An Edible History of Humanity

We started with the domestication of plants and animals and that let to farming. Farming let to Surplus food, population intensification/ more people, and also specialization/ division of labor. Instead of everyone being a hunter-gatherer, some people are farmers and some have other jobs.
This change le to a complex society, also known as civilization. Some of the common characteristics of civilization are cities, like early Mohenjo Daro and also government/ law codes. Such as the Pharaohs and the central government of Egypt and Hammurabi’s Law code. Some elements of civilization include cities, central government and law codes, writing and record keeping, highly organized religions, specialized jobs, and social classes.
The idea that someone can be wealthy or powerful and someone else is slave or lower class. Lastly, complex technologies can change depending on the period of time. Our technology now is smartphones. Summarily complex technology that can early civilization were the wheel and some of the transportation using the wheels such as the chariot.

Also, bronze swords. By 3,000 BCE, societies in Southwest Asia and Egypt were developing and they were becoming these complex societies. We saw them in the Mestopina and the Nile River Vally. By 1000 BCE civilization has popped up around the world.
The origins of human beings according to Ancient Sumerian Texts. Sumer or the land of civilized kings flourished in Mestoesphina, now modern day Iraq, around 4000-500 BC. Sumerian created an advanced civilization within its own system of elaborate language and writing. Architecture in Arts, Astronomy, and mathematics.
Their religious system was a complex one. It was comprised of hundreds of gods, rights, and cosmology. According to the Ancient texts, each Sumerian city was guarded by its own god. While humans and gods used to live together, the humans were servants to the gods. The Sumerian creation myths can be found on a tablet in Nippur. An Ancient Mesopotamian city founded in approximately 5000BC.
Summer is considered one of the first civilizations in Mesopotamia. Some consider it the first civilization in history. Some historians say that civilizations have characteristics. These historians agree to be considered a civilization there must be some sort of stable food supply, a social structure, a system of government, a religious system, a highly developed culture, advances in technology, and developed written language.
Civilizations need food to thrive. Archaeologists have found evidence of plow, which is a tool used in agriculture to prepare the soil for planting. Archaeologists also found written evidence of barley, which tells us that Sumer had a stable food supply. Civilizations have a complex organization of its people. People in a civilization of different jobs and social levels is there. Archaeologists have found evidence of an artisan class and an Upper class.
They, also discovered that the houses of Sumer were organized based on class. The people with the largest and most luxurious houses were near the center, while the common classes lived near the outskirts of the city. Civilization has a system of government in order to direct people’s behavior. Archeologists have found evidence that Sumerian city-states were ruled by kings and these kings enforced the laws and collected taxes.
They have also discovered evidence of a Sumerian army to help protect the city. All civilization has a religious system that includes a set of beliefs and a form of worship. Archaeologists believe that religious beliefs influenced every part of daily lives. They have also uncovered countless statues that showed their religious beliefs.
All civilizations have a highly developed culture including, arts. Archeologists have found evidence that Sumer had many different kinds of artisans who created weapons, cups, jewelry, and much more. They also discovered that music was a big part of the Sumerian culture.
All civilization create new forms of technology, they invent new things. Archeologists credit the Sumerians with the invention of the wheel. Sumerians also made great technological advancements to their building by developing an arc. Finally, all civilization have highly developed language. Archaeologists have found plenty of evidence of a written language that uses wedge-shaped characters called cuneiform.
The earliest examples of cuneiform show that it was used to record information about trade Sumerians made with each other. Sumer exhibited all the characteristics of civilization. They had a stable food supply, a social structure, a government, a religious system, a developed culture, technology, and a written language. Unfortunately for the Sumerians, their civilization did not last forever. They collapsed around 2000 BCE.
We start to see a large group of people in a small space. This really defines and makes the Neolithic era unique is this settlement of larger towns and soon-to-be cities with a large number of people and that really changes how society and how people interact and how people live.
One of the changes to society that we start seeing during the Neolithic Revolution is hunger.
It’s true that they have farms and all these domesticated animals that are fat and you can eat them without wandering around in the forest looking for barries. Well, interestingly the diet of Neolithic people doesn’t get better with settling. One of the problems is that since there is a kind of set amount of food. The diet isn’t very varied, whereas hunter-gatherers are eating a ton of different things and they have all sorts of different nutrition that they can get from their environments.
Whereas, when you’re sitting in a larger town or city and you’re depending on grain or cattle sometimes you’re eating the same thing over and over. Neolithic humans got shorter because their diet wasn’t good so they didn’t have enough to grow. From the average height goes down from five foot ten to five foot one. Which a pretty big drop. Not until recently do humans start growing taller.
Another change we see is growth in population. Just because they’re not healthy doesn’t mean they can’t support as many people. Since farms can produce a great deal of food you can start supporting a larger population. With a larger group of people, you start having a very a variety of jobs so there’re many different jobs and people are specializing.
You can really support people in many different ways. A Neolithic revolution starts having rather quite large settlements into the thousands of people. When you have people living in a fairly small location they get sick regularly. Diseases start to spread quicker and not just between people but often a lot of diseases are spreading from animals to humans.
Those include flu, smallpox, and measles. There’re certain areas where massive percentages of populations are being wiped out by disease. Lastly, social stratification is the result of the division of labor. It’s this idea that different people have different amounts of power, respect, and importance. For example, someone who is picking crops isn’t as important as someone that’s in charge of trade. It really starts to have effects on society, how people are seeing each other, and how you view yourself in the larger context of the world.


History of Spandex

The development of pdex was started during World War II. At this time, chemists took on the challenge of developing synthetic replacements for rubber. Two primary motivating factors prompted their research. First, the war effort required most of the available rubber for building equipment. Second, the price of rubber was unstable and it fluctuated frequently.
Developing an alternative to rubber could solve both of these problems. At first, their goal was to develop a durable elastic strand based on synthetic polymers.In 1940, the first polyurethane elastomers were produced. These polymers produced millable gums, which were an adequate alternative to rubber. Around the same time, scientists at Du Pont produced the first nylon polymers. These early nylon polymers were stiff and rigid, so efforts were begun to make them more elastic. When scientists found that other polyurethanes could be made into fine threads, they decided that these materials might be useful in making more stretchable nylons or in making lightweight garments.
The first pdex fibers were produced on an experimental level by one of the early pioneers in polymer chemistry, Farbenfabriken Bayer. He earned a German patent for his synthesis in 1952. The final development of the fibers were worked out independently by scientists at Du Pont and the U. S. Rubber Company. Du Pont used the brand name Lycra and began full scale manufacture in 1962. They are currently the world leader in the production of pdex fibers.

Raw Materials A variety of raw materials are used to produce stretchable pdex fibers.This includes prepolymers which produce the backbone of the fiber, stabilizers which protect the integrity of the polymer, and colorants. Two types of prepolymers are reacted to produce the pdex fiber polymer back-bone. One is a flexible macroglycol while the other is a stiff diisocyanate. The macro-glycol can be a polyester, polyether, polycarbonate, polycaprolactone or some combination of these. These are long chain polymers, which have hydroxyl groups (-OH) on both ends. The important feature of these molecules is that they are long and flexible.
This part of the pdex fiber is responsible for its stretching characteristic. The other prepolymer used to produce pdex is a polymeric diisocyanate. This is a shorter chain polymer, which has an isocyanate (-NCO) group on both ends. The principal characteristic of this molecule is its rigidity. In the fiber, this molecule provides strength. [pic] Corset designed by Jacob Kindliman of New York City in 1890. (From the collections of Henry Ford Museum & Greenfield Village, Dearborn, Michigan.
) This corset-clad torso was produced by Jacob Kindliman of New York City in 1890.Kindliman, a corsetiere, hardly needed to advertise. At that time, women thought it was necessary to wear a corset and considered themselves indecently dressed without it until early in the twentieth century. Corsets were a combination brassiere-girdle-waist cincher in an all-in-one garment, forming the foundation shape for fashionable dress. In days before pdex, how did the corset contour the body effectively? In the eighteenth century, thick quilting and stout seams on the corset shaped the body when the garment was tightly laced.In the early nineteenth century, baleen, a bony but bendable substance from the mouth of the baleen whale, was sewn into seams of the corset (hence the term whalebone corsets), however the late 1800s corsets like this were stiffened with small, thin strips of steel covered with fabric. Such steel-clad corsets did not permit movement or comfort.
By World War I, American women began separating parts of the corset into two garments—the girdle (waist and hip shaper) and bandeau (softer band used to support and shape the breasts). Nancy EV Bryk When the two types of prepolymers are mixed together, they interact to form the pdex fibers.In this reaction, the hydroxyl [pic] Dry-spinning process. groups (-OH) on the macroglycols react with the isocyanates. Each molecule gets added on to the end of another molecule, and a long chain polymer is formed. This is known as a step-growth or addition polymerization. To initiate this reaction, a catalyst such as diazobicyclo[2.
2. 2]octane must be used. Other low molecular weight amines are added to control the molecular weight of the fibers. Spandex fibers are vulnerable to damage from a variety of sources including heat, light atmospheric contaminants, and chlorine.For this reason, stabilizers are added to protect the fibers. Antioxidants are one type of stabilizer. Various antioxidants are added to the fibers, including monomeric and polymeric hindered phenols.
To protect against light degradation, ultraviolet (UV) screeners such as hydroxybenzotriazoles are added. Compounds which inhibit fiber discoloration caused by atmospheric pollutants are another type of stabilizer added. These are typically compounds with tertiary amine functionality, which can interact with the oxides of nitrogen in air pollution.Since pdex is often used for swimwear, antimildew [pic] Wet-spinning process. additives must also be added. All of the stabilizers that are added to the pdex fibers are designed to be resistant to solvent exposure since this could have a damaging effect on the fiber. When they are first produced, pdex fibers are white.
Therefore, colorants are added to improve their aesthetic appearance. Dispersed and acid dyes are typically used. If the pdex fibers are interwoven with other fibers such as nylon or polyester, special dying methods are required.


Police History Analysis

Police History Matthew Rico GJA/214 April 15, 2013 Damien Torres Police History Sir Robert Peel British Prime Minister Sir Robert Peel is responsible for the development of the modern concept of the policing system in the 1800s. The first American police officers deployed on foot with no special training, tactics, policies or procedures, and had minimal education. American policing is a direct reflection of English heritage. Peel and some of the greatest minds of the 1800s developed the Metropolitan Police Act that passed by Parliament in 1829.
The Police Act heard scrutiny and criticism. “The uniformed constables embodied a new style of policing in contrast to the small and disorganized parish forces of the 18th century” (Police, Prisons, And Penal Reform, 2013). ? Peel feared an autocratic society and developed nine policing principles for the London police. Peel’s principles consisted of clear directive, and ensured Parliament the London Metropolitan Police Force meant to protect the public cruel and overwhelming characteristics of the military.
Nevertheless, Parliament feared the possible threat of a military like police force may have over society, and passed the act. Parliament mandated the Metropolitan Police under high discipline, standards, and conduct. Avoiding misconduct and dishonesty the police used techniques such as employing individual’s form outside the city. Peel’s nine principles along with severe scrutiny established democratic and effective policing structure observed today. The American policing originally started with similarities as the British using only two of nine policing principles: military structure and beat patrol.

American policing system primary objective’s were preventive patrol and deter criminal activity, whereas British policing system focused on clear established goals set by Peel, such as preventing crimes. American state, county, and local policing systems did not have objectives and guidelines for officers to follow. This made American police corrupt, brutal, caused politician autocracy, and received attacks from the public. Politicians employed individuals as police officers who backed them, irrespective of education, experience, and qualifications to preserve their own power.
Officer’s enforced laws politicians passed for personal gain. It was common for newly elected politicians to dismiss an entire police force and re-hire individuals who supported his political campaign. Joining police agencies and politicians resulted in brutality and dishonesty to reach political objectives. In the 1900s a call for reorganization and elimination of political control in the policing system, known as the reform agenda. Police were considered public servants with a proficient duty to serve on a nonpartisan foundation. Today’s American police implement Peel’s nine founding principles with some modifications and additions.
American policing still reinventing, has recognized the accomplishments of the British policing system through principles created by Peel. U. S. Government and Policing Organizations Police of the United States consist of federal and state. State level consists of three levels of police: Local, County, and State Police. Highway Patrol and State Police have jurisdiction through their entire state. Patrol areas mainly consist of state highways and Government Buildings. County Sheriffs operate county jails, and patrol areas not within city limits. County Sheriffs are sometimes contracted to serve cities as local police.
City Police Patrol areas within their city limits. According to “Nypd Mission” (2013), “The MISSION of the New York City Police Department is to enhance the quality of life in our City by working in partnership with the community and in accordance with constitutional rights to enforce the laws, preserve the peace, reduce fear, and provide for a safe environment” (para. 1). Federal Level Police include organizations such as Federal Bureau of Investigations, Drug Enforcement Administration, Secret Service, and Immigration and Customs Enforcement.
Federal Police get their authority from the U. S. Constitution that safeguards Congress’ authority to control taxes and regional commerce. For example the Drug Enforcement Administration enforce laws on materials that have a ban. Police Practice and Government Relationship Each state is independent over their land and is different in respects to their Penal Codes. Federal organizations are regulated by Congress and seek national criminals and Tax linked laws. No state can create laws that fringe on the federal government according to the Constitution.
The Constitution also controls the federal governments power over the states. The government may pass laws and often set guidelines for police agencies. Basically the government guides police agencies in a direction in which they believe the policing should be going. References NYPD Mission. (2013). Retrieved from http://www. nyc. gov/html/nypd/html/administration/mission. shtml Police, Prisons, and Penal Reform. (2013). Retrieved from http://www. parliament. uk/about/living-heritage/transformingsociety/laworder/policeprisons/overview/metropolitanpolice/Sir


Studying History Is a Waste of Time

Studying history is a waste of time because it prevents us from focusing on the challenges of the present. People live in this present. They plan for and worry about the future. History, however, is the study of the past. Given all the demands that press in from living in the present and anticipating what is yet to come, the speaker concludes that studying history is a waste of time because it distracts us from current challenges.
However, I do not agree with this opinion because history is essential to individuals and our society. In the first place, history helps us understand people and societies. It offers a storehouse of information about how people and societies behave. Understanding the operations of people and societies is difficult, though a number of disciplines make the attempt. An exclusive reliance on current data would needlessly handicap our efforts. How can we evaluate war if the nation is at peace—unless we use historical materials?
How can we understand genius, the influence of technological innovation, or the role that beliefs play in shaping family life, if we don’t use what we know about experiences in the past? Some social scientists attempt to formulate laws or theories about human behavior. But even these resources depend on historical information, except for limited, often artificial cases in which experiments can be devised to determine how people act. Major aspects of a society’s operation, like mass election, missionary activities, or military alliance, cannot be set up as precise experiments.

Consequently, history must serve, however imperfectly, as our laboratory, and data from the past must be served as our most vital evidence in the unavoidable quest to figure out why our complex species behave as it does in societal settings. This fundamentally, is why we cannot stay away from history: it offers the only extensive evidential base for the contemplation and analysis of how societies function, and people need to have some sense of how societies function simply to run their lives. The second reason history is inescapable as a subject of serious study follows closely on the first. The past causes the present, and so the future.
Any time we try to know why something happened—whether a shift in political party dominance in the American Congress, a major change in the teenage suicide rate, or a war in Iraq – we have to look for factors that took shape earlier. Sometimes, fairly recent history will suffice to explain a major development, but often we need to look further back to identify the causes of change. Only through studying history can we grasp how things change; only through history can we begin to comprehend the factors that cause change; and only through history can we understand what elements of an institution or a society persist despite change.


History Cxc Adjustments to Emancipation

Adjustments to Emancipation| Coming of the Chinese, Europeans, Indians and Africans | Akia Selver| TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. Introduction………………………………………………………………………………………. Page 1 2. Bakcground………………………………………………………………………………………… Page 2 3. Africans……………………………………………………………………………………………… Page 3 4. Europeans…………………………………………………………………………………………. Page 5. Madeirans…………………………………………………………………………………………. Page 6. East Indians……………………………………………………………………………………….. Page 7. Contracts……………………………………………………………………………………………. Page 8. Effects………………………………………………………………………………………………… Page 9.
Bibliography ………………………………………………………………………………………… Page INTRODUCTION This project is based on the topic Adjustments to Emancipation from 1838 – 1876. It focuses on the Coming of the Chinese, Europeans, Indians and Africans into the Caribbean. Information is provided about their reasons for migration, working conditions and their effects on the Caribbean. Slavery was the initial labour system used by Europeans on their plantations in the Caribbean. It was implemented in the 1600s, the Europeans forcefully took people from the African continent to the Caribbean on various trips.
The path in which the slaves were carried between Africa and the Caribbean is now known to historians as the triangular trade. These Africans and those from the African lineage became slaves on the plantations where they were not seen as humans and were treated as animals or property. After the freedom of the enslaved population on the plantations in the 1830s, the planters were faced with irregularity of labour on the estates. This was because many of the slaves had left the plantation to go start a new life.

In addition, the remaining population had cultivated land of their own; often when it was harvest time instead of harvesting the crops on the estates, the freed people would harvest their own crops which posed a problem to the planters. As a result of this major problem, planters now had to develop new strategies to regulate the labour force on the estates. A major remedy to the inconsistency of the labour on the estates was the importation of indentured workers. AFRICANS Since Britain had abolished the slave trade, her warships had patrolled the seas looking for foreign boats carrying slaves.
Most of the captures they were of Brazilian and Cuban ships. When they were released they were usually taken to two British colonies, St Helena or Sierrre Leone. both colonies were in danger of being overcrowded so the British government was willing to encourage the liberated Africans to emigrate to the Caribbean. Most of the imported were free slaves, most notably of the Jamaican Maroons deputed in 1796. After 1841 most liberated Africans were brought to the Caribbean either as soon as they were taken from a slave ship or after a short time on St Helena. hese Africans were unused to European ways and had not been seasoned to plantation labour. They usually left the plantations as soon as they could and settled as squatters in the interiors. The scheme lasted from 1841 to about 1862. It was very popular at first but declined after 1850 for two reasons. Firstly the private ships that were chartered at the beginning to carry the emigrants from African made the Africans think about slavery all over again. secondly the agents in west Africa undoubtedly lured the Africans with false promises of money and land.
As soon as the news leaked back it was hard to attract more Africans. A total of 36000 immigrants arrived. COUNTRY| # of Immigrants| British Guiana| 14000| Jamaica| 10000| Trinidad| 8000| The rest arrived in Grenada, St Vincent, St Lucia and St Kitts. EUROPEANS Jamaica was the main country to import European labour. This was done to raise the white population and at the same time provide plantation labour. This experiment was a failure. From 1834 to 1838, thousands of Scots and Irish and a few hundred Germans came to Jamaica. Most died due to tropical diseases as they lacked immunity to them.
Others refused to work because of expected duties and found out that it was the work of blacks. They sought other employment or asked to be repatriated. In 1841 the Jamaican government made another attempt and imported more whites from Britain. After more deaths and requests to be sent home, the government finally realized that plantation labour from Northern Europe was a hopeless prospect. A total of 200 immigrants arrived in St. Kitts. MADEIRANS In the 1830s Planters in Trinidad and Guyana turned to Madeira, the Portuguese colony in the Atlantic where sugar was the main crop.
The first 125 Madeiran cane workers come to Trinidad in 1834, through Mr. Seale, an English merchant. 559 landed in Guyana the following year. Private importations of Madeiran began in 1835 but were suspended in 1839 while the British government examined the conduct of the schemes. Maideiran immigration was re-opened on an official basis in 1841 and large numbers went to British Guiana. The numbers decreased after 1846. In 1848 the scheme was suspended again. It was resumed in 1850, but was not popular. By 1856 Portuguese Madeirans controlled nearly all the retailing businesses in Guyana and St Vincent.
The immigration period lasted from 1835 to 1882. The scheme was very irregular, the death rate was of the new arrivals were high and most of them went into trading as soon as their contracts ended. In addition, the Madeiran Government objected to the scheme, since so many of its citizens were leaving, and implemented measures making it difficult for their recruitment.. In all 36,000 came. COUNTRY| # of Immigrants| British Guiana| 30,000| Antigua| 2,000| Trinidad| 1,000| Jamaica| 100| The rest were dispersed among Grenada, ST Vincent, ST Kitts and Nevis.
In Madeira, workers were paid only one third of what they could earn in the islands per day, so they were attracted by the higher wages being offered in the Caribbean, especially British Guiana. MALTESE Before 1840 a small number of Maltese came to the British West Indies, mainly British Guiana and Grenada. The Maltese were not satisfied with the conditions and asked to be return home. Malta was incapable of providing enough immigrants to solve the labour problem on West Indian sugar estates. CHINESE In 1802 the first governor off Trinidad received permission to import Chinese laborers from Malay.
Many Chinese were already moving to places like Malaya in South-east Asia where European plantations and trading posts were growing fast. They were easily persuaded to move and acquire indentures in Trinidad with the promise of small plots of land of after five years. In 1806, 162 Chinese immigrants landed in Trinidad. At their own request 61 returned in 1807. After seven years only 30 of the original immigrants lived in Trinidad and none of them worked on a plantation. In 1844 British Guiana tried to persuade Chinese who had previously emigrated to Malacca, Singapore and Penang. However, they were unwilling and were happy where they were.
In 1852 large-scale Chinese immigration began from Macao. The immigrants were convicts or prisoners of war and included no women, which had unhappy consequences for the scheme in British Guiana. In 1859 a family immigration scheme was started. An agent was sent from British Guiana in 1860 to Canton to accumulated Chinese families from rural areas of Fukien and Kwangtung. Trinidad joined the scheme in 1864 and shared the cost of agency. The scheme was more successful but the agents practiced some deception, they did not inform the Chinese of the work they were going to do and made false promises about repatriation.
The Chinese recruits were small farmers and market gardener not plantation labourers. Reason for migration: Most hoped for better living as shopkeepers or petty traders. They were promised small plots of land after 5 years. COUNTRY| # of Immigrants| British Guiana| 12000| Jamaica| 5000| Trinidad| 2500| EAST INDIANS In 1836 John Gladstone , a Guyanese plantation owner, applied to the Secretary of State for the Colonies for permission to import Indian labourers. In 1838, 396 arrived and the great flood of Indian immigration begun.
The Caribbean seemed attractive with high wages, shelter, medical care and a chance to find new occupations besides agriculture. It was immediately proclaimed a success. However, their fate was terrible. Investigations by the Anti-Slavery Society found evidence of fluffing and other forms of punishment. 9 of the Indians on the Gladstone estates died before their time of indenture was over. In July 1838 the Indian government suspended emigration to the West Indies while an investigation of the conditions in British Guiana was carried out by the Commission of Enquiry.
In 1844 immigration officially resumed and lasted until 1917. The planters’ demand from East Immigrant labour was very strong in the 1840s. In British Guiana the government spent ? 50,000 a year on immigration. Trinidad and Jamaica were also importing Indians on a large scale. Indians were easily recruited as India was a British colony. British ships and trading costs were already there and the British government could easily provide British officials to supervise the scheme. Planters were satisfied with the Indians because they were hard-working, accustomed to tropical agriculture and re-indentured themselves.
Up to 1848 the Indian immigrants, known as ‘coolies’, were drawn from the poor on the streets of the cities of Bombay, Calcutta and Madras. These cities always remained the ports of embarkation. After 1848 they were drawn from the provinces of Agra-Oudh and Buhar which always suffered terribly. Many of these emigrants were peasant farmers. In 1848, after giving loans to the governments of British Guiana, Trinidad and Jamaica, she wanted especially in British Guiana where the government much stricter supervision over immigration. Britain was spending ? 50 000 per year n immigration, was also allowing Indian immigrants to go to non- British colonies, the French, Dutch and Danish. In these territories it was not possible to oversee the treatment of put towards immigration, it was decided in 1876 to Trinidad and Jamaica were also importing Indians stop the transportation of Indians into all non- on a large scale, but the Jamaican government was British colonies except Surinam, Guadeloupe and Martinique. In 1886 Guadeloupe and Martinique British Guiana and Trinidad, were also banned, and only Surinam continued importing Indians until 1917.
The scheme may seem successful but in many ways it did not live up to expectations. It deprived human beings of freedom for long periods of time, there was great mortality and suffering for the immigrants and grave social problems were caused in West Indian territories. By 1917, 416,000 East Indian immigrants had entered the British West Indies. COUNTRY| # of Immigrants| British Guiana| 239,000| Trinidad| 134,00| Jamaica| 33,000| St Lucia| 4,000| Grenada| 3,000| St Vincent| 2,700| St Kitts| 300| Reasons for Migration: Many craftsmen had lost their jobs due to competition from mechanized factories and mills of England. * India was becoming overpopulated and there was not enough land to divide among the younger generation. * Wages in India had fallen to 1/2d per day and there was a series of famine during the period 1857-1877 that led to an increase in food prices. * Those escaping the police and the caste system were also willing to migrate. CONTRACTS At first black West Indian labourers moved from one island to another without contracts.
When planters started paying the cost of the passage they insisted on contracts. However, as these contracts were signed on arrival, there was little a planter could do if the terms were refused. The British government insisted that all indentured contracts had to state clearly the length of service, the number of hours to be worked each day, rates of pay and the conditions for a return passage. For most of the 1840s, the British government ship, single men, single women, and married would only permit contracts signed on arrival in couples were all berthed separately.
It was very rare government gave way to planters and permitted for a voyage to be completed without loss of life. Contracts to be signed at the port of embarkation. The average mortality rate on board was about This was better from the planters’ point of view, but 4 per cent until the 1850s, when it went as high as 17 per cent. On one ship in 1856 no fewer worse for the immigrants who had no protection than 120 of the 385 immigrants on board died against false promises before it reached British Guiana.
The conditions of the contracts varied according rate declined again in the 1860s and were under to the scheme and the colony involved. The indignities suffered immigrants, the British government would allow on passage did not end once the surviving contracts of only one year. In 1848 this was extended immigrants had landed and been set to work. to three years and in 1863 the planters got what they Their warm clothing was of little further use, had been pressing for from the beginning – five- and nothing more suitable for wear in the year contracts signed at the port of embarkation.
The government offered contracts. A field labourer on a plantation had to 5-acre (2 ha) lots of Crown Land to immigrants work seven hours per day, and a factory labourer, on the expiry of their contract. The wages were Is per day (later Is 6d) for Guiana government modified the clause about a man over sixteen, provided that he was healthy, return passages to require the immigrant to pay a and 8d per day for a woman or boy under sixteen, quarter of the cost himself.
In 1898 this was raised For the first three months after arrival, food would be supplied to the immigrant and 4d per day could The British Guiana Labour Laws of 1864 be deducted from his wages for this. The labourers greatly favoured the planter at the expense of the were to be housed in ‘barracks’ rent-free, and would immigrant. A breach of the labour laws was regarded receive free medicine and hospitalisation. The clause about free return passages was the For minor offences such as the failure to answer most controversial.
The planters and colonial one’s name at the muster roll in the morning, harsh governments did not want repatriation terms, which fines of up to ? 5 could be imposed. Other minor were insisted on by the governments of the countries offences were punishable by up to three months in of origin and by the British government. At first, prison. If a planter broke his side of the contract, immigrants were promised free return passages on such as the failure to pay full wages, the immigrant completion of their contract.
In 1854 they could had no recourse to the court, but could only go to claim repatriation only after living for ten years in the Petty Debts Department. EFFECTS SUGAR INDUSTRY * Their introduction resulted in the increased supply of labour. This of course created competition for estate work. * It is fair to argue that after 1845 many plantations that used immigrant labour found that they had a sure, steady supply of labour. Remember that the immigrants were contracted to work for a specified period. * Decrease in the price of labour. More land was bought and more mechanization was introduced in British Guiana * By the 1850’s and 60’s when there would have been a considerable importation of immigrants, the wages offered for work on estates were considerably lower than that which was offered immediately after Emancipation. * The introduction of immigrants, the cost of production decreased giving some estates a fighting chance to realise a decent profit. * As a result of the above factors, sugar production increased, particularly in Trinidad and British Guiana.
In these two territories also new estates were opened during this period, bringing these two colonies to a place of relative prosperity by 1870. In other instances, the closure of some estates was avoided. SOCIAL AND CULTURAL * New races were introduced, this resulted in a ‘permanent’ change in the racial composition of the colonies. * The sexual relations of the Chinese and Indians with the Negroes resulted in a further mixing of the races. * Worsening of relations between the two groups ­ Indians and Negroes. * The introduction of a culture, new language and the religions. * New foods * New festivals such as Hosein, Holi and Divali.
Summary Chart of Immigration Labour brought to the West Indies 1834-1917 COUNTRY| Europeans (1834-1841)| Madeirans (1835-1882)| Africans(1841-1862)| Chinese (1852-1893)| East Indians (1838-1917)| British Guiana| | 30000| 14000| 12000| 239000| Jamaica| 5000| 100| 10000| 5000| 33000| Trinidad| | 2000| 8000| 3000| 134000| Grenada| | 800| 1500| | 3000| St Vincent| | 500| 1000| | 2700| St Lucia| | 500| 500| | 4000| St Kitts| 200| 200| 500| | 300| Antigua| | 2000| | | | Total| 5200| 36100| 35500| 20000| 416000| BIBLIOGRAHPY 1. Caribbean Story Bk 2: The Inheritors 2. Emacipation to Emigration


Cavin Kare – History & Future

It is the story of David taking on Goliath. A small company having its base in Cuddalore in Tamil Nadu, is now taking on the multinationals of the FMCG world. The Levers of the world now have competition breathing down their necks, from an all too Desi company, CavinKare.Pioneers in the field of sachet revolution, and mass marketing in rural areas, CavinKare has grown from a Rs 15,000 venture to a company making a turnover of Rs 700 crores .
Year of Establishment : 1983 Chairman and Managing Director of CavinKare : Mr. C K Ranganathan History of Mr. C K Ranganathan : Ranganathan’s journey, which started from a small town of Cuddalore in Tamil Nadu, has been an amazing one. A business which he started with only with Rs 15,000 is now worth Rs 500 crore (Rs 5 billion). He learnt the first entrepreneurial lessons from his father, Mr.Chinni Krishnan, who started a small-scale pharmaceutical packaging unit, before moving on to manufacture pharmaceutical products and cosmetics. His father was his inspiration.
His father, Mr. Chinni Krishnan, an agriculturist, was also into pharmaceutical business. As he was poor in academics, his father wanted him to either do to either do agriculture or start a business. His siblings were good in studies — two of them became doctors and another a lawyer. He was the odd one out. While his siblings studied in English medium schools, he was put in a Tamil medium school.He used to suffer from an inferiority complex because of his poor academic record.

Studies did not interest him, but rearing pets did. When he was in the fifth standard, he had a lot of pets — more than 500 pigeons, a lot of fish and a large variety of birds. He used to earn his pocket money out of pet business at that time. Perhaps, the entrepreneurial spirit in him showed its first streak. His father died as he entered college. He had come out with the sachet concept a couple of years prior to his demise. He felt liquid can be packed in sachets as well.
When talcum powder was sold only in tin containers, he was the one who sold it in 100 gm, 50 gm and 20 gm packs. When Epsom salt came in 100 gm packets, his father brought out salt sachets of as low as 5 gm. Their marketing strategy is to make, what the coolies want and the rickshawpullers want to use. He wants to make his products affordable to them,’ he says. Selling things in sachets is his motto and as he says, ‘this is going to be the product of the future. ‘ But his father could not market the concept well. He moved from one innovation to another but never thought of marketing strategies.
He was a great innovator, but a poor marketer. Joining the family business after his father’s death, his brothers took charge of the family business. In 1982, when he joined them after his studies, they had launched Velvette Shampoo. Within eight to nine months, he left the business because my ideas clashed with theirs. As he was in the manufacturing unit, he did not know anything about marketing or finance. But, his inferiority complex notwithstanding, he was somehow confident of doing business better. He had left his brothers saying that he did not want any stake in the property or business.
That was a defining moment for him. He had saved Rs 15,000 from his salary and that was all he had. Yet he was confident of achieving success. He did not feel anything about riding a bicycle after having got used to cars. For a week, he could not make up my mind as to what business to do. He knew only two things; making shampoo and rearing pets. He didn’t want to venture into the shampoo business as it would initiate a fight with his brothers.
However, he decided to do the same later as he could only make shampoo. He rented a house-cum-office for Rs 250 a month against an advance of Rs 1,000.He took another place for the factory for a rent of Rs 300 a month and against an advance of Rs 1,200. He bought a shampoo-packing machine for Rs 3,000. The company began its journey as Chik India Ltd. How Chik Shampoo was born He named it Chik Shampoo after my father. The product did not succeed immediately; they learnt many things during the process.
In the first month, they could sell 20,000 sachets and from the second year, they started making profits. He moved to Chennai in 1989 but their manufacturing unit continued to be in Cuddalore. It took him three years to get the first loan because banks asked for collateral.He did not have any. But one particular bank gave him a loan of Rs 25,000 which we rotated and later upgraded to Rs 400,000, Rs 15 lakh (Rs 1. 5 million), etc. The bank manager wrote in their loan application ‘This person does not have any collateral to offer but there is something interesting about this SSI unit.
Unlike others, this company pays income tax! ‘ His business never looked back because he was very particular about paying income tax. Strategies that made Chik Shampoo No. 1 in South India When Chik entered the market, Velvette Shampoo was being marketed aggressively by Godrej .But a scheme of theirs became extremely successful — they exchanged five sachets of any shampoo for a Chik Shampoo sachet, free. Later, they altered the scheme — they started giving one free Chik Shampoo sachet in lieu of five Chik Shampoo sachets only. Soon, consumers started asking for Chik sachets only. Their sales went up from Rs 35,000 to Rs 12 lakh (Rs 1.
2 million) a month. When we introduced jasmine and rose fragrances, our sales went up to Rs 30 lakh (Rs 3 million) per month and with actor Amala as our model, our sales rose to Rs 1 crore (Rs 10 million) a month! Each idea of ours was rewarded by our customers.There has been no looking back since then. Our market share increased and in 1992, we became the numero uno in South India. It took nine years for him to overtake his brothers’ business. How Chik Shampoo conquered the rural market Multinational companies sold products in big bottles and not in sachets and they sold only from fancy stores. They did not look at the small kirana stores, nor did they look at the rural market.
They went to the rural areas of South India where people hardly used shampoo. They showed them how to use it. They did live demonstration on a young boy.They asked those assembled to feel and smell his hair. Next they planned Chik Shampoo-sponsored shows of Rajniknath’s films. They showed our advertisements in between, followed by live demonstrations. They also distributed free sachets among the audience after these shows.
This worked wonders in rural Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh. After every show, Their shampoo sales went up three to four times. Today, the Indian rural market is growing at a pace double than that of the urban market. Launching Meera Herbal powder They continued with Chik Shampoo for seven years before venturing into anything else.Meera Herbal powder was actually not their idea. Shaw Wallace already had a herbal product but it was marketed very poorly. They felt there was a demand for herbal products and they made a good product.
He felt they should be the leader if theirs was a good product. And guess what? In the third month itself, they topped the market. In six months, they had 95 per cent market share, while Shaw Wallace had only 4-5 per cent. How Beauty Cosmetics became CavinKare As they planned to expand to new products, they thought the name Beauty Cosmetics would be restrictive.In 1998, they ran a contest among our employees for a name and one of them suggested CavinKare ; with C and K spelt in capitals. CK,his father’s initials. Cavin in Tamil means beauty and grace.
Perfumes for the poor They wanted to cater to those who cannot afford (high priced) perfumes. Good perfumes came at a huge price — they were beyond the means of ordinary people. They decided to come out with a Rs 10 pack Spinz. They were successful in that too. Shampoo market share In the last two to three years, their market share has come down though they are growing.It is mainly because of the anti-dandruff shampoos in the market. They do not have an anti-dandruff shampoo yet.
From 0 per cent, the anti-dandruff shampoos have taken over 25 per cent of the market. Only 75 per cent of the market, therefore, constitutes ordinary shampoos. We hold 20 per cent of the market share. But they are the largest brand in rural Uttar Pradesh , Andhra Pradesh, etc. and they are the number one in many other states as well. On the decision to launch a fairness cream They decided to launch Fairever in 1997 as they saw a huge demand fairness cream.They are the second largest player in the market in this.
Research states that when a product is good, consumers do not shift to a new brand. His team told him not to venture into the fairness cream market as the consumers were quite satisfied with the existing products. But they went to launch their product containing saffron — which is traditionally used to get a fair complexion. In six months, their sales galloped. This was followed by Indica hair dye. Two and a half years ago, they launched Ruchi pickles in sachets and they became number one there too.They sell close to 5,000 tonne of pickles per annum.
They hope to double this in two to three years. Food is a huge market and they have understood that. Their target is to be a Rs 1,500 crore (Rs 15 billion) company in another three years. CSR activities 1)CavinKare Ability Foundation awards for physically disabled achievers. He stayed as a tenant at Mrs. Jayashree Ravindran’s place (the woman who started the Ability Foundation). Once, she said she wanted to start a magazine for the disabled.
Though she did not ask for sponsorship, he gave her a cheque of Rs 25,000.He also became one of the Foundation’s founder members. Once they came to know about the disabled who have climbed the ladder of success, they — Ability Foundation and CavinKare — decided to institute an award for them. 2) CK School of Practical Knowledge. It is in the process of strengthening , rebuilding and reorienting the existing system of education by introducing Life Oriented Practical Education with academics. Students are reoriented to lay emphasis on humanity, problem solving capabilities, leadership, entrepreneurship, team work and experimentation instead of the convention of learning.Acheivements ; Persona : C K Ranganathan was conferred the prestigious “Entrepreneur of the year award” by “The Economic times” in 2004.
CKR’s personal philosophy is his trust in people and passion for creating a seamless organization. He always leads from the front. He is very quick in giving his views and decisions. He likes to raise the bars of performance after his colleagues accomplish milestones. This in turn has a cascading effect transforming the whole organization to be nimble footed and agile. Group Companies : Trends in vogue : Trends In Vogue Pvt. Ltd.
a group Company of CavinKare came into being in July 2002 with a clear-cut focus on providing personal styling and beauty solutions to everyone in the family. The Company has pioneered the concept of ‘Family Salons’ in India with its specialist brands – LimeLite, and Green Trends. With a team of professionals, highly qualified cosmetologists and hair care specialists from its in-house institution, Trends Academy and with the skill base of the CavinKare R;D team, Trends In Vogue offers a range of Cosmetic treatments including those made from “natural” ingredients.Realising that there was a need gap in the grooming industry, the Company has two separate chains, catering to assorted wallet sizes. Green Trends has a range of men’s and women’s Salons aimed at the middle class. Limelite is the premium brand of Salons targeting upper crust men, women and kids to ensure that it offers ‘an international standard beauty care’ to its customers. They use various products from different brands at these Salons, including those that do not belong to them.
The objective is to give the consumer a service suitable for them.Trends Academy Trends Academy is the first of its kind Beauty training institution in South India. It has brought professionalism and credited recognition to people who wished to make beauty a profession. Creating careers in the field of beauty and styling, Trends Academy has ushered in a comprehensive approach with in-depth focus on theory and techniques. The emphasis of the academy is to train their students to acquire soft skills and etiquette as well as the technical skills related to beauty and styling.Excellent facilities, latest equipment, spacious classrooms and practice areas offer “hands-on” experience to each student. Other facilities include Video demonstration, practice labs and practical exposure in our Parlors.
The academy has tie ups with City ; Guilds from UK and Wella, one of the leading international beauty suppliers from Germany, to train the students in beauty treatment with international standard. The academy admits students based on a personal screening and interview. Once the students successfully complete the specified course, and the best get offered a job at our Salons Green Trends and Limelite.Two Major Brands under Trends In Vogue •Limelite •Green Trends Limelite In an age where a premium is placed on looking and feeling good, and the desire to be attractive is on the rise in India, Limelite,a Lifestyle Salon, which offers you a complete grooming experience you would never forget. Limelite has a spacious and an inviting ambience, talented and trained aestheticians, who are committed to deliver outstanding service with personalised attention. So when you walk out, you have the satisfaction of having been treated by the best.An Upmarket Unisex Salon with Spa facilities, Limelite is the only such combo experience to suit your lifestyle.
Limelite offers a wide range of new-age hair dos, facials, body massage and hair styling and colouring services. The Salon also offers oxygen therapy, aromatherapy, expert counselling, skin care, make-up, hair and foot spa, colouring and an extensive array of body treatments. In addition Limelite has exotic unique services such as Pina Colada Manicures and Pedicures, Choco dip Pedicures, Body Wrap, Milk Bath, Mango Butter Facial and Baby corn Butter Scrubs to pamper you.It has a separate ladies private studio and an exclusive kid’s colourful section with staff especially trained. All services are offered by trained and certified personnel. Bored with gifting loved ones nicely wrapped conventional gifts ? Limelite also offers gift vouchers of different denominations which can be used for the beauty or spa treatment at Limelite. Currently Limelite has outlets in many locations in Chennai, Bangalore and Delhi and we plan to expand to become India’s leading chain of unisex Salons.
So come, indulge yourself in a lifetime grooming experience and we, at Limelite, believe, we‘ll have you coming back for more! Green Trends From neighbourhood Parlour to a more professional branded Salon, Green Trends is a Family Beauty Salon which focuses on personal attentive grooming with an accent on natural products at an affordable price. The Salon is spacious, the interiors, well designed, with a spa room and a steam bath. While the men’s and women’s sections have been conveniently separated, there is a special area reserved for kids.Green trends believes in making you beautiful ‘Naturally beautiful from head to toe’ with its passion for delivering beauty naturally. They have a panel of experts who will answer queries on beauty, skin care and personal grooming. Staffs are Cosmetologists and specialist beauty care professionals trained by international experts at the Trends Academy of Aesthetics. Located in different residential pockets in Chennai, and Bangalore, Green Trends is the most popular destination for family grooming.
SWOT Analysis for Cavinkare IndiaStrengthsWeaknesses • Ability to understand local market • Strong distribution network1300 Stockists well organized. • Strong in shampoo segment. • Strong product portfolio with Brands like chick, nyle which are best sellers in southern India. • Ability to cater unpenetrated rural market where again chick brand is the leader. • Strong R&D • Strong marketing team. • Not having world wide operations. • Not having strong products in the to hair colors segment.
• Not having strong products in the hair oil segment. OpportunitiesThreats Can to go for more vertical mergers so as to tap more market mostly in the northern zone where the reach is still weak. • can go for more acquisition so as to increase their reach both in local and global market• More and more FMCG companies are coming toIndia, so company might loose share within their strong shampoo segment. • Shampoo market is getting saturated so need to find other segments where opportunity is high like hair color, hair dye etc. Outline of Future : 1)International business division was formed in 1999 to take the brands of CavinKare beyond the boundaries of India.Currently, CavinKare is marketing its brands across 12 countries including Srilanka, Nepal, Bangladesh, Malaysia, Singapore, USA and GCC Countries. In a significant move towards geographical expansion high potential markets like Egypt, Nigeria, and United Kingdom are also being considered for entry.
2)The company plans to take on fast food multinational corporations (MNCs) such as McDonald’s Corp. not just in India, but also overseas with a multi-cuisine fast food restaurant format that it is currently testing.In July 2009, CavinKare decided to study the fast food business by opening its first outlet, branded CK’s Foodstaurant, in Puducherry. The restaurants are branded CK’s Foodstaurant, like CavinKare, a play on the name of the founder. The menu for the chain in India will be a combination of Indian fare such as idlis, dosas and sandwiches, and American favourites such as burgers and fries, but the restaurants will take on a slightly different avatar overseas. 3)Revenue Growth : The family-owned CavinKare logged sales of Rs700 crore in 2008-09 and expects to nearly double its sales to Rs1,500 crore in 2009-10,


American History During Nineteenth Twentieth Century

* In the “reconstruction” congress required the setting up of new state government for a second time. * The 14th amendment stipulated that no state shall “deprive any person of life, liberty or property, without due process of laws; or deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws” * March 4th 1689 Former Union General Ulysses S.
Grant, a republican, took office as the 18th president of the US, having campaigned on the slogan: “ let us have peace” * Alaska had been purchased recently in 1867, for Tsar alexander II of Russia for $7. 2 million * The purchased of Alaska had been criticized as “Seward’s Folly” in ridicule of secretary of state William Henry Seward because of a popular view that Alaska was a cold land of little economic value except for fur and fishing. * January, 1870 John D.
Rockefeller incorporated the standard Oil Company in Cleveland, Ohio * Within 5 years standard oil company controlled kerosene refineries in New york, Philadelphia and Pittsburgh, and talking over kerosene marketing terminal and distributors * September 4th, 1872 New York city’s Sun newspaper exposed the Credit Mobilier scandal * Massachusetts congressman Oakes Ames, together with director of the union pacific railroad, had formed a construction company which received large government contracts * Furthermore, congressman Ames had distributed shares of the company to other congressman, to official in the cabinet, and to Vice –president Schuyler Colfax * Till 1920 the majority of the US population was engaged in agriculture * Farmers and democratic candidates for office favored the coinage of silver, because some thought banks and financiers in the northwest manipulated the price of gold * March 4th 1874: President Grant began his second term March 11th, 1874: The Wisconsin legislature passed the potter law, which imposed state regulation of railroad freight rates * It was call “a Granger law”, because a farmer’s association growing in importance, the National Grange of the patrons of husbandry, called the “Grange” for short, had been pushing for government regulation of rail road freight rates * In 1874 what has been called “home-rule”, “the solid south”, and “the new south” was happening instead of boycotting the reconstructed state government, whites began voting in large numbers again, turning out carpet baggers, scalawags, and radical republicans and replacing them with Democrats * The discovery of gold and silver had been a major factor in drawing people from the east half of the U. S to California in 1849,, to Colorado and Nevada in 1859, and to south Dakota in 1875 * On the seventh ballot, it nominated Ohio governor Ruther Ford B. Hayes for president * June 26th 1876: in the battle of little bighorn, 265 cavalry under the command of Lt. Colonel George A. Custer were killed while pursuing the Sioux in Montana territory * January 16th, 1883: Congress passed a civil service act introduced by senator George H.

Pendleton of Ohio, the Pendleton civil service reform act, which set up a three member commission to oversee entrance exams for 14000 federal jobs, to which presidents could add in the future. * February, 1883: The senate ratified a treaty of friendship and commerce between the US and Korea * March 3,1886: Grover Cleveland a democrat took office as president * February 4, 1887: Congress passed the interstate commerce act, which prohibited railroads from discriminating among shippers, prohibited railroads from fixing prices, prohibited railroads from forming pools to divvy traffic among themselves and authorized the formation of a presidentially appointed five members interstate commerce commission to regulate rates. On April 22 1889: President Harrison officially opened part of Indian territory to settlement * July 2, 1890: Congress passed the Sherman antitrust act * The Sherman antitrust act outlawed Rockefeller-like “trust”, in which shares of stock were exchanged for certificates, and it outlawed other combinations and “conspiracies” which restrained interstate commerce and foreign trade * On May 19,1891, members of the farmer alliances and labor unions meeting in a convention in Cincinnati , Ohio, formed a new people’s or populist party * July 2, 1982: The newly organized populist party in Omaha, Nebraska, and nominated a recently defeated greenback party Iowa congressman, James B. Weaver, for president * The platform of the Populist party called for government ownership of railroads, grain storage facilities, telegraph lines, and telephone line. * It called for the coinage of silver * It called for a graduated income tax * It called for popular election of US senators * It called for the secret ballot Test 2 note * February 18th 1898: a US battleship Maine exploded in Havana Harbor, Cuba * Afterward “remember the Maine” became a slogan of some American who blames Spain for the explosion and wanted go to war * April 25th congress declare war on Spain * On July 1 – 2, 1898, US infantry under gen. Hamilton S.
Hawkins took San Joan Hill to the east of Santiago * Nearby, Colonel ( and recent assistant secretary of the navy ) Theodore Roosevelt, on horse-back, charge up Kettle Hill, followed by the 9th and 10th African American regiment, on foot * February 6th,1899: the US senate ratified the formal treaty ending the Spanish – American war, the treaty of Paris is which Puerto Rico became US possession, the US paid Spain 20 billion for the Philippines and the independence of Cuba was recognized * September 6th,1899, secretary of state John Hay proposed to Britain, Germany, and Russia an “open door” policy for China: Chinese ports be opened to the trade of all nations * During the 1900 election campaign, both the democratic presidential candidates William Jennings Bryan, and the Republican vice-president candidate Theodore Roosevelt, attacked “trust” monopoly * December 2nd, 1901: President Roosevelt asserted in his first annual message to congress, “the government should have the right to inspect and examine the workings of the great corporations engaged in interstate business. * June 17th,1902: congress passed the Newlands reclamation act, authorizing the president to set aside more land for national parks * In august, 1902, president Roosevelt travelled through New England and the Midwest speaking out against abuses of “trust”, meaning, in the use if the time, monopolies. * President Roosevelt conspired with the former chief engineer of the French construction of a canal across the Isthmus of Panama, Philippe Bunau-Varilla, in organizing a “revolution” against Columbia * On November 3rd,1903, a revolt against Columbia broke out in panama city with arm distributed by the city fire department * Marines from three US hips prevented Colombian troops from reaching Panama city * November 6th,1903 : secretary of the state john hay recognized the newly established country of Panama * March 14th,1904: the supreme court decided against the northern securities company in the Sherman antitrust case that the Roosevelt administration had brought against the company in 1902 and ordered the dissolution of the company * November 8th, 1904: president Roosevelt won the presidential election, to whom, some historians have asserted, a large percentage of growing urban white-collar vote went. * December 6th, 1904: in his annual message to congress, Roosevelt introduced the Roosevelt the Roosevelt corollary to the Monroe doctrine: the US may act as an “international police power” in the western hemisphere when “chronic wrong doing” arises. June 4th, 1906: president Roosevelt released the Reynolds and nulls report, which confirmed unhealthy conditions in meatpacking * June 30th,1906: congress passed the pure food and drug act, which was aimed at mislabeling and adulteration of food, and, on, the same day, congress also passed the meat inspection act * During 1907 president Roosevelt set aside five national parks, sixteen national monuments, and fifty one wildlife sanctuaries * June 8th, 1908: after the national conservation congress, president Roosevelt appointed a national conservation commission to inventory the country’s natural resources * August, 1910: during a 16 state tour former president Theodore Roosevelt proposed regulation of corporate involvement in politics, a graduated income tax, inheritance taxes, federal labor regulations, conservation, and a tariff commission—all of which were called “new nationalism” or “square deal” * June 22nd, 1912: when the republican national convention was adjourning in Chicago, republicans who wanted to run Theodore Roosevelt again for president, instead of Taft, met at another location in Chicago and formed the progressive party, which was also called the “Bull Moose Party” * December 23rd, 1913: president Wilson signed the Glass-Owens Federal reserve Act, which would go into effect in November, 1914, setting up the federal reserve system of twelve regional bankers’ banks connected to national banks and optionally to state banks * A presidentially appointed board of governors set interest [“discount”] rates on loans to member banks * April 6th, 1917 congress declared war on Germany * January 1st, 1920 the Red Scared began with US attorney general A.
Mitchell palmer’s deportation of 500 resident Russians and arrest of more than 6000 other people, most of whom were released afterward * On June 8-12, 1920, the republican national convention met in Chicago and nominated a tobacco chewing, poker playing, whiskey drinking senator of Ohio, Warren G. Harding, for president and governor Calvin Coolidge of Massachusetts for Vice-president * Harding was remembered particularly for the following line made in a speech a month before the republican convention: “America’s need is not heroics, but healing, not nostrums, but normalcy” * November 2nd,1920: republican senator warren G. Harding of Ohio won the presidential election with 16152000 popular votes and 404 electoral votes over 9147353 popular votes and 127 electoral votes for democrat James M. Cox * March 4th,1921 Warren G. Harding, republican, took office as president * March 4th, 1923: secretary of interior Albert B.
Fall resigned during a senate investigation into the lease of naval oil reserves at Teapot Dome, Wyoming, and Elk Hills, California, without competitive bidding * In addition to the Teapot Dome Scandal, the administration had been shaken by two suicides in March, 1923, and a Senate investigation and resignation of the director of veterans bureau, Charles R. Forbes, for mismanagement * August 2nd, 1923: president Harding died from an embolism in San Francisco during a trip to the West Coast and Alaska * October 24th, “black Thursday”, and again on October 9th, “black Tuesday”, 1929, the stock market crashed, beginning the Great Depression * June 27th – July 2nd, 1932: The democratic national convention also met in Chicago and nominate the Governor of New york, Franklin D.
Roosevelt, for president * Roosevelt campaigned for a “New Deal” and accused republicans of catering to special interest and big spending * On March 31th, 1933: Congress created the civilian conservation corps to employ young men in national forest reclamation project * April 19th, 1933: president Roosevelt, supported by act of congress, took the U. S off the gold standard purposely to devaluate the dollar and force the circulation of more money * June 16th, 1933: On the last of day of the Hundred Days, Congress passed the national recovery Act which created the national recovery administration, NRA, to draw up industrial codes, which included minimum wages, maximum hours, and collective bargaining, and created the public works administration, PWA, nder the secretary of the interior to fund public construction project * November 8th, 1933: the civil works administration was created by executive order to employ millions directly, bypassing the need of the state governments to match federal grants offered under federal emergency recovery administration * April 8, 1935 congress passed the emergency relief appropriation act, which authorized the president to disburse 5 billion by executive order for “work relief and to increase employment by providing useful project * May 6th, 1935: In pursuance of the act, the Works Progress administration, WPA, was set up * From 1933 to 1939 the US national debt had increased to $10,439,000,000 * On December 7th, 1941, Japanese armed forces made a surprise attack on the US pacific base at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, as part of its strategy to take the Dutch East Indies, where there was oil Test 3 December 11th, 1941: Germany under Hitler and Italy under Mussolini, allies of Japan, declared war on the US * November 7th, 1942: In operation Torch, US forces under general Dwight D. Eisenhower began landing in Morocco and Algeria * The US forces under General Dwight D. Eisenhower pushed the German and Italian armies toward Tunisia, while the British pushed them from Egypt. * June 6th,1944: D-Day a twelve nation allied expeditionary force (AEF) of 175000 soldiers, 5000 ships, and 6000 airplanes, invaded Normandy, France, from Britain * The invasion was called operation overlord * US General Dwight D. Eisenhower was top commander of the operation * September 12th,1944: US forces began entering Germany August 6th,1945: An US B-29, the “Enola Gay,” piloted by Colonel Paul Tibbett drop an atomic bomb, “little boy”, on a site of Japan’s defend industry, Hiroshima * August 9th, 1945: A US B-29, the “Bockscar,”, piloted by major Charles Sweeny dropped another atomic bomb on a second Japanese defend industry site, Nagasaki * March 5th, 1946: Former British Prime Minister Winston Churchill announced that “… an iron curtain has descended across Europe” in a speech at Westminster College in Fulton, Missouri * June 23th, 1947: Congress, in which Republicans outnumbered democrats, passed the Taft-Hartley Act over Truman’s veto * The Taft-Hartley Act authorized courts to issue injunctions imposing a from-sixty-to-eighty-day cooling off period on any strike jeopardizing public health or safety * The Taft Hartley act also made it illegal to use union dues to aid political parties * The Taft Hartley Act made the closed shop, hiring union members only, illegal, but it did not illegalize the union shop, requiring union membership after hire * US secretary of State George C.
Marshall indicated that the US would contribute to an European recovery plan that funneled US aid through an organization representing the participating countries, which became known as the “Marshall Plan” * December 19th, 1947, President Truman presented to Congress the European recovery plan that had been negotiated at Paris, the Marshall Plan, amending, though, the $28 billion originally negotiated to $17 billion * April 3rd, 1948, Congress passed the Foreign Assistance act, which appropriated $4 billion for the “Marshall plan” * June 28, 1948 The Foreign Aid appropriations Act directed $6 billion to the Marshall Plan and other foreign aid * July 12-15, 1948 The democratic national convention met in Philadelphia and nominated Truman for president * The democratic national convention adopted a civil right plank * July 17, 1948 Southern Democrats, “Dixiecrats” met in Birmingham, Alabama, formed the States Rights party, nominated Governor Strom Thurmond of South Carolina for President, and adopted a segregationist plank * July 6, 1948 President Truman ended racial segregation in the US military by executive order and called for an end to racial discrimination in federal jobs * April 4th,1949 Representatives of the US, Canada, Britain, Belgium, Netherlands, Luxemburg, France, Italy, Denmark, Norway, and Iceland signed the north Atlantic security treaty in Washington DC, setting up an anti-communist, west European-North American, defensive alliance, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, NATO * February 7th, 1950 Republican Senator Joe McCarthy of Wisconsin said that there were Communists in the State Department when he gave a speech to a women’s club in Wheeling, West Virginia * 13 days later Senator McCarthy said that he had a list of Communist suspects * July 8th,1950 US general Douglas MacArthur was named Supreme Commander of the UN forces in South Korea, which were made up of mostly US personnel * July 20th, 1950 The Senate Foreign relations committee reported that Senator Joseph McCarthy’s allegations about Communist in the State Department ( made five months before) were unsubstantiated * July 7-11, 1952 The Republican National convention met in Chicago, and nominated General Dwight David Eisenhower for president and senator Richard M. Nixon of California for vice-president * The Republican national convention’s platform supported a balanced budget, reduction of the national debt, and the Taft-Hartley Act * January 20, 1953 Dwight D. Eisenhower, a republican, was inaugurated president of the United state * July 27, 1954 At Panmunjon, South Korea, near the North Korean border, U.
N and North Korean officials signed an armistice and conditions for prisoner exchange * January 12, 1954 Secretary of State John Foster Dulles announced a policy of “massive retaliation,” which he described as “keeping a large strategic reserve in the US to counter any communist threat to take over the Free World” * April 7, 1954 President Eisenhower told the press that he favored continuing US aid to the French in Indochina to prevent Southeast Asia becoming a “falling row of dominoes” to Communism * April 22 to June 17, 1954 A senate subcommittee investigated senator Joseph McCarthy after he had charged that there were Communists in the army, resulting in Senate censure of McCarthy on December 2, 1954 * On December 1, 1955 Mrs. Rosa Parks was arrested for sitting in the front “white” section of a bus in Montgomery, Alabama * A boycott of the bus system led by a local Baptist minister named Martin Luther King Jr. ollowed * From 1956 to 1959 the US slid into a recession, with declines in sales, productivity, and employment * In response, the Federal Reserve System lowered its discount rate, and Congress funded construction, especially highway construction, which had been proposed by the Eisenhower Administration * September 4-20, 1957 Governor Orville Faubus of Arkansas used the National Guard to block the entry of African America students into Little Rock Central High School till a federal injunction forced the removal of the Guard * September 23, 1957, rioting broke out a Little Rock Central High School * September 25, 1957 President Eisenhower sent the US army in to protect the nine African American students attending Little Rock high School * September 2, 1958 In the aftermath of Sputnik, President Eisenhower signed the National Defense education act, setting aside $800 million over four years for the teaching of science and foreign languages in school and colleges and for loans to college students * At the convention Senator Kennedy pushed for medical care for all aged Americans, and, in his acceptance speech, he called for sacrifices on a road to a “New Frontier” * January 17, 1961 In a live Farewell Address on TV, president Eisenhower warned about the increasing power of a “military industrial complex” * January 20, 1961 John F.
Kennedy, Democrat was inaugurated President of the US * March 1, 1961 By executive order President Kennedy created the Peace Corps, which funded Americans with particular academic knowledge or technical skills in developing countries where the knowledge or skills were needed * March 13, 1961 President Kennedy called for an Alliance for Progress in which US aid would raise health, education, and living standards in central and south America at the grassroots level * During April 17-20, 1961, about 1300 Cuban refugees landed at the Bay of Pigs, Cuba, to enter Cuba to set up a base of operations to overthrow Fidel Castro, but failed * The Cuban refugees had received military training under the auspices of the CIA since the Eisenhower Administration, they had been transported to the Bay of Pigs on US ships, and they had received US air cover * May 25, 1961 In a speech before Congress six weeks after the Soviets had placed a man in orbit, President Kennedy proposed sending a man to the moon by the end of the century * July 17, 1962 A proposal for Medicare, which president Kennedy supported, was defeated in the senate * October 22-28, 1962 Seven day long “Cuban Missile Crisis” occurred. President Kennedy demanded the removal of Soviet missiles from Cuba and ordered the navy to interdict any shipment of Soviet missiles to Cuba * As soviet ship approached Cuba, Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev backed off at the last moment in exchange for assurances that the US would not attack Cuba and would remove its missiles from Turkey if the Soviets removed their missiles from Cuba * November 22,1963 President Kennedy was assassinated in Dallas, Texas * January 8, 1964 President Johnson proposed reducing federal spending and proposed a “war on poverty: in the State of the Union Address * President Johnson increased the number of US military advisor in South Vietnam from 16000 to 21000 * July 2, 1964 a civil rights act outlawed racial discrimination in (1) facilities open to the public, (2) unions, and (3) federal employment, and it authorized the US attorney general to sue on the behalf of victims of discrimination * January 4,1965 In the state of the Union address, president Johnson recommended government spending in the areas of education, health care, the arts, urban renewal, reduction of pollution, and elimination of poverty for what he called the “Great Society” * February 7, 1965 president ordered bombing inside north Vietnam after a Viet Cong attack on a base at Pleiku, which was about 200 miles south of North Vietnam * The bombing would continue for three years, till March 31, 1968 * March 15, 1965 President Johnson sent a proposal for a voting rights bill to congress Test 4 July 28, 1965 President Johnson announced that he was sending 50000 more military personnel to South Vietnam, bringing the total to 125000 * July 30, 1965 President Johnson signed the Medicare Act in Independence, Missouri, in the presence of former President Harry Truman, who had pushed for national health care * August 6, 1965 President Johnson sign voting rights act, which authorized the suspension of literacy tests and the placement of federal registrars at locations where less than 50% of eligible voters had registered * November 3, 1966 President Johnson signed the Clean water restoration act, which was directed toward lakes and rivers * President Johnson signed the Air Quality Act, which appropriated $428,300,000 over three year to decrease air pollution * March 31, 1968 President Johnson stopped an any bombing above the 21st parallel in North Vietnam, which included Hanoi, and announced that he would not run for re-election * April 11, 1968 president Johnson signed a civil rights act supporting open housing * October 31,1968 president Johnson announced that all bombing of North Vietnam would stop the next day, November 1, 1968 * June 8,1969 president Nixon began the withdrawal of 250000 US military personnel from South Vietnam, explaining it as a turn-over of the war to the South Vietnamese, which the press called “Vietnamization” * September 16,1969 President Nixon further implemented “Vietnamization” by the withdrawal of 35000 more US military personnel from South Vietnam * April – November the US and Soviet Union negotiated a Nuclear non-proliferation Treaty in the Strategic Arms Limitation talks, SALT * April 20, 1970 president Nixon continued “Vietnamization” by withdrawal of 150000 more US military personnel from South Vietnam * April 30 – June 9, 1970 US ground forces crossed into Cambodia from south VN to destroy enemy supply bases – after having conducted 3500 secret bombing attacks inside Cambodia since 1969 * November 12, 1971 President Nixon continued “Vietnamization” by withdrawing 45000 more US military personnel from south Vietnam * November, 1971 – January, 1973 President Nixon imposed guidelines for wages and for prices, which he had been authorized to do by an act, the Economic Stabilization Act, recently passed by Congress * January 13, 1972 President Nixon continued “Vietnamization” policy by withdrawing 70000 more US military personnel from south VN * In February, 1972, President Nixon visited Communist China * The trip resulted in a joint communique announcing that steps would be make do normalize relations between the US and Communist China, which would be six years away , and announcing US recognition of Taiwan as part of China * May 26, 1972 President Nixon and Soviet premier Leonid Brezhnev agreed in Moscow to work for “peaceful coexistence” and signed, the Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty, SALT, which was ratified by the US senate in August * June 17, 1972 five men employed by the Committee to re-elect the President broke into the offices of the Democratic national committee at the Watergate hotel in Washington, DC. August 12, 1972 President Nixon brought his “Vietnamization” policy to a conclusion by withdrawing US ground combat forces remaining in South VN * In October, 1972, the house of Judiciary committee began nearly 2 years of impeachment proceedings against president Nixon * The impeachment proceedings were the result of senate and special prosecutor investigations into the Watergate break-in in June, 1972, which contradicted a denial by president Nixon that he had anything to do with an attempted cover – up of the break-in * January 27,1973 US, South VN, Viet Cong, and North Vietnamese representatives signed a cease-fire agreement in Paris, France * June 13, 1973 President Nixon re-imposed guidelines on retail prices because of inflation * August 9, 1974 Facing the possibility of impeachment as a result of the Congressional investigations into Watergate, President Nixon resigned * July 15,1976 The democratic national convention met in New york city and nominated a Washington outsider, former engineer, naval, officer, farmer, and governor of Georgia, James E. Carter, for president * February 24, 1977 President Carter announced curtailment of foreign aid to governments violating human rights * August 4,1977 the department of energy was created On September 7, 1977, president Carter signed a treaty to turn the panama canal zone over to panama in October, 1979, and to turn the canal itself to panama in 1999, and the US senate would ratify treaty in march 1978 * September, 1978 Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin, President Carter, and Egyptian president Anwar Sadat met at Camp David, Maryland, to negotiate a way to end the state of war that had continued between Egypt and Israel since Israel’s beginning in 1948 * On February – April, 1979, President Carter placed priced controls on oil in the US following a US embargo on Iranian oil and a 50% OPEC price hike * The embargo on oil from Iran had been imposed after Shah Pahlavi was overthrown in January by Shia Muslims under the leadership of an imam named Rubollah Khomeini * September 27, 1979 Congress approved President Carter’s request for the creation of a separate department of education * November 4,1979 students took 66 US citizens in the US embassy in Tehran, Iran, hostage, in protest of the US’s allowing Shah Pahlavi to come to the US for medical treatment * April 25, 1980, US military landed overnight near Tehran, Iran to rescue the US hostages but mishaps with the aircraft scuttled the operation * July 16, 1980 The Republican National convention met in Detroit, Michigan, and nominated former announcer and actor Ronald Reagan for president * Ronald Reagan ran on a platform calling for cuts in government spending, for strengthening national defense, and for holding the line on taxes * November 4, 1980 Ronald Reagan defeated Carter’s bid for re-election with an electoral vote of 489 to 49 and a popular vote of 43,899,248 to 36,481,435 * President Reagan’s policy of reducing taxes for business and people with high incomes in anticipation that economic growth would more than make up the difference was called “supply-side economics,” “trickle-down economics,” and “Reaganomics” * July 16-19, 1984 The democratic national convention met in san Francisco, California, and nominated former Vice-president Walter Mondale for president and New York congresswoman Geraldine Ferraro for Vice-President, the first woman to be nominated for the vice-presidency * Between November 3-6, 1986 the New York times and Washington post ran reports that representatives of Ronald Reagan, before he took office, had covertly agreed to the shipment of pare parts and ammunition from the US to Iran in exchange for the release of the hostages on January 20,1981, the day Reagan would take office * November 25, 1986, reports circulated that money received from the sale of arms to Iran had been funneled to the contras in Nicaragua during the period congress had only approved humanitarian aid * July 7-24, 1987 Congressional hearings were held on the reported exchange of arms for the hostages in Iran and diversion of profits to the Contras in Nicaragua, what became known as the Iran-Contra Affair * Secretary of State George Shultz and other administration officials were reluctant to identify the higher-up who had oversight of the exchange and diversion * On June 3,1989, from 300 to 400 pro-democracy demonstrators were at Tiananmen Square in Beijing as the Communist leaders of the people’s republic of China began a Military crackdown in which thousands may have perished * In June 26 1990, in what appeared to many contradict a statement at the 1988 Republican national convention, “read my lips.
No new taxes,” President Bush stated that “tax revenue increases” would be needed to reduce the deficit. * On August 2,1990 President Bush denounced an invasion and annexation of Kuwait by Iraq as “naked aggression” and warned the military dictator of Iraq, Saddam Hussein, that the aggression “will not stand” * September 11, 1990 President Bush stated to joint session of Congress that administration’s policy to oppose control of southwest Asian oil resources by Saddam Hussein, whom he viewed as a brutal, unpredictable dictator. * On January 12, 1991. Congress authorized President Bush to use ground to liberate Kuwait * On January 17,1991, after the expiration of an U.
N deadline for Iraqi forces to evacuate Kuwait, US and a coalition of air forces began six weeks of attacks, called Operation desert Storm, targeting communications, nuclear and chemical weapons facilities, artillery, tanks, and troop positions in Iraq * August 15, 1991 four year after the beginning of the congressional hearings into the Iran-contra Affair, President Bush signed a bill requiring Presidents to report all covert action to congress and to authorized all covert actions in advance with a written presidential finding * February 21,1992 a little over two year after Tiananmen Square, the Bush administration lifted US trade sanctions against the People’s Republic of China * May 19, 1992 the 27th amendment was ratified, preventing a Congress form making salary increases for its members before the next Congressional election. July 16, 1992 the democratic national convention met in New York City nominated Governor Bill Clinton of Arkansas for president * Governor Bill Clinton of Arkansas campaigned as a “new democrat” and criticized supply-side economics, saying it had produced the highest federal deficit ever. * Governor Clinton placed emphasis on the global economy and promotion of democracy abroad, and he supported air strikes in Bosnia and human rights in China * November 3, 1992 Democratic presidential candidate Bill Clinton won the election, receiving 44909889 popular votes, which gave him an electoral vote of 370, to president Bush’s 36481435 popular votes and 168 electoral votes and Ross Perot’s 5719437 popular votes.


Ap Us History Chapter 39 Terms

Productivity: Slumped after the economic boom 25 years after WWI Inflation: Fed by rising oil prices and Great Society/Vietnam funding w/o tax increases Vietnamization: Withdrawing 540k troops from South Vietnam, while training Vietnamese to fight Nixon Doctrine: A doctrine that stated that the United States would stay true to all of their existing defense commitments but Asian and other countries would not be able to rely on large bodies of American troops for support in the future. Vietnam moratorium (1969): American “doves” and antiwar protestor were not satisfied with “vietnamization” and preferred a prompt withdral.
Antiwar protesters did a Vietnam moratorium in October 1969 where 100,000 people went into the Boston Common and 50,000 people went by the white house with lighted candles. My Lai: Deepened disgust w/ war, a village full of innocents was massacred by American troops Cambodia: Nixon ordered troops to help SV to clear out troops in NV and VC major base Kent State University : Where Natl Gaurd fired into crowd protesting Cambodian invasion Tonkin Gulf Resolution repeal (1970): The Senate repealed the Tonkin Gulf Resolution that was originally given to Johnson and it restrained spending in the war and it reduced the draft. 6th Amendment: Lowered voting age to 18, pleased youth Daniel Ellsberg: a former American military analyst employed by the RAND Corporation who precipitated a national political controversy in 1971 when he released the Pentagon Papers, a top-secret Pentagon study of government decision-making about the Vietnam War, to The New York Times and other newspapers.
Pentagon Papers: Leaked to NYT, Pentagon study over failures of Kennedy/Johnson Henry Kissinger: Natl Security Adviser; met with Nixon in Paris to negotiate end of war, prepared path to Beijing, Moscow China opening (1971): Nixon went to China in Feburary 1972 and improved relations with the U. S. and China. Nixon then used this new relation with China in order to win trade with the Soviets. Detente: Period of relaxed tension between RU/CH

AMB treaty/ SALT I: Anti-ballistic missile treaty which set the limit of two clusters of defensive missiles per nation. Strategic Arms Limitation Talks stopped the numbers of long-range nuclear missiles for 5 years. Earl Warren: Chief Justice during the 1950’s and 1960’s who used a loose interpretation to expand rights for both African-Americans and those accused of crimes. Liberal Warren Court decisions: The Warren Court refers to the Supreme Court of the United States between 1953 and 1969, when Earl Warren served as Chief Justice.
Warren led a liberal majority that used judicial power in dramatic fashion, to the consternation of conservative opponents. The Warren Court expanded civil rights, civil liberties, judicial power, and the federal power in dramatic ways. Griswold v. Connecticut (1965): Supreme Court decision in which the Court ruled that the Constitution implicitly guarantees citizens’ right to privacy. Gideon v. Wainwright (1963): Extends to the defendant the right of counsel in all state and federal criminal trials regardless of their ability to pay.
Miranda (1966): The court ruled that those subjected to in-custody interrogation be advised of their constitutional right to an attorney and their right to remain silent. Warren E. Berger (1969): Chief Justice that replaced Earl Warren in 1969. The Burger Court was supposed to reverse the liberal rulings of the Warren court, but it produced the most controversial judicial decision in Roe v. Wade which legalized abortion Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC): Federal funds for children in families that fall below state standards of need.
In 1996, Congress abolished AFDC, the largest federal cash transfer program, and replaced it with the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) block grant Supplemental Security Income (SSI): A program established in 1972 and controlled by the Social Security Administration that provides federally funded cash assistance to qualifying elderly and disabled poor. Philadelphia plan (1969): Program established by Richard Nixon to require construction trade unions to work toward hiring more black apprentices.
The plan altered Lyndon Johnson’s concept of “affirmative action” to focus on groups rather than individuals. (1009) “Reverse discrimination”: The assertion that affirmative action programs that require preferential treatment for minorities discriminate against those who have no minority status. Environmental Protection Agency (1970): developments, logging, etc. must take environmental impact into account Occupational Health and Safety Administration (OSHA): the federal regulatory compliance agency that develops, publishes, and enforces guidelines concerning safety in the orkplace Rachel Carson/Silent Spring (1962): She investigated the harmful effects of pesticides, such as DDT, on the environment and other animals. Clean Air and Endangered Species Acts (1970): social, 1970 notable progress reduce auto emissions and cleaning up water and waste sites Nixon’s “southern strategy” : His attempt to woo conservative white voters from the democratic party by promising not to support new civil rights legislation. Sen. George McGovern (1972): George Stanley McGovern (born July 19, 1922) is a historian, author, and former U.
S. Representative, U. S. Senator, and the Democratic Party nominee in the 1972 presidential election. Vietnam pullout (1973): In 1973 the U. S. withdrew the 27,000 troops and would reclaim 560 prisoners of war and South Vietnam would receive limited amount of U. S. support. North Vietnam would have troops in South Vietnam and an election was used to determine the future government of South Vietnam. CREEP: Richard Nixon’s committee for re-electing the president. Found to have been engaged in a “dirty tricks” campaign against the democrats in 1972.
They raised tens of millions of dollars in campaign funds using unethical means. They were involved in the infamous Watergate cover-up. Watergate break-in (June 1972): Led by Liddy and Hunt of the White House plumbers, the Repub. undercover team received approval to wiretap telephones at the Democratic National Committee headquarters in the Watergate apartment complex in Washington. Early one morning, a security guard foiled the break-in to install the bugs, and he arrested James McCord, the security coordinator of CREEP, and several other Liddy and Hunt associates.
White House “plumbers unit”: The White House Plumbers, sometimes simply called the Plumbers, were a covert White House Special Investigations Unit established July 24, 1971 during the presidency of Richard Nixon. Its task was to stop the leaking of classified information to the news media. Its members branched into illegal activities working for the Committee to Re-elect the President, including the Watergate break-in and the ensuing Watergate scandal. Sen. Sam Ervin: He was head of the Senate committee that conducted a long and televised series of hearings in 1973 to 1974.
John Dean III: He was a former white house lawyer that testified about the involvement of the top levels of the White House. He talked of the president, the Watergate cover-up and accused the president of violating justice. His claims were later supported by Nixon’s tape recordings. Spiro Agnew: Nixon’s vice-president resigned and pleaded “no contest” to charges of tax evasion on payments made to him when he was governor of Maryland. He was replaced by Gerald R. Ford.
Gerald Ford: president 1974-77, Nixon’s Vice president, only person not voted into the White House, appointed vice president by Nixon: became president after Nixon resigned Archibald Cox: A professor of Harvard law school who also worked with the Department of Labor. He was the appointed Special Prosecutor over the Watergate case. “Saturday night massacre” (1973): Name given to the series of events in 1973 that included the firing of a special prosecutor investigating Watergate and the resignations of the attorney general and his next in command for refusing to fire the prosecutor.
Cambodian bombings (1973): Occurred when President Nixon expanded the Vietnam War into it’s neighboring country and attempted to destroy suspected supply lines. Pol Pot: Leader of the Khmer Rouge in Cambodia, who terrorized the people of Cambodia throughout the 1970’s War Powers Act (1973): Gave any president the power to go to war under certain circumstances, but required that he could only do so for 90 days before being required to officially bring the matter before Congress. October War (1973): It was a war between the Arabs and Israel.
Its motive was for the Arabs to regain the territory lost to Israel in the Six-Day War. Kissinger went to Moscow to restrain the Soviets while Nixon placed America’s nuclear forces on alert and gave the Israelis $2 billion dollars worth of war supplies. This helped the Israelis and brought a cease fire. Arab Oil Embargo (1974): After the U. S. backed Israel in its war against Syria and Egypt, which had been trying to regain territory lost in the Six-Day War, the Arab nations imposed an oil embargo, which strictly limited oil in the U. S. and caused a crisis. Energy crisis”: when Carter entered office inflation soared, due to toe the increases in energy prices by OPEC. In the summer of 1979, instability in the Middle East produced a major fuel shortage in the US, and OPEC announced a major price increase. Facing pressure to act, Carter retreated to Camp David, the presidential retreat in the Maryland Mountains. Ten days later, Carter emerged with a speech including a series of proposals for resolving the energy crisis. Alaska pipeline: Built in 1975 along the pipeline to Valdez, it was an above-ground pipe 4 feet in diameter used to pump oil from the vast oil ields of northern Alaska to the tanker station in Valdez Bay where the oil was put aboard ships for transport to refineries in the continental U. S.. Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC): an economic organization consisting primarily of Arab nations that controls the price of oil and the amount of oil its members produce and sell to other nations. Articles of impeachment: It was passed by the House Judiciary Committee and its key vote came in July 1974 when Nixon was accused of obstruction of justice with Watergate.
Other articles talked of Nixon’s abuse as president and his contempt for congress. Nixon resignation (August 8, 1974): When Nixon resigned, 3 tapes were released with one of them containing orders for the Watergate Break in and he confessed to his Watergate involvement on television. These events ruined Nixon’s creditability and he was able to keep his retirement benefits. Nixon pardon (1974): Within his first month of Presidency, Gerald Ford gave full pardon to Nixon. Which aroused fierce criticism, and soon his approval ratings went from 71% to 50%.
Helsinki accords (1975): Political and human rights agreement signed in Helsinki, Finland, by the Soviet Union and western European countries. Vietnam defeat (1975): Vietnam collapsed with out American aid as the last Americans were taken out of Vietnam in 1975. It made America look bad in front of other foreign countries and caused America to lose confidence in its military. The War also took a toll on America’s economy and its people with $118 billion spent, 56,000 dead, and 300,000 wounded.
Title IX (1972): Major civil rights legislation that banned discrimination in education. It appears in this chapter as an example of ineffective policy implementation; unclear goals open to inconsistent interpretation. Equal Rights Amendment (ERA): Proposed the 27th Amendment, calling for equal rights for both sexes. Defeated in the House in 1972. Roe v. Wade (1973): The court legalized abortion by ruling that state laws could not restrict it during the first three months of pregnancy. Based on 4th Amendment rights of a person to be secure in their persons.
Phyllis Schlafly: 1970s; a new right activist that protested the women’s rights acts and movements as defying tradition and natural gender division of labor; demonstrated conservative backlash against the 60s Betty Freidan: wrote The Feminine Mystique credited with starting the second wave of woman’s liberation movement, question domestic fulfillment, founded NOW National Organization for Women (NOW): Founded in 1966, the National Organization for Women (NOW) called for equal employment opportunity and equal pay for women.
NOW also championed the legalization of abortion and passage of an equal rights amendment to the Constitution. Milliken v. Bradley (1974): This Supreme Court decision responded in some ways to the backlash against integration via busing by stating that busing was only legal where schools were deliberately using racist tactics to segregate schools. It also said that the goal of Swann was not to create racially balanced schools with certain numbers of each race but to stop wilful segregation. Reverse discrimination”: The assertion that affirmative action programs that require preferential treatment for minorities discriminate against those who have no minority status. Bakke case (1978): saw the Supreme Court barely rule that Allan Bakke had not been admitted into U. C. Davis because the university preferred minority races only and ordered the college to admit Bakke. United States v. Wheeler (1978): -facts: Indian is convicted in tribal court and later charged with same offense from same act (a rape) in federal court. HELD: SCOTUS won’t apply double jeopardy bar to litigation, because under the 5th Amendment, it is not the same offense when two SOVEREIGNS prosecute the same person. Jimmy Carter (1976): James Earl “Jimmy” Carter, Jr. (born October 1, 1924) is an American politician who served as the 39th President of the United States (1977-1981) and was the recipient of the 2002 Nobel Peace Prize, the only U. S. President to have received the Prize after leaving office. Before he became President, Carter served as a U. S.
Naval officer, was a peanut farmer, served two terms as a Georgia State Senator and one as Governor of Georgia (1971-1975) Department of Energy: the federal department responsible for maintaining a national energy policy of the United States “Human rights”: the basic rights to which all people are entitled as human beings Camp David accords (1978): Peace treaty between Egypt and Israel; hosted by US President Jimmy Carter; caused Egypt to be expelled from the Arab league; created a power vacuum that Saddam hoped to fill; first treaty of its kind between Israel and an Arab state Return of Panama Canal: Carter proposed two treaties that would give ownership and control of the Panama Canal back to Panamanians by the year 2000. The return of the Panama Canal was one of Carter’s accomplishments in foreign policy. Mohammed Reza Pahlevi: Shah of Iran who was deposed in 1979 by Islamic fundamentalists (1919-1980) Brezhnev and SALT II negotiations (1979): Carter and Brezhev met in Vienna to sign the SALT agreements which were meant limit the number of lethal strategic weapons in both U. S. and Russia. U. S. conservatives were against the agreement and suspicious against Russia. The conservative stance was strengthened against the agreements when it was discovered that there was a Soviet “combat brigade” in Cuba.
Iranian hostage crisis (1979-1980): On November 4, 1979 anti-American Muslim militants went to the United States’ embassy in Teheran and took everyone inside hostage. Their demand was to restore the exiled shah who went to the U. S. for medical treatment. Ayatollah Ruholla Khomeini: Islamic religious leader who led a revolution to overthrow Iran’s government in 1979; he ruled the country for the next ten years on a strongly anti-American platform Afghanistan invasion and Olympic boycott (1980): The 1980 Summer Olympics boycott of the Moscow Olympics was a part of a package of actions initiated by the United States to protest the Soviet war in Afghanistan. [1] It preceded the 1984 Summer Olympics boycott carried out by the Soviet Union and other Communist friendly countries.


Air Transportation history

Since the invention of air planes few decades ago, air travelling has become famous among travellers. When the air transportation was first introduced in 1903 by the Wright Brothers, many people could not travel using it because it was expensive. But after few decades, technology has improved and air transportation is being widely used all around the world. Most of the countries has built airports and has their own airline companies. Today, due to rivalry among airline companies air travelling has become much cheaper.
As a result, cheap air travelling has advantages and disadvantages for us, our country and to the world. Firstly, the main benefit of cheap air travel is that it is cheap. So it allows all the people to travel around the world. Those days only the rich people could use air travelling, but now even the ordinary people also can use it to travel, pursue their studies, do business, and go for a vacation. It is not surprising that most people wish to travel to distant land, a country far away but travelling cost lots of money.
So the people need to reconsider their travel plans since flight rates are way too high back then. Today, due to competition among airline companies, they are offering cheap flight rates that consumers like us could afford. It also helps maintain long distance relationship. Before the IT technology is developed, air transportation is the only option people who live on the other end the world keep in touch with their loved ones. Although cheap air travel allows everybody to travel, air planes causes air pollution and sound pollution.

Since air planes burns hydrocarbon fuel, it releases greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide and nitrogen oxides. The greenhouse gases causes global warming and the effects of global warming is polar ice caps melting, increased probability and intensity of droughts and heat waves, warmer waters and more hurricanes, spread of diseases and economic consequences. Air planes also causes sound pollution which effects hearing impairment, hypertension, heart diseases and annoyance sleep disturbance.
Furthermore, the chances of surviving when a plane crash is lower than any other transportation. In addition, most of the airports are build outside of the city,so once the people get off the plane, they still need to travel to reach the city. Finally, cheap air travel also saves time. Long ago people travel using horses, camels, elephants, boats and ships but it takes days to reach a place. Now, air travel helps us to reach a far place or country just in hours. Besides that, air transportation enerates almost 32 million jobs annually and contributes almost 7. 5 percents of the world’s GDP which is a huge profit. Moreover, air transportation is the fastest worldwide transport system which is one the key factor of economic growth. In conclusion, cheap air travel saves time and money for the people and increases the economic growth in our country although it causes air pollution. So, the government should some solution to neutralise the greenhouse gases released by planes which causes global housewarming.


The History of the Noose and its Significance to African

The origins of the noose, also known as the hangman’s knot, has been associated with the capital punishment more pronounced during the Elizabethan times. The noose has strikingly evoked a kind of historical perspective quite commonly associated with death as a punishment for crimes committed. In Britain, the noose was often looped into one end where a man’s neck could easily fit and allowed to hang and apparently die of strangulation from the tightening loop or by a breakage of the hanged man’s vertebra. Its positioning is seen to coincide with the angle of the jaw in order to make sure that the head is thrown backwards by the rope so that the force is transmitted into the neck vertebrae rather than being thrown forward and the force taken on the throat which tends to cause strangulation.
In our modern era however, the noose signifies for many a corrosive ingredient to an otherwise risky social practice of racism. In the first part of the 20th century, the practice of lynching was ascribed to stifle mob violence due in part to an ineffective law enforcement agency (Apel, 2004:49). From the torturous slave trade era, the nooses of the Ku Klux Klan evoked a sign for the Black society to remain passive and stand defenseless in the face of any racist assault (Bobo, 2004: 140). In the historical opposition to black voting rights, representation and summary punishments, the lyncher’s noose represented white supremacy (Grant, 2001: 101).
Purpose of the Study and Statement of the Problem

It is therefore to the best interest of everyone to be able to identify the origins of the hangman’s knot or the noose in the current period. Such knowledge leads to the understanding of how the hangman’s noose is currently associated to an issue of importance to the Black American society in the US. In the history of hate crimes and lynching against the Black Americans and other marginalized sectors, the rope has often symbolized hatred.
In the face of modernity and globalization, and equal rights for every American, the interpretation of the hangman’s noose as an action is still often seen as an over reaction in a climate full of questions relative to racism and supremacy. The meaning behind the noose and its presence has been seen by the Black community as denoting racial hatred and white power.
However, amidst a modern and diverse society that has publicized political correctness; every American is faced with the question on its proper interpretation and to discuss the rightful censorship of the act. Will there be a chance when people will stop reacting to the noose and somehow understand that this is just an overblown racial rhetoric or will the culture and climate of racism fit for censorship or punishment?
Review of Literature
When a white police officer placed a hangman’s noose on the motorcycle of a black policeman in Boston, the black policeman complained that he was being victimized by the white officer. Although investigative reports did reveal that no racial motives were behind the act, the black officer claimed that, “no one can just hang a noose near any black man who knew his history and say that it does not have a tremendous significance” (Blum, 2002:2).
The consequences for such an action in some states like Miami has allowed black employees who were subjected to an intimidating presence of a hangman’s noose in the office of Adelphia Communication’s manager to collect a $1 million settlement (Apel, 2004:17). Suddenly a spate of similar incidents are happening across the country where a noose was left for a black workman at a construction site in South Elgin while a woman in Queens, New York brandishes a noose to threaten her black neighbors. Pitts also reported for the Chicago Tribune how a noose was left on the door of a black professor at Columbia University that stands to investigate the recent spate actions (Pitts, Oct. 2007).
History had associated the noose as a tool for capital punishment against criminals during the Elizabethan times. The United States whose justice system was patterned after England’s has adapted death by hanging to convicted and ruthless crime offenders. The fall of slave trade after the Civil War marked a quest for civil rights that soon catered to the emergence of groups opposed to Black freedom and rights. The Ku Klux Klan became an effective and organized movement against Black rights who once exercised a reign of terror using the symbolic gesture of the noose to evoke fear among the blacks and other minorities (Grant, 2001: 100).
The memory of lynching still runs fresh on the hearts and minds of the targeted Black population along with other minorities (Reid-Pharr, 1999: 126).In the last few years of the 20th century, even after the successful allowance of equal rights for every American citizen, random incidents of lynching with the symbolic use of the hangman’s noose despite progress and modernization (Diuguid, 2007: 149).
Findings and Analysis
Despite progress and modernity, it is observed that the memory of lynching particularly with the symbolic use of the noose is seen as a persistent wound to the Black American society. Authors Bobo, et, al (2004) Apel (2004) Blum (2002) have a similar idea that the noose is seen as a predicament for the Blacks and other minorities in the societies whether they were intended as a joke or otherwise. The noose has seen an association and a symbol of white supremacy and hatred against the African Americans in the United States.
In light of the spate and re-emergence of noose lynching around the country, many Black populations could not bring themselves to understand despite comprehensive investigation that it was a prank (Pitts, 2007). Many look back to the atrocities committed against the blacks and other minorities and regard the handful of happenings as an apparent move to stifle violence perpetrated by the marginalized communities (Wallace, 1999:32).
Random incidents which have happened in relations to actions commonly associated with the hangman’s noose dismissed such incidents although an astonishing response that condemned such atrocity could be heard by both white and black communities who were both offended (Diuguid, 2007:19). Although nothing was done, many African-Americans were hurt about the incident (Diuguid, 2007:21).
In the exercise of political ideals in the face of diversity, such racial slurs and symbolic forms of hatred has no room in the American egalitarian society as the black population struggle to pursue a more decent and humane existence for their families (Wallace, 1999: 32). Such things that should be forgotten cannot simply be delegated immediately to the memory banks because many still experience feelings of hurt and marginalization after hearing of community members being subjected to such treatment. Although the youths have experienced minor blows to resulting from racism in comparison to their forefathers, Black culture still appreciates the deep roots of their black culture and will continue to feel hurt and rejection as a response to random and symbolic act of the hangman’s noose.
The notoriety of the noose however, lies not only in its use as a method of capital punishment. It has also been associated as a racial hate symbol, so far being used in the United States against African-Americans. This is in reference to the various forms of extermination performed against African-Americans in the rural South in the past. To address such, the use of nooses for the intention of perpetrating a hate crime, or using nooses as a racial hate symbol, was actually made illegal under U.S. law. Recently, there have been cases where the hanging of nooses was done at American universities in what many see may be a resurgence of the symbol.
In totality, nooses however can be said to be very significant to African-Americans, as it tries to represent a direct attack on their African American race. The move to make it illegal was definitely a step in the right direction. Just as the noose gained its reputation with being a form of capital punishment, it too has become a racially charged symbol that continues to affect African-Americans today.
It will therefore be a difficult option to encourage Black Americans to forget about the noose and its symbolism. Their deeply embedded culture is taught to every Black child in order for him to appreciate his importance in the struggle for equality.
Apel, Dora. 2004. Imagery of Lynching: Black Men, White Women, and the Mob. Rutgers University.
Blum, Lawrence. 2002. I’m Not a Racist, But.. The Moral Quandary of Race. Cornell University Press.
Bobo, Jacqueline, Hudley, Cynthia and Michel, Claudine. 2004. The Black Studies Reader. Routledge.
Diuguid, Lewis. 2007. Discovering the Real America: Toward a More Perfect Union.
Grant, Donald. 2001. The Way It Was in the South: The Black Experience in Georgia. University of Georgia.
Pitts, Leonard. 2007. The History of the Rope. Chicago: Tribune.October.
Reid-Pharr, Robert. 1999. Conjugal Union: The Body, the House, and the Black American. University Press.
Roberts, James D. 2005. A Black Political Theology. Westminster John Knox.
Wallace, Michele. 1999. Black Macho and the Myth of the Superwoman. Verso.