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Language

Language Experience

1. Write about your past formal or informal language learning experiences. Would you consider them effective or ineffective? Learning foreign languages is a real challenge to everyone and a lot of people have their own successful and unsuccessful experiences. As for me, I’d like to tell about a negative one because, unfortunately, I had it more than positive. I’ve been learning English since I was 10 years old. At first, it was at school. Those lessons left much to be desired. We had a middle-aged teacher who used to have favourite students and showed her attitude, inhibitions cast aside.
We didn’t have speaking tasks at all. She gave us different texts and we read, translated and learnt them by heart. Sometimes we even didn’t understand what we were speaking about which made it more difficult to answer. She didn’t use any communicative approaches. What is more, we weren’t interested and motivated. At the age of 15 I nearly decided to give up learning it. Needless to say, it was a real shock to everyone when I announced my decision to enter Pedagogical University, the department of foreign languages.
I was sure that I would learn it there. I had a private teacher to prepare for entrance exams. At that time I thought she gave me a lot knowledge, but being a teacher now I can judge those lessons as a waste of time and money. Frankly speaking, it was self-studying. I was given 5 unites of grammar to do at home. Nobody explained any rules to me and we just checked exercises. Fortunately, at university I had a lot of different teachers. Some of them tried to use communicative tasks, such as role plays.

But it was still academic studying. Teachers didn’t need to motivate us as we all wanted to pass exams and get a diploma. However ridiculous it may seem, I learnt English at work, being teacher is the best way to study. If I need to know something, I try to teach my students and after preparations for lessons and loads of explanations to them I get to know a lot. So joining TESOL course is another opportunity to learn the language and ways of teaching . 2. Why do you think the CLT has gained popularity in the language classroom?
Our understanding of the processes of second language learning has changed considerably in the last 30 years and CLT is partly a response to these changes in understanding. Earlier views of language learning focused primary on the mastery of grammatical competence. Language learning was viewed as a process of mechanical formation. Good habits are formed by having students produce correct sentences. Errors were to be avoided through controlled opportunities for production. In recent years language learning has been viewed from a very different perspective.
Communicative teaching emphasis on “task-oriented, student-centered” language teaching practice, asked to show the life of the actual needs of the English language to simulate a variety of life contexts, emotional, and to provide students with comprehensive use of English language, for communication of opportunities, its focus is not only a language in the form, grammatical accuracy, more emphasis on the appropriateness of language use, feasibility, communication skills, as well as training students in communicative activities in the strain and problem-solving ability.
There are advantages and disadvantages of this approach. The pros are: – Language is acquired through communication – CLT allows learners to use the target language in meaningful context – CLT can be adapted to any level The cons are: -Student may not see the value in learning English through group work, games, and activities. – CLT does not focus on error correction. – Students don’t feel challenged Taking everything into consideration, I should say that the good thing about the communicative approach is that it makes students speak the language even at a beginner level and they are usually enthusiastic about this. . How would you approach a class with true and false beginners? I got used to having mixed-ability classes and the mixture of false beginners (they have had some English training at some point in the past) and true beginners ( these are learners who have had no contact with English at all) is a common situation. I consider such classes a real advantage as it helps to avoid boring lessons and I always have some students to rely on.
I try to pair a true beginner with a false one while doing some activities and it helps to create an interaction between students which means a student-centred style of teaching. There are some drawbacks, of course. The false ones are faster to do exercises so I need to provide them with extra work which means more careful preparation for the lesson. Another problem is a demotivation of both kinds of students. There are some classroom management techniques which can help to avoid it. I should say it is a widely-spread situation but it can be successfully solved by using different methods of teaching.

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Language

Sexiest Language

Language is the basis to all cultures in the world, today. Whether it is in writing, sign language, or body language, it is a must in every civilization. Language is perceived differently through the male and female genders. Many forms of sexist language have been identified into three forms – language that ignores women, language the defines women narrowly, and language that depreciates women (Wetherall 276). Women have been discriminated for years. This all strings back to when the female was thought to be less of a person, since early civilization.
It has been the use of masculine genetics that has concealed women. Since that time we have came a long way in equaling women’s rights. The problem now, is that language still portraits women as something less in society. The narrow definition of women in language relates to the observation that women are more often discussed in relationships, whereas men are more often discussed in what they do (Wetherall 276). A perfect example is when women are given their spouse’s last name after being married. This is a show of ownership of sorts. Women do not have accompany this tradition if they do not feel it is necessary.
Language described women, in the past, in a negative manor and it is hard to break free from such stereotypes. In a study of female and male terms listed in the dictionary you will find many more unfavorable, sexual and trivializing to describe women that men (Wethrall 276). Women have taken a large leap towards equality but it will take some time before sexist language and discriminative language will cease. I did a survey where I asked twenty people, “If a girl fools around with five guys in a month and a guy fools around with five girls in a month what would you classify the man and woman? All twenty of the people I asked said the girl is a slut.

Sixteen of the people said the man was a “pimp”(which is a good thing). The other four said he is a male slut. Why is this so? Just because the person is a female, she should be classified as a slut? This is how society thinks. Women should not be stereotyped this way. Men do the same things and they are thought of as the “Bomb”. I asked five men and five women how they would address a woman who was a chairperson. This is a direct statement of how or language is sexist towards women. Because of this sexist language, our society faces the consequences.
Sexist view can influence people’s perception of women (Wetherall 277). Research theoretical developments on language, power and social relationships suggests more subtle and complex associations between language and social behavior than those initially used to describe the significance of sex bias in language (Wetherall 277). For example, discourse analysts explore how the production and organization of social categories in conversation are influenced by the context and function of the particular interaction (Wetherall 277). The use of sexist language makes the idea of inequality live on.
When people constantly use this sexist language it becomes routine and people start to use this in their every day conversation or even just in their minds. The routinization of sex bias in language makes sexism more covert and hence a legitimate way of communicating racism (Wetherall 277). With this common and accepted racism being used in everyday life, it shows how men have maintained their monarchy in social groups. For example, when I was younger there was a girl on my baseball team who was very good, but everyone emphasized how good she was “for a girl”, not a person.
Sexist language is a direct suppression of women and is so commonly used, it goes unnoticed. Though, steps are being taken to stop sexist language, for example it is not longer a policeman it is a police officer, still, there has to be more done to prevent in from existing. Our language reflects the fact that, historically women engaged in public activity that has been suspect (Jamieson 125). The whole idea is that when society speaks of a human being it is usually thought to be a male.
For instance when a man is interviewed, he is judged as an individual while a woman is categorized as a “women” (Jamieson 127). Language is not only a way to communicate, but, also a way to judge the character of society. Starting at age two or three when boys and girls first learn to communicate they are placed in two separate categories. This separation continues through childhood and up to their teenage years when they become men and woman. Woman are brought up to be clean, proper, and always be on their best behavior. Men are brought up to play in the dirt, be messy, and act like tough guys.
When men and woman become their own self and have their own traits they will then began to interact and communicate with each other. At this time different language will be shared with each other and many agreements as well as disagreements will occur. A man will usually overpower the woman with words, because a mans language is a lot stronger in content. As each generation goes by men have been more successful and always in a higher power position than woman have been in. In the mid 1970’s, a survey was taken, that is showing words that are used on men and their parallel meaning towards women.

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Language

English as a Global Language

English as a global language English is spoken in most parts of the world, for instance in Great Britain, the USA, Canada, Australia, New Zealand and in many more countries. Moreover in African states English serves as main form of communication. English is, after the Chinese one, the language most people speak and it is the most popular second language and foreign language pupils learn in school. The English language is often named as a “killer language” that wipes out smaller languages and their cultures by exclusive use (f. e. media, economy).
English is not popular because of its linguistic properties but there are conscious, co-ordinated promotion programmes. But if there are so many speaking the same language there remains the question of human’s diversity – concerning biological, cultural and political matters. We also have to take into consideration, that English as a global language is also linked to social costs, because the teaching and accommodation of the languages for immigrant minorities is rather irrational. Language policy in the post-colonial situation:
There are a lot of colonial states with multilingual character because of the imperialist powers in the 19th and 20th century. In Africa, for example, there are no attempts to use any African language in high-status functions, they are not even taught in schools. The period during colonialism changed a lot in the world’s history and following development, and colonialism make us think about cheap rawmaterials and workers the imperialist powers wanted to gain, but we often forget about something else, which an African statesman expresses in his speech: The real aim of colonialism was to control the people’s _wealth… but) economic and political control can never be complete or effective without mental control.

To control a people’s culture is to control their tools of self-definition in relationship to others. For colonialism, this involved two aspects of the same process: the destruction or the deliberate undervaluing of a people’s culture, their art, dances, religions, history, geography, education, orature and literature, and the conscious elevation of the language of the coloniser. The domination of a people’s language by the languages of the colonising nations was crucial to the domination of the mental universe of the colonised.
Ngugi wa Thiong’o (extract from his famous essay on “The language of African literature”) But there are several arguments for the demand of the adoption of the ex-colonial languages as official ones. First, regarded politically, the choice of any indigenous language would destabilise African states which are multilingual. A second argument would be, that the continue use of the ex-colonial language is rather “practical” because in the end it was accepted by the majority.
From having been the language of the oppressor, English, for instance, became the language of national unity and national liberation. There was a sense (economically and technically) in ex-colonial languages, because then they are linked to their “mother country” and the language-infrastructure delivers a pool of skills, like as prorate books, dictionaries, registers, etc. It would be useless to imitate and duplicate in any of African languages. But these arguments were not often used in cultural discussions, because the European languages often affect as superior to the indigenous “vernaculars”.
The development seems to be inevitable because with the problem of unemployment, the ability to speak English is very important, but English can’t be blamed for the developments demanding an international lingua franca to facilitate a world wide exchange of knowledge everyone can understand. Killer languages were always introduced by those who were in control of power. The USA with the strongest currency the Dollar, shows that it is not coincidental that English is the leading candidate as a global language.
Because of the English predominance in the industrial world, more and more peoples will have to join in and the question remains if they are able to keep their own identities. There is no danger if regional groups manage to keep their own language for internal communication, but in less developed countries the members of small linguistic groups have to change to a language of a higher rank in the language hierarchy. Because that way they are more flexible and the chances in world-wide competition are bigger.
In Australia parents even force their children to speak English instead of their own indigenous mother tongue, because they want to provide them better chances for their future. Shortly, you can say that by surviving in a capitalistic system of competition many peoples are forced to support a process which destroys their own culture. In Countries of GB’s old colonial empire (e. g. : Australia, USA, Canada, New Zealand) the native populations were either killed or enslaved, and the Anglo- Saxon culture and language were adopted. This seemed to be a natural process. In Africa the new system of additive bilingualism shall be introduced now.
That means that the 1st language maintains and a second one is added. This system developed out of the Bantu Education, which inforced black schoolchildren to learn English with the help of a racist curriculum (Stundenplan). But African children rebelled which is called the_ Soweto Uprising of 1976, by now. This truly baneful legacy of Apartheid and a lack of will amongst most of the political leadership are the main reasons why there is no successful policy of multilingualism and multilingualistic education in Africa yet. On contrary, there’s really a language problem like in India and other former colonies.
The leaders followed the French or English only (or mainly) language policies after formal independence from the colonial rule. Most of these countries returned to their mother – tongue within. Prof. Alexander Neville thinks, that if additive bilingualism is carried out systematically but flexibly, there should be a high level of literacy in Africa in the course of the next century (1 African language and at least some fluency in English for all Africans). African schools could normalise (competent language teachers like most countries of the world). We think this is a rather optimistic view. But what is the right way to learn a language?
In the Internet Research there are some conditions quoted as important to learn a 2nd language: Teachers‘ language proficiency Teachers‘ competence as teachers (understand and overcome pupils‘ problems) Exposure to the language outside the classroom Adequate textbooks and material There’s a need for one or two world languages in the fields of trade, technology and diplomacy. But there’s a global tension between this need on one hand, and the national and regional need for a language in which the history and treasures of the cultures of the world‘s diverse peoples, are captured, on the other hand.
Nowadays, as English is the lingua franca of the EU, massive efforts of translation and interpretation have to be taken. A lingua franca and Multilingualism should stand side by side, forming a common language policy. Changes in the Teaching of English David Crystal (Author of „English as a Global Language“) thinks that English became the world language, not because of any intrinsic linguistic qualities, but because at significant moments in history it happened to be ‘in the right place at the right time’.
“The Future of English? by Graddol, suggests that English is at a turning point in its development as an international language: it has become a global language at a time when the world itself is undergoing rapid change. Indeed, English is very much a part of the process of transformation, which is creating a more closely interconnected world in which people and machines talk easily to each other from one country to another in the world. It is clear that more and more people learning English as a foreign language do so in order to communicate with other non-native speakers of English.
This marks a significant change in the nature and purpose of teaching and learning English around the world, which has hitherto been built on the idea of teaching a native speaker model of English (usually British or American) to allow communication between the learner and native speakers. If you consider, that the number of people speaking English as a second language will soon outnumber the one of those speaking it as a first tongue, you will understand, that also the way of teaching English has to change.
Therefor new methods of English Language teaching (ELT) have been developed to be able to teach also the diverse and changing contexts in which English will be used in the future. There are courses on the Internet and special groups, where English teachers from all over the world discuss about the new challenge of their profession. Diana and Julia Brugger Opinions: What makes a global language? Why is English a leading candidate? Will it hold this position? A few years ago I traveled around Europe with a friend. Although we knew only a little French, we were able to travel with no problem.
Everyone we encountered, with a few exceptions, spoke English. It was comforting to be able to communicate with others when we were lost, needed help or just wanted to talk. Personally, I think a universal language would benefit most people. I agree, however, that one should not replace native languages. Native languages are symbols of culture, the past and its people. From what we have learned so far I think a universal language would have maybe eliminated some of the oppression and subordination some peoples faced at the hands of colonizers.
Cheryl Fonda Undoubtedly, the English language is a powerful tool and has been a dominant force in suppressing the colonies during Imperialism. Fortunately, Pakistan ( my native country) which was under British rule did not let go of it’s native language despite British influence. English remains the official language, but we have our own national language called Urdu, which is quite dominant. Shandana *Khanzada* (Pakistan) I guess from the heading of this posting that we would assume that English would be a great candidate for this universal language.
I do feel that it might eliminate some tension if everyone had access to a certain universal language and couldn’t be exploited as easily. However, most diplomats and such already speak English. It is the poor of every nation that don’t have access to English education, so the hierarchy still continues. The universal language would cause the exploitation of the poor by the rich. The only difference is that it would not be a nation exploiting another but people of a nation exploiting there own countrymen.
We as English speakers take a lot for granted… when it comes to languages we are very self-centered. True a universal language would make business and politics much easier, but each language carries much of a culture. If you have ever tried translating poetry from one language to another you know how words don’t have exact translations and almost all subtleties are lost. Think about even within the English language… each dialect ( southern, Midwest, New England) has its own character.
A universal language sounds great in theory but the work that implementing it would entail is overwhelming to say the least. I too have travelled to other countries and have felt very lucky when others know English and were able to help me. —Americans should really know other languages well considering the resources we have here, but the truth of the matter is that we do not. I think a universal language would be more convenient but it would eventually wipe out certain differences among us that serve as positive vehicles for learning and experience.

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Language

Art and Language

The following paper will focus on cognitive science and its application to the modules of language structure with reference to functionalists theory.  The highlighting factors of the paper will delve into how language is processed through a frame of reference and developed in regards to cultural as well as empirical modes.  The way in which language is processed by the mind and how cognitive science extrapolates this complex function will be discussed as well as the applying the representational theory of mind.
Language structures community.  It is a response to the emotions, the events, and the culture surrounding individuals and is tied into the concepts of cognitive science because it is a process that has to be translated by the brain to be understood.  Language is an innate expression of emotion, a deep need to convey oneself, to be understood, to find a connection with someone or a group of people: through this desire of communication is found sensory signals.
A well-developed individual will use language not only for communication of simple tasks (directions, greetings, or general information), but more intrinsically, for the relaying of emotion and thus, the internal representations are used in order to perceive correctly what is trying to be communicated.  Through language there arises a sense of belonging through the brain’s ability to act and work like a computer the neural networks of the mind give off the impression of vocal integration of a species, and through this is found a preliminary common ground by which an individual may interpret signals and voice to demonstrate camaraderie.

There is a common relationship when two people speak the same language and are further bonded through the expression of their thoughts.  A person’s conversations, exterior portrayal of a relationship, and personal injuries lie in Sausseure’s bilateral definition of langue and not parole.
…Sausseure’s differentiation between langue and parole… Langue is the formal grammatical system of language…Parole is actual speech, the way that speakers use language to express themselves. (455, Ritzer)
It is correct to infer that when tourists are abroad, they have a grasp of langue but little idea of how to use parole effectively.  This differentiation between grammar and expression is the key component in the separation of tourist from native.  Sausseure’s system of language gives a view of exile, which, when deliberated with langue and parole, is defined as being in a state of homelessness purely by being without language.  Without the sense of intrinsic communication which bonds people, and which allows them to have a connection with the community around them, that innate expression or parole is lost and an exile is born.
Without a relationship to the language being spoken, there can be no meaning behind the words, no emotion.  In the Representational Theory of Mind, the tie that binds is considered to be that of language and how language is processed and considered.  Through mental states, thoughts, beliefs, and desires as much as impressions and images, language is the tool used to demonstrate the importance of each point.  Language and RTM has at their base intentionality.  Sensory experience is denoted through language and expressed with that language to another person.  The sensory experience can be related to another person only through dialogue.
Langue, then, can be viewed as a system of signs – a structure- and the meaning of each sign is produced by the relationship among signs within the system.  Especially important here are relations of difference, including binary oppositions…Meanings, the mind, and ultimately the social world are shaped by the structure of language.  Thus, instead of an existential world of people shaping their surroundings, we have here a world in which people as well as other aspects of the social world, are being shaped by the structure of language. (455, Ritzer)
When tourists go on vacation, they usually end up spending their time with others from their own country in order to feel secure in unusual surroundings and to feel more at home.  With this in mind, tourists do not succumb to the ideas of culture shock, for they are forever surrounded with their own culture; if they were not, then the desperation of being in exile of language would overcome any sense of excitement in a new place.
In Hoffman’s essay The New Nomads in Letters of Transit;
…exile, and the pain of radical change, do not necessarily lead to a more radical personality structure or greater openness to the world.  On the contrary, upheaval and dislocation can sometimes produce some rather more conservative impulses of self-defense and self preservation. (54)
In Freud’s New Introductory Lectures on Psycho-Analysis translated by W. J. H. Sprott, he states:
The danger of mental helplessness corresponds to the stage of early immaturity of the ego; the danger of loss of object or of love corresponds to the dependence of the early years of childhood; the danger of castration to the phallic phase; and finally, fear of the super-ego, which occupies a special position, to the period of latency.  As development proceeds the old conditions for anxiety should vanish, since the danger-situations, which correspond to them, have lost their force owing to the strengthening of the ego.  But this only happens to a very incomplete degree.
A great many people cannot overcome the fear of loss of love; they never become independent enough of the love of other people and continue their infantile behavior in this respect…There is no doubt that persons whom we call neurotic remain infantile in their attitude towards danger, and have not grown out of antiquated conditions of anxiety. (122,123)
And as Ritzer states,
A thinking, self-conscious individual is…logically impossible in Mead’s theory without a prior social group.  The social group comes first, and it leads to the development of self-conscious mental states. (207, Ritzer)
In such a society, language becomes not a way of telling, but a hindrance, a barrier of self and society.  With the reflection of society, an individual receives feedback of their character, or reflections of who they are.  In Marx’s essay The German Ideology in Kaplan and Anderson’s Criticism, he states,
Consciousness is, therefore, from the very beginning a social product, and remains so as long as men exist at all … man’s consciousness of the necessity of associating with the individuals around him is the beginning of the consciousness that he is living in society at all. (317-318)
Language then is an avenue by which RTM may be understood to be a symbolic representation of thought.  RTM then functions on a system of building blocks, because language is not implicit but empirical.
Work Cited
Hoffman, Eva. (1989).  The New Nomads.  In A. Aciman (Ed).  Letters of Transit (pp. 35-63).  New York:  The New Press.
Marx, Karl.  (1846).  The German Ideology.  In C. Kaplan and W.D. Anderson (Eds.). Criticism Major Statements (pp. 310-318).  Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s.
Ritzer, George.  (2000).  Modern Sociological Theory.  Boston:  McGraw-Hill Co., Inc.
Sigmund, Freud. (1933).  New Introductory Lectures on Psycho-Analysis (W.J.H. Sprott, Trans.).  New York: W.W. Norton & Company, INC.
 
 
 

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Language

Differences in the Way Language is used

Language is an important aspect of a human being. The capability to speak and used language makes it possible for an individual to relate to other people. However, language is not merely a means of communication it is an essential factor that shows a person’s thoughts as well as his or her culture. Being the case, since there are many various cultures in the world it is not surprising that there are many languages that exist. This kind of diversity is even more observable in the different ways language is used. Numerous articles have dwelt on the topic of language especially in its importance and the ways it is used.
The succeeding paragraphs will discuss the different usage of language based upon some of the written accounts that have given specific attention in this topic. These will deal with the various function of language on different areas and its effects in the society. American linguists and anthropologists perceived that language has a more important role aside from the fact that it shapes an individual’s view of reality. This idea became widely known during the beginning of the 20th century especially in the first four decades.
The one responsible for this kind of thinking are Edward Sapir and his student Benjamin Whorf. They asserted that “language predetermines what we see in the world around us” (O’Neil, 2006, n. p. ). Simply put, language acts as a filtering mechanism wherein an individual could only see and understand the real world based upon the categories of their language. In the study of Sapir and Whorf, they conducted a cross cultural comparison of color. A person perceived a particular color through the use of the eyes, which is aided by light.

The frequency of light is the one who stimulate the eye in order to recognize the lightness or darkness of a certain color. As such, the eye only see the value of a pigmentation whether they are high or low but the terms used in referring to it like red or green does not actually exist. As such, it is through the use of language that these different values of light are called with various names (O’Neil, 2006, n. p. ). The assumption of Sapir and Whorf that there are cultural differences in the perception of color is not recognized by other expert in the field by commenting that they went to far.
Experts said that all people in the world have the similar visual perception and this is not affected by culture. Nevertheless, the study that they conducted proves that language has an important role in how people perceived the different phenomena in their surrounding like the recognition of light. It is through language that people could specifically recognize these colors by name even if they have various terminologies on how it should be called. Language as a medium could also be used in order to change people’s perceptions about things as well as make them adhere to new ideas and concepts.
A good example of such is through the media. Advertising has its way of using and playing with language that would make an ordinary consumer avail of the products and services that they are marketing. The famous taglines or one-liners that most commercials used leave a mark in the consciousness of the people that make them patronize what they are selling (Schrank, n. d. ). Moreover, even television programs or movies also have its way of changing the opinion of people about issues and other events.
The media could easily used words that could aggravate a certain event than what is really happening. Language also has a pivotal role in the world of business. The rapidly changing time has paved the way for business operations to become international in nature. This is exemplified by existence of multinational corporations that operates in different countries and establishes business relationship with people of various cultures. Good communication is one of the most important elements for a successful business and in order to do so language have to be given due importance.
In an article written by Jim Brantley (2007), a teacher of Business English and a consultant that specializes in Cross Cultural Communications, he emphasizes the importance of effectively using language in business especially during this time of globalization. Brantley discusses that today’s market is highly characterize by competition wherein there is a demand for diversity and the need to venture into labor markets that will sustain the nature of the business. Important factors like currency can be easily understood but dealing with people who are involved in business operations could be more challenging.
More so, if it deals with people of different nationality. The primary idea in addressing this issue is by teaching a standardized medium of communication through the English language. Key employees should know how to speak English in order for them to easily understand instructions as well as give their inputs in decision-making processes. However, it is not as simple as that because there should be a substantial process of teaching in order for the employees to effectively use the language. In this scenario, the importance role language is further highlighted.
Language is a pivotal tool in many aspects of operation in the society and it is clearly seen in the area of business. In a culturally diverse world where people come from different countries with various nationalities, language served as a means of identification. Most people would easily recognize the country of origin of a particular individual based upon the language that he or she uses. Even the mere accent that a person produce while speaking is a helpful indicator in recognizing his or her nationality.
Furthermore, the identity of a state is also exemplified through the language that a country is using. Almost every state has a country profile that contains the necessary vital information about that particular entity. Language is included among the facts that describe a certain country. As such, this only proves that language is essential in differentiating one country from another. Moreover, having this knowledge is also beneficial in dealing with its people. Diplomatic relations is widely practiced by most states.
In doing so, a state has to established relationships with other countries in order to facilitate cooperation and collaboration in various areas of interests. It could be in terms of economic concerns and social problems. Even the process of asking for aid in times of crisis or war becomes easier through good relationships. To be able to form an effective and meaningful diplomatic relationship, the representatives of each country have to give specific attention in learning the language of the other party they are dealing with (Edwards, 2004).
This is also the reason why most ambassadors are multi-lingual so that they could properly convey the message of their state with the international community. Geographical locations and boundaries are also another reason to the different uses of language. The territorial location of a particular country is often the reason as to why particular words are formed. This is exemplified by the case of some people who are living in tropical climates where they have never experienced having winter season. Due to the fact that they only have summer and rainy season, they are not familiar with the word snow.
If a person who experienced having four seasons in their country uttered this word, some people will not understand it. On the other hand, Eskimos who live in a cold climate used more than fifty terms to pertain to “snow” (Think Quest, 2000). The discussions above show that indeed language plays a very important role in the society. Its usage as a means of communication encompasses many aspects in terms of economics, politics as well as social factors. Language also has a more essential function in recognizing one country from the other.
In relation to this, even the territorial origins of individuals are easily identified through it. Nonetheless, its most important contribution is in shaping the thoughts of people especially on how they perceived reality. Language is not merely a means of communication it also becomes part of the people’s culture. It becomes one of the most appropriate symbols that describe a particular group. In all these, language is not only a tool that people use but it actually becomes a representation of who they are.

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Language

Are Emails and Text Messages Destroying the Language

Some people say that text messages, twittering and emails are an accepted part of the language we use in our everyday lives. Other say that they are destroying our ability to spell and write properly In a relatively short period of tome high-tech gadgets have become integral part of our lives. Some people say they are an accepted part of our lives, other disagree. In order to have principled opinion, we need to examine both points of view.
Firstly, speed is the number one advantage of these ways of communicating. Wheter you are sending your message to next street or to the other side of the planet it takes only seconds to reach its destination. Secondly, life is much simpler with it. People can save messages they received, sent or just make drafts and allways have insight into them. Finaly, it is cheap or even free.
Instead of buying all those stamps people can send their messages or photos for free which is important in todays crisis. On the other side, it is impersonal. Peole are not talking face to face. Thus, there are many wrong interpretations of what is written or read. Besides, many people lose touch with reality because they spend more time in cyber space than with real people socializing.

Read also Twitter Case Study
On top of that, research made on Bristol University had shown that people who spend more time on social networks than one reading or doing other activities make forty percent more spelling mistakes while writting. To conclude, twittering and email have many benefits such as quickly delivering important messages or news. However, we have to be careful and think about internet security and what we write about. In my opinion, people should use these ways of communicating but we also have to “dose its use” because life is all about balance.

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Language

Critically Asses the Views of Paul Tillich on Religious Language

Critically Asses The Views Of Paul Tillich On Religious Language Paul Tillich was a renowned American Protestant theologian born in Prussia 1886. As a self-proclaimed philosophical theologian, Tillich saw the very nature of Christian faith expressed in religious symbols that demanded constant reinterpretation. He was famous for believing that it is possible to speak meaningfully about metaphysical concepts and therefore came up with the theory that religious language, because it is symbolic in nature, has an overwhelming effect upon humans.
Tillich argued that religious language is symbolic. This means that religious symbols communicate the most significant values and beliefs of human beings. In his theory, Tillich firstly establishes the difference between signs and symbols and he does this by saying signs are something that point towards a statement and have no other effect as this therefore means that without understanding that sign, it is meaningless to you. An example would be a road sign indicating that you can now travel at the national speed limit and has no other effect of meaning.
On the other hand, symbols possess much more meaning and power according to Tillich as they are actually involved and take part in what they are symbolising thus having an impact on it. For example the Cross that represents Christianity, Not only does it stand as a marker for that religion, but it also makes a powerful statement. It immediately reminds Christians of the sacrifice they believe Jesus to have made on the cross for them; it also reminds them of their beliefs about God and his plan for the salvation of human beings.

After the distinction between the two had been made, Tillich claimed that religious language worked as a symbol for those who use it as it has meaning and impact on what it represents. He maintained that religious faith is best expressed through symbolism because a symbol points to a meaning beyond itself and best expresses transcendent religious beliefs. He believed that any statement about God is symbolic and participates in the meaning of a concept.
Tillich famously used the example of a national flag to illustrate his point: a flag points to something beyond itself, the country it represents, but also participates in the meaning of the country. He believed that symbols could unite a religious believer with a deeper dimension of himself as well as with a greater reality. He also believed that symbols must emerge out of an individual collective unconsciousness, and can only function when they are accepted by the unconscious.
For Tillich symbols cannot be just invented, but instead live and die at the appropriate times. Also Tillich suggests that religious faith, can express itself only in symbolic language, because “whatever we say about that which concerns us ultimately… has a symbolic meaning” presumably because it is of greater concern and import than the mere language, which can only point towards it. “The language of faith is the language of symbols”
Tillich then went onto develop his idea of a symbol further by outlining the functions in which a symbol carries out which are Point to something beyond themselves, Participate in that to which they point, Open up reality that otherwise are closed to us and finally They also open up the levels and dimensions of the soul that correspond to those levels of reality. Tillich furthermore argued that symbolic language operates in a similar way that a piece of music, art work or poetry might.
This is because they can heave a deep overwhelming effect upon us that we can’t explain or can only explain in a limited way and therefore, the person listening will not understand the effect unless they have felt the same effect of the same piece of art. Also, symbols, like artwork can open up new levels of reality for us and offer a new outlook on life that we would not previously of had, without looking at the symbol/art. Tillich Finally talked about how religious language acts as a symbolic way of pointing towards the ultimate reality, the vision of God which he called ‘Being-Itself. Being-Itself is that upon which everything else depends for its being and Tillich believed that we came to knowledge of this through symbols which direct us to it. One critique of Tillich is the English philosopher of religion and theologian John Hick who argued that Tillich does not make clear how the symbol participates in that to which it points and claims in failing to do so produces a simplistic theory. Also he claims that there are religious statements which do not appear to “unlock dimensions and elements of our soul”, which is part of Tillich’s definition of a symbol.

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Language

Walt Disney Press Releases: The Language of Public Relations

Walt Disney Press Releases:

The Language of Public Relations

Two press releases from the Walt Disney Company were reviewed to understand how important the language used and presentation of news helped this Fortune 500 company gain competitive advantage through increased brand awareness.  Walt Disney is very popular and GGI needs a model such as Walt Disney to understand what language to use and what tactics to heed in their marketing efforts to educate the public about their new product line.  Walt Disney’s first release reviewed outlined interesting phrases to excite interested parties to their acquisition of Pixar and goes as far as to offer investors wanting further information to view a live web-cast or to listen to a pre-recorded message about the acquisition over the phone.  The second press release outlines the efforts of Disney to help in the devastated regions hit by Hurricane Katrina.  This outlines the importance of being involved in a community to demonstrate a positive image and gain attention through humanitarian efforts.
Although Pixar had been co-producers with Disney on many of their films, the acquisition of the company allowed Disney to present their company as not only acquiring a new group of workers, but a new corporate culture entirely and products that would be exciting for movie viewers and others to see as video games, watches, and other products were all purported to be in the future of this company.  An important aspect of reading this release was the fact that two groups of shareholders would have to be supportive of the acquisition, so the language used was most probably developed to sway these groups to positive thinking.  Words and phrases, such as “collective spirit”, “creativity”, “strength”, “imagination”, and “grow and flourish were all part of the exciting “hype” that built the press release from the confident beginning to its promising end.
Shareholders, also, were invited to a live web-cast or to a pre-recorded conference call to hear more of the monetary implications of the acquisition, such as stock changes, documents that were posted to the SEC, and other fiscal “forward-looking” statements.  This connection with the stockholders of Disney is of special interest as it would be prudent that GGI begin dialoging with its shareholders to gain feedback and in turn support for the changes to the company as the changes will not only impact GGI, but all that are financially invested.  It would be wise to set up a pre-recorded message for interested parties to hear in relation to the changes in the new product line and to set up a place for shareholders and others to give ideas for this new product line, as to make GGI more interactive and accessible to the public.  Utilizing every type of outlet for GGI at this point would not only yield stronger public relations, but pave the way for innovative ideas to come from places outside the company.
Then second release from the Walt Disney Company highlighted the efforts that were being made in the devastated regions of the U.S. from Hurricane Katrina.  The company was making its humanitarian side evident through this press release and becoming a part of a community of others, not only stock-holders and consumers, but all people.  This shows that the company is not only interested in revenue, but in human capital and overall compassion.  In addition to donating financial support, Disney partnered with other companies to show its ability to cooperate with others and not exist as some faceless and overbearing corporation with no regard for other groups.  I think it is of the utmost importance for GGI to create a stronger presence in communities and this does not have to be costly, but can begin by some volunteer effort.  Any extra added presence that puts a face to GGI will help with name recognition and product recognition will follow when the new line of household goods are unveiled.
Both press releases were related to the fact that Disney is growing and changing in a positive way.  The acquisition of Pixar demonstrates their willingness to change their existing corporate culture and to incorporate new and innovative ideas to their new products.  As well, Disney’s interactive relationship with shareholders and their active presence in needy communities shows their compassionate and open relationship to others outside of the company.  This new innovation and change will help raise already high market awareness in addition to any community efforts Disney undertakes both in the gulf region and any other place in they future they deem important to become engaged in.
In conclusion by viewing Disney’s very impressive website and press releases, I believe that they should serve as a model to GGI in the public relations avenue.  There is much to learn from this company, which has been in existence for most of the last century.  There wise ideas are not so entrenched in their past successes, though, as to not be open to new ideas and a new corporate culture in the Pixar people.  Growing, changing, and participating at the community level is of the utmost importance to GGI at this juncture.  When new avenues are open for more individuals to recognize both the GGI name and products, success will follow.  Implementing ideas such as pre-recorded phone calls for shareholders, website navigation that allows ideas to be submitted to the company, and a presence not only in the market, but in the community is what GGI should be focused on at this point in time.
The press releases can be viewed online http://corporate.disney.go.com/news/corporate/2006/2006_0124_pixar.html
and
http://corporate.disney.go.com/news/corporate/2007/2007_0308_twdc_continues_support_0f_new_orleans.html
I would encourage senior management to both look at these releases and to heed the advice compiled here.  We can grow and gain market presence with simple measures!