Cambridge as Level Weathering Process

Weathering Process Physical Weathering Processes Freeze Thaw (Frost Shattering) Temperatures need to fluctuate above and below freezing. When the temperature drops below 0 degrees, water collected in rock cracks freezes and expands. When temperatures rise again the ice melts. Pressure created by expansion results in progressive weakening of the rock. At high altitudes frost-shattered material forms scree slopes. Heating & Cooling Thermal expansion & contraction of rock in response to rising and falling temperatures. The daily cycle of heating and cooling sets up stresses in the rock that cause it to disintegrate.
Occurs mostly in deserts where there is the greatest diurnal temperature range. Also occurs during bush fires. Wetting & Drying (Slaking) Rock is alternately wetted then dried. Minerals which make up clay rocks expand when wetted, then contract on drying-out. The stresses from repeated expansion and contraction cause the rock to disintegrate. This process commonly occurs on the intertidal zone of coasts. Exfoliation (Onion weathering/Spheroidal) Under warm conditions rock surfaces heat up and expand more than the main mass of the internal body of the rock.
Eventually the surface layers split off or spall from the lower layers, sometimes in slightly curved sheets like the layers of an onion. Seen especially in granite. Crystal Growth (Salt Weathering) Salt crystals, such as sodium carbonate and magnesium sulphate grow within spaces in a rock. It happens when saline water enters cracks in rocks then evaporates. The growing crystals prise the rock apart and small pieces break off. This process is especially effective in semi-arid areas and coastal regions. Pressure Release (Dilation) Not caused by elements of weather.

Occurs either when erosion removes a heavy covering of rock or when large ice sheets melt. The removal of great weight allows the rock layers beneath to expend. As they expand they also fracture to produce bedding planes parallel to the ground surface. The spaces between the bedding planes (joints) are now open to the influence of further weathering. Organic Action The breaking up of rock by plant roots and burrowing animals. Roots grow into cracks and lines of weakness & as they thicken exert increasing pressure and cause rocks to fracture.
Chemical Weathering Processes Hydrolysis The most common chemical weathering process. Carbonic acid in rain water releases hydrogen ions from the water which then combine with minerals in rocks causing them to break down. This is common in rocks containing feldspar e. g. granite. The end products weathered feldspar are clay minerals known as kaolinite. Kaolinite is an important component of fine bone China. Hydration This occurs when water is absorbed into the crystal structure of certain minerals and causes chemical changes e. g. nhydrite absorbs water to become gypsum which is soft and crumbly. Carbonation On contact with calcium carbonate (the main component of limestone), carbonic acid found in rain water creates calcium bicarbonate. As calcium bicarbonate is readily dissolved in water it is quickly transported away, leaving behind only the clay and quartz impurities of the limestone. This process is most common in regions with limestone geology. Solution Some minerals in rocks do not require a chemical reaction to become soluble e. g. rock slat readily dissolves in water. Oxidation
Some minerals in rocks react with oxygen dissolved in water to form oxides This process commonly occurs in rocks containing iron. Iron in its ferrous from is changed by oxidation into its ferric from leading to the collapse of tis molecular structure. Commonly this is known as ‘rust’. Chelation Lichens and decomposing organic matter in soil (humus) release organic acids. These acids attack certain minerals in rock, releasing iron and aluminium ions which are then transported way by water. The process of release is called chelation and the organic acids are known as chelating agents.


The Impact on Americanization Process

The impact on Americanization process involves enormous movements of people across oceans and continents bringing different cultures into contact and sometimes into conflict (DuBois & Dumenil, 2009 p. 391). They all searched for better lives and more freedom. Native Americans and poor immigrants were pushed aside by continuing the westward expansion (DuBois & Dumenil, 2009 p. 391). Parents and tribal leaders protested the brutality of this coercive Americanization but they were no way to stop it (DuBois & Dumenil, 2009 p. 394).
Some Native American women earned English and other skills in the boarding school programs they had. Some got jobs and worked for reservation agencies and became teachers. For example, Susan la Flesche became the first white trained Native woman physician. She was also the first person to receive federal aid for education. Sussette la Flesche was a writer and speaker on behalf of Indian causes (DuBoise & Dumenil, 2009 p. 395). Americanization program became harsher especially during WWI. I believe this is why some women resisted and other supported.
Immigrant mothers and daughters confronted America very differently (DuBois & Dumenil, 2009 p. 408). Young immigrant women did domestic labor and factory work. Mexicans, Germans, Polish met the demand for servants. Most of these young workers lived with parents or relatives and had to give the earnings to them. Immigrant mothers had responsibility to preserve the way to become Americanize themselves and their families. They cooked traditional foods and followed religious beliefs while the husbands made a family living (DuBois & Dumenil, 2009 p. 410).

The immigrant’s journey women had many obstacles during their journey. It took ten to twenty days to cross and it was in unhealthy conditions as well. I could imagine women that were pregnant or with little ones and how hard it was. I am Hipic I have seen many immigrants’ women trying to cross and some don’t even survive now days. It is hard and some get abused on the way in crossing. I guess many things haven’t changed but it is better than before. In conclusion Native American women had it hard. I believe African American women had it the worse. Boarding schools helped many along the way.


Fundamentals of Industrial Instrumentation and Process Control

Instrumentation and process control can be traced back many millennia. Some of the early examples are the process of making fire and instruments using the sun and stars, such as Stonehenge. The evolution of instrumentation and process control has undergone several industrial revolutions leading to the complexities of modern day microprocessor-controlled processing. Today’s technological evolution has made it possible to measure parameters deemed impossible only a few years ago.Improvements in accuracy, tighter control, and waste reduction have also been achieved.
This book was specifically written as an introduction to modern day industrial instrumentation and process control for the two-year technical, vocational, or degree student, and as a reference manual for managers, engineers, and technicians working in the field of instrumentation and process control. It is anticipated that the prospective student will have a basic understanding of mathematics, electricity, and physics.This course should adequately prepare a prospective technician, or serve as an introduction for a prospective engineer wishing to get a solid basic understanding of instrumentation and process control. Instrumentation and process control involve a wide range of technologies and sciences, and they are used in an unprecedented number of applications. Examples range from the control of heating, cooling, and hot water systems in homes and offices to chemical and automotive instrumentation and process control.This book is designed to cover all aspects of industrial instrumentation, such as sensing a wide range of variables, the transmission and recording of the sensed signal, controllers for signal evaluation, and the control of the manufacturing process for a quality and uniform product. Chapter 1 gives an introduction to industrial instrumentation.
Chapters 2 through 4 refresh the student’s knowledge of basic electricity and introduce electrical circuits for use in instrumentation.Sensors and their use in the measurement of a wide variety of physical variables—such as level, pressure, flow, temperature, humidity, and mechanical measurements—are discussed in Chapters 5 through 10. The use of regulators and actuators for controlling pressure, flow, and the control of the input variables to a process are discussed in xiii Copyright © 2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Clicktals of Industrial Instrumentation and Process Control


Aging Process

The first article I chose to read was about grief, and how to cope with it. The loss of a loved one cause’s great stress can temporarily interfere with concentration, decision making, and work performance. With enough support and help, grief can promote personal growth of all of those involved in the process. According to this article, grief can be triggered by extreme isolation, depression, or other additive behaviors. Other indicators that show one who is dealing with grief may include quick replacement of the lost relationship or avoidance of any reminder of or imitation of the deceased.
Many people who experience these symptoms need some sort of intervention by health care professionals. According to this article, there are many different types of grief that one can experience. These types include chronic grief, delayed grief, exaggerated grief, masked grief, and disenfranchised grief. Chronic grief begins as “normal grief,” but instead of going away, it continues for a very long time. Some people tend to define themselves by their losses, which leads to the development of chronic grief.
Delayed grief is when a survivor consciously or unconsciously holds back their feelings in order to avoid pain, such as avoiding discussion of the deceased, or working too much. In masked grief, the survivor is not aware that their response to grief is getting in the way of them performing daily functions. One who is experiencing this may refuse help. Disenfranchised grief can occur when a survivor can’t fully acknowledge the loss of a loved one because the relationship may be considered unacceptable. Those who experience this type of grief may be those who are gay or lesbian partners.

There have been many studies done on the effects of care giving to those who are going through grief and loss. In a recent study, 129 spouse care givers were asked to rate their levels of care giving. Those who had little or no involvement in the care of a terminally ill spouse were found to be at higher risk for complicated grief than those with greater involvement. The next article I read was also about coping with grief and loss. This article states that over the past 30 years, health care professionals have shown an increase in interest in the issues related to grief.
There have been many different studies done on grief and loss, some of which have the same conclusions and others that differ in outcomes. However, in spite of these varied findings, it seems to be that following the death of a loved one, there tends to be an increase in headaches, dizziness, trembling, etc. It has been recommended that these symptoms can be signs of grief. There has also been an interest on whether or not people who are going grieving a loss require more psychiatric care during their mourning period. There have been few studies done to show some answers, but data is inconclusive.
This article defines grief as one who was experienced the loss of a loved one to death. This article also explains that when someone experiences the loss of an important person, there is a tendency for that person to feel helpless, like they are unable to exist without that person. Some may also have mixed emotions of sadness and anger. Aside from the emotional responses to grief, there are also physical features that accompany grief. Some of these features are tightening of the chest, hollowness of the stomach, tightness in the throat, and lack of energy.
This article states the order in which grief tends to happen; disbelief, confusion, preoccupation, sense of presence, and hallucinations. There are also a variety of different behaviors that are associated with grief reactions. These can go from sleep deprivation, and loss of appetite, to social withdrawal. Although these articles both discuss grief and loss, they differ in certain ways. The first article talked more about the different types of grief, and described the characteristics of them individually. The first article also discussed the effects of a person who is not involved in care giving to their loved on who is terminally ill.
I felt that the second article talked more about the most basic type of grief in full detail. The second article, as opposed to the first article, went into detail about the physical features that also accompany grief. I also think that the second article talked about more broad concepts of grief, where as the first article was more specific in its focus on grief. I really enjoyed the articles that I read. I aspire to become a grief and loss counselor one day, so I felt that these articles really pertained to what I am interested in. I think that they explained things very easy, in words that I could actually comprehend.
I believe that grief and loss counselors are very important in society; everyone at some point will lose someone they love, and may need the special support of a professional. I also found this topic to be of relevance because my best friends’ father just passed away about a month ago. I have been helping her mourn and go through the grieving process. Reading these articles made me realize things that I have been doing correct, and maybe some things that I could try to do better to help her through this very hard time. I think that these articles clearly defined grief, and all of the components that go along with it.
I feel that everyone should read an article on how to help one cope with grief, just because mourning is a process that is all to common. Helping one get through these times is something that we can all improve upon. As much as I did enjoy both articles, I found my self more intrigued in the second article. It was a bit longer in length, and was very detailed. I think that the second article talked about a lot of different topics associated with grief and loss, where as the first article really just talked about the book definition of grief, and how to cope.


Planning Processes

In today’s exceedingly competitive environment, forecast-based planning or budget-oriented planning techniques are inadequate for an agency to prosper and survive. Public, nonprofit, and private agencies must employ deliberate planning that unmistakably identify the objectives and evaluate both the external and internal circumstances. Agencies must execute the plan and assess the development, and make necessary adjustments in order to stay on course.
The planning process of private agency, for instance, generally integrates: formulating mission and objectives; environmental scanning; plan formulation; plan implementation; and evaluation and control (Quick MBA). The mission statement expresses the business image of the agency, including its unchanging purpose and values, in addition to innovative visionary objectives that direct the agency’s search of future opportunities.
The environmental scan includes the internal examination of the agency, examination of its industry, and external macro-environment (Quick MBA). Given the data, the agency should match the opportunities that it has identified to its own strengths, while dealing with its external threats and weakness. Eventually, selected approach is essentially executed by means of procedures, budgets, and programs.

This process involves management of the agency’s resources as well as encouragement of the staffs to realize objectives. The implementation of the plan has to be monitored and adjusted if necessary. In the evaluation and control process, the agency must identify the parameter to be determined and the intended values for those parameters, so that it can necessarily carry out the measurements. Then, it has to evaluate the determined outcomes to the pre-defined standard and make the required changes (Quick MBA).
The preceding process is most appropriate to planned management at the business unit level of private agencies, and it is most appropriate for stable environments. With appropriate planning process, an effective and organized response is expected; and that is the fundamental purpose of planning in private agencies is all about. Reference Quick MBA. (n. d. ). The Strategic Planning Process. Retrieved February 20, 2009, from http://www. quickmba. com/strategy/strategic-planning/