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Essay On Human Resource Management

AIMS UNIVERSITY RESTAURANTS, JASPER Continuous Evaluation SST Master of Business Administration 1 Year Human Resource Management Maximum Marks: 30 questions are compulsory) IQ . What skills and competencies do HER professionals need to add more value to the HER function? How might these competencies and skills change in the future? How can HER professionals ensure that they are creating value for their organizations? Q. Assume you have to develop an HER plan for a new-generation private bank having branches In major towns In India.
What specific external factors would be important for you to consider? Why? Q. Explain case study. What are the merits and Demerits of the Case Study Method? Q. Explain any two theories of motivation. Q. Read the CASE Study and answer questions below: Watson Public Ltd Company Is well known for Its welfare activities and employee oriented schemes in manufacturing industry from more than ten decade. The company employs more than 800 workers and 150 administrative staff and 80 management level employees. The Top level management views all the employees at same level.
This can be clearly understood by seeing the uniform of the company which Is same for all starting from MD to floor level workers. The company have 2 different cafeterias at different places one near the plant for workers and other near the Administration building. Though the place is different the amenities, Infrastructure and the food provided are of same quality. In short the company stands by the rule Employee Equality. The company has one registered trade union ND the relationship between the union and the management is very cordial.

The company has not lost a single man day due to strike. The company is onto pay master in that industry. The compensation policy of that company, when compared to other similar companies. Is very less still the employees don’t have many grievances due to the other benefits provided by the company. But the company is facing countable number of problems in supplying the materials in recent past days. Problems like quality issues, mismatch in packing materials (placing material A in box f material B) incorrect labeling of material, not dispatching the material on time etc.
The management views the case as there are loop holes in the system of various departments and hand over the responsibility to HER department to solve the issue. When the HER manager goes through the issues he realized that the issues are not relating to system but It relates to the employees. When Investigated he come to know that the reason behind the casual approach by employees In work Is, The company hired new employees for higher level post without considering the potential 1 OFF

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Human

What is Human Resource Management?

Human Resource Management is defined as a management function that deals with the recruitment, management, and development of employees In order to maximize their potential and roles In the company or organization. Not only Is It utilized in personnel management but also in manpower, organizational, and industrial management. It is previously referred to as personnel management. Its functions include: Job analysis and planning, determining the specific personnel needs of a certain Job. Personnel and workforce planning, choosing whether to hire contractors or Independent employees.
Recruitment and selection. Hiring the best candidate for the job. Induction and orientation, making sure that the employees are aware of the organization’s goals and policies. Wage and salary regulation, making sure that employees are properly compensated. Training, development, and performance appraisal in order to enhance employees’ potential and utilize his expertise in the achievement of the organization’s goals. Benefits administration, to make sure that employees get what are due to them. Resolving labor disputes, making sure of good relations between the management and employees.
International Human Resource Management (IHRAM), on the other hand, is defined as a management function which deals with the management of personnel who are stationed In other countries or who are citizens of other countries that are hired to work In the organization. Like HARM, Its functions also Include recruitment, planning, training, performance appraisal, and compensation. Unlike it, however, IHRAM functions involve cross-cultural training such as orienting employees with different cultural, ethical, and religious values. It also involves global skills management. While

HARM is affected only by internal factors, IHRAM is affected by both internal and external factors because It Involves the management of employees that come from several countries. SIMILARITIES HARM plays a key role in any organization. It is the core of corporate strategy as HARM could help company improve their performance, form sustainable competitive advantages, and have a guiding role in the enterprise management. To quote from Dowling, et al. (2008: up), ‘General HARM refers to those activities undertaken by an organization to effectively utilize Its human resources’. This concludes the first molarities between the two.
As basic functions such as procurement, allocation, utilization and motivation are the same whether they are specific in one country or several countries. Both domestic and international HARM have same major functions and activities in HRS planning, recruitment, performance management, training and development, compensation, and industrial relations. Another similarity is related to constraints include political, economical, legal, and cultural have significant impact on how the HRS functions are carried both in domestic as well as global environment Sweatshops and Dash, 2008).
Finally, both of them have similar basic human resource management objectives. Firstly of all, is to ensure organization having maximum satisfaction in the human resource demands. Another objective is to ensure effectiveness in the organization through interventions. And then is to promote sustainable development of firms by maximizing the development of internal and external human resource management. The final similar objective is to maintain and encourage human resources within the company to upgrade the potential human capital.

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Human

Human Immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1)

1. Introduction
1.1Human Immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1)
1.1.1 HIV epidemic and methods of transmission

Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is caused by an infectious agent known as Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). Since 1980 when HIV was first discovered, nearly 25 million people have died from AIDS and nearly 34 million were living with HIV in 2009 [1]. Over the past 25 years it has overshadowed all other forms of immunodeficiency and is currently considered a severe global pandemic. There are currently two recognised types of HIV; HIV-type 1 and HIV-type 2 with type 1 being the main agent of AIDS worldwide[2]. HIV is a virus which belongs to the lentivirus genus of the retroviridae family [2]. This is an important factor in that infections with lentiviruses tend to have a chronic course of the disease with a long period of clinical latency, persistent viral replication and infection of the central nervous system [2]. HIV is transmitted through blood and mucosal tissue via sexual intercourse, needle sharing in drug use, blood transfusion and breast feeding. Today the main transmission method of HIV is the exchange of bodily fluids between partners during sexual intercourse. The transmission frequency of HIV is determined by the amount of infectious agent present in the particular bodily fluid in relation to how much contact the other individual has with that body fluid. The determination of whether the infection is established is mainly based on three factors, considered as the three points of the classic epidemiological triangle. These points include:
Characteristics of the infectious agent.
Host related factors; includes such as how susceptible the host is and how their body’s immune system responds.
Environmental factors such as social, cultural and political status also have a part in the process[2].
Today the pandemic is fuelled predominantly by heterosexual transmission, compared to homosexual transmission in the early 1980s. The last decade has seen the majority of new HIV infection cases being established in women rather than males [2, 3]. This implies that there is increasing discrepancy between infection rates of men and women. It is possible that gender inequalities associated with socio cultural norms play a role in that condom use is generally in the control of the male partner. This situation is particularly true of developing countries [3].Some early studies revealed that there is a two to fivefold- greater risk of infection from male to female transmission. There is a low incidence of infection taking place during any exposure below 1:100 during unprotected heterosexual intercourse [4]. For HIV transmission to occur there needs to be an entry point (i.e. unhealthy or damaged mucosa) in the vagina or anal canal because normally, a healthy mucosa is an effective barrier to transmission. Venerial diseases or lesions at these specific points would weaken them therefore increasing the chance of transmission [4] . Furthermore, during penetration female genitalia becomes inflamed due to small scale trauma. This is significant because activated neutrophils which migrate to these inflamed areas bind HIV-1 and can thereby transfer the virus to target cells [5]. The virions or infected cells that enter the uterus can infect CD4+ T cells and macrophages that reside within the endometrium by entering the cells by transcytosis [6 , 7] (process by which macromolecules are transported across a cell into the circulation0. In addition interleukin 8 which happens to be the most prominent cytokine found in the female genital tract can increase HIV replication in T cells and macrophages [8].
1.1.2 HIV: The virus
The general structure and genetic layout of an HIV particle can be seen in figure 1. Just like other retroviruses the core structural proteins (p24,p7,p6) and matrix (p17) are encoded for by the gag gene. The viral envelope glycoproteins gp120 and gp41 whose job it is to recognise cell surface receptors and fuse membranes are encoded for by the env gene. The pol gene encodes for enzymes that are crucial for viral replication. These enzymes are reverse transcriptase, integrase and protease. The protease enzyme cleaves large Gag and Pol protein precursors into their functional components. Reverse transcriptase is responsible for converting viral RNA into ssDNA, while the intergrase incorporates the viral DNA into the host cells chromosomal DNA [2].
The HIV life cycle can be summarised into six steps: Binding and entry ; uncoating; reverse transcription; provirus integration; virus protein synthesis and assembly and budding [2].HIV’s viral envelope plays an integral part concerning how the virus binds to the cell. The envelope is a trimeric complex that is made of two heterodimer proteins- gp120 and gp41 [2].In addition to its fusion, it is essential for virus recognition and entry into target cells.

1.1.3 HIV entry and replication cycle
The entry of HIV-1 into the host cell and subsequent HIV infection is mediated by the interaction of viral envelope glycoproteins and proteins gp120 and gp41 with the cellular receptor CD4 and a co-receptor which is normally CCR5 or CXCR4 [11 ]. This combination allows the virus to fuse with the host cell membrane and enter the cell. The glycoproteins are derived by proteolytic cleavage of a trimeric, glycosylated gp160 envelope glycoprotein precursor 2 and 46 [11 & 12].When the gp120 binds to the cellular receptors there is a change in the viral envelope conformation which leads to the exposure of gp41-a hairpin like glycoprotein. This exposure initiates the fusion between the HIV virus and its target cell via insertion of the glycoprotein into the cell wall [13 & 14]. With one end of the gp4 attached to the cell wall and the other to the virus, the virus is able to pull itself close enough to the target cell membrane allowing it to fuse with the cell in a manner in which the inner part of the virion, the viral core and its associated RNA as well as the pre-integration complex enter the cells cytoplasm [13 & 14].
It was concluded after a study in Uganda [15] that the probability of HIV-1 heterosexual transmission is dependent on the viral load, as results showed that transmission was rare for the individuals with HIV RNA plasma levels of less than 1,500 copies per ml. This study is in agreement with the theory that a reduction in plasma viral load would decrease the chances of transmission [15].
As previously mentioned the three main principal method of transmission are via blood, sexual intercourse and mother-to-child. The risk of transmission can potentially be explained by the relative concentration of HIV in various body fluids , and studies have suggested that this high virus load can be observed in the blood during acute HIV infection or the symptomatic period [15 &16].
1.1.4 Clinical features of the HIV-1 infection

Symptoms of the HIV virus when it first enters the patient’s system can usually be observed in the first four weeks [17]. Such patients are likely to present with flu-virus-like illness known as acute retroviral syndrome (ARS, whose symptoms include: swollen lymph nodes; high and low grade fever; nonpuritic muscular erythematous rash around the trunk; oral candidias and diarrhoea in some and headaches amongst others [ 2,18, 19, 20]. While the rash can be difficult to diagnose it is a valuable diagnostic sign in the diagnosis of HIV as its appearance can distinguish between primary HIV infection and other types of infection. The presence of a rash during diagnosis could possibly be a reflection of antigen: antibody complexes in the skin [19].The above mentioned symptoms can last up to three weeks, followed by an asymptomatic period which can last from months to years.
The HIV infection causes one’s immune system to become dysfunctional through two processes. The first process is that it causes the depletion of CD4+ T-cell causing immunodefiency, and the second is that HIV causes immune activation caused by an inflammatory response to HIV which leads to immunosuppression. It is believed that immune activation is caused by a homeostatic response to CD4+ T cell depletion and the inflammatory response to HIV infection that occurs [21]. Many studies cited by Stenger [21] have shown that there is a correlation between the CD4+ T-cell count and the clinical manifestations of HIV infection as well as the progression of the infection to AIDS. This CD4+ T-cell count is additionally used as a marker as to when one should begin treatment [21].
The mucosal environments such as that of the vagina, cervix and foreskin, there are specific CD4+ dendritic cells known as Langerhans cells. These specific dendritic cells can be found specifically within the superficial epithelial layers of the vagina and foreskin of men [22, 23]. According to some research, studies [22,23,24] have shown these cells to be the targets for HIV as they appear to express more chemokine receptor type-4 (CXCR4) than chemokine receptor type 5 (CCR5). HIV uses both CXCR4 and CCR5 as co-receptors in order to enter their target cells but there is a reason it is more attracted to one than the other. CCR5 has specific ligands it utilises which are RANTES, MIP-1 beta and MIP-1 alpha [25]. It was reported [25] that these ligands have the ability to suppress HIV-1 infection in vitro . Viruses that use CCR5 can be isolated in the early stage of infection.
CXCR4 is an alpha chemokine receptor specific for stromal- derived -factor-1 ( SDF-1) , which is a molecule that is endowed with potent chemotactic activity for lymphocytes [26 ]. This chemotactic activity is of particular interest to HIV because the virus uses these kinds of receptor to infect CD4+ T cells. CXCR4 is readily found in the female genital tract because during the natural implantation window or hormone replacement therapy, CXCR4 is up regulated in the endometrium [26, 27].
1.2 Vaccines
HIV prevention is now regarded as an umbrella term encompassing structural, behavioural and biomedical preventative strategies. These strategies include vaginal microbicides, oral pre-exposure prophylaxis, and implementation of male circumcision, highly active antiretroviral therapy, male and female condoms, and vaccine development [28]. The most common method of HIV prevention is that of condom use, which has been demonstrated to be efficacious by both vitro and epidemiological studies in preventing the passage of the virus [29, 8, 30]. The use of a diaphragm in woman is also useful because transmission occurs mainly by the virus entering through the cervical os into the uterus [31]. The authors of [31] also suggested that in the last few years a lot of attention has been on male circumcision. They found that studies between African and Asian countries where the risk factors of heterosexual transmission are similar have shown lower HIV transmission rates are associated with higher rates of male circumcision. The same studies also showed that uncircumcised men had a two-fold increase in the risk of contracting HIV per sexual act as compared to circumcised men [31, 15].It would appear therefore, that it has become accepted that male circumcision can partially protect against HIV. In contrast, there are rare cases in females were individuals do not contract HIV despite being exposed to the virus via genital fluids of infected partners. These individuals have antibodies in their vaginal fluids that appear to neutralize HIV and possibly block virus infection [32,33].The suggested theory is that Antibody- dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) directed against HIV-infected cells in vaginal/cervical fluids can be associated with a reduction in levels of infectious HIV is an idea this project browses past [32].It is widely acknowledged by researchers [28]that the ultimate strategy in the eradication of HIV/AIDS would be to develop a fully efficacious vaccine. This is still a challenge to date due to lack of knowledge and understanding about the process by which HIV-1 evades antibody-mediated neutralisation [28].
The aim of any vaccine is to reduce and prevent infection in a given population [34]. As it stands, the biggest issue currently in the HIV vaccine world is preventing HIV infection, especially in resource limited countries. Currently, most HIV vaccine approaches are directed at inducing adaptive immune responses, including neutralizing antibodies and antigen-specific cellular immune responses. At the same time there is an appreciation for the need of an effective innate immune response [35, 36]. The need to evoke an innate response was triggered by a study in rhesus monkeys that were intravaginaly inoculated with Simian Immunodeficiency Virus (SIV) leading to a small focus of virus infection. It was concluded that if the virus replication at that site is suppressed, then the infection cannot be established as the early reaction of the innate cells is able to kill incoming virus infected cells at mucosal surfaces or within lymph nodes-or better yet suppress the virus preventing it from spreading [36, 37].
One of the biggest problems when it comes to vaccine development is finding an appropriate animal model of HIV infection. Generally the immunogenicity of a potential vaccine is first tested on animals like rabbits or mice where the immunogenicity is evaluated. If the results are desirable human trials of the vaccine will begin.
Microbicides currently have the spotlight in the vaccine world as they have the potential to become a good prevention for the disease. These are products; namely gels, that can be applied prior to sexual intercourse to prevent the transmission of HIV. Microbicides also known as Rheologically structured vehicle (RSV) gels were designed to be a delivery system for vaginal mucosal vaccinations [28]. Recently a double-blind, randomized control trial was conducted comparing tenofovir gel with a placebo gel in sexually active HIV-negative women in South Africa. The trial was to test the effectiveness and safety of the tenofovir gel, which is an Antiretroviral microbicide designed for the prevention of HIV infection in woman[38]. At the end of the study the tenofovir gel reduced HIV acquisition by up to 39%. There was however no changes in viral load and no tenofovir resistance in HIV sero-converters were detected. Therefore tenofovir gel could potentially fill an important HIV prevention gap [38].

1.2.1vaccine trials
Along with microbicides, today’s vaccine world there are several vaccines that are at the phase one and two stages. Many large trials have been conducted in Thailand, where several microbicide and intramuscular vaccines have reached phases one and two with some getting the go ahead for efficacy evaluation. The HIV epidemic in Thailand began in the 80’s; with the introduction of HIV-1 subtype B among injectable substance users followed by sexually transmitted subtype E [39]. Thailand’s first national plan for a vaccine development programme began in 1993 and since then they have been successful in controlling the heterosexual spread of HIV. The recombinant rgp120 vaccine was selected for evaluation on the basis of safety and immunogenicity profiles in humans. A phase 1 & 2 trial of a monovalent subtype B rgp120 vaccine among intravenous injection drug users in Bangkok was successfully conducted in 1995-1996, and was followed by a similar trial of a bivalent subtype B/E rgp120 vaccine in 1998 [39]. These trials were an important milestone as they proved that rgp120 was safe and immunogenic.
In 2004 a similar phase 1/2 safety and Immunogenicity of an HIV subtype B and E Prime-Boost Vaccine Combination in HIV-negative Thai adults was conducted using the candidate vaccines ALVAC-HIV (vCP1521) and AIDSVAX B/E. These two vaccines were developed based on the gp120 from macrophage tropic (r5) strains of CRF01_AE, in combination with antigens from subtype B HIV-1 [40]. The results of this trial showed that this vaccine combination of ALVAC-HIV (vCP1521) and either dose of AIDSVAX B/E were well tolerated and immunogenic. A dose response between AIDS-VAX B/E and antibody response was observed. The trial also demonstrated that the vaccines developed neutralizing antibodies to Thai E HIV and/or CD8 CTL responses to ALVAC-expressed HIV antigens. This trial reached milestones that allowed for advancement to phase 3 [40]. There was a phase 3 clinical trial of an HIV vaccine (VAX004) which was conducted in the US using a candidate HIV-1 gp120 vaccine, AIDSVAX B/B (VaxGen).The hypothesis from the US trial was that the antibodies directed against the envelope would bind ,neutralize and clear HIV particles before an infection could be established. The trial did not work as expected due to the lack of efficacy from VAX004 [41]. Subsequent vaccine trials have focused on eliciting cell responses. This is due to the presence of HIV-1-specific CD8+ T cells being correlated with the resolution of peak viremia during acute infection. The same trial found evidence of vaccine-specific CD8+ T cells in volunteers who received the vaccine regardless of behavioural risks. The CD8+ response was seen to be significantly high in participants who went on to contract HIV. This suggested that the AIDSVAX immunization may boost pre-existing immune responses-due to pre-infection exposure [41].
The future of HIV treatment is seeing a number of new experimental HIV drugs called Entry Inhibitors being designed to interfere with the interaction between CCR5 and HIV. One problem with this is that CCR5 is not the only co-receptor that can be used.
1.2.2 Vaccines: what is desirable

An effective immune response against HIV-1 would be one that is able to control and suppress viraemia during primary and chronic HIV infections. Simultaneously, you need something that would provide long lasting protection [42]. In the world of vaccines today, ideally it is essential for an HIV-1 vaccine to be able to elicit broadly cross-reactive neutralising antibody (Nab) responses against highly neutralization- sensitive strains of HIV-1 [43]. The antibodies will be required to be neutralizing ones as it has been recognised that neutralizing ones have the ability to employ multiple mechanisms that are able to interfere with viral replication [12]. As previously mentioned receptor binding and fusion is mediated by the envelope proteins and this happens to be an essential step in the life cycle and establishment of infection. This therefore makes it a fantastic target for neutralizing antibodies to have their effect by interfering with the fusion process and/or by neutralising free virions [12]. Given that most new infections of today are established in women as suggested before, it is within reason that there is a greater need to pursue and develop female-controlled preventative strategies. These will principally involve the cervix and vagina as the predominant mucosal portal of entry in heterosexual transmission, with the aim of eliciting sterilising immunity [28]. A multi-gene vaccine appears to be the best type of vaccine as it has been proven to have the potential to elicit broad, effective responses in animal models [42]. Understandably this kind of vaginal vaccine would need to be safe, cheap, easy to use, store and most importantly be able to induce long-lasting; high-titre protective mucosal and systemic response to diverse viral isolates through repeated and/or sustained female-controlled administration [28].
The last decade has shown that antiretroviral drugs considerably extend the lives of individuals infected with a virus, but a better solution for the epidemic would be the development of an effective and safe vaccine. So far in research, because the host immune system has not shown effective viral clearance of HIV, there is no model of protection that can be a definite emulate of a vaccine. The genomic diversity of the virus poses many barriers in the development of a good vaccine. It is therefore concluded that a good vaccine is one that would remove the virus before it can be established.
Recent studies have shown that B-cells can be stimulated to generate high titres of broadly cross-reactive neutralising antibodies against multiple genetic subtypes of the HIV virus [44]. Recent evidence [44] has suggested that some of these antibodies are directed against epitopes in the CD4 binding site on monomeric gp120, compared to many others that are directed against often neutralising epitopes. An increase in the knowledge of the molecular and antigenic structure of gp120 and gp41 HIV-1envelope glycoproteins (Env) has given new insights for vaccine design. However it has been difficult to translate this information to an immunogen that elicits broadly neutralizing antibodies [44, 45].
Based on the findings and evidence identified above, this project will attempt to look at vaccine response using a clade-C recombinant trimeric envelope glycoprotein CN54 gp140 as a part of the immunization response to elicit a humoral immune response. A broadly neutralising response is the desired outcome being attempted in this piece of work because the project ultimately aims to make the neutralising regions of the antigen more accessible. This is going to be achieved by immunization of rabbits to see if it elicits modified antibody responses on the envelope protein which will be fixed in different confirmations. If this is found to be true then a different immune response should be induced.

2. Materials and Methods
2.1 Immunogen
The recombinant trimeric envelope glycoprotein CN54gp140 was supplied by S.Jeffs (Imperial College, London). Intramuscular immunizations of CN54 gp140 was encoded by the CN54gp140REKR HIV-1 envelope gene cassette, derived from the clade-C/B’ HIV-1 molecular clone p97CN54 of Chinese origin developed by Wolf and Wagner, University of Regensburg, Germany.
2.2 Adjuvants
An adjuvant LASTS was added to the immunization to improve the immune response. The particular LASTS formulation used is an emulsion of MPLA which is monophosphoryl lipid A.
DS003 a small molecule known as BMS 599793 was added to two of the group immunogen formulas. It is an HIV entry inhibitor drug.
2.3 Rabbit immunization protocol/ In Vivo procedure-
24 Rabbits split into six groups were obtained and kept at St George’s University of London, London. All the procedures were performed in accordance with the Home office standards under the Animals Scientific Procedures Act, 1986, and approved by the Schools Ethical Review Committee.
Each group of rabbits was given four intramuscular immunizations at four week intervals containing 50µg of CN54gp140 in different formulations. A total volume of 1100µl was for each rabbit, 800µl was used per rabbit immunization. The formulations per rabbit and groups are as follows:
Group 1: 742.9 µl Wild type CN54 + 945µl LASTS+ 4612.1 µl PBS
2.4Immunization groups
A table showing the immunization groups that the rabbits belong to.
2.5Immunization and bleed schedule
A table showing the dates when Immunizations and bleeds took place.
Blood samples for serological analysis were taken before and after treatment according to the schedule above. Due to the death of several of the rabbits from undetermined causes, the final bleed and cull originally scheduled for 9th and 10th November 2010 was brought forward by four weeks to reduce the time frame for losing anymore rabbits. Blood samples were left to clot at room temperature for at least two hours. Blood samples were centrifuged at 4500rmp for 30 minutes and the sera was collected and re-centrifuged at 4500rmp for 10 minutes to remove any remaining red blood cells. The sera were recovered and stored at -80 degrees Celsius until needed.

2.6Reagents
The following reagents where used for the detection of IgG by ELISA: Phosphate buffered saline (PBS, 10X, BDH); Tween-20 (FISHER, Cat. No. BPE 337-500); Heat inactivated foetal bovine serum (FBS) (GIBCO, Cat. No. 10108-165); GMP HIV-1gp140 (POLYMUN); Mouse monoclonal anti-rabbit IgG (? chain – specific) HRP conjugate (SIGMA A1949); Sureblue TMB 1-Component Peroxidase Substrate (KPL, 52-00-02); TMB Stop Solution (KPL, Cat. No. , 50-85-06); Standard Rabbit antiserum to HIV-1 GB8 gp120 (NIBSC, Cat No ADP440. 1/R336); Positive control- Rabbit antiserum to HIV-1 GB8 gp120 (NIBSC Cat No: ADP440. 1/R546); Negative control- Normal rabbit serum (SIGMA, R9133)
2.6.1 Reagent preparation
1. Coating buffer, sterile PBS pH 7.4
1.1Prepare coating buffer by adding 50ml 10X PBS to 450ml de-ionised water.
2. Washing buffer, 0.1% TWEEN-20 in 1X PBS (PBST)
2.1Prepare washing buffer by adding 100ml 10X PBS to 900ml of deionised water. Add 500µ of TWEEN-20 and mixing thoroughly
3. Assay buffer, 10% FBS in PBST
3.1Prepare assay buffer by adding 10ml FBS to 90ml PBST
3.2Filter sterilise

2.7ELISA for the detection/quantification of HIV-1 gp140 IgG
An Indirect ELISA was decided as the best method to detect and quantify gp140 IgG in rabbit samples because; it as a specific assay and serum antibodies to HIV can be detected by this specific type of assay within six weeks of infection; in addition in this assay recombinant envelope and core proteins of HIV are absorbed as solid phase antigens to the wells. 96-Well plates (Greiner Bio-One medium binding) were coated with 50µl/well of HIV-1 gp140 at 5µg/ml in Phosphate Buffered Saline (PBS) for an hour at 37°C. The wells were washed (wash procedure was 4 washes in PBST) and blocked for one hour at 37°C with PBST with 10% sterile Foetal Bovine serum (PBST-serum). Standards, samples and controls were diluted in PBST-serum and incubated for 1 hour at 37°C. The wells were washed and bound antibody was detected using monoclonal anti-rabbit IgG (gamma-chain specific) Horseradish Peroxidase (HRP) conjugate (SigmaA1949) diluted 1:10 000 in PBST-serum and incubated for 1 hour at 37 degrees Celsius. After washing, the wells were incubated with 50µl TMB (Sureblue TMB 1-component peroxidase substrate (KPL) for five minutes in the dark. The reaction was terminated by the addition of 50µl of TMB stop solution (KPL) after five minutes incubation in the dark. The corrected mean of the quadruple absorbance (A450) measurements of each sample was obtained and compared with those of the negative controls on a microplate ELISA reader. A450 level is used because it produces the optimal results.
For the quantification of HIV-1 gp140 IgG, the first ELISA was used to screen all the serum samples. The endpoint titres of samples were obtained only when the absorbance measured at a wavelength of 450nm (OD450) was 0.2 or greater for samples diluted 1 in 100.Serial dilution of the samples were prepared in triplicates, and the reciprocal endpoint titres were calculated using SoftMax Pro GxP v5 software.

2.8Zeta Potential Measurements of gp140 constructs
The Zeta-potential, (?) of the gp140 molecules used for immunization was determined under a range of pH and salinity conditions with a Malvern ZetaSizer Nano ZS.
188 µl of the following gp140 constructs; WT, pH 4.0, pH 5.5 and pH 7.2 where all mixed individually into 10ml of 1X PBS. The sample was placed onto the zetasizer and a new cell inserted. Two titrants where also added in order to provide an acid and a base that could be added to the sample during titration in order to aid in the change of pH as the sample was titrated. The titrants were 1M HCl and 1M NaOH. The machine measures the zeta potential of the sample as the pH changes from 3 to 9, using every 0.5 interval as a target pH. The measurement for each sample was done in triplicates and each sample was measured three times. This protocol was repeated using deionised water and 154mM NaCl as the solution.

2.9Statistics
Data analysis was performed using GraphPad Prism; version 4.00 (GraphPad Software).One-way analysis of variance (one-way Anova) is a technic that is used to compare the means of numerical data. It requires a minimum of two samples to work. In this experiment, the one-way Anova analysis used Tukeys multiple comparison test to compare groups and immunizations, and data was considered statistically different if the p-value was less than 0.05. Furthermore, replicate data was assumed to be Gaussian distributed.

1. Results
3.1Zeta Potential Measurements
The Zeta potential of the gp140 molecules used for immunization was measured in triplicates under a range of pH and salinity conditions. The conditions were- 154mM NaCL, Deionised water and PBS. The averages of the zeta potentials where calculated and plotted against the average pH reached (Figures 3 and 4).
In PBS all the proteins show a strong correlation in response to change of pH. Statistically all the protein has a p-value that is less than 0.0001. The linear regression analysis shows that while the native protein has a slightly greater slope than the fixed protein there difference is not great. 1-way Anova analysis of the PBS data specifically at pH 7.5, where the graph indicates that the could be a difference, showed that there is no significant difference in the proteins. This test used Tukeys multiple comparison test, and a significant difference is considered to be when there is a p-value of less than 0.05.
In 154mM Sodium Chloride (NaCl) all the proteins have a p-value less than 0.0001in a correlation analysis, which again shows a strong correlation as a result of changing pH. A linear regression shows that the native protein has a significantly greater slope than the rest of the fixed proteins whose slopes have similar gradients. 1 way Anova analysis of the proteins in 154mM NaCl reveal that there is a significant difference with a p-value less than0.05 between the native protein and that fixed at pH 4.0. There is also a significant difference between the native protein and that fixed at pH 7.2. 1-way Anova analysis at a specific pH of 6.0 revealed several significant differences between protein groups. There significant differences noted were between: the proteins between fixed and 4.0 and 5.5; the protein fixed at pH 4.0 and 7.2; the native protein showed a significant difference when compared to all three proteins fixed at 4.0, 5.5 and 7.2.
In deionised water a strong correlation can again be observed in all proteins with a p-value of less than 0.0001 observed. Linear regression analysis reveals an extremely steep slope for the native protein compared to the other three fixed proteins. In addition native CN54 has the highest zeta potential measured in all the cumulative zeta potentials measures for each protein in any condition 1-way Anova analysis reveals that there is a significant difference between the native protein and that fixed at pH 5.5 and pH 7.2. 1-way Anova at the specific pH of 6.0 were it that from the graph the could be significant difference between the different proteins shows that there is a significant difference between all the groups when compared to each other. However there is no difference between the protein fixed at pH5.5 and one fixed at 7.2.
Looking at native CN54 in all three conditions, a steepest slope can be observed in the water condition followed by the 154mM NaCl and then PBS respectively. It is also noted that the native CN54 has a strong correlation in all three conditions with a p-value of less than 0.0001.1-way Anova analysis reveals a significant difference between the native protein in PBS and water, and also a significant difference between the native protein in water and 154mM NaCl. There is no difference between the protein in PBS and 154mM NaCl.
The protein fixed at pH 4.0 has the steepest slope (not as steep as that of the native protein) in water followed by PBS and then 154mM NaCl.1-way Anova analysis reveals a significant difference between the protein in PBS and in water , and a difference when in water compared to in NaCl. There is no difference between when the protein is in PBS and when it’s in NaCl.
When fixed at pH 5.5 the protein still has a strong correlation when measure in all three conditions with a p-value of less than0.0001. Once again the steepest slope can be observed in the water condition followed by NaCl and then PBS. The 1-way Anova analysis shows that no significant difference is detectable for the protein at pH 5.5 in all three conditions.
The protein when fixed at pH 7.2 shows strong correlation with a p-value of less than 0.0001. Regression analysis shows that the change is steepest in water followed by PBS and then NaCl. The 1way Anova analysis shows that there is a significant difference with a p-value less than 0.05 between the three conditions. There is a difference between the proteins when measure in PBS compared to in water. There is also a difference between the water and NaCl. There is however no difference between the PBS and NaCl.
It has been observed that adding an adjuvant to an immunization would improve the immune response. One potent adjuvant is the molecule Monophosphoryl Lipid A (MPLA) which is a component of bacterial cell walls, and has been used extensively in previous immunization studies because of the activation of dendritic cells through TLR4. There is also an inflammatory response, potentated through CD14 binding, which is dangerous to induce in the context of HIV, due to the increased susceptibility of infection. Modifications have therefore been made to the molecule to remove this effect, but still retain the adjuvanting properties, with the resulting formulation that is known as LASTS. This emulsion was added to each immunization. DSOO3 an entry inhibitor drug was added to a couple of the immunizations. The immunizations were administered over 12 weeks, and the end point titre of the HIV-1 gp140 IgG were tested in serum over time. No side effects were observed in the rabbits as a result of the immunization regime. However, during the immunisation schedules and different time points, a total of seven rabbits died randomly and the cause of death was inconclusive and unrelated to the immunizations.
All of the rabbits had a strong immune response against both the native antigen and the fixed antigen. The strong response in all the rabbits reached its peak at the second immunization and plateaued thereafter showing no significant increase in immune response between the second and final (fourth) immunization.
Groups four and five are the two groups that seem to have yielded some of the highest end point titres when titrated against both the native antigen and he fixed antigen. Overall group three rabbits which were immunised with the native antigen combined with the envelope stabilizing HIV entry inhibitor drug DS003 produced the highest titre when titrated against the native antigen. It is also potentially important to note that this group was comprised of only three rabbits and two of them died after the second immunization, making any conclusions which can be drawn weaker than those of higher numbered groups.
Group six which also had the HIV entry inhibitor drug DS003 combined with antigen fixed at pH 4.0 did not show a similar response. The peak immune response (129627.2) when measure against both the native and fixed antigen was reached after the second immunisation but it was not high as that observed in group 3 (338988.3). After the second immunisation in group three a further slight increase is observed (338988.3 to 712687.5) where as in group 6 a plateau is observed, with a possible slight decline (129627.2 to 57698.9)
3.2.4Grouped analysis of end point Titres
The immune responses for the rabbits all appeared to plateau without much increase after the second immunization. Figures seven and eight show the grouped end point titres after the second immunization, while figures nine and ten look at the grouped endpoint titres at the final bleed after the fourth and final immunization. The graphs show that there is a significant increase in the concentration of IgG from the second immunization compared to the final bleed. One-way Anova analysis of the second immunization titrations with the native and fixed antigen revealed that there was no significant difference between the groups. P values of the one-way analysis of variance were 0.3565 for the native and none was measured for the fixed antigen.
The most important results to consider are those at the final bleed between the native and fixed antigen. Group one and group three were only titre against the native antigen because they were not immunized with a fixed one. From figure 9 it is evident that these two groups produced high titres than those rabbits that were immunized with a fixed antigen. That is with the exception of group 5 whose antigen was fixed at pH 4.0. This group produced high end point titre results when the serum was measure against both the native and fixed antigen.
One way Anova analysis at the final bleed for both graphs in figure 10 against the native and fixed antigen revealed no significant difference in the groups.
4. Discussion
4.1 Results overview
This project aimed to characterise the physical and immunological properties of CN54 gp140 trimer and the effects that chemical fixation under different conditions confers. This study assesses the ability of intramuscular immunisation of rabbits with the vaccine trimer gp140 fixed in three different conformations and in combination with DS003 to elicit a modified antibody response, measured by the immunogen specific and native CN54 trimer specific end point serum titre.
Results show that the immunizations induced high serum CN54 gp140 specific IgG responses. Fixing the protein did not increase the humoral response above that observed with the wild type protein. The protein fixed at pH 5.5 was the only group to have an increased humoral response, but this did not reach statistical significance. Otherwise overall, the wild type protein induced a high immune response. The addition of DS003 to group 6 whose protein was fixed at pH 4.0 did not produce an increased response. However, addition of DS003 to group 3 whose protein is not fixed induced the highest immune response. The differences that can be detected between groups are limited due to the deaths of several of the rabbits from causes unrelated to the immunisation regime.
4.2 Fixed and unfixed protein
4.2.1 Zeta potential
The physical properties of the proteins were assessed by the changes in their zeta potential. Whether the protein is fixed or not has a profound effect on resulting surface chemistry. The paraformaldehyde will reduce the flexibility and crosslink the protein in the conformation that it exist in, reducing the variability in its higher order structure, and keeping it more similar to the conditions under which it was fixed.
Comparing the zeta potential in NaCl and water, the effect of fixation is it dampening the change in zeta potential while the samples where titrated. This is especially interesting because when the protein is titrated in PBS it is in a buffered system meaning there is a lot of different ions present causing the zeta potential to not be not well pronounced. The phosphate ions can act as a shielding factor, masking the alterations that fixation has induced. In NaCl however, you have a more fundamental system and other compounding factors that would be otherwise be present in the PBS have removed stripped and only sodium and chloride ions present. In water there are no other ions present providing a highly pure environment for the zeta potential measurements. As a result when the zeta potential of the native protein was measured in water and NaCl it is observed that there is a definite change in zeta potential as a result of pH. In all cases, the zeta potential becomes more negative as the environment becomes more alkaline. This fits with the theory that the zeta potential of proteins is made up of titrating the functional groups. At low pH conditions, there is an abundance of hydrogen ions which will confer a positive charge on protein in solution. The opposite is true when the system becomes basic and the system is dominated by hydroxide ions. The difference in how the proteins react differently to the changing conditions is represented by the steepness of the native protein slope on the graphs. This zeta potential change cannot be accounted for in the PBS buffered system. While there is a change it is not a pronounced one and the native protein behaves the same as the fixed ones. A change in zeta potential as a result of change in pH is also present in the fixed protein in the water and NaCl system, but the changes are not pronounced. The fixed proteins do not show as much of a change in the PBS system just like the native protein but it is concluded that this is due to the buffered environment that is provided by the PBS. In water and NaCl there is much more of a change but not to the same level as the native protein. This lack of change can likely be explained by the process of fixation of the protein. Because these proteins are so strongly correlated to changes in pH it is therefore hypothesized that fixation in those pH conditions would preserve the changes. Fixation of the protein is accomplished using paraformaldehyde. As a result the formaldehyde reduces the protein’s flexibility and crosslinks the protein in the conformation that it exists in. This means that the protein will have reduced variability in its higher order structure.
4.2.2End point titres
Figures 5 to 8 show that all of the rabbits had a strong HIV-1 gp140-specific IgG immune response against both the native and fixed antigen. This response appears to plateau after the second immunization and holds steady up to the final immunization. This means that after the second immunization subsequent immunizations are not inducing any more of an immune stimulation -they are just boosting what is already there. One could ask what is the relevance of this result in terms of vaccine development and if you only need to administer two vaccines. The plateau does not necessarily mean that only two immunizations are required, and this experiment cannot fully answer that. To determine the complete answer, a study would need to be conducted where only two immunizations are administered and the subjects are monitored over time without giving any more immunizations to see if the immune response lasts and for how long. This would be important because ultimately for a vaccine to be considered good you would want it to produce a response that is protective and lasts. You would also aim for a vaccine that gives you the biggest response using as little immunogen as possible.

4.3 Addition of DS003
DS003 is a small molecule also known as BMS 599793 and it was added to the immunogens of group 3 and group 6-with group 3 being a being made up of the wild type protein and the group 6 protein are fixed at pH 4.0. DS003 is an HIV entry inhibitor drug that blocks entry of the HIV virus by interacting with gp120. Currently it is being developed as a mirobicide which is proving to be very potent [46].The interest in using it in this study though is due to its reported effects on decreasing the flexibility of gp140 molecules. Stabilization of the protein through fixation may be additive to the effect of DS003.
As mentioned above, in order for infection to occur the viral envelope protein must bind to the CD4 receptor of the target cell. This binding occurs by the gp120 glycoprotein. A compound like DS003 would abrogate this process and encouragingly, it has been shown to prevent infection in vitro. Earlier studies have shown that DS003 was chosen specifically because it can bind to CN54 and gp140 trimers as well as gp120 monomer-and all these three envelope constructs bind soluble CD4. This is good because DS003 binds to the CD4 binding site on gp140.The benefit of such entry inhibitors is that they act early in the early stages of the virus cycle before infection can be established [46, 47].
Figures 7 and 8 show serum titration results for rabbits that were immunized with an immunogen that was combined with DS003. Both groups had a strong immune response to the immunogen reaching a peak after the second immunization and eventually plateauing. Group 6 however did not produce titres as high as group 3. The maximum titre produced in group 6 measured after the second immunization was 129627.2 and subsequently decreased by the final immunization, whereas the highest titre measured in group 3 was observed after the final immunization and was measured at 712687.5. This difference could likely be as a direct effect of the protein being fixed in group 6. This could mean that DS003 is not as potent when combined with a fixed protein. It shows that fixing the protein reduces the magnitude of effect that is stimulated in the immune system. This is supported by the fact that when combined with the native protein DS003 is able to exert its effects to the maximum. Seeing as the addition of DS003 to a wild type protein produced such high titre results, it could mean that the titre results of group 1 which were immunized with wild type protein alone could be potentially higher if DS003 were to be added, as seen in group 3.
With that in mind group 1 produced higher titres especially after the second immunization and the final time point than some of the rabbits that were fixed at pH 4.0 and 7.2. These differences were small though, and not statistically significant.
Overall looking at figures 9 and 10 groups 1, 3 and 5 produced the highest immune responses that were measured by titration. Group one only has the native protein; group three is a combination of the native protein with DS003 and group 5 is the only one with a fixed protein at pH 5.5. This could be interpreted to mean that with respect to the results from groups 1 and 3, the best immune response is produced when a native protein is used as an immunogen. DS003 increases the immune response best when it is in combination with a wild type protein rather than a fixed one as illustrated in figures 7 and 8. This could be due to fixation removing the binding site for DS003, and therefore leaving no opportunity for it to work. Group five shows that if an immunogen is going to be made from a fixed protein the best pH is 5.5. An experiment that could be conducted is combining DS003 with a protein fixed at pH 5.5 to see if it would have an impact on the immune response produced. This was not possible in the current experiment due to a limitation in the number of animals available.
4.4 Native and wild type protein.
An imperative factor in the race to design inhibitors and vaccines for HIV is to gain a good understanding of the different conformational states available to the HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins [11].The CN54gp140 immunogen that was used in the rabbit immunizations was successful in eliciting a strong, specific humoral antibody response. The immunogens used in these kinds of experiments are usually protein based ones adapted to mimic HIV envelope proteins on a whole virion. Using protein based vaccines can be difficult because the proteins have a complex structure and are usually fragile [28]. CN54gp140 manufactured under GMP conditions is very comparable to the wild type protein, and is used in this study because it has been shown to be exceptionally stable in buffered solutions. This protein was manufactured to mimic the actions of the native protein gp120 and gp41 molecules [28]. Because the wild type protein was so stable it was possible to fix the material easily in different conformations that were able to elicit a good immune response. Gp120, as previously described, works in conjunction with gp41 to allow the virus to get close enough to the cell membrane and inject its genome into the target cell cytoplasm. The difference between the native gp140 and wild type infectious protein is that the gp140 is not near the target cell membrane. There is also a mutation on the cleavage site that would normally result in a gp41 and gp120 molecule being created instead of a single gp140-but the same external face and glycosylation patterns on both types of proteins will be the same.
4.5 Conclusion
This study was successful in revealing whether vaccine response using the trimer CN54gp140 fixed in different conformations would elicit a modified antibody response. A decreased titre of antibody concentration was observed when the protein was fixed at pH 4.0 and 7.2 and there was only an increase in serum antibody in the protein fixed at pH 5.5. However the best response was seen in the immunizations with the wild type protein, especially in the group three where the protein was combined with the HIV inhibitory drug DS003.
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Categories
Human

Human Resource managers

This report aims to identify the key issues organisations face as a result of globalisation and what Human Resource managers can do to ease the transition of the organisation going from multinational to transnational. HR managers must first perform strategic HR management, which is to align HR activities such as recruiting, selecting, training, and rewarding personnel (especially for the right person for the right job) to the business’ strategic goals and objectives to improve business performance and develop an organisational culture that promotes innovation and flexibility.
The four key areas of the challenges identified in this report are cultural distance, human rights, ethical concerns, and diversity in the workplace. Recommendations made in regards to the challenges organisations of today face include communication and interpretation issues when communicating with other nationalities, ethnocentrism, acting both legally and ethically, differing employment laws, labour laws such as child labour and sweatshop labour, and working among people of different backgrounds, gender, education level, nationalities, and race.
A SWOT analysis was developed to compare Boost and other industry players and what measure Boost need to undertake to increase its performance and strengths while understanding how to better manage its weaknesses and threats from current and potential competitors. Through franchising, Boost has acquired a substantial share in the wellbeing industry in many countries and a positive brand image and constant product quality standard is essential in garnering growth in market shares.

Introduction Globalisation is a process which results in “greater interdependence and mutual awareness among economic, political, and social units in the world” and where “the rapid increase in cross-border economic, social, technological, and cultural exchange is civilising, destructive, or feeble”. It is “a process fueled by, and resulting in, increasing cross-border flows of goods, services, money, people, information, and culture” (Guillen 2001, 236).
Multi-national corporations (MNCs) need to “build global capabilities such as the ability to seamlessly move talent, ideas, and information around the world to create products and services better than competitors” to acquire a competitive advantage over the latter. Global managers need to engage in “thinking global but acting locally” (Ulrich 1997, 3). Boost Juice Pty Ltd was established in 2000 by Janine Allis in Adelaide, Australia who recognised the potential for wellness products in an age where there is increasing demand by time-strapped consumers for healthy food amidst growing obesity and health issues.
Averaging a growth of 28 stores and with a group turnover of more than $AUD 85million per annum, there are more than 200 stores around the world. In 2001, Boost started its franchising program with franchisors generally being attracted to the unique retail concept, good marketing support, interactive and fun work-culture, well-established brand name, and most importantly, shared values and common direction.
The previously untapped market for a healthy fast food alternative amidst growing demands by consumers who are more educated than before was seized quickly by Allis in what can be said is a blue ocean strategy, where companies will succeed in “uncontested markets ripe for growth” (Kim and Mauborgne 2007, 70). 2. 0 Impact of Globalisation on HR Managers Globalisation especially brings competitiveness in the business environment. Individuals not only have to compete within the country but also with people of other parts of the world.
This translates to organisations having more choices and opportunities in their choice of manpower. With globalism, corporations need leaders equipped with worldwide perspectives and encompassed with practical judgements and sensitivity to global concerns. Organisations will have an added advantage if they are able to understand and maximise diversity efficiently (Holtzman and Anderberg 2011, 76). Globalisation aids in adding synergy to the company and thus, competitors will not see the company as a representative of a particular country but as a company in itself.
McShane, Olekalns, and Travaglione (2010, 169) suggested that globalisation and certain organisational changes can potentially undermine the level of trust and commitment necessary to motivate employees to work beyond expectations. Firms need to prepare their staffs for potential changes they might face due to globalisation. 2. 1 Cultural Distance Cultural distance includes include language, religion, family structure and difference in standard of living (Samovar, Porter, and McDaniel 2009, 18). Culture shapes people differently. For instance, in an individualistic society, it is challenging for people to be more collectivist.
Culture refers to a “systemic way of perception” and is composed of “beliefs, norms, assumptions, knowledge, values, or sets of practice that are shared and form a system” (Ahamer, Kumpfmuller, and Hohenwarter 2011, 18). Dealing with global business, one of the issues that Boost may face is that of ethnocentrism. Ethnocentrism defined as people “making false assumptions about others’ ways based on our own limited experience” (Hammond and Axelrod 2006, 927). These assumptions appear because of “one’s belief that their way of doing thing is the best and all other cultural practices are inferior”.
Ethnocentrism can cause misunderstanding leading to conflicts and misunderstandings. To operate effectively and address ethnocentrism, managers should implement induction programs to counter culture shock (Soderberg and Holden 2002, 108). 2. 2 Human Rights With many companies focusing on profit maximisation, they might fall to moral myopia or moral blindness to achieve their goals. One of the key issues of human rights is the use of child labour. Many consider child labour to be inhumane and abusive in nature as young children are often underpaid and work in dire conditions.
Labour laws vary from country to country and in Australia, home country to Boost, a child has to be of 14 years and 9 months to be able to be legally employed while age varies for full-time positions. Boost needs to acquaint itself with the various employment laws in the countries it operates in. Taking precedent would be the infamous Nike child labour and sweatshop incident where it was reported that the company, which Nike has outsourced, its productions to made the employees work more than 60hours per week with workers who refuse to work overtime being punished.
2. 3 Ethical Concerns Ethical concerns are important in business practices and research endeavours in organisational chain management. In particular, ethical concerns become evident in situations of asymmetric relationships across organisations. However, sometimes it is hard to determine which act can be considered of ethical value and which is unethical (Svensson 2011, 21). Ethical issue refers to the concept of what is right and wrong on the basis of how businesses conduct their relationships with others.
Robertson and Crittenden (2003, ) stated that “varying legal and cultural constraints across borders have made integrating an ethical component into international strategic decision quite challenging”. Sometimes managers will have these dilemmas of determine ethical and unethical societal norms due to the complexity of the national and cultural factors in particular host environment. Many practices that are considered unethical or even illegal in some countries are accepted in other country. Some of unethical issues that global managers will potentially face are that of bribery and nepotism.
Bribery refers to an action of giving, receiving of something value to influence an action of the other where it is different from gift giving to bind social and familial ties. In many Asian countries, it is the norm to receive bribery whereas Westerners often regard it as a shameful action. When doing business in a country where bribery is customary, managers may need to provide extra payment or favours as that is the culture. Thus, it becomes a dilemma for manager to adhere to their ethical standards in the face of foreign custom and follow the local ways to remain competitive.
Nepotism is “favouritism shown or patronage granted to relative” in business (Tuff 2005, 55). Certain countries believe nepotism is the right practice. Sometimes without any ill-intention, some companies may have the entire family in the top management without any considerations about the educational background of each individual. There is nothing wrong with a family member as a top manager as long as it is supported by capability and skills and performance is judged base on merit. 2. 4 Diversity in the Workforce
As mentioned by Lattimer (1998, 5), as more companies operate beyond national borders, the challenge of diversity has moved from a social ideal to becoming a practical business mandate. Organisations nowadays are seeking employee from miscellaneous background that embrace on social knowledge, linguistic and culture to adjust the business and practice to fit the customer expectation. According to Ely and Thomas (2001, 230), diversity is imbedded in individuals and includes both visible and non-visible aspects by which individuals categorise themselves and others.
These aspects include race, ethnicity, religion, age, sexual orientation, gender, nationality class. It becomes a challenge for HR manager in facing the diversity in the workforce where it can result in discrimination and harassment. Discrimination refers to any practice that distinguishes different groups based on characteristics defined in the anti-discrimination legislation and resulting in one group being at the advantage and the other group facing disadvantages. For example, gender stereotypes and unfairness. Harassment is behaviour designed to make a person feel unwelcome, offended, humiliated and intimidated.
These issues often faced by managers operating globally. Discrimination and harassment can create a hostile work environment for the employees and hinder the daily operations of organisation. Furthermore, it might also result in the company having a negative reputation. 3. 0 Critical Analysis of Key Issues 3. 1 Cultural Distance Shared culture is a precondition for the formation of a society (Buzan 2010, 5). The general perception regarding culture is there are major differences between Western and Eastern countries, suggesting that the shared cultures are different.
With differences in cultures between nations, national culture will further impact organisational culture (Essounga 2009, 72) which becomes problematic for businesses looking at expanding their businesses globally. For example, Disney Company in Paris lost 1 billion dollars in the first 18 months of its operation resulting from the hostility culture of French towards the Americans. Zhang (2010, 72) suggested that globalisation countries grow to be bicultural where the society at large does not own a common set of culture.
Different generations hold different sets of common cultures. Emerging trends have it that the young generation of today are becoming more open-minded and will accept others cultures easily. However, the blind adoption of Western management practices will lead the company towards failure. Companies should avoid adopting a standardised approach for management practices but tweak it according to local needs (Jelavic and Ogilvie 2010, 56). Example can be seen from McDonald’s glocalisation; offering different products according to the market demands. 3. 2 Human Rights
There are growing concerns of human rights in the society attributing to the rise in global companies pledging to abide to the UN Global Compact. For example, principle 2 of global compact: “Business should make sure they are not complicit in human rights abuses” (Unglobalcompact. com n. d. ). Due to globalisation, UN Global Compact brings attention of issues many think are norms for global businesses (Stohl 2010, 56). There are also companies, which do not comply, often refusing to take an ethical stand and take advantage of regulation differences between countries.
An example would be Nike sweatshop. Developing countries are usually weak in the implementations of law, resulting in frequent cases of human abuse. For example, Green Construction Material Chemical Factory in China was involved in abuse cases (Global Times 2010). Growing expectations from society leads to companies recognising the need to engage in ethical practices and being accountable to stakeholders, therefore, human rights is a challenge for international management (Soysa and Vadlamannati 2011, 25).
Practices of business regarding human rights will impact the image of the business, which in turn affects the profitability of the business. 3. 3 Ethical Concerns Ethical issues are challenges for international manager because economies and companies are interrelated as a result of globalisation (Romar 2004, 668). For example, Enron wrecked havoc to the world economy and adversely affected investors and retirees depending on their pension funds. The root of Enron’s case is the management of Enron had placed their self-interests over ethical conducts and stakeholders.
Ethical issues are considered challenges because we assume that there are differences in ethical principles between local markets and at international level. With a uniform code of ethics created by United Nation (Yucel, Elibol and Dagdelen 2009, 103), ethical issues would not pose as challenges anymore as there are standards and protocols to follow. Ideally with a standard operating procedure in place, ethical issues will no longer pose as challenges for international managers but it is hard for individuals to implement because individuals have different value systems.

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Human

International Human Resource Management and Organizational Behavior

INTERNATIONAL HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT AND ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR II (1089) Individual Paper Review By Diana Kovacheva ID 0752805 I. Abstract This paper has the purpose to review the seven articles and parts of books stated in class and evaluate them with the help of 3 criteria. Firstly, the three chosen criteria are going to be defined. Then a brief summary of each article or book chapter is going to be made followed by an evaluation according to the mentioned criteria. . II. The Criteria * Currency
This criteria is supposed to define if the information in the article is current, not only by stating when it was published, but also by analyzing if this is from importance for the purpose/outcome of the article. This criterion might be very important when evaluating factual information, because new findings constantly emerge. However, for some type of information, currency is not an issue. * Objectivity This criterion is supposed to check if the information presented is mostly based of facts or it just expresses personal opinion.
Important for the evaluation is to examine whether the claims are logical and credible and if there is evidence for that. * Relevance for practitioners Here it is important to evaluate if the information given in the article could be of use for the audience it is meant for. For this paper, under “audience” is meant people who deal with the issue of international human resource management and organizational behavior. III. Global Managers: no longer men alone

The article of Nancy Adler explores the changing role of women in management position and traces the evolution of the perceptions of the female role and that of diversity in the context of successful global management. The introduction to the topic stresses on the fact that the traditional judgment for one’s skills and abilities based on gender is increasing the opportunity costs for the companies. Due to the global intensified competition, it is becoming more and more crucial for a company’s success to recognize a potential talent regardless of its gender.
This has led to an increasing number of female representatives to be found in top leading position. Following this trend, questions about the difference in the management style of both genders have arisen. Furthermore, no consensus has been reached on the issue if male and female managers act differently or they are just perceived to do so. For the better understanding of this issue, a table with a set of six questions – three behavior- vs. hree perceptual-based, two descriptive vs. four evaluating, was presented. In it individual assumptions showed different dimensions of “difference”, some people stating just that both type of managers are similar or different, and others evaluating the difference as inferior or superior. It was criticized the fact, that most of the assumptions are based on perceptions and not on real observations, due to the fact that still not so many women are to be found in higher positions.
After further reclassification of the questions, four approaches were presented about increasing the number of women in global management positions: 1) Identifying with men’s approaches to managing internationally : Here management by men is conceived to be superior to that by women and women try adopt their manner of managing; 2) Denying difference : this approach assumes that there are no differences, there is only one way to manage and both male and female managers are treated identically; 3) Identifying with women’s approaches to managing internationally : here the difference between the two gender is agreed upon, but also the women’s superiority in managing because of the typical characteristics of the female gender and their increasing importance in doing business globally; 4) Creating synergy : this approach stresses on the contribution and synergies of the combined management styles ‘ The article also presents the evolution of organizational culture and classifies it into 5 stages: 1) Homogenous culture: in this first stage it is mainly the historical-conditioned dominance of men in leading roles.
This is possible only when no internal or external pressure is present and diversity is irrelevant; 2) Single-culture dominance: identifying with men – since the 60s, equality on the two genders was promoted which led to an increased number of women in domestic and low-level position; 3) Denial of differences: the stress here is not on the gender, but on excellent performers. However, the identical treatment of women like men led to many women in top positions resigning because of the unsatisfactory conditions; 4) Accepting differences: companies recognized and appreciated the different between the genders and the importance of tolerating women’s approach for market segments dominated by women; 5) Leveraging differences: the increased global competition since the beginning of the 20th century has led to the recognition of the importance of diversity and diversity-based learning and innovation.
As a conclusion, the evolution of the role women has played over time was briefly summarized again, stressing on the shift from quantitative to qualitative measures. The authors mentions that still only few companies have reached the last level and recommends a more open discussion about the importance of diversity. * Currency : the article was published in 2002 and most of the sources are from the 90s; furthermore, the last trends discussed has started with the beginning of the century and so, are still current; * Objectivity: the statements made are mostly based on research on a global level and a logical relationship between the arguments and the stages presented in obvious * Relevance for practitioners: the topic is of high relevance and importance for practitioner.
The issue presented in the article in increasingly discussed globally and represents a crucial part in the modern understanding of management. IV. Creating Values with Diverse Teams in Global Management The central issue in this article is how to create value with global diverse teams and the obstacles that arise using such teams. There teams are believed to have a lot of potential and be able to create significant comparative advantage. However, in practice this is usually not the case because of misunderstandings and lack of interaction between the various cultures. On the other hand, exactly the cultural differences are believed to create value due to the multi-sided approach and innovative solutions they can generate.
According to the article, global teams were divided into three performance categories: * The destroyers: those team usually underperform because of mutual mistrust and lack of collaboration * The equalizers: by suppressing the differences, these teams are just performing on average in order for the business to keep going * The creators: here the potential of a global teams is fully taken advantage of and cost and time are saved while coming up with new and innovative products at the same time As stated in the article, the success of the creators? team was due to the use of the three principles of mapping, bridging and integrating (MBI). * Mapping to understand the differences: i. e. understanding the reasons that lead to the different approach of the team members. This principle includes the following steps: define the territory (identification of the crucial differences), draw the map ( assessment of members` characteristics), assess the terrain ( using the map generated in the previous step in order to identify future potential dynamics), develop cartographers ( mapping alone is not enough for high performance, incorporating the knowledge is what makes difference). Bridging to Communicate Across Differences: here of great importance in the well-functioning communication within the team, the latest define in the article as “sending and receiving meaning as it was intended”. Three steps are included in this principle : prepare the ground ( “motivation to communication… and confidence to overcome any differences” are considered to be crucial, keyword here is also self-management), decenter : build to the other shore ( adapting one? s behavior and thinking to the other’s one, without judgment), recenter: p the bridge ( in contrast to the previous step, here essential is the building of a new basis of interaction after the differences are already known). Integrating to Leverage Differences: the final principle in order to manage diversity consist of the following steps: managing participation for basic leverage with the help of tools and techniques that can facilitate the interaction and include all the members, resolving disagreement ( also hidden ones) to increase leverage and building on ideas for optional leverage, where everybody should be given the chance to take part and to express their ideas. In conclusion, the article states that the MBI principles are just a prescription, and not a guarantee of success. Furthermore, a separate approach for each team should be applied since each team and its potential is unique.
Last but not least, the article concludes with the statement that global teams hide great potential, but it takes time and effort in order for it to be exploited. However, global teams belong inevitable to the future and so, the sooner managers try to use differences and not to avoid them, the better their companies will be performing * Currency: The topic is quite current nowadays. It has been discussed for a large degree in the recent years and it is also going to be a leading issue in the years to come. Also, due to the high degree of unsatisfactory performance of such teams, the topic is going to be further analyzed till some form of advance has been found. Objectivity: The arguments presented are following a certain, easily-traceable scheme, with logical relationships and empirical supported information. The logical transition from one stage to another is solidly explained. * Relevance for practitioners: this is highly important topics for practitioners. Because of the effects of increasing globalization and the more free movement of people on a global level, work in diverse teams has become a major issue for managers. Especially the fact, that in such teams a huge potential is hidden, makes the article very attractive for this audience. V. Understanding cultures and implicit leadership theories across the globe : an Introduction to the project GLOBE The article of House et al. ntroduces and gives a more detailed description of the GLOBE (Global Leadership and Organizational Behavior Effectiveness) research program as well as the motives that hide behind the idea. The aim of the survey is to identify how and to what extend could cultural-specific attributes have an influence on effective leadership. The need for a deeper understanding of the influence of culture on management and leadership styles has arisen for various reasons. Apart from its practical relevance, nowadays it is also highly important to know in what way one should conduct business in a different cultural environment. In addition to that, factors, not taken into consideration in the existing theories ( e. g. eligion, ethnic background) could play a key role in identifying new relationships. Literature on this issue shows an established connection between culture and leadership styles. However, different points of view also exist. According to the article, some believe that historical background inevitably has an impact on the degree of cooperation and commitment. On the other hand, some aspects of leadership are thought to be universal in practice. The GLOBE research consists of several phases and different methods are being used in order to study the relationship between societal and organizational culture, as well as organizational leadership.
Its team is represented by the Principal Investigator (who is author of the article), Co-Principal Investigators and Country Co-Investigators (CCIs), who have a specific knowledge of the examined cultures and are able to interpret the results in a proper way and context. As stated in the article, the main goal behind the idea for the GLOBE project was to develop an empirically-tested theory which examines the impact of different cultural variables on effective leadership. Of course, this was achieved with the help of numerous sub-questions, which studied different aspects of the acceptance of leader behavior. The following phases were used in the research: Phase 1 – development of research instruments (societal and organizational measures of culture) ; * Phase 2 – assessment of nine relevant dimensions and testing the hypotheses made; additional measures of ethnic, social, political and economic background were also included; * Phase 3 – impact and effectiveness of leadership styles, culture-specific and organization-specific aspects; long-term effects on the organization; In order to conduct the research, unanimous definitions of the examined factors were needed. A consensus was reached about the definition of “an organizational leadership” and “a leader”. However, it was not so easy to give a definition for “culture”. As House et al. states in the article, the chosen variables were “indicators of shared modal values of collectivist” (House et al, 2002, p. 5) The studied nice dimensions were: Uncertainty Avoidance, Power Distance, Societal and In-Group Collectivism, Gender Egalitarianism, Assertiveness ( reflecting the Hofstede dimensions), Future Orientation ( Kluckhohn & Strodtbeck ), Performance
Orientations ( Mcclelland ) and Human Orientation ( Kluckhohn & Strodtbeck ) . The empirical research identified six of those nine dimensions that could be generalized for different cultures. The results were not presented in the article with further details but a reference to another article of the same author was made. The integrated theory in the areas of leadership, values/belief, implicit motivation and organizational form and effectiveness that hides behind the GlOBE model is based on various propositions about the relationships between cultural values, leaders’ actions, organizational and societal culture, strategic organizational contingencies and leader’s effectiveness and his acceptance by others. Currency: The GLOBE project began in the mid-90s and so, the data analyzed has been collected also towards that time, which makes them considerably current. Furthermore, the topic is of great relevance and this would remain so also in the future. Many current studies are also based on the GLOBE project, which means that the information and data it provides are considered to be up-to-date. * Objectivity: The research has been conducted in several phases, also with the usage of different methods, which means that the results presented could be considered for highly reliable. Also, the logical connection between the arguments and the main points discussed are easy to follow and well-grounded. * Relevance for practitioners: Leadership is also one of the main issues of the new century.
Due to the fact that business is conducted worldwide and one and the same company is expanding to new and foreign markets, the problem of effective leadership has been worrying many managers. This is why this article provide an important and relevant information for managers and leaders. VI. Cultural Acumen for the Global Manager: Lessons from Project GLOBE The article by Javidan & House focuses on cultural similarities and a difference among many of the countries examined in the GLOBE project, discusses the results and explains their implications for global managers. Globalization itself in considered to be bringing many opportunities, but with respect to cultures, it also brings many challenges.
As stated in the article: “Being global is not just about where you do business. It is also about how you do it. ” ( Javidan & House, 2001, p. 292). As an introduction to the topic, the authors mention the drivers and results of globalization and their impact on international business. Nowadays different cultures come more and more often in contact with each other and business is becoming more global than ever. The main drivers for that are considered to be the increasing trade between nations, internet, foreign direct investments and various mergers and acquisitions. As a result of that, collision of different cultures in the business life has become something common.
From this, however, could not be concluded that cultural differences diminish. Quite the opposite, major problems and misunderstandings arise from the lack of awareness for the various cultural values and practices. This is why the importance of a competent global leader is becoming crucial. His role was even rated the most important factor for business success in a survey of Fortune 500. An expert in international business is required to accustom and take into consideration differences as well as to consider the ideas and opinion of the partners he is doing business with. Because of the mentioned above, the authors stress the importance of the GLOBE project as a guide for managers in international business.
With the help of the nine dimensions (already mentioned in the previous article as well), the derived results could be used for better understanding of cultural similarities and differences. In the articles the nine dimensions are briefly explained and the results of cultural practices are shortly presented: * Assertiveness – explained as the extent to which a self-confident and assertive behavior is tolerated. Here high score the U. S. , Austria and Spain; low – Sweden, New Zealand respectively, the last being thought to prefer cooperation over competition. * Future Orientation – the inclination for planning and investing in the future. As highly future-oriented appear Singapore, Switzerland and the Netherlands.
On the contrary, Russia, Argentina and Italy are characterized with shorter planning horizon * Gender Differentiation – the emphasize on garner role differences; As paying less importance on gender appear Hungary, Poland and Denmark. , where more women could be found on higher positions. On the other hand, in South Korea, Egypt and China men enjoy higher social status. * Uncertainty Avoidance – in Sweden and Germany more attention is paid to orderliness and structure, whereas in Russia, Greece and Venezuela people are more tolerant towards uncertainty. * Power Distance – here high rank Russia, Thailand and Spain, where superiors are granted greater power and obedience. In countries like Denmark and the Netherlands, however, there is less differentiation in the hierarchical structure. Institutional emphasis on collectivism versus individualism – individual performance counts more in countries like Greece, Italy and Argentina. Cooperation and collective good is more important in Sweden, South Korea and Japan, where because of historical reasons people tend to help and rely on each other for their “survival”. * In-group collectivism- in Iran, India and China belonging to a group is of great importance. In contract, in Denmark, Sweden and New Zealand people do not feel obliged to the others belonging to their groups. * Performance Orientation – in Singapore, Hong Kong and the U. S. results show a high interest in development and training.
In countries like Russia, Italy and Argentina people pay more attention to loyalty and tradition than performance and competition * Humane orientation – in Malaysia, Ireland and the Philippines support of each other is highly valued, whereas in Germany, France and Singapore people are more interested in power and material gains. As the authors point out, the results of the GLOBE project provide information managers can rely on when confronted with cross-cultural communication. Because of the high sensitivity of each culture, for successful negotiations it is crucial to be aware of some cultural differences in the other country, concerning direct language and punctuality, contract horizon, hierarchy etc. As a further advantage of the project, the author point out the high reliability that the findings provide. All in all, the GLOBE provides guidance and help for the global managers and enhances their cultural acumen. Currency: As already mentioned by the evaluation of the previous article, the information that the GLOBE project provides and the possible areas of its implication are a topical relevance and high interest. Furthermore, the problem discussed in the article in a global problem at the moment and will probably be in the next decades. * Objectivity: Data for the research has been gathered in several phases, also with the usage of different methods, which means that the results presented could be considered for highly reliable. Arguments are logically connected and relationships between the results of the project and the problem discussed are supported. Relevance for practitioners: Since globalization brings so many opportunities and doing business abroad always includes minimum a collision of two different cultures, the impact of culture on the business and negotiation process has been of high relevance for practitioners Because the article provides important information in this matter, it could be used as a guide with real-life related tips. VII. Culture: the neglected concept The book chapter “Culture: the neglected concept” has as main issue the prediction of behavioral differences across cultures. At the beginning the role of culture is discussed as a tool for cross-cultural comparison, as well as the different aspects that culture, social system and society imply. However, no clear conclusion was reach at on how to differentiate cultures.
Furthermore, the author mentions also that there is a huge diversity within major nations (e. g. Japan, UK, the Netherlands) and also that there are many conflicts within nations. As next, with the help of key studies, the author tries to develop a conceptual framework which would help to identify variables with which cultures could be differentiated. Different studies using economic development factors, or ecological and sociopolitical indicators were discussed, but in both cases there were criticism and inconsistent findings. A positive contribution was considered the work of Hofstede in his book “Culture’s consequences”. He has analyzed a large scale data bank and on this basis has developed a model how to compare countries.
He has classified them into four dimensions: power distance, uncertainty avoidance, individualism-collectivism and masculinity- femininity. Of course, that model is considered to be just one possibility in finding differences among on a country level. Hofstede’s study was criticized on various basis, but still the data used covers a substantial global sample. Furthermore, conformity is identified in the definition of culture by Hofstede and Rohner. However, it has been pointed out that the core values of Hofstede are applicable to national cultures and not individuals, and as still, they are average results. The Chinese Culture Connection pointed out the necessity to discount cultural bias from the results Hofstede came with.
The results of their research overlapped to a great extend with those of Hofstede (three out of four factors). In addition to that, another variable was also proposed which led later on to the supplement of a fifth dimension. Another study by Schwarz was reviewing earlier history and defined three needs as essential: biological needs, social coordination needs, and the survival and welfare needs. This study was more analyzing the meaning different people put into values and it focused more on individuals rather than countries. However, the results were seen as a more detailed version than those of Hofstede. Furthermore, Trompenaars examined value dilemmas across nations.
He proposed seven dimensions, some of them very close to the ones of Hofstede plus conservatism-egalitarian commitment and loyal involvement – utilitarian involvement. In the last part of the chapter a step-wise approach towards identifying a useful conceptual framework was adopted. Firstly, a search for universal aspects of social behavior, mainly used by social anthropologists and psychologist, has been discussed. In this place universals are further divided into simple, variform and functional ones, the first two mainly used by ‘etic’ analysis of human behavior and the third one- in ‘emic’ analysis. The last one (emic analysis) is considered for the most reliable method for making generalizations on a local level.
In this first step also the four elementary forms of social relations by Fiske are mentioned : ‘communal sharing’ , ’authority ranking’ (these two similar to two of the Hofstede’s dimensions) , ‘equality matching’ ( i. e. parties relate on the basis of equal contribution) and ‘market pricing’ (i. e. people use their comparative advantages over the others). The second step mentioned is the dilemma about the cultural causation of human behavior. A problematic point here is to determine if the research question is to be examined at the individual- or at the culture- level (the so called levels of analysis). The article proposed several different approached by different researchers. Furthermore, Smith and Schwartz (1997) proposed the following dimensions: autonomy vs. embeddedness and equality vs. ierarchy, which resemble again some of the Hofstede’s dimensions (namely individualism-collectivism and power distance), but using the updated results from some more recent studies. Then the authors introduce a further division of collectivism according to the context it is meant: in a hierarchical or egalitarian one. According to Parsons and Shils there is also another pair of concept: universalism and particularism. The first is describing the equal distribution of justice and the second – the subjective desire to associate with somebody. The final part of the chapter comes back to the major issue if values of people serve as a sufficient orientation point when cultures are being compared. Behavior is also mentioned to play an important role in this matter.
Different studies are offering different approaches and assumptions concerning those variables and it is also presumed that this is a potential future field of further research. * Currency: Concerning this criterion, this chapter might be classified as a bit old. A reason for that is not only the publication year (1998), but also because many of the studies and data used for it are already dating to even earlier. As it is quite well-known, the new century brought with itself many new directions for the futures and the impact of globalization on culture-related issues changes every now and then. * Objectivity: In this chapter various authors and research results are mentioned, however with the criticism that some of the researches conducted do not based on a solid and reliable data.
The different concepts are relationships between concepts and studies are explained, but due to the large number of studies and various explanations, the comprehensiveness sometimes goes lost and this might lead to losing the logic of the argument. * Relevance for practitioners: the approach in this chapter is more theoretical relevant than practical. Many studies are discussed, which are based on different approaches and research fields. However, less practical applicability in real business life has been detected. VIII. Theoretical Basis: Intercultural Communication and Cooperation The article of Thomas begins with a discussion about culture and its meaning.
He compares it with a ‘system of orientation’ that creates a sense of belonging among the members of the same culture due to its specific features. Moreover, based on the usage of the same symbols and meanings, people can identify that they belong to the same group. However, in the socialization process it often happens that we are confronted with an unfamiliar behavior. Here a crucial point is what orientation signals to use when two persons from different cultures are in a conflict situation. A good example of the different approaches of Germans and Americans is given – the first handing more customer-oriented and the second caring more about technical perfection.
Those examples lead to the conclusion that some general cultural standards exists that can explain why different cultures act differently and the same situation. Furthermore, domain-specific cultural standards also exist, which are bound to a specific context. Lastly, another study indicates also the existence cultural-specific behavior patterns. The main use of cultural standards in that they provide a helping hand for orientating and explain why the partner behaves unfamiliar. The knowledge of other culture standards can be very important by interpersonal negotiating and cooperating. In addition to national culture, the concept of corporate culture also exists and it is highly influenced by the first one.
In an organization, many factors, such as the industry the company in operating in and other job-related factors have an impact on the behavior of its members/employees and thus they can also form a “common language” and values. It is suggested that corporate culture can be analyzed on the basis a three-level-model suggested by Schein. Those are: material and immaterial artefacts (easy to identify, but not to interpret their impact), values, norm and rules of behaviour (great influence) and basic assumption (vastly accepted values that help attain corporate goals). Thus, due to the daily interaction people in a corporation create their own subjective reality, based on the common values and social norms.
So, as stated in the article, corporate culture is influenced by and influences national culture on the one side, and on the other, there are also subcultures formed within the corporate one. As a further point in the article the effects of internalization are discussed. Because of this phenomenon, the international atmosphere that is more often to find in many work places, cause that many different national cultures collide in an organization. Here an importance should also be paid to the industry the company is operating. The author mentions both the advantages and challenges of internalization and mentions that the inability to identify with the newly formed corporate culture can has a serious negative impact on the newly formed company.
This is why the issue of the transition from the old to a new system has become a central concern for the leaders of such international corporations. The last part deals with cultural overlap, more precisely, the situation when two people with different cultures (values and understandings too) are supposed to work together. This difference can either improve the work together or threaten it. In the article four type of behavioural ruler are presented: either the own culture is considered for superior and the other party has to adapt or vice versa. The third option would be the one, where the two parties are too different in order to cooperate in any case.
The best option, however, is when significant elements of the two cultures and combined and integrated into a new one. A Challenge in those rules is to gain more understanding about the cause-effect relationship of each other’s behaviour and also to have a deeper understanding about the own way of thinking and judgement and the reasons defining the way of perception of the other. New opportunities could be recognized and exploited only if a person is open for and interested in the different culture, and not taking right away the unfamiliar behaviour for one of lower rang. Obviously, none of the too extreme options (convergence or divergence) are good for the interaction.
As stated in the article, differences should be recognized and acknowledged, and a gradual modification of the own, and adaptation to the other’s culture should follow. The next question that arises is: to what extend should that happen? As a conclusion it is said, that interculturality is only possible is one of the partners has a dominant role. However, he should also be able to understand and accept the other’s behaviour, be tolerant and respect it. This characteristic can be best developed by specialized trainings and intercultural coaching. * Currency: The book from with this chapter comes was published only in 2010, which is an obvious sign of its currency. Furthermore, the issue discussed in it is becoming more and more important with the ever increasing trend towards internalization. Objectivity: The chapter includes different theories, but no own empirical research. Many situations are given as an example for the stated arguments and those sound quite convincing. Also for the issue discussed, probably observation of behavior in cultural overlap should also be more appropriate. * Relevance for practitioners: The topic is quite important for managers doing business abroad. Even if they are not aware of the fact, that cultural overlap can cause huge problems in negotiations or work together, the topic should be seriously taken by them. The main argument behind that is the fact that the majority of foreign ventures are not successful mainly due to misunderstandings between the parties. IX.
The A, B, Cs of Acculturation This chapter is a review of both theory and empirical research concerning acculturation. The term of acculturation is defined here as “changes that occur as a result of continuous first-hand contact between individuals of different cultures” (Ward, 2001). Furthermore, it can be divided on the basis of various dimensions. In this chapter the focus falls on sojourners, immigrants and refugees on the one hand, and social identification, culture learning and stress and coping theoretical approaches, on the other. The first of the theoretical approaches – social identification- concerns the perception of oneself and others.
This can be measured on two levels- on individual (focuses on how acculturation is defined and measured) or on group-level (interaction between a member and a foreigner of a community). Culture learning, on the other hand, blames for the cross cultural problems the ‘foreign’ parties and suggests that they should adapt to the culture-specific variables. The third approach defines the process of adapting as a series of stress-provoking situations, followed by attempts to cope with them. In a reversed order, those approaches constitute the three components of acculturation- affective, behavioral and cognitive, the so called A, B, Cs of acculturation.
The question how to define adaptation has been mentioned as an important point. Many indices resulting from numerous researches have been proposed, each offering different approach and models. However, as common variables in all mentioned measures appear the psychological well-being/satisfaction and the effective relationships with representatives of the new culture. Furthermore, the author proposes two major categories for intercultural adaptation – psychological adjustment and sociocultural adaptation – that provide a good but still scarce overview. A model that combines the three theoretical approaches and the two aspects of cross-cultural adaptation is further introduced and described in details.
On the cognitive side (social identification), three models are mentioned for fundamental changes of cultural identity: assimilation of the foreign culture, a middle position between assimilation and separatism (bicultural identity) and the perception of the host and home cultures as independent. The following findings were presented: younger immigrants tend to be more easily acculturated; men get accustomed quicker than women and second generation immigrants are more opened to adapt. In addition to that, demographic, educational and socioeconomic factor also have an impact on acculturation. However, a recommendation for further theory development has been because of the insufficiency and inconsistency of the existing ones. The next approach – cultural learning- focused on behavioral changes in connection with cultural interaction in order to gain useful skills to adapt.
Social skills and social interaction has been mentioned as crucial. However, many barriers, may threaten the successful intercultural communication. For example, nonverbal forms, such as gestures, silence or facial expression, that have different meaning across cultures, may lead to even an insult without any purpose. These obstacles can be over masters with the help of cultural trainings, participation and intercultural friendships. Sociocultural adaptation could be facilitate with more culture-specific knowledge, it follows a learning curve and it is easier for sedentary groups. Of greatest importance for the last theoretical approach is the prediction of psychological adjustment.
For the stress-and-coping approach cultural contact and change are crucial because they lead to the search of a response. Here also a recommendation for further research in the area has been made. In the conclusion the author mentions that concerning acculturation, the field of research is vast. The combination of theory and conducted research contributes to the better understanding of the issue, but it is still not universal. Cultural differences could easily be translated into assimilation discouragement and psychological and sociocultural problems. Even if great development in the area of acculturation has been witnessed, for the future more comprehensive and larger scale studies would be warmly welcomed. Currency: The chapter has been published in the beginning of the century, thus also marking the beginning of the century where borders have less and less meaning. The topic is also one that is highly discussed and many future researches will be directed towards the issue of acculturation. * Objectivity: The chapter represents a mix of various theories and empirical studies, the results of various relevant to the topic studies has been presented and so, this criteria could be considered as fully fulfilled. * Relevance for practitioners : No doubt the problem of acculturation and the impact on a global level is of high relevance for practitioners.
Especially since borders has lost their meaning, nowadays people are moving all around the world, and consequently, are directly faced with the problem. References: Adler, N. : Global managers: no longer men alone. In : The international Journal of Human Resource Management, 2002, Vol. 13(5) (pp. 746-761) Distefano,J. , Maznevski, M. : Creating Values with Diverse Teams in Global Management. In : Organizational Dynamics, 2000, Vol. 19 (1) (pp. 45-63) House, R. , Javidan, M. , Hanges,P. , Dorfman, P. : Understanding cultures and implicit leadership theories across the globe: an introduction to the project GLOBE. In: Journal of World Business, 2002, Vol. 37 (pp. 3-10) Javidan, M. , House, R. Cultural Acumen for the global manager: Lessons from project GLOBE. In: Organizational Dynamics, 2001, Vol. 29, (4) (pp. 289-305) Smith,P. B. , Bond, M. H. : Culture: the neglected concept. In: Social Psychology across Cultures, 1998, 2nd edition, Harlow, London, New York (pp. 38-69) Thomas, A. : Theoretical Basis of Intercultural Communication and Cooperation. In: Thomas, A. , Kinast, E. , Schroll-Machl: Handbook of intercultural Communication and Cooperation: Basics and Areas of Application, 2010, 1st edition, Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht (17-52) Ward,C. : The A,B,Cs of Acculturation. In: Matsumoto (ed. ): The Handbook of Culture and Psychology, New York, 2001

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Human

Human Resource Management. Paper

In a bid to improve the whole organizational and even the strategies of the organization the human resources managers have put Into play the intermittent schedules of reinforcement which enables employees to be driver towards the achievements of the organization goal through the implementation of the intermittent schedules of reinforcement. Reinforcement Is an extremely Important principle of conditioning mainly used by top managers to move or drive their subordinates in the work place thus a process of shaping behavior by controlling its consequences.
Because according to Box et al 2007)he views human resource as the management of work and people towards a desired end. This reinforcement theory is sometimes called the operant conditioning as Its mall focus Is on the operant behavior and its associated consequences. According to Copper et al (2007) intermittent schedules of reinforcement are used when maintaining previously learned behavior. Anderson also argues that behavior at the work place is either shaped with the positive and negative reinforces.
The positive mainly on the rewarding bases of the employee for a good job well done and the universe follows that the negative reinforces involves the amoeba of something undesirable in order to alter behavior. But we can not Introduce the reinforcement theory leaving aside the important behaviorism B. F. Sullener who derived the reinforcement theory which seem to be one of the still standing oldest theory of motivation as a way to explain behavior and why we do what we do.

The theory also known as the behaviorism or operant conditioning which is still commonly taught in psychology nowadays. The theory states that “an Individual behavior Is a function of Its consequences” (Management Study gulled 2013) Furthermore what is called the reinforcement scheduling is the essential time the rewards, punishment and timing of these outcomes but deference seem to exist between mulling and frequents of the reinforces. TLS reinforces mainly used to explain work place process such as payment system, absenteeism and motivation to mention but a few.
Moreover Fester and Skinner argues that there are mainly two types of Intermittent schedules of reinforcement, firstly those that occurs at fixed number of desired response and those schedules that appear regularly or Irregularly which are called variables. Through the ideals of the two schedules the four intermittent reinforcement schedules are then formed. This shall all be explained in ‘OFF Fixed interval schedules it follows that a constant amount of time could pass before a reinforce is provided.
In other words behavior pattern almost stops after a reward until the next also offers an example of employee performance review for a raise every year and not in between. (Heifer,2001)Thus is really true in the human resources management as there treat employees like humans not assets their try by all means to satisfy their workers through a payment yester of every month or per week depending on the organization’s financial stamina.
This is also good as money is there to meet all our basic needs of people according to Moscow (1943) hierarchy of needs “a theory of human motivation”. There by in short here is been used as a driver to drive the workforce for the enabling of the organizational goal. For example in most of the farms in the peripheral area like Chainman area a farm called Charter almost all the workforce are given their money after a certain period of time but especially on the second day of each month.
However on the other side of the coin this fixed interval schedules are to some extent weak as there tend to denominated people especially when the organization has failed to pay the employees at the intended time. Variable interval schedules those are one of the schedules that the human resource management can apply the intermittent schedules for it is considered vital to the organization,this is only achieved through the application of the intermittent schedules like the variable interval schedule this defines a schedule where a response is rewarded after an unpredictable amount of time has passed.
Once the behavior have been reinforce by the human resources managers a new interval have to put in place either long or shorter this depends on the main focuses of the organizational objectives and the implementation of those objectives with the human resources managers there specify the sum total of the interval time with the average( Hut and Hummel 1997).
This is best explained in the corporate random drug screening will be conducted every three months or so, however because the screening will happen sooner or later after or before 4 months with the average interval time of equaling round 3 months, causing of this issue the scalloping effect of this schedule is therefore solved(Hut and it produces a slow,but a steady rate of response, but examples are draw from human resources managers giving their subordinates a kind of special recognition of a Job well done thus through the giving always of certificates like the best employee of the year this is done to effectively boost the employee work morale and he also gain a sense of belonging according to the Moscow hierarchy if needs.
Moreover it is characterized by resistance of extinction, and very minimal pause after reinforcement is given. This heron have got an interlink with the human resource management approach to the organization that is called management by walking around thus the MBA approach to the organization that enables managers to effectively walk around to see whether the workforce is working accordingly, this is done frequently. The fixed ratio schedules of reinforcement theory means that reinforcement should be delivered after a constant or fixed number of correct responses for example a fixed ratio of 2 means that reinforcement should be done after every 2 correct responses.
It is sometimes abbreviated as FRR with the number of the correct loser if it . This mostly done by human resource managers that employees piece jobs thus after a certain amount of time or piece of Job you will get paid for that. In Zanzibar this is realistic especially Zees there can employee anyone to read meter boxes of a certain area after the reading you are in a better position to be paid accordingly to the agreed amount of money hence this increase their speed of the worker to effectively work hard at a maximum speed. However these schedules tend to be costly as the workers are likely to make valuable mistake that will tannins the hole image of the organization.
Like there can harass clients because there know that his Jobs is going to end after the collection of the meter reading. Hence there is a probability of organization repeat to be tarnished through the employment of uneducated hooligans into the piece Job system as there tend to rub the good image of the organization hence it is good for the human resource to take these into consideration when implementing the fixed ratio schedule into play. The variable ratio schedules to his occur mainly when a responses is reinforced after an unpredictable number of responses. This schedule creates a high steady rate if responding. A clear example can be derived from the gambling or lottery game.
Slot machines: Players have no way that how many times there have to play until they win the game thus the reason why slots machines are so effective and why players are so reluctant to quit playing the game the human resource feels good when dealing with such a strategy tactic because there is always the possibility that the next game there we win the game and even take for the example of the call bonuses. One expectation is that which was given by Hulk, Wesley ,and Seymour(1972) which examine the effectiveness of pay incentives under the variable and continues reinforcement schedules, it was taken under condition which were more similar to an organizational environment. In a stimulated Job situation subjects worked for an hour/day for a period of two weeks, subjects were paid $1. 50/her for the first week.
At the beginning of the second week subjects were randomly assigned for the three incentives conditions,ICC incentive with a continuous reinforcement schedule,ICC incentive with a 50% variable ratio schedule and a ICC incentive allowed by a 50% variable schedule. It was therefore found that employees were motivated when using the variable ratio schedule than the continuous schedule. It sounds as if human resources managers could implement this schedule the employee get motivated to work hard because each successful behavior will increase the probability of the reinforcement for example salesman at a car sale. The more the cars he sales the more the more money he gets from commission. Hence here employee will be motivated to work for himself and also this increases profit ND productivity of the workforce towards the same object of organizational goal.
Fixed interval schedules this mean that reinforcement becomes available after a specific period of time have elapsed Smith (2010), moreover the schedule can also be shortened as Fl followed by the amount of time that must pass before reinforcement becomes available like OFF meaning that OFF means that reinforcement must be available after every 2 minutes . Heifer (2001) offers an clear example of an employee performance review for a raise in every year and not in between. However there me to be scalloping effect between the intervals that is been caused by the 1997)This type of reinforcement usually used well by the human resource managers when learning a new behavior in the organizations or punishment.
This is also is stated by the Michigan matching model of human resource that says appraisal selection, development and our main thrust Reward what makes the human resource management function towards the overall organizational goal. Hence this is agreed when using the intermittent schedules that monetary rewards are essential to motivate workers for the betterment of organizational goal. However to the other extend the human resources may tend to fail to meet the rewards especially when there are some economic constrain like inflation that hinders the payment of workers hence the workers will become denominated or go to strike and make demonstration that makes or tannins the overall reputation of the company.
In addition to that the installing of the reinforcement schedules such as variable interval schedules this enables employee to work effectively towards the achievement of an organizational goal, because only that the employees does not have a clear knowledge of when the performance review is going to come hence he is always on his toes to ensure that the company goal have been meet at the intended time(Remind,2010)This is mainly done to the McGregor theory “x” and Y,which says that the x-workers are those workers born with the natural dislikes of work and on the contrary the y-workers are those that are born with the likings of work rather their feel work as playing hence the application of the theory is applicable especially when we are dealing with the x-workers this enable them to work harder towards the achievement of the organizational goal. The theory of reinforcement is easily applied to the organization by the human resource managers as the theory deals with learned behaviors therefore we can be able to say it is not cumbersome to apply those reinforcements schedules into the organizations.
Upon Joining a company workers workers often deals with certain stimuli, responses, and their consequences. Because the behavior are rewarded or punished it can be easy to encourage or change workers’ responds by manipulating the stimulus (Operant Conditioning, 2006) The reinforcement theory provides with it clues to motivations unlike the Need Theory to motivation which places more emphases on the internal need rather than the external needs that the reinforcement is more focused on. Thus within the workplace the organization, workplace organizational management theorist look to the so called environment in a bid to explain and control people’s behavior.

Categories
Human

Human Resources department operates

At Land Rover, The Human Resources department, makes Land Rover more competitive in the market, a vast majority of influences take place in making Land Rover competitive. The planning of manpower of Land Rover contributes to making them more efficient and operative. This is because, the manpower plan is a system which delivers where all staff members should be situated and what are there functions. It helps staff identify how to operate and also it shows how the process of colour production is made effective.
Moreover, The Human Resources department of Land Rover makes the organisation, competitive by placing a performance management system. Assessment of Land Rover employees is a situation. This process is welcomed by both managers and employees as long as it is done fairly and systematically. The process of assessing employees is called ‘Performance Appraisal’ and is normally carried out by the employee’s immediate superior. Herzberg suggested that ‘Satisfiers’ such as recognition and personal growth motivate employees to work to the best of their ability.
Land Rover agree with his theory and therefore use appraisals as a form of performance management to analyse which areas the employees need to be motivated on. The person carrying out the appraisal is called the appraiser and the person being appraised is the appraisee. Appraisal usually follows a standard format: First, the appraiser writes an appraisal report on the employee in question. This can be done in a number of ways: Performance management allows Land Rover to ensure that all of their workers are properly trained.

A properly trained employee will be more confident in their job and will be better motivated and will perform more efficiently. Customer satisfaction can be increased by providing the customer with quality products which have been made by the employees who are happy in their work. When a customer receives product, they will want to return to Land Rover again to purchase another car because of the quality control and quality assurance. This will effectively increase Land Rover sales and therefore, their long term competitiveness.
Motivation of workers in Land Rover is critical to the service provided by Land Rover -because unmotivated workers do not perform as well as motivated workers Another way which Land Rover’s Human Resources Department contribute in competitiveness is by having a training and development procedure. This is where the manager picks out the employees strengths and weaknesses from the appraisal system and, the manager advises them to go on a training and development course. This will try to improve the skills and qualities of the employees.
This is done by putting in procedures of mentoring, this is a form of counselling which builds relationships with the mentor. This type of training helps the candidate to be calm in demanding situations and further their careers. The mentor training system is regarded as a cost effective and less time consuming. Moreover, coaching methods of training could be used where, it is like mentoring, instead of improving the employee’s confidence to pursue their career it actually keeps track of the employees performance and achievements. This method provides managers with a method to assess employee’s suitability and performance.
Also, there is a training method which is called apprenticeship, where it provides inexperienced people to develop their skills and experience in a business where new candidates will be looked after for a period of time until they have gained essential experience for the vacancy. This method of training does not cost much, because the candidates are learning while they work. Change management in that training helps employees understand why change is necessary and how they will benefit. Gives them confidence to cope with new skills necessary for new working practices.
Overall, the influences of commitment is undergone through performance management and training and development procedures. The performance management motivates the staff to provide an outcome of effective working and efficiency across Land Rover. The training and development also motivates the employees in achieving success, this is undergone by self success. Where the employees want to achieve satisfaction and value from everyone. This will also make Land Rover more competitive in the long run as skills and qualities will be generated and this can be applied to the use of Land Rover and this will make Land Rover more efficient.

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Human

Human resource management essay

Introduction:
Human Resource Management is also a strategic and comprehensive approach to managing people and the workplace culture and environment. Effective HRM enables employees to contribute effectively and productively to the overall company direction and the accomplishment of the organization’s goals and objectives.
As competitors strive to win the war for talent, effective human resource management is necessary to gain true competitive advantage in the marketplace. Three challenges faced by nations and companies in 19th century are shown in Curtis (2006) “The Century of the Self” Part 1 are sustainability, technology, and globalization.

Curtis (2006)
Sustainability is the potential for long-term maintenance of wellbeing, which has environmental, economic, and social dimensions.
Globalization requires attention to “more than conducting business across national borders but also entails expanding com­petition for almost every type of organization presenting management with the challenge to operate in diverse cultural settings” (Edwards, 2006)
Globalization represents the structural making of the world characterized by the free flow of tech­nology and human resources across national boundaries as well as the spread of Information Tech­nology and mass media presenting an ever-changing and competitive business environment.
Globalization makes national culture an increasingly strategic issue that has to be faced and properly managed. The problem is the balancing of the global trends in human resource management with the influence of national culture because many aspects of HRM are affected by differences in national culture. Custis (2006) analyze the problem of balancing seemingly opposing forces (globalization and the influence of national culture) and to identify trends in HRM during 20th century across coun­tries: USA, Germany and United Kingdom.
Curtis (2006)
Technology not only changes the administration of human resources (HR), but also changes organizations and work. HR professionals must be able to adopt technologies that allow the reengineering of the HR function, be prepared to support organizational and work-design changes enabled by technology, and be able to support the proper managerial climate for innovative and knowledge-based organizations.
By far the most significant drivers of strategic change in the world today, globalization and technology innovation, are accelerating at a pace that will make them even more important in the decade ahead. Globalization is proceeding differently in different industries , driven primarily by: increasingly similar demands of end users for global products: changing needs and capabilities of global customers , underlying economics of scale and scope in research , product development , and manufacturing . Technology enables firms within an industry to capture economics of scale and scope by going global, global firms rely on technological innovation to enhance their capabilities. Technology is thus both driven by, and key driver of globalization.
Asian and Western Management Styles
Management style is the set of philosophies or principles by which the management exercise control over the workforce and bind diverse operations and functions together in order to achieve organizational goals. Earlier research found that firms which tend to employ the participative (or Western) management style favor allowing workers to enhance their professional skills. In contrast, it has been suggested that centralized decision-making, the traditional Asian management style, which is characterized by paternalistic leadership, collectivist orientation and greater power distance between managers and workers, could impede individual creativity (Thompson, 1965) and hence hold back the development of professional skills.
Western Management Education:
It is now widely accepted that HRM, as a concept, was initially popularized in the USA . In fact , the teaching of management and business as education subjects was first pioneered in the united states. Wharton Business School, which was created in 1881 .In contrast, Cranfield School of management and London Business School, which were the first two schools in Europe , were created in 1965. (Locke, 1989)
The Americans were first into the field not only of management, but also of human resource management and arguably have developed hegemony in what the subject involves and what is good practice (Brewster, 2000). HRM is viewed as a logical and rational system. From this viewpoint of seeking, Fomburn et al.(1984) state that the activity of managing HR consists in a five-step cycle: selection , performance, appraisal , rewards and development. Indeed, all firms have to manage this (or a similar) process regardless of where they are in the world. However, it is helpful to consider the management of HR not as a strict system of ‘rational’ processes but as the process of managing people. People cannot be ‘managed’ in a vaccum, they are managed within a context.(e.g. cultural, social, educational, religious, geographical, legal, historical). The process of HRM is therefore not neutral, it is surrounded by cultural, social and other norms characteristic of human behavior. Although the American development of HRM first appeared akin to a scientific process , a number of writers have since put it into context and characterized a so-called US- Model of HRM or in some formulations, a ‘uni-versalistic’ model, since its proponents argue that it can be applied anywhere in the world. It is important to spend some time reflecting on what underpins the notion of American HRM as it follows other complementary positions to be refined. (Harzing & Ruysseveldt, 2004)
The findings summarized here provide an illustration of nationally bounded collective mental maps about organizations that seem to resist convergence effects from increased professionalization of management and intensity of international business. Neighboring western nations seem to be forming fairly differentiated images of organizations and their management. This attempt to use a comparative phenomenological approach to the study of organization seems to elicit findings that cast serious doubt on the universality of management and organizational knowledge and praxis
It may be very well be that the management process in these western countries is as much culture blund as their cooking , and that international management has to avoid the trap of international cuisine. National cultures may still offer some genuine recipes.
Eastern Management Education:
Human resources management in East Asian
With the reforms of the employment system, a new system, a new terminology of human resource management came to China in the middle of the 1980s.Warner(1995, 1997). Initially, HRM as an academic concept was introduced by joint teaching arrangements between Chinese and foreign universities as well as in management practice in foreign-owned enterprises, mainly from japan, the US and Europe (warner ,1995). The translation of HRM into Chinese is renliziyuan guanli (with the same Chinese characters as in Japanese) which means ‘labour force resources management’. But in fact , some people now use it misleading as a synonym for ‘Personnel Management’ (renshi guanli) and indeed treat it as such (Warner,1997). This form of older personnel management practice is still very common in SOEs and a fair degree of conservatism continues to pervade the administration of personnel in such enterprises. Certainly, it is still very far from the initial concept of HRM as understood in the international community (Poole, 1997).
In parallel, attempts were made to import ‘enterprise culture’, a ‘code-word’ for adopting and adapting the Japanese model (Chan, 1995). This is normally found in firms entering JV arrangements with Japanese multinational companies or where the Japanese have set up wholly owned firms on site.
East Asia has been surge economic growth since 1960s. Its cultural background has undoubtedly played a significant role in this process. There is a core value- system based on the combined characteristics of Confucianism, Daoism and war strategies which still has a strong influence on Asian HRM, although clearly exceptions also apply.
Indian Human resource Management:
Indian Management practioners and academics have developed a distinctive approach to Human Resource Development. HRD approaches are increasingly playing a role in organizational responces to issues arising from liberalization. Accustomed to operating in protected markets, organization are having to learn to manage combining the virtues of conflicting market models , rather than relying exclusively on a single set of pre-conditioned theoretically validated policies. HRD therefore addresses the need to arrest deteriorating values, building up organizational and cultural strengths, broadening the philosophy of tolerance and sacrifice and displaying deep concern for people (Rohmetra, 1998). HRD as a ‘humanistic ’ concept and a subsuming norm that guides management approaches to its employees has come to assume a critical role in Indian management philosophy , HRD involves a paradigm shift from old approach of control to the new approach of involvement and self-development (silvera,1988) and would be more closely aligned with the ‘soft’ approach to HRM.
HRD is similar to the concept about the rights and duties of human beings about which democratic constitutions the world over consider inalienable and inseparable from human nature, and has similarities to the United Nation Development Programme’s concept of a nations human development. HRD is therefore a humanistic concept that places a premium on the dignity and respect of people and is based on a belief in the limitless potential of human beings. It emphasizes that people should not be treated as mere cogs in the wheel of production, but with respect as human beings.
As humanistic concept HRD proposes that human beings should be valued as human beings , independent of their contribution to corporate productivity or profit. The various underlying attitudes symbolizing respect for people’s dignity, trust in their basic integrity and belief in their potential, should lead to the creation of an environment in companies in which individual should find fulfillment in work and seek newer horizons for themselves and the enterprise (Rohmetra, 1998).
HRD practices in Indian companies attempt to blend western and eastern ideas and systems of people management. This concept of HRD attempts to be more comprehensive and meaningfull than utilitarian concepts evolved in Anglophone countries. It has come to denote a planned way of developing and multiplying competencies, and the creation of an organization climate that promotes the utilization and development of new competencies. Culture building is seen as a part of its agenda.
(Jackson, 2002)
Future Assumptions Observed to be a part of human resource management:
Legge (1999) states that the new assumptions observed to be a part of human resource management are:
Proactive, system – wide interventions with, emphasis on fit, linking HRM with strategic planning and cultural change.
People are social capital capable of development
Coincidence of interest between stakeholders can be developed
Seeks power equalization for trust and collaboration
Open channels of communication to build trust , commitment
Goal orientation
Participation and informed choice
Management Education:
Management education in schools of business and public administration has received less attention than other aspects of the study of management.
There is a contradiction on Management Education which is not being adequately confronted. As attempts is made to change organizations or some part of them to more democratic structures, so the ability of education and training to facilitate that change seems to be losing ground. There is no single reason for this, yet it seems to be chiefly because our collective skill in the design of education or training experiences has outstripped our understanding of some of the fundamental process involved. In particular, it seems to have overlooked the function which education servers in preparing people for membership work organizations.
Research in management education has not been a source of inspiration, Although problems abound , certain basic issues are generic. One issue is the criterion problem in management education research. Criteria that have been utilized have often been chosen for convenience rather than for therotical or practical relevance.
Freedman and cooper (1982)
Challenges for the management education:
One of the challenges for the management educator is to make a judicious choice amongst the teaching methods is to ensure that individually or in combination they facilitate translation and / or transfer , and that this facilitation is not achieved to the general detriment of either of the learner reactions identified. Meeting this challenge, teaching methods require a certain robustness , contributing to the solution of two separate if related problems , whilst achieving their goals and maintaining their appeal to an audience which is most likely to be heterogeneous in respect of the learners reactions it displays.
To meet the challenge the management educator must be able to justify the learner reactions of participants prior to observing their consequences. Reflecting on past courses, conferences or other learning events, we can often identify participants whose behavior, in one or more sessions conforms to the broad descriptions, almost stereotypes, that have been outlined. Fortunately, a number of sources other than observation can also be used to estimate the extent and nature of an audience’s heterogeneity. Evidence for the range of orientations can be gleaned from pre-event questionnaires. Such questionnaires, by identifying the balance of participants are a useful aid when determining the particular mix of teaching methods which can be effectively used.
The need for the continued growth of knowledge and practice in the field of HRM and management education is a viewpoint and collaboration between management scholars, academicians and practitioners and also between the disciplines of business, psychology, engineering and economics. Specifically, ones need to develop and incorporate into ones thinking an appreciation for the practitioners and academicians share the same concern for accurate description of present work conditions, yet the data itself needs to be provided by the practitioners.
Beck and cox (2003)
Conclusion:
One means of ensuring that HR practices are consistent with labor-market requirements be to staff the HR function with host country nationals. This paper shows differences in HR practices in different nations.
European history has been charged with conflict and alliances for two thousand years. Yet, from the beginning, there have been attempts to unify Europe. It may be that, in future as flexibility, adaptability and agility increasingly become sources of competitive advantage , the value of coherence and unity enjoyed by countries such as the USA and Japan is lessened and the value of diversity increases. If so, then regions like Europe, with its capacity to draw on substantial diversity , may be in a better position to respond to the challenges of the modern era.
Social entrepreneurship has significant potential to make positive and sustainable changes for the betterment of society’s long-lasting and problematic issues, such as pervasive poverty and widespread hunger.
References:
Brewster, C. (2000), ‘European Human Management’, in M. Warner (ed.), International Encyclopedia of business and management: Management in Europe . London: Thomson. Pp. 81-93.
Beck , J and Cox, C. (2003), Management education, Department of management Sciences , The university of Manchester Institute os science and technology chapter 1.
Curtis, A. (2006) The Century of Self. [Online] available from [accessed on 13 July 2011]
Edwards T., Rees Ch., (2006). IHRM: Gloaba­lization, National Systems and Multinational Com­panies. Prentice Hall 310, pp.
Freedman, R.D and Cooper C. (1982), Management Education Issues in Theory , research and practice, university of Manchester UK chapter 1.
Fomburn, C., Tichy , N. and Devanna, M. (1984) Strategic Human Resource Management , New York : wiley.
Jackson, T. (2002) ,International HRM: A cross-cultural Approach, London, 2002, Chapter 10, pp.
Legge,K. (1999) Human resource management Critical perspectives, vol: 1, pp209 – 260.
Locke, R. (1989). Management and higher Education since 1940, The Influence of America and Japan on West Germany , Great Britain and France. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
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Human

Psychology Paper; How Stress Affects the Human Mind

My topic of choice is stress. My first article informs you about the effects stress can have on your body and what you can do to avoid stress to keep your body healthy. (http://www. webmd. com/mental-health/effects-of-stress-on-your-body). The Effects of Stress on Your Body Stress is the body’s reaction to any change that requires an adjustment or response. The body reacts to these changes with physical, mental, and emotional responses. Stress is a normal part of life that happens to you and many things that you do yourself put stress on your body.
You can experience stress from your environment, your body, and your thoughts. How Does Stress Affect Health? The human body is designed to experience stress and react to it. Stress can be positive, keeping us alert and ready to avoid danger. Stress becomes negative when a person faces continuous challenges without relief or relaxation between challenges. As a result, the person becomes overworked and stress-related tension builds. Stress that continues without relief can lead to a condition called distress — a negative stress reaction. Read also Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD).
Distress can lead to physical symptoms including headaches, upset stomach, elevated blood pressure, chest pain, and problems sleeping. Research suggests that stress also can bring on or worsen certain symptoms or diseases. Stress also becomes harmful when people use alcohol, tobacco, or drugs to try and relieve their stress. Unfortunately, instead of relieving the stress and returning the body to a relaxed state, these substances tend to keep the body in a stressed state and cause more problems. Consider the following: * Forty-three percent of all adults suffer adverse health effects from stress. Seventy-five percent to 90% of all doctor’s office visits are for stress-related ailments and complaints. * Stress can play a part in problems such as headaches, high blood pressure, heart problems, diabetes, skin conditions, asthma, arthritis, depression, and anxiety. * The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) declared stress a hazard of the workplace. Stress costs American industry more than $300 billion annually. * The lifetime prevalence of an emotional disorder is more than 50%, often due to chronic, untreated stress reactions.

My second article below, talks about the myths of stress. What we should believe and the other factors of stress that are simply not true or unrelated to stress. (http://www. apa. org/helpcenter/stress-myths. aspx). Six myths surround stress. Dispelling them enables us to understand our problems and then take action against them. Let’s look at these myths. Myth 1:  Stress is the same for everybody. Completely wrong. Stress is different for each of us. What is stressful for one person may or may not be stressful for another; each of us responds to stress in an entirely different way.
Myth 2:  Stress is always bad for you. According to this view, zero stress makes us happy and healthy. Wrong. Stress is to the human condition what tension is to the violin string: too little and the music is dull and raspy; too much and the music is shrill or the string snaps. Stress can be the kiss of death or the spice of life. The issue, really, is how to manage it. Managed stress makes us productive and happy; mismanaged stress hurts and even kills us. Myth 3:  Stress is everywhere, so you can’t do anything about it. Not so. You can plan your life so that stress does not overwhelm you.
Effective planning involves setting priorities and working on simple problems first, solving them, and then going on to more complex difficulties. When stress is mismanaged, it’s difficult to prioritize. All your problems seem to be equal and stress seems to be everywhere. Myth 4:  The most popular techniques for reducing stress are the best ones. Again, not so. No universally effective stress reduction techniques exist. We are all different, our lives are different, our situations are different, and our reactions are different. Only a comprehensive program tailored to the individual works.
Myth 5:  No symptoms, no stress. Absence of symptoms does not mean the absence of stress. In fact, camouflaging symptoms with medication may deprive you of the signals you need for reducing the strain on your physiological and psychological systems. Myth 6:  Only major symptoms of stress require attention. This myth assumes that the “minor” symptoms, such as headaches or stomach acid, may be safely ignored. Minor symptoms of stress are the early warnings that your life is getting out of hand and that you need to do a better job of managing stress.
My articles presented facts on stress I was unaware of. Such as how a little stress can be good for you, because it keeps you alert and well managed. An individual with too much stress could have quite the opposite effect and become severely depressed and even eventually, lead to death. Another thing I came across is that everybody can have stress; however, everybody deals with stress in different ways. The stress I have most likely isn’t the same kind of stress that my parents have, and that means we all cope with stress with different techniques.
The stress that I most often experience has to do with school, work and dealing with my addict mother. From what I’ve read, school and work are some of the most frequent stressors that a person my age has to deal with. However, living with a severe drug addict has increased my stress in work and school exponentially. My articles also explain the negative and harmful effects that stress can have on a person’s body. If someone is too overwhelmed with stress they then start experiencing a condition known as distress.
Distress is followed by headaches, upset stomach, elevated blood pressure, chest pains and problems sleeping. When I’m stressed and have a lot on my mind, I find that I have difficulty sleeping. The lack of sleep then results in more stress and it becomes a vicious cycle. Also, seeing how people become stressed from being overworked, some people turn to substances to compensate and relieve stress. However, research has shown that substances can worsen the effects of stress tremendously. Substances such as alcohol keep the body in a stressed state and eventually cause more problems.
Any form of stress that you may be experiencing should be brought to attention. Covering up stress with medication and not treating the source could be damaging in the long run. The minor symptoms of stress are signs that your life is getting somewhat out of hand, you need to make necessary adjustments for your mental and physical well-being in order to avoid further stress. This is what is recommended anyways, but this is said so much easier than done. It’s insane how many people do not take these precautions and let their lives slip through their fingers.
Some Forty three percent of adults suffer health effects from stress and seventy five to ninety percent of doctor office visits are stress related, and if stress is camouflaged or ignored it can lead to an emotion disorder. Fifty percent of emotional disorders are the result of untreated stress. As I said earlier, everybody experiences stress differently, therefore, not everybody will have the same exact regiment to treat stress as others have. Stress not only affects you, but also affects the people at home and in your work environment. Stress can cause even the closest of relationships to diminish.
Stress is also present in your work atmosphere. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration declared stress a hazard of the workplace. Stress costs American industry more than $300 billion annually. Reading several articles pertaining to stress and my knowledge from class has presented me with different outlooks on how to avoid stress and more importantly how to handle stress in every task. By doing so, I can prevent myself from harming my body, mentally or physically. It’s imperative for people to realize that stress is an inevitable factor of life and that there are ways to cope with it.