History and Geography??“the Foundations of Culture

History helps define a nation’s “mission,” how t perceives Its neighbors, how It sees its place In the world, and how It sees itself. The history of a country is important in understanding many aspects of a culture. One cannot fully understand how businesspeople negotiate, how they conduct business, their attitudes toward foreign investment, the legal system, and other aspects of the market/business system without a historical perspective. A historical perspective helps prepare an International marketer for many of the cultural differences that often cause misunderstandings and In many cases, mistakes.
While a racketeer may not be able to change a person’s attitude or behavior, if you have an historical perspective of why they react as they do, you can gain insights that can possibly make it easier to adapt your strategies for a successful outcome. To understand, explain, and appreciate a people’s image of itself and the attitudes and unconscious fears that reflected In its view of foreign cultures, it is necessary to study the culture as It Is now as well as to understand the culture as It was-?that is, a country’s history.
Loyalty to family, to country, to company, and to social groups and he strong drive to cooperate, to work together for a common cause, permeate many facets of Japanese behavior and have historical roots that date back thousands of years. To understand, explain, and appreciate a people’s image of itself and the fundamental attitudes and unconscious fears that are often reflected in its view of foreign cultures, it is necessary to study the culture as it is now as well as to understand culture as It was, that Is, a country’s history.

An awareness of the history of a country Is particularly effective for understanding attitudes about the role of overspent and business, the relations between managers and the managed, the sources of management authority, and attitudes toward foreign Mac’s. History is what helps define a nation’s “mission,” how it perceives its neighbors, and how it sees its place in the world. To understand a country’s attitudes, prejudices, and fears it is necessary to look beyond the surface or current events to the Inner refinement of the country’s entire past for clues.
Geography Is a study of the physical characteristics of a particular region of the earth. Involved in this study are climate, topography, and population. The interaction of the physical characteristics is one of the principal determinants of a country’s customs, products, industries, needs, and methods of satisfying those needs. Marketing is concerned with satisfying the needs of people. International marketing seeks out the whole world as its marketplace.
Therefore, for an International marketer to know how to satisfy the needs of the International factors of the people’s needs are. International marketer must know that various climates and topographies do exist and that they are vital in shaping the marketing plans that an international marketer must make. As an example, a producer selling machinery in the tropics would have to realize that special protection is needed to keep a machine running properly in hot and humid climates. Study of geography is important in the evaluation of markets.
Marketers need to be knowledgeable about the effects of geographic diversity on the economic profiles of various nations. Climate and topography are examined as facets of the broader and more important elements of geography. Knowledge about geography, the climate and physical terrain when appraising a market influences marketing from product adaptation to ore profound influences on the development of marketing systems. Climatic features affect the uses and functions of products and equipment.
Companies looking to build manufacturing plants in countries with more liberal pollution regulations than they have at home are finding that regulations everywhere are becoming stricter. Many Asian governments are drafting new regulations and strictly enforcing existing ones. A strong motivator for Asia and the rest of the world is the realization that pollution is on the verge of getting completely out of control. Neither Western Europe nor the rest of the industrialized world are free of environmental mage; rivers are polluted and the atmosphere in many major urban areas is far from clean.
The very process of controlling industrial wastes leads to another and perhaps equally critical issue: the disposal of hazardous waste, a by-product of pollution control. Estimates of hazardous wastes collected annually exceed 300 million tons; the critical question is disposal that does not move the problem elsewhere. The business community is responding positively to the notion that the focus must be on the global environment rather than the quality of the air, land, and water in our own backyards.
An International Chamber of Commerce Industry Forum on the environment reflected a shift in company attitudes toward environmental issues away from a reactive and largely defensive stance to a proactive and constructive approach. Some disbeliever may dismiss such statements as “window dressing” and they could be, but the beginning of change is awareness. Responsibility for cleaning up the environment does not rest solely with governments, businesses, or activist groups. Each citizen has social and moral responsibility to include environmental protection among his/her highest goals.


Geography- Development

GNI stands for Gross National Income, therefore it basically finds the average of all the income the List the shortcomings of GNI per capita as an indicator of development. If a country has a GNI, that doesn’t mean that everyone in that country is rich or living a good life. Because GNI is an average, there will always be people below the average and way above it too. Therefore GNI cannot tell us whether there are poor people or even if there is equality in the country, there might be more poor people than rich people but the money the rich people are making is very superior that it makes the average pretty high.
Explain the concepts of underlying PPP. PPP stands for Purchasing Power Parity and it is defined by a number of units of a ountrys currency needed to buy the same amounts of goods and services in a country as $1JS1 would buy in the United States. PPP examines a wide range of goods and services, including food, transport, clothing and housing. It provides a measure of what people can actually afford regardless of the local value and exchange rate of their currency.
Explain why the three variables used to calculate the PQLI were chosen. The three variables: literacy, life expectancy and infant mortality were used to calculate the PQLI because they are three indicators of quality of life that were thought to be particularly important. Literacy rates are linked to the level of education the population is receiving, life expectancy is linked to how well the health of the population is and how advanced the doctors are and infant mortality shows how advanced the healthcare is.

How does the HDI differ from the PQLI? HDI (Human Development Index) uses three measures to generate index and two of the three measures are the same: literacy and life expectancy. However, rather than using infant mortality, the HDI uses GDP per capita on a PPP basis. This was done to balance the social measures of development with an economics measure, as control f personal resources and wealth was seen as an important aspect of people’s quality of life. 5. What is your preferred indicator of development?
My preferred indicator of development is Literacy rate because that tell us whether the population is educated or not, if it is then most of then could get a decent Job, therefore they can have a decent life with resources at their reach. Some people could have really good Jobs because they were given the chance to learn and get an education. When there is a high literacy rate in a country, one can tell that the healthcare will be advanced because the education is good. Therefore there will be low death rates and high life expectancy. 2/11/2013 Why people who live in rural area susceptible to food insecurity: they depend on agriculture for food, they have limited alternative sources of income or employment (for example: floods and droughts) and they are vulnerable to crisis, prone to natural diseases, depend on farming, The key issues regarding Child and Female hunger: one child is dying every 5 seconds of hunger, child hunger is inherited, they lose their curiosity, motivation and even the will to play, many leave school prematurely, stops physical and mental growth.
Women are the primary food producers but they are more affected by hunger and poverty than men, 7 out of 10 of the world’s hungry are women and girls, their hunger is the reason why we have a low birth-weight child. 2. Read: the origin of disparities, living conditions and land ownership p. 33 Poverty remains in the world despite economic growth in many regions, the world is more unequal than it was a decade ago. NICs (Newly Industrialising Countries) such as South Korea and Taiwan have a quite high level of GNP per capita.


A Geography of Time

In the preface “Time Talks, With an Accent” the author describes his reasons of writing the book, as well as he shares his plans about future careers, his interest, and ideas about time geography.

In the first chapter “Tempo: Speed of Life” special attention is paid to what tempo is, its core elements, economic well-being and what may happen beyond the tempo. In the second chapter “Duration: Psychological Clock” the author provides innovative and interesting suggestions and draws relevant conclusions bumps in time, how to change the life tempo and psychological experiences of time duration.

Actually, I think that material presented in the preface and the first chapters are very exciting and informative as the author sets further background for research in this sphere.
In the preface the author writes that every culture is represented by its own concepts and fingertips about time and time geography. Actually, it is necessary to lean about time values as it gives an excellent opportunity to know the person better. Time gives idea of what person is, about his ideals and beliefs. The author admits that he has always been interested in time. As other Americans, the writer was taught that time is measured by the clock and nothing more.
Time is seconds, minutes and hours. However, when the author grew up he realized that the concept of time is not as simple as it might seem at the first glance. When planning personal career, the author claims he has ignored the concept of money being offered by the particular job. Instead, he decided to learn temporal lifestyle as that area interested him the most.
Firstly the author’s researches focused primarily on social psychology and attribution theory. Special attention was paid to gender differences in ideas about success and failure, self-confidence and attribution styles. Nevertheless, in several years the author became very interested in studying the value of time and the life pace in general. Therefore, the author devotes the whole book to the pace of own lives, how people use and have to use time, what time is doing in our cities, etc.
The first chapter addresses the question of time tempo stressing that tempo of life strongly depends on the factors of personal taste and skills, as well as on individual instruments and room involved. The pace of time is defined by the author as tome flow or movement being experienced by people.
Pace of time is characterized by rhythms, sequences and synchronies. However, life pace is a matter of tempo. ‘Tempo’ is borrowed from music theory and it is associated with rate and speed of piece performance.
The author is interested in characteristics of cultures and places distinguishing five factors which determine cultural tempos: economic well-being, degree of industrialization, population amount, climatic conditions, and orientation at individualism. Also, there are ‘fast’ and ‘slow’ people and the author warns us not to overgeneralize about them.
Actually, life pace depends on time, place and human doings. Ten areas are presented to think of yourself: speech patterns, concern with clock time, walking speed, eating habits, driving, schedules, list making, nervous energy, waiting and alerts.
The second chapter addresses the issues of psychological clock and duration of time. The author writes that there were several studies devoted to time perceptions and the interest in estimation of time appeared on the scale.
Duration is defined as the time that is going from the lat event. Actually, duration is the speed of the clock being ambiguous and precise. However, it is more difficult to define duration of time in the realm of psychological experience.
There are differences in time duration among Westerners and Easterners. For example, in Western culture listening is not opposition of talking as it is waiting.
Modern researchers are focus on identifying differences in types of information and in the ways the information is processed. Interestingly, Maslow defined creative people as people being fascinated and absorbed in the current situation and here-now. The author concludes that time is proceeding as a clock arrow does. However, speed of time passing depends fully on individual preferences.


How Did Geography Affect Where Colonists Settled

Beginning in 1607, when ambitious English colonists settled in Jamestown, and continuing until the last of the thirteen colonies was established; geography was a substantial factor in the development of colonial America. The crops that essentially saved the colonists lives, such as tobacco, rice, and indigo, wouldn’t have grown without a certain type and amount of soil to grow properly. Also, the Appalachian Mountains and the dense forests provided a barrier for the colonists, preventing them from going too far west right away, and causing the colonies to form in the arrangement they did.
Finally, the population was the most dense in middle colonies, such as New York, New Jersey, Delaware, and Pennsylvania partly because of the mild landscape and fertile soil. Early in the 1600’s, John Rolfe and his wife Pocahontas discovered tobacco. It was soon heavily sought after in Europe, and quickly became a cash crop for Virginia. After establishing the tobacco industry in Virginia, many of the other colonies soon followed suit. Unfortunately, tobacco quickly drains the nutrients of the soil that it is planted on.
Without the plentiful and fertile soil that these settlers were using, it would have been very difficult for the colonists to survive much longer. Tobacco wasn’t the only crop that the colonists discovered early on, however. In South Carolina, many rice and indigo plantations began to emerge. In order for rice to grow, it needs to be planted in a swamp, or some other sort of low-watered area. The swamps of South Carolina were a perfect place to grow rice, and was considered a rich man’s crop because of the labor it took to harvest and grow it.

Without certain soil and growing conditions, it would have been very difficult for the colonists to sustain themselves in the early years of America. The natural landscape of what is now known as the United States also was a big part of how the original thirteen colonies developed. The Appalachian Mountains stretch from Maine all the way to Georgia. This mountain range prevented the first colonists from going too far west. This, in turn, made it so that the population were more dense, and there was a higher concentration of people. The dense forests of the eastern seaboard disallowed for large cities to be created right away.
This geological factor forced colonists to spread out within the perimeters of the Appalachian Mountains and the Atlantic Ocean, without being too close together. Both of these factors could be overlooked easily enough, but did have a reasonable impact of the development of colonial America. Finally, the geography of the middle colonies, such as New York, New Jersey, Delaware, and Pennsylvania played a big role on the development and population of this area. In the sixteen and seventeen hundreds, the above colonies were the most populated of the thirteen establishments.
There was plentiful and fertile soil, in which tobacco was heavily grown. The Susquehanna River also flowed through this region, opening the possibility of fur trade. Other minor rivers that were found in the middle colonies were gentle, which provided for easy transportation and fishing. The land in the middle colonies was broad and expansive, making it easy for even the middle class residents to create an enjoyable and profitable lifestyle. In conclusion, there were many factors that contributed to the development of the colonial America, but geography was clearly a sizable influence.
If the geography of America wasn’t the way it was, the colonists who settled here may have not survived as well as they did. By the time the tobacco industry was established, and small cities began to rise, American came to realize that not only were they surviving, but they were thriving. This realization had to do with more than the fact that they had separated themselves according to religion, or put aside the issue of the Native Americans. There is no question that the lay of the land had a substantial impact on the development of not only colonial, but also current America.