Foreign Policy

Vietnam War and its Impact on Subsequent American Foreign Policy

Rise to globalism is an enlightened work by Stephen Ambrose that relates to development of American foreign policy from Second World War through Reagan administration. The book by Stephen Ambrose provides an overview American foreign policy evolution from 1938 to the present powerful status of America.
Stephen Ambrose tries to explain the trends in foreign policy adapted by America from isolationist attitude to global power position America holds today. He focuses on events that related to Second world War, Vietnam, Cuban missile crisis and to large extent SALT treaties.

The world today is faced with major problems such as communism, conflicts between Arabs and Israel, and third world development. These problems are attributed with Second World War and had an impact on American foreign policies.
The policies adopted by America had an impact on various countries around the world. Stephen Ambrose work tries to explain the modern American foreign policy as a development since the Second World War Foreign policy of United States is a policy through which the United States interacts with foreign nations.
United States has a lot of influence in the world through its economy and defense mechanism. Other character traits in America such racism, economic aggressiveness and fear of communism have shaped the countries emerging foreign policy.
The overview of events in America led to a rise of globalism which is a major development in American history. The World War II had a lot of influence in development of America which shaped its foreign policy. Liberation by Russia incorporated Eastern European states into satellite states which became the Soviet Union.
Another impact of the war was formation of natural governments which changed the status of the nations. Ambrose in his work showed each stage of the cold war, division of European continent and the arms race could have been avoided.
A major impact of the Vietnam War as was reflected in the cold war is the financial and economic disaster which related to the arms race. It is a situation that compromised the financial position of many nations involved in the war. The development of American foreign policy is a thorny issue which resulted from the cold war.
Incorporation of many countries in various treaties took a lot of time and forced nations to spend a lot of money so as to end such conflicts. The United States and other members of the Soviet Union were not willing to compromise their position in relation to minor matters.
This is because committing a lot of their time and finances in such petty issues could cost them a big deal in resolving major problems. For instance, involving in activities such as partitioning Berlin would be met with a lot of resistance and unnecessary demands.
On the other side, once the U.S.S.R tried to compromise, United States would seizure control of the situation so as to create stipulations on proposed agreements. One important and major concept during this period is that, there was no any meaningful agreement that sailed through.
Former United States presidents had the opportunities and chances to come to an agreement that would end the cold war but this never succeeded. In few instances that saw some of the head of state try to reach an agreement, participants were unwilling to come to a consensus.
As per Stephen Ambrose, resolution to certain problems during that period came after the book was written. Communism was replaced by democracy throughout most parts of Europe while in 1989 it was a time when U.S.S.R fell.
Most of the countries in Western Europe who constituted the satellite nations were liberated by United States and Great Britain which formally formed democratic governments. Split of east and west Europe as the beginning of the cold war. The acting presidents during this period late Jimmy Carter acted in respect to expectations of many Americans to achieve a peace agreement.
The agreement had little influence in resolving such conflicts but several treaties were formed which addressed the demand for concerned parties. Accomplishment of various agreements had impact on U. S whereby Arab-Israel hostilities were negotiated.
This was a major development in the history of America and it fits in the foreign policy. The impact of such agreement is seen in today’s policies developed by United States to extend their powers in trying to help developing nations. United States is a very powerful nation in the world and its strength can be attributed with agreements that resulted from the cold war.
Most of the developing nations have benefited from financial aid offered by United States of America. Signing certain treaties during the period of cold war was a very tough because neither side wanted to compromise their position which led to disagreement.
The subsequent American foreign policy has seen several nations, individuals and governments benefit. It is a very important development in the history of America since the Second World War to the current powerful situation in America. Work Cited Ambrose Stephen, Rise to Globalism, (American Foreign Policy since 1938), Douglas Brinkley book.

Foreign Policy

Edward Vi Foreign Policy

‘Foreign policy in Edward’s reign was an ignominious failure’. To what to extent do you agree with this? When analysing the foreign policy of Edward VI’s reign, it is essential that one recognises that Edward was a minor and it was his protectors, the Dukes of Somerset an Northumberland, that were chiefly responsible for England’s foreign policy at this time.
While there is debate on this topic, it is generally documented that the foreign policy of Edward’s reign was not as successful as the previous Tudors.Foreign policy during Somerset’s years of control was dominated, and many would say blighted, by the campaign in Scotland. After a crushing victory at the Battle of Pinkie in September 1547, he set up a network of garrisons in Scotland, stretching as far north as Dundee. This was a great success for England; it is estimated that more than 5000 Scots were killed in the battle and England controlled vast amounts of Scottish land. His initial successes, however, were followed by a loss of direction, as his aim of uniting the countries through conquest became increasingly unrealistic.The garrisons were expensive to maintain, poorly equipped and highly unpopular with the locals. Their inadequacies were particularly evident when the Scots forced the English out of Haddington Castle.
This failed campaign resulted in a treaty between the French and the Scots. England now faced the threat of a French invasion from their northern border as well as from the channel, which put England in an compromising situation and showed Somerset’s poor management of foreign policy.England’s interest with Scotland was in part due to the prospective marriage of Edward and Mary, with the aim to improve relations between the neighbouring countries. Her being taken by the French was a failure of Somerset’s since it undermined English foreign policy and greatened the links between France and Scotland – it was arranged that Mary would instead marry the new French king, Henry II. The French quickly took advantage of the rebellions in the summer of 1549.They abandoned their campaign in Scotland and laid siege to Boulogne, which they subsequently won. The loss of French land was highly unpopular with the English and seriously compromised Somerset.

Moreover, while Somerset’s downfall cannot be directly linked to his failings in foreign policy, there is evidence to suggest that it contributed somewhat. The commanders of the English armies in southern Scotland, Lord Wharton and Lord Grey, sought help from Somerset as to what they should do. They got none.This lack of involvement and commitment by Somerset was eventually to be held against him when he was arrested in 1549. It is important to note Somerset’s lack of success in the field of foreign policy, as this put his successor, the Duke of Northumberland, in an onerous position. England was bankrupt, so raising an army to relieve Boulogne was impossible; Charles V did not offer any support; abandoning Boulogne would be unfavourable. One of Northumberland’s most significant acts in foreign policy was the Treaty of Boulogne on 28 March 1550.
Northumberland was forced to give up Boulogne, and hand over the fortress and all weapons, in return for 400,000 crowns. Also, the French king would no longer pay a pension to the King of England. At first, this result appears quite disastrous and many in England believed the treaty to have been a national disgrace – a humiliating experience against a traditional enemy. However, it is accepted that Northumberland gave in to many of the demands of Henry II because England would have been susceptible to its enemies as the economic situation was not in a state to support war.On the other hand, England and France made a defensive alliance: England would remain neutral in continental wars and it was arranged that Edward would marry the daughter of Henry II, Elizabeth. England did not abandon its claim to the French throne, however. Such an alliance was critical at a time when England was weak and vulnerable to attack.
This treaty, then, was beneficial to England and allowed Northumberland to concentrate on home affairs. The issue of Scotland continued and Northumberland made himself General Warden of the North in 1550.However, after negotiations and pressure from the French, he gave in and it was agreed that the border would be restored to its position before Henry VIII’s campaign. This was another major blow for English foreign policy as it again undermined the successes of Henry VIII and presented weakness to the European powers. England’s economy was heavily reliant on cloth trade with the Netherlands and, in fact, it had been protected by the Intercusus Magnus since 1496. Disaster occurred when trading relations broke down in 1550, due to Charles aversion to Protestantism.He ordered that any Protestants (heretics in his opinion) be arrested.
This brought about a disastrous collapse in the Antwerp cloth market as many Dutch traders were indeed Protestants. This issue was made yet more perilous for England when Charles, perhaps the most powerful man in the world at this time, considered an invasion of England in 1551. Northumberland acted swiftly and put a temporary embargo on trade with the Netherlands, satisfying Charles. Anglo-Imperial relations improved by June 1552, when economic pressures and the need for support forced Charles’ hand.Northumberland’s dealing of this difficult situation again shows his calibre in the field of foreign policy. Relations with the Empire were put under further pressure after the Anglo-French agreements at the treaty of Boulogne. Northumberland resisted the pressure from Charles to aid him in the Hapsburg-Valois wars and instead perused a policy of neutrality, preventing the expense of overseas campaigns.
D. Loades states, “Warwick was above all concerned to avoid any further war, and in that he was completely successful.This was not pusillanimity but common sense. To conclude, while foreign policy cannot be described as a complete success, it should not be labeled an ignominious failure. Somerset’s venture into Scotland was certainly a failure and a cause for his removal. Northumberland’s handling of English foreign policy was undoubtedly conservative and England was often a pawn of European powers, but it was the best approach given the circumstances. Northumberland succeeded in his aims – to avoid war, and he should be judged primarily by this.