breadth and depth of their products and create demands which they answer to. Because of their strength in managing business strategies, they are able to come up with ways and means on how to best sell what they provide to the client, and to expand that client base by creating more demands in other sectors which they have the potential to penetrate especially with their exploitation of possible need and demand.
While others may say this is scheming, for others, this is a sound business strategy to go along with other business strategies RMIG has in its arsenal that continues to be a factor why they remain stable in this very competitive and very volatile industry. b. Weaknesses – Expansion and distribution of sections of the supply line all across different locations is always a very tempting idea especially for a company that continues to grow, a company like RMIG.
What the company should know is that one of its weaknesses in the recent past is its inability to solidly manage its assets, in particular its units, leading to the closure of two of its production units recently. RMIG showed that it is weak in utilizing these units and in preserving their operational ability and role in the company productivity. In the future, for this mistake not to happen again it is important that management focus more on making the most of what asset they have and to be cautious in any efforts to expand and acquire.
While this move maybe important in the present, the costs maybe too expensive for the company in the long term especially if these units will close down. Another important weakness in management is the lack of vision of the management when it comes to the importance of being visible via the mass media. Management has handled poorly the public relations aspect of promotion of the company which places the company under the radar of traditional and digital media, hence, under the radar as well of the public, which includes many prospective customers.
The management should reconsider its position in publicity, promotions and public relations to improve and enhance the image of the company as a corporate citizen and corporate entity and perhaps make it impact positively on the productivity of the company. c. Areas for improvement – RMIG can use the benefits that will result from several different improvement found in some of RMIG’s operational components. For example, the management of R;D should improve so that it can be the catalyst towards the exploration and expansion of the company’s product lines and product offerings.
It is also important to delve into technological developments that could not only open new products to complement the existing core of RMIG’s product offering but also to be consistently a step ahead in technology and to use it to continuously improve and develop the products at par with the world’s best and what the world is expecting from a company like RMIG. There is much that they can discover with the studying not just of perforated metal but also the study of how they can expand towards other products that is somewhat related to or complementary to what they offer now.
The company should also improve on other management aspects, like the decision making of the CEO and the management strategy involving acquisition of property and employee relations. It is in these aspects that RMIG appears to have significant chinks and blind spots. If they continue to skid on these components, it is safe to assume that they are risking an imminent collapse in overall operation, which will be viewed in the future as a direct result of mismanagement from every important focal point of management.
III. Conclusion RMIG is a company that should be commended considering the longevity of the company and its ability to survive, undergoing different economic conditions and different changes in the economic as well as political and social-cultural climate. Today, RMIG stands as one of the trusted brands when it comes to perforated metals. It has sold its products all around the world and to many different clients who are also important industry players in automotive, food technology, industrial, etc.
Despite what appears to be a seamless management of the company, a closer scrutiny will reflect the weaknesses in the management and leadership style of the company and its leaders. For the company to be able to move forward, it should be able to identify these problems and resolve them in the soonest possible time. References Gilmore, T. N. (2003). Making a Leadership Change: How Organizations and Leaders Can Handle Leadership Transitions Successfully. Nebraska: iUniverse. Narayan, B. (1999). Industrial Management. New Delhi: APH Publishing.


Tactical Leadership vs Organizational Leadership

Tactical Leadership vs Organizational Leadership Walter Trotter United States Army Sergeant Major Academy Class 63 SGM Stephens/MS Walker August 19, 2012 Tactical Leadership VS Organizational Leadership There are certain things that you need to know as a leader, I will explain some of the differences facts and opinions about tactical leadership verse organization leadership. Leadership is not just a word or act that is use only in the military, every organization in the world has some type of leadership structure from the small business to the biggest cooperation leadership plays an important roles.
I will discuss some of the similarities between the tactical and organizational leadership as it relates to the Army. When we think of leadership in the Army we automatic think of the process of influencing soldiers to accomplish a mission by providing directions, purpose and motivation, but when dealing with tactical or organizational leadership a leader has to think about a different role and take into account the time frame and how they are going to influence their soldiers.
Even thought there are several different types’ leadership the main goal is always going to be the same, and that is to get the mission done and try to improve upon the unit and its capabilities. We all know how the Army defines leadership but there are other things we have to take into account, like a bad decision can cause soldiers their lives. I do believe that tactical and organizational leadership are the same in some ways but depending on the role can be different. Tactical Leadership First, let’s talk about the tactical side.

As we know there are three aspects in this process, the leadership role, the time frame and the leaders influence. One of the first things is that in order to be affective you have to be in front of your soldiers, you must have your subordinates trust, you must have a level of tactical and technical knowledge that is unmatched by anyone around you and have a wiliness to help and support your soldiers or they will not follow you. On the tactical side a leader has to lead, support develop and take responsible for his soldiers in order to accomplish his/her mission.
As an effective leader one has to be especially close to their subordinates in order to provide them with the necessary purpose, direction and motivation to complete their assigned task. The tactical level is usually found at the company or platoon level, this leader is always looking to accomplish the short term goals in support of the long term mission. Tactical leaders must know how to solve problems quickly and without hesitation, they have more direct influence over soldiers because they are in the trenches with them.
At this stage the leader has to council, correct and led their soldiers through the direct approach of leadership. Organization leadership This leadership style is where the leader actually has to plan and synchronize training in order that the small units are able to produce the tactical into the operational action. At the organization level a leader is not in a traditional leadership position when they are directly in charge of soldiers. Leaders in this style are the one whom establish section that develop plans and create orders.
When a result is achieved at this level the entire team is responsibility for the outcome. Organizational leaders make decision that affect the long term goal and helps plan the short term mission for their subordinate units. The tactical and organization leadership styles have some very different level of leadership but the one thing that will never change between the two especially in the Army is the fact that you must have a good set of standard to follow, have good values and skill sets to save lives. Reference FM 6-22. (2006). U. S. Army Training and Doctrine Command


Leadership Lessons from D-Day: A Book Review

For this book review, I chose Victory Principles: Leadership Lessons from D-Day by Leonard Kloeber, Jr., a retired army officer.

This book is not only a mere history book but it also provides a lesson on leadership principles based on what was applied by the Allied leaders during those crucial moments that characterized D-Day (also known as Operation Overlord) from the planning stage to the actual execution of the operation which was a success and eventually led to the liberation of Europe from Nazi occupation.

The first part is more of a historical narrative.  The Kloeber narrates the important events that were considered the defining moments of D-Day which are organized into chapters.  The prelude in included to set the tone and help put the reader on the proper perspective in approaching the book and what it is all about.
Each chapter mentioned important leaders during the operation, not just for trivia but describing what they did that made success possible.  These are leaders who were actually there with the men as they saw action.
Such senior leaders were Brigadier General Norman Cota, assistant division commander of the 29th Infantry Division which landed on Omaha Beach and received the brunt of the fighting. It also featured junior leaders such as Lieutenant Richard Winters, of Easy Company, 506th Regiment, 101st Airborne who led the company to neutralize an enemy gun emplacement menacing the beaches (Kloeber, Jr., 2009, pp. 61-62, 83).  What these leaders had in common was they made crucial decisions under fire but since they were in the thick of the action, they had a grasp of the situation and came up with crucial decisions that led to victory.
Part Two provides an analysis as Kloeber spelled out what he called “Victory Principles” which were applied by the above-mentioned leaders which were key to the success of D-Day. One example of these principles was resilience which was demonstrated by Generals Cota and Roosevelt when their men were under fire.
They did not panic and maintained their composure which was the glue that kept the men together even though they were taking casualties (Kloeber, Jr, 2009, pp. 208-209).
Another principle discussed was making timely decisions as applied by Lieutenant Winters when he and his men carried out their mission which was successful (Kloeber, Jr, 2009, p. 186).  It can be seen that the author did a great job organizing his ideas by telling the story first and discussing the relevant principles.  He was able to establish a connection between the two parts.
Part Three is what military leaders call the “Staff Ride” where military students would tour the battlefield to get a feel of what has happened though not necessarily during actual combat as part of applying the lessons learned in the classroom.
The purpose here is to immerse them “spiritually” and by making them picture themselves being there and it is proven to be an effective method when understanding the principles.  An appendix is added which provides supplemental details on D-Day.
Overall, Kloeber’s book is not only for history students but also those who wish to be enlightened on leadership principles and the author has done a good job identifying them and showing how they were applied as well as mentioning their applicability in any kind of situation which need not be about combat.
Kloeber Jr., L. (2009). Victory Principles: Leadership Lessons from D-Day. Garden City, New York: Morgan James Publishing, LLC.


Women Leadership

WOMEN AND LEADERSHIP Leadership: A simple definition of leadership is that leadership is the art of motivating a group of people to act towards achieving a common goal. Put even more simply, the leader is the inspiration and director of the action. He or she is the person in the group that possesses the combination of personality and skills that makes others want to follow his or her direction. In business, leadership is welded to performance. Effective leaders are those who increase their companies‘ bottom lines.
To further confuse the issue, we tend to use the terms “leadership” and “management” interchangeably, referring to a company’s management structure as its leadership, or to individuals who are actually managers as the “leaders” of various management teams. Is a leader born or made? While there are people who seem to be naturally endowed with more leadership abilities than others, all believe that people can learn to become leaders by concentrating on improving particular leadership skills. 1. A leader plans. 2. A leader has a vision. 3. A leader takes charge . A leader shares her vision 5. A leader inspires through example. Women Leadership: When modern feminists movement emerged it dint feature much discussion of leadership. There was virtually no analysis of what feminist leadership might entail. Because leadership has been largely a privilege of men, and feminism focused on women. It is understandable that study of leadership dint have much salience. Feminists wanted to understand the women‘s experiences and routes of women‘s oppression. Psychologists is particular have neglected study of women.
Therefore, new topics emerged – sexual harassment, rape, math anxiety, family violence and the politics of reproductive rights, to name just a few. To study leadership is it in organizations or in politics would have meant focusing on men. The discovery and development of women focus topics made a good sense. Much has changed. Women are now far more common in ranks of leaders. For example, women occupy 24% of chief executive positions in United States (U. S Bureau of Labor Statistics- 2006). They constitute 44% of school principles (U. S National

Center for Education Statistics, 2005) and 21% of college and University presidents (Corrigan, 2002). It makes sense that feminists find the study of leadership appropriate now that it addresses the experiences of women as well as men. Although women remain rare in the corporate leadership and greatly under presented in politics, women‘s increasing presence in these and other leadership roles raises many questions about their functioning as leaders. When it comes to leadership, does gender matter? Is there a difference between women leaders and men who lead?
Characteristics that distinguish women leaders from men in leadership: ? Women leaders are more assertive and persuasive, have a stronger need to get things done and are more willing to take risks than male leaders. ? Women leaders were also found to be more empathetic and flexible, as well as stronger in interpersonal skills than their male counterparts enabling them to read situations accurately and take information in from all sides. ? These women leaders are able to bring others around to their point of view because they are leading feel more understood, supported and valued.
Four specific statements about women’s leadership qualities: ? ? ? ? Women leaders are more persuasive than their male counterparts. When feeling the sting of rejection, women leaders learn from adversity and carry on with an “I’ll show you” attitude. Women leaders demonstrate an inclusive, team-building leadership style of problem solving and decision making. Women leaders are more likely to ignore rules and take risks. This evidence – that the leadership style of women is not simply unique but possibly at odds with what men practice – begs the question: Do these qualities have value in the marketplace?
Is this type of leadership welcomed by society and by the public and private sector? Differences between women and men leadership: There are several key ways in which people respond differently to women and men who are leaders. Conflicting, sets of expectations, high-profile women leaders in the United States are relentlessly held to a higher standard than their male counterparts. ? Different Responses to Women and Men in Leadership Roles Researchers have identified four key ways in which female and male leaders elicit different responses from those around them.
These different responses appear to be due, not so much to different leadership behaviors by women and men, as to the stimulus value of women or men in these roles. A woman leader stimulates a different reaction than a male leader because of learned expectations, shaped and supported by the surrounding social structure, that invalidate and undercut women‘s attempts to be effective, influential, and powerful. ? Women are expected to combine Leadership with Compassion—and are disliked when they don’t Researchers have long found that people think ? male? when they think ? leader?.
Because of perceived incompatibility between the requirements of femininity and those of leadership, women are often required to ? soften? their leadership styles to gain the approval of their constituents. Women who do not temper their agency and competence with warmth and friendliness risk being disliked and less influential. Women who lead with an autocratic style are the targets of more disapproval than those who enact a more democratic style; men may choose the autocratic style with relative impunity, if they are effective leaders. Often requires the application of a ? harder? eadership style, they are disliked and disparaged. ? People do not listen to or take direction from women as comfortably as from men The stereotype that women are more talkative than men is unsupported by evidence. Women report that they do not feel listened to, that when they speak in meetings their comments and suggestions are ignored or belittled—and that the same comments or suggestions from men have more impact. Field studies of small group meetings in organizations show that women leaders are targets of more displays of negative emotion than men leaders, even when both sets of leaders are viewed as equally competent. Women who promote themselves and their abilities reap disapproval Women who act more confident and assertive than is normative for women run the risk of disapproval. Research demonstrates that when women promote their own accomplishments it can cause their audience to view them as more competent—but at the cost of viewing them as less likeable. Men who promote their own accomplishments do not reap the same mixed outcomes: as long as they do not overdo it, self-promotion brings them both higher evaluations of competence and likeability. ? Women require more external validation than men do to be accepted as leaders in some contexts
In competitive, highly-masculinized contexts, simply having leadership training or taskrelated expertise does not guarantee a woman‘s success unless accompanied by legitimating by another established leader. Gender stereotypes interfere with observers‘ ability to see women‘s competence; it is sometimes necessary to for a high-status other to provide them with credibility. Qualities of Women Leader: ? Committed. ? Outspoken. ? Enthusing. ? Vivacious. ? Happy. ? Creator. ? Charismatic. ? Lively. ? Talented. ? Friendly. ? Free-Spirited. ? Outgoing. ? Measured. ? Reflective. ? Spirited. ? Open and Honest. ? Determined. ? Cheerful. Altruistic. ? Keeping my interests ? Feisty. ? Inspirational. ? Trustworthy. ? Positive. ? Forthright. ? Energetic. ? Passion. ? Inspiring. ? Supportive. ? Optimistic. ? Cosmopolitan. ? Impressive. ? Eclectic. ? Fair. ? Hardworking. ? Confident. ? Assertive. ? Caring. ? Articulate. ? Humorous. to my self. ? Complex. ? Resilient. ? Calm. ? Sparkling Women Empowerment: ‘Women’s empowerment’ is the ability to exercise full control over one’s actions. The Government of India had ushered in the new millennium by declaring the year 2001 as ‘Women’s Empowerment Year’ to focus on a vision ‘where women are equal partners like men’.
The last decades have witnessed some basic changes in the status and role of women in our society. There has been shift in policy approaches from the concept of ‘welfare’ in the seventies to ‘development’ in the eighties and now to ’empowerment’ in the nineties. The Constitution of India grants equality to women in various fields of life. Yet a large number of women are either ill equipped or not in a position to propel themselves out of their traditionally unsatisfactory socio-economic conditions. Leaving a meager number of urban and sub-urban women, Indian women are still crying for social justice.
A review of government’s various programmes for women empowerment such as Swashakti, Swayamsidha, Streeshakti, Balika samrudhi yojana and another two thousand projects reveal that little has been done or achieved through these programmes. The discrepancy in the ideology and practice of the empowerment policy of women in India constitutes its continued social, economic and social backwardness Empowerment would not hold any meaning unless they are made strong, alert and aware of their equal status in the society. The need of the hour is to improve female literacy as education holds the key to development.
Empowerment would become more relevant if women are educated, better informed and can take rational decisions. The greatest challenge is to recognize the obstacles that stand in the way of their right to good health. To be useful to the family, community and the society, women must be provided with health care facilities. They should be provided with proper wages and work at par with men so that their status can be elevated in society. In recent years there have been explicit moves to increase women’s political participation. The Women’s reservation policy bill is however a very sad story as it is repeatedly being scuttled in parliament.
In the Panchayati Raj system, however, women have been given representation as a sign of political empowerment. There are many elected women representatives at the village council level. However their power is restricted, as it the men who wield all the authority. Their decisions are often over-ruled by the government machinery. It is crucial to train and give real power to these women leaders so that they can catalyst change in their villages regarding women. All this shows that the process of gender equality and women’s empowerment still has a long way to go and may even have become more difficult in the recent years.
The main reason for the contradiction is that, targeted schemes tend to have only limited impact when the basic thrust of development is not reaching an average woman, making her life more fragile and vulnerable. To make a positive change basic infrastructure should be provided in every village and city. To begin with, providing safe drinking water supply and better sanitation not only directly improved the lives and health of women but also reduces their workload in terms of provisioning and ensuring such facilities. An access to affordable cooking fuel reduces the need to travel long distances in search of fuel wood.
Improved transport connecting villages with each other and with towns can also directly improve living conditions as well as unpaid labour time spent in transporting household items. It can also lead to access to a wider range of goods and services plus a better access to health facilities. Expenditure on food subsidy and better provisions for public distribution services directly affects the lives of women and girl children in terms of adequate nutrition. The patterns of resource mobilization by government also have significant effects on women that are usually not recognized.
When taxes are regressive and fall disproportionately on items of mass consumption, once again these tend to affect women more. This is not only because the consumption of such items may be curtailed but also because the provisioning of such items is frequently considered to be the responsibility of the women of the household. Also credit policies reduce the flow of credit to small-scale enterprises thus reducing the employment opportunities for women. There is a need to have womenfriendly economic policies that can enhance their social and economic position and make them self-reliant.
There is no doubt about the fact that development of women has always been the central focus of planning since Independence. Empowerment is a major step in this direction but it has to be seen in a relational context. A clear vision is needed to remove the obstacles to the path of women’s emancipation both from the government and women themselves. Efforts should be directed towards all round development of each and every section of Indian women by giving them their due share. Impact women leaders contribute to business: ? There are three key drivers why businesses are interested in women today: leadership, talent and markets.
There is now data and studies to prove that more women in leadership means better bottom-line performance. Fortune 500 companies with the most women at the top have a 35 percent higher return on shareholder return to equity, and a Catalyst study showed boards with more than three women on them have an 83 percent higher return to shareholder value than boards without women. It’s not about women taking over everything, it’s about having gender balance because that really does seem to tie into much greater profitability and striking performance financially. ?
One of the most compelling reasons for an organization to pay attention to the demographic makeup of its workforce is that a diverse employee base can have significant bottom-line impact. Yet, when the issue is workplace gender balance and actualizing women’s economic and leadership potential, India trails behind less developing countries. ? Oftentimes when the subject of women in business is discussed, comparisons with men are made as if men are the barometer for business. This is a false perception and false too is the language. Business is not an entity separated from life; it is an entity encompassed by life.
The definitions of a business consists of a line of work, to work, a profession, a job, a trade, a position, a vocation, a field, a calling and a career. Before today, societies around the globe have claimed that women didn‘t work and therefore couldn‘t understand the parameters of ? formal? business. This misconception rivals some of the largest platitudes in history: the near-sighted earth is flat, the purposeful stork delivers babies and the perforated theory of evolution. The business world has presented itself to women as if it spoke a foreign language on an uncharted map.
But the truth is that the language is fabricated and the world of business operates in a land not unknown to women. By definition, everything women do and have always done is in fact a business. Women have labored the child, harvested the crop, fed the hungry, nursed the needy and educated the willing. All of those are jobs, careers, trades, vocations and callings. Women aren‘t new to business; they‘re only new to the financial rewards. ? Today, more than ever, women are in the workplace and now own the workplace. Women have always been established in business but now they are in business for profit by way of monetary means.
Today over 10 million businesses are owned or controlled by women and those businesses account for over two (2) trillion dollars in sales. That‘s an astounding number and a resounding accomplishment when all considerations are factored. This doesn‘t come as a result of women learning anything new. This is a manifestation of which women already are: industrious, innovative, instinctive and intelligent. The traits of women are not to be compared with that of men, just shared in composition of a more productive and progressive society. Every household around the world that houses women, women manage and most commonly manage well.
The interactive and intuitive management style of women is a prerequisite to a thriving business and a productive workplace environment. Women-owned businesses employ almost 20 million people and steadily rising. ? There was a time not long ago when any man in a three-piece suit could qualify for a business loan. Those times are no more, as much money was lost and many laws were circumvented. The measures applied in today‘s market are far more reasonable and more accessible to female entrepreneurs. Commercial lenders and Venture Capitalists want to see that the company has done its research in that respective field.
It‘s important for them to know that you have experience in this area of expertise. Another major factor will be how you intend to market the product and what the infrastructure of the company is. As you design your company, research successful companies already in that industry, introduce yourselves to other women in business and network to assist each other. Those around you that make claims of what you can‘t do must be excluded from your conversations, so that you may focus on the task at hand. Whether you are single, a single mother or married, taking advantage of free enterprise is the way to independence and interdependence. The success in business that any male has experienced is not because males possess some superior trait over women; it‘s because men have been the only players. Women can compete in any and every business. It‘s just a matter of choice and now that choice is ours. For one to operate a successful business, they must first define what success is in their own terms. ? The sole reason why the numbers of women-owned businesses aren‘t more reflective of the population is because they haven‘t been encouraged to do and supported when doing so.
It‘s been a blight on the world community and a recessive gene to societal growth. Today we see women straightening that crooked path and every society will become a more powerful force because of it. Yesterday, we gorged the bitterness of bigotry. Today, we taste the fruits of unity and diversity. Today, we plant the untainted seeds of effortless innovation and boundless meritocracy. Today, little girls and little boys will witness the ubiquitous talents of women in power and exalt their leadership. Young women will know they have a reasonable option before them and no law will disallow their choices.
It‘s paramount that not only young women see their defined roles as unrestrained but that young men do and work in concert as we brave a new world. It‘s true: Today is the greatest day in the history of the world and tomorrow will be even better. Challenges for women leadership: In spite of decades of organization and legislative support for gender equality, it appears that there is still very much a glass ceiling facing women in many aspects of leadership. Most women gaining or holding leadership roles – whether in the workplace or in community organizations – Face many challenges and oppositions which can be very hurtful and demoralizing.
Women leaders still face many unique challenges brought on by a combination of social and cultural stereotyping, gender bias, family demands and also their innate female tendencies. Women leaders still earn less in general, receive less recognition and less support especially in the male dominated, competitive corporate world but also in other professional fields, such as medicine. The most common challenges faced by women leaders are: ? The challenge of family responsibility: It is a common lament that women are expected to juggle the demands of career and family, with constant criticism from both sides for failure to achieve perfection.
For women leaders, the constant struggle to balance their responsibilities in both the professional and personal arena can be overwhelming, especially given the lack of support and the constant fight they have against the obstacles generated from traditional prejudices and gender stereotyping. In the greatest majority of break ups it is the woman who leaves. She leaves because her needs weren‘t given sufficient weight in the relationship. However still men around with a 1950‘s masculinity are happy for their women to work if they can manage it around all their other commitments at home.
They expect their working wives to do everything that their stay -at-home mothers do. ? The challenges from personal inclinations: For many women, learning to operate and succeed in a male dominated world means having to learn to over ride or ignore their more feminine inclinations. When the women get overwhelmed by the responsibility of looking after everyone and everything, these men offer no support except to tell their wives that they will have to quit their job if they can‘t cope. ? Woman has a potential and power to be a leader.
However women often lack opportunities skills and resources for realizing their potential. Much of women‘s leadership over the centuries has been invisible because the question of leadership has been viewed through gender – biased lenses. Women have been pulling together to make something happen , but all of these have been viewed as ordinary and domestic work, performed in the private sphere that did not qualify for leadership. So the first challenge is to make women‘s leadership visible. ? Gender biased lenses see leadership as happening in the ? public sphere ? hich was for generations and still is to an extent the domain of men. Ironically even women have and still reinforce this bias, which is an indication that the way we are socialized determines how we think and act. a very big challenge is becoming aware that we need new lenses that will make us see thing differently. How to overcome the challenges faced by women in leadership: When we have seen each other’s work we learned the value of different work and further understood the roles of women in disasters and communities and how to strengthen their leadership.
Leadership has no gender does it? May be women are more conscious of themselves, they can lead as well as men. The Leader at home is mostly a woman who have created talented children, built savings, assets and they can built Nation with character 1. The philosophy of Panchayati Raj is deeply steeped in the tradition and culture of rural India and is by no means a new concept. ?The rationale behind the concept is to involve the public in local planning, identification of beneficiaries, decision making and proper implementation of policies and programmes of the people as described by them.
Panchayati Raj Institutions (PRIs) have today the basic commitment towards rural development. 2 . Panchayati Raj, as a system of governance, has had its ebbs and flows in the Indian polity ever since Indian attained independence. Various committees headed by Balwant Rai Mehta, Ashok Mehta, V. P. Naik, P. B. Patil, G. V. R. Rao, L. N. Singhvi overhauled these institutions which gave necessary impetus to the 73rd Constitutional Amendment Act. Gender equality and gender equity are emerging as major challenges in the global development debate.
Social scientists and development activists are giving increasing emphasis to these fields in their agenda for research and development. 4 As Noble Prizewinning economist Amartya Sen has pointed out, ? Democracy is not only the goal of development, it is the primary means of development. 5. Women‘s participation in political processes is important for strengthening democracy and for their struggle against marginalisation, trivialisation and oppression.
Emergence of women as a strong group would change the prevailing political practices, the nature and content of debates in the legislature and women‘s issues can be taken care of from the feminist perspective both in policy formulation and implementation. .6. In fact, right from the days of the freedom struggle the Indian women have been consistently encouraged to take part in active politics. But due to the vitiated political milieu, resulting from increasing politicization and criminalization of politics, he level of political participation of women has been adversely affected despite the fact that there has been a marked increase in the level of literacy and political awareness among women. . India is perhaps the first country to recognize this social fact underlined by Lenin on the International Working Women‘s Day in 1921,8 and to have taken concrete measures to draw women into leadership positions and thereby into politics by giving them one-third reservation in what may now be called the third tier of governance—the Panchayati Raj.
The constitutional amendment providing one-third representation to women in elected bodies as well as reserving one-third of the offices of chairpersons for them will have far-reaching consequences in Indian political and social life. Now, some general observations can be made regarding the role of women in grassroots level governance. It has come to the notice that the percentage of women at various levels of political activities has increased formally. The general trend is that those in politics are women belonging to the younger age-group between 25-45.
It is also revealed that women take up political career as an extension of their domestic role. While women have been active in mass movements, their presence is not felt in decisionmaking. The influence of the husbands and close relatives is quite palpable. This tendency is due to lack of confidence. This dependency is a stumping block in their empowerment. ?Another positive impact of the grassroot level experiment is the increase in the female literacy rate. Studies reveal that after two years of their election to PRIs, many women demanded literacy skills and also felt the need to educate their daughters.
Issues in which women representatives generally take interest are drinking water supply, primary health, child care, public distribution system and environmental protection. One quality observed among women representatives is their patience to hear the problems of the public. They also work in adverse circumstances. It has been observed that women representatives are honest and accurate in presenting issues to the decision-making bodies and authorities. Women would bring new ideas in local governance. They believe in a sustainable development and their emphasis is on natural resources management.
Women representatives working at the grassroot level also believe that communal harmony is an important element of development and they strive to achieve this objective. Another promising fact is that they do not indulge in corrupt practices. The elected women have exhibited their leadership in solving some of the local problems and creating facilities for betterment of the rural society. Women are considered an extremely pivotal point in the process of change in the rural areas. Women‘s participation in panchayats provided opportunities to women to participate in the decision-making process.
Women‘s participation proved to be the most effective instrument in bringing about a change in their way of life in terms of economic well-being and adoption of new technology. Women‘s entry into PRIs, both as members as well as heads of Panchayats, has pushed them into the policy-making and policy-implementation process in a very big way. Whether their husbands, fathers, brothers or other relatives compelled them to take up these roles, or whether they assumed these roles as dummy incumbents, one thing is certain: they crossed the rigid boundaries drawn through their households by the same male relatives. omen are leading in ensuring that families function well and have necessities for development. Women are running the ? Caring Industry,? by managing the well being of the sick, the children and the elderly etc. Women are resolving conflict and finding solutions for issues in communities, whether it is getting clean water in a village or a streetlight fixed to prevent children and pedestrians from being knocked down by cars. Women throughout history have always been making priorities, budgets, and action plans.
Women have as managers of families and communities to the management of our nations, our businesses, religious institutions and our world. This is about making the personal public and the private political. It is about tearing down the walls of dualism and discrimination. Negotiating to ensure that women are in positions at every level of public governance beginning from kindergarten through parliaments, businesses all the way to the United Nations require strong women-led politically-motivated civil societies to support their leaders and hold them accountable. Advocacy work ust show that both women and men must work together for common good. There has to be a critical mass of women in leadership so that they can be companions with each other and allow themselves to be what they want or be allowed to be themselves and not to prove themselves . The first sign of success is when the women pioneers in leadership have space and voice to be visible on their own terms and to practice their leadership in positions commensurate with their skills . Female leadership including the skills that mothers use to manage sibling fights there will be possibilities for new beginnings. We should have more women in politics. workshops are essential to train potential leaders as well as encourage the ones who are successful at the local governance level to enter the State Assemblies and National Parliament. More women should participate in political system to set an example for the entire world by efficiently working on issues that are close to their heart?. Top 10 women leaders in India: ? Pratibha Patil- Pratibha Devisingh Patil, the current President of India, is the first woman to hold the office.
She was also the first woman Governor of Rajasthan (2004-2007). ? Vasundhara Raje Scindia- Vasundhara Raje, the daughter of Rajmata Vijayraje Scindia and Jivaji Rao Scindia of Gwalior, entered the politics in 1984. Besides being the first women Chief Minister of Rajasthan, she was the Minister of State for External Affairs. ? Uma Bharti- Uma Bharti held various state-level portfolios in India including Youth Affairs & Sports, Human Resource Development, Tourism and Coal & Mines. ? Sushma Swaraj- Sushma swaraj, a lawyer by profession, was elected as a member of Rajya Sabha in 1990.
Later, she became the Minister of Information and Broadcasting and president of Hindu Sahitya Sammelan for Four years. ? Sonia Gandhi- Sonia Gandhi, the President of the Indian National Congress Party (NCP), was married to Rajeev Gandhi in 1969. Now a widow of former Prime Minister of India, Sonia was named the sixth most powerful woman in the world by Forbes magazine. ? Mehmooba Mufti- Mehmooba Mufti, the president of the Jammu and Kashmir people Democratic Party, is the daughter of the former Chief Minister of Jammu and Kashmir Mufti Mohmmad Sayeed. Brinda Karat- Brinda Karat was the first women member of the Communist Party of India. ? Mamta Banerjee- Mamata Banerjee is the founder and chief executive of the All India Trinamool Congress Party. Later, she was also made the Youth Affairs and Sport, Union Minister of State for Human Resources Development and Women and Child Development. ? Sheila Dixit- Sheila Dixit, belonging to the Indian National Congress, is the Chief Minister of Delhi since 1998. ? Mayawati Kumari- Mayawati Naina Kumari, the current Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh, is the highest income tax payer among all politicians in India.
Besides these top 10 women leaders in India, Late Indira Gandhi has also been an epitome of leadership in India. References: Women and Leadership – Jean Lau Chin, Bernice Lott, Joy K. Rice http://www. emergingwomenleaders. org/ http://books. google. co. in/books? id=ZyhRWzTm_RwC&pg=PR4&lpg=PP1&ots=IPACfy zBWQ&dq=women+leadership#v=onepage&q&f=false http://www. emergingwomenleaders. org/2009/11/women-leadership-and-personalityinsights-form-the-myers-briggs-type-indicator/ Team Members: V. Ashwini Reddy Mala Mankotia Manjusha. P Ramya Sree Rashmi Kumari G. Swetha Reddy R. Swathi Sree Usha Kiran