Good Governance in Pakistan ‘Governance’ is the exercise of power or authority – political, economic, administrative or otherwise –to manage a country’s resources and affairs. It comprises the mechanisms, processes and institutions through which citizens and groups articulate their interests, exercise their legal rights, meet their obligations and mediate their differences.
‘Good governance’ means competent management of a country’s resources and affairs in a manner that is open, transparent, accountable, equitable and responsive to people’s needs. Characteristics of Good Governance 1. Participation 2.Rule of law 3. Transparency 4. Responsiveness 5. Consensus orientation 6.
Equity 7. Effectiveness and efficiency 8. Accountability 9. Strategic vision STATE OF GOVERNANCE IN PAKISTAN 1. Institutional Imbalance 2. Poor relations between center and federating units 3. Political Instability 4.
Poor planning and development 5. Inability to provide justice 6. Increasing rate of Corruption 7. Inefficient Economic Management 8. Expenditure Mismanagement 9. Poverty 10. Unemployment 11.
Illiteracy 12. Lack of control over law and order situation 13. National Sovereignty of Pakistan is being affected 14. Terrorism 5. Strong hold of feudal system 16. Poor state of accountability 17. Sectarian and ethnic conflicts 18.
hording of essential food commodities 19. Unfair system of taxation POLICIES TO BE IMPLEMENTED FOR GOOD GOVERNANCE 1. Balance between the institutions 2. Good relations between the centre and the federation units 3. Equal distribution of resources 4. Equal justice 5. Reforms in Economic policies 6.
Extra expenditures should be cut down 7. Accountability from the top 8. Establishment of anti-corruption courts 9. Enact legislation to improve accountability. 10. Independent private sector auditors 11.Implementation of core institutional reforms 12.
Freedom of media 13. Natural Resources exploration 14. Efficient management of natural resources(wastage of water) 15. Empowerment of education 16. Empowerment of women 17. Fair system of election 18. Fair system of recruitment 19.
Fair system of taxation 20. Control over militancy by dialogue CORRUPTION IN PAKISTAN According to Global Infrastructure Anti Corruption Center (GIACC) : “In its wider sense, corruption includes one or more of bribery, extortion, fraud, deception, collusion, cartels, abuse of power, embezzlement, trading in influence and money laundering. Pakistan is facing an extraordinary crisis today in almost every aspect of life. Inefficient state decisions, increasing lawlessness, inefficient justice system, crime and political power and serious erosion of legitimacy of authority. It is believed that the root cause behind all this situation is only and only corruption which has been diluted in the blood of majority of the government officials and other power shareholders. TRANSPARENCY INTERNATION REPORT 2010 1.The report titled the National Corruption Perception Survey 2010 showed a high rise in corruption from 195 billion rupees in the year 2009 to 223 billion rupees in the year 2010.
2. Bureaucracy and Police had maintained their ranking as the two of the most corrupt departments in public sector in 2010. 3. Land administration departments were placed third in corrupt practices. 4. Corruption in the judiciary, local government and education sectors has also increased as compared to the last year. CAUSES OF CORRUPTION IN PAKISTAN 1.
Corruption is considered as a right: It is considered as a crime, rather it is considered as a right in Pakistan. Once Federal Minister for defence production, Mr Abdul Qayum Jatoi said: ” All groups—Sindhi, Pakhtun, Baloch, Saraiki and Punjabi—–should get equal share in corruption(source The dawn 26-06-10) 2. Pathetic Political will: It is just because of weak of political will. Our law makers do not want to eradicate corruption. As once Federal Minister for railway, Mr Ghulam Ahmed Bilour said: ” I don’t say that there is no corruption in my ministry, but the question is that where it is not? 3.Non serious behaviour of law makers: The root cause of increasing corruption is that our leader don’t take it serious, they just give visionary statements. Interior Minister, Mr Rehman Malik gave a statement that we will eradicate corruption within a week.
Secondly he said that we will give pride of performance to the department which will report us that there is a corruption in our department. These statements show the behaviour of our leadership toward the eradication of corruption. It is just impossible to eradicate corruption within a week and secondly pride of performance is being given to corruptors. . Inconsiderable salaries: It is one of the major causes of corruption. Suppose when a clerk not earning enough to live on or not being sure that he will have a job tomorrow so that he supplements his income with bribes.5.
Lack of accountability: when public officials are not supposed to inform about or explain what they are doing, they mostly indulge in corruption. 6. Weak enforcement: when law agencies do not impose sanctions on power holders who have violated their public duties. 7. The abuse of public office for private gains has emerged as a fashion 8. unavailability of principles of good governance . Unawareness about rights: 10.
To get unfair advantage over other: i. To get Promotion ii. To get new job iii. To threat others(through police) iv. To get rid of from charge etc. 11. Increased rate of inflation: IMPLICATIONS OF CORRUPTION IN PAKISTAN 1.
Poverty 2. Terrorism 3. Industrial closure 4. Unemployment 5. No foreign investment 6. effects on economic growth 7. Energy crisis 8.
Increase in the prices of commodities 9. Poor infrastructure of roads 10. Poor infrastructure of public buildings (schools, colleges, hospitals etc) 11. Trust deficit between Pakistan and friends of Pakistan. 12.Tax collectors may enjoy their discretionary powers to distribute the tax money instead of paying to Government exchequer. In fact corruption effects on economic growth, SOLUTIONS TO ERADICATE CORRUPTION 1.
Corruption being an extraordinary crime; needs extraordinary measures to be taken to determine the future of the agenda for corruption eradication. The truth is that getting rid of corruption will help the country to overcome most of the problems and probably everybody would be better off if corruption were to be eliminated. 2. Major corruption cases must be handled properly and seriously 3.Government officials involved in corruption cases must be discharged from their positions without accepting any sort of influence. 4. Whenever any minister or a member of the parliament or any other politician is alleged to be involved in a corruption case, he must be temporarily discharged from his position.
If later the courts find him guilty, he must be permanently removed immediately without taking care of the level of his political support. 5. Justice 6. Law and order 7. Fair system of election 8. Fair system of new recruitment 9. Awareness campaign by media 10.
Decentralization of power