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Food And Beverage

Final Assignment : Sugar-Sweetened Beverages

Francesca Mancini Prof. Nakamoto October 23, 2012 Final Assignment : Sugar-Sweetened Beverages The article “A Randomized Trial of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages and Adolescent Body Weight”(2012) aims at examining the causal relationship between the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and obesity among adolescents. The research for this article is a follow up of a previous pilot study that has been conducted on a period of six months involving normal weight, overweight, and obese adolescents who consumed sugar sweetened beverages regularly.
Results showed that there was a significant decrease of body weight and body mass index (BMI) among the overweight and obese adolescents. Due to this result, a further study has been designed to reanalyze the data from the pilot study and further explain the effects of sugar-sweetened beverages. The research method used was a random sample of 224 adolescents that are obese or overweight who consumed at least one serving of sugar-sweetened beverages or fruit juice per day. Participants were randomly assigned to a control group or an experimental group for two years; where one year would be an intervention and the second year a follow up.
Since the participants are young, the parents provided a written consent and the participants a written assent. The multicomponent intervention aimed to reduce the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages for one year in the experimental group by providing access to home delivery of non-caloric beverages. Motivational telephone calls with parents were conducted on a monthly basis and three check-in visits with participants. The control group on the other hand received $50 supermarket gift cards to participants at four to eight months as a retention strategy but did not instruct them on what to purchase with the cards.

It is important to note that the study did not focus attention to other diet methods or physical activity, however, they have included the daily physical activity level and the amount of television watched daily. The measures for his study: * Demographics: sex, race, date of birth, ethnic group, parents level of education, and total annual household income. * Physical activity: in collaboration with the persons metabolic equivalence. * Television viewing: hours per day. * Dietary intake: includes three main items. 1) beverages per servings per day: a-sugar-sweetened, b-fruit juices, c-artificially sweetened, d- unsweetened. ) energy intake per calorie per day: a-total, b-sugar-sweetened beverages, c-fruit juices. 3)Sugar grams per day. * Weight and height: in kilograms and centimeters (these are used to compute the BMI * BMI as an outcome over the two years: used the bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) to calculate body fat. * Adverse events: any symptom or medical attention that was reported during the study. Hypothesis: One single hypothesis was formulated for this study. They hypothesized that the experimental group would gain weight at a slower rate than the control group.
Results: When testing the covariates for interaction, Hipic ethnic group is found to be the only modifier for group differences, as they have portrayed the most change; causing the study to add an interaction term for the ethnic group. At baseline, regarding the demographics or other variables, there were no differences between the experimental and the control groups. In terms of dietary intake at year one, change in consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages was different between the control and the experimental groups; declining almost to zero for the experimental.
Also meaning that the experimental group consumed more artificially or un-sweetened beverages. At year two, same results remained however, the intake of artificially sweetened beverages did not differ between the groups. Also, sugar intake in both years was less for the experimental group. In terms of the outcomes, at year one the net BMI was significant, but not in year two. When sugar was added to the BMI measure there was no longer a significance. Body fat was not significant among the groups. Although, there was no intervention done for physical activity, the experimental group watched less television.
In terms of ethnic group, among Hipics in the two years, there was significant effect on the BMI, as well as in the change of body weight. The effects of Hipic youth was strong compared to the non-Hipics. Discussion: The results show a support of the hypothesis; the experimental group did gain weight but at a slower rate than the control group. These are shown in the results of the overall BMI computed and the overall weight of the participants. Most of the difference is due to the Hipic participants, as they are the ones that showed to have the most effect out of the intervention.
Even if the overall study did support the hypothesis in quest, there are many discussion points towards the results and the overall study: * The unexpected finding that the Hipics are the ones that have showed the most dominant findings, causing the major change in BMI over two years, is one that should be studied more. It is interesting that they started out with a sample that includes diversity, however, if the Hipics hadn’t been part, the hypothesis wouldn’t have been supported.
There is a reason to why the Hipics have been affected this much, it would be interesting as they have stated, to look more into the physiology and in generic susceptibility. * During the second year, when the intervention was not playing a critical role, there was an effect but not as powerful. The level of consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and juice had increased a bit and this shows that the intervention was not that efficient as with time this will increase. It is clear that the results of the study were conducted and everything they needed to establish was accomplished, though, the aim is to keep that behavior going.
There should have been a stronger message that could be captured by the participants. * They did not focus on any other diet activity or exercise because their main focus was to check the effect of the sugar-sweetened beverages and non-caloric beverages; wanting to leave everything constant. However, (explaining on a personal level) when people are in an intervention, there is some kind of psychological factor that works to lead to the belief that they are on a certain form of diet; causing them to indirectly adjust other things in heir lifestyle (although in the results shown, people have gained weight overall, but it still makes a small difference). If we look closely at the results in year one, the participants technically did decrease their overall weight because as the height increased, it causes a slight change to the weight, therefore leading to an increase in BMI; whereas in year two, one would think that there would be same constant increase (as the increase in height did not differ much) however, participants gained more than the previous year.
Which leads to the previous point that shows that the intervention was not efficient enough to stay through the follow up, the participants did not continue the behavior change. * The measure of the time spent watching television daily is also a critical factor that was not used much, as it was clearly stated that they were not examining the effect of physical activity or anything else; it was just an overall view. Results stated that the experimental group did spend less hours watching television; maybe it is relevant to the key point stated earlier about the unconscious change in lifestyle. “Missing values for BMI were imputed by assessing that the participants’ BMI z score was unchanged from baseline”(p. 3). Including manipulated data to the results would have an effect on the overall study, the missing information of any participant should just be omitted, as well as the participant itself. * There was no interaction with the parents level of education and the total household income, probably useful to show the differences among social classes; as the study is one of a diverse sample, including differences in all characteristics. * Adverse events were included, however, did not have much significance with the study.. n this study of reduced sugar-sweetened beverages, there are not side effects that could lead to any severe injury. Probably it was necessary to cover everything needed, maybe during a severe injury, the interventions was not followed or the participant have gained or lost weight because of the incident. Impact of paper on intervention: Sugar-sweetened beverages has an effect on the increase of body weight, this was evaluated in the article through an intervention that included the provision of non-caloric beverages to check the difference in weight gain among the two groups of study (experimental and control).
There were some issues that the article “A Randomized Trial of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages and Adolescent Body Weight”(2012) does not answer; these are issues that relate to the messages sent out. To start by saying, an intervention in medical terms is “any measure whose purpose is to improve health or alter the course of disease” (Medical Dictionary). In this paper, the intervention aimed at the provision of non-caloric beverages aimed at reducing the consumption of sugar sweetened beverages, however, the message was not strong enough.
It was a trial period of one year to check if sugar sweetened beverages did cause a gain in weight, and whether substituting these with non-caloric beverages would make a difference at a slower pace, and it most certainly did. The researchers did not identify to the participants and their parents what promotes or protects weight gain; they should communicate the effects of these sugar-sweetened beverages, the idea behind using non-caloric beverages, the impact it has on the body, and the aim of modifying the behavior to adjust obesity problems.
The telephone calls every month did not include information, just checking up with parents of child’s consumption. Overall the paper did provide the non-caloric beverages, however, it did not communicate the impact of these beverages body weight. Study proposal: To recap, the study in the article provided emphasized on difference in weight gain over a period of two years. One year was including the intervention where non-caloric beverages were provided, and the other year was a follow up, with no intervention.
The research however, did not focus on any details about the drinks itself or the amount consumed per day, except that it was non-caloric and “diet” beverages. A proposed study that includes different variables of beverage intake is going to be explained shortly. The aim is to review the research and suggest additional variables and measurements that are going to be tested and therefore, predict the results. The research proposed is derived from the study of the article “Reduction in Consumption of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages is associated with weight loss: The Premier Trial” (2009) by Chen, Appel, Loria, et al.
Obesity and overweight rates in Europe are increasing as the years pass and is a serious public health concern, at the range of 7. 6% to 24. 7% as reported by the Statistical Office of European Union (2011). A major factor for this obesity is the increase in dietary energy intake from beverages. Energy intake among European adolescents is on average 1455 ml/day, mostly consumed from sugar-sweetened beverages, fruit juice, and sweetened milk (Duffey et al. , 2011). Calories consumed in liquid for have weak satiety properties and cause poor energy compensation compared with calories from solid food (Chen et al. 2009). Having explained that, it is safe to say that the reduction in liquid calorie intake may lead to weight loss, which leads to the purpose of this study; to examine how changes in the beverages consumption affect weight change among adolescents: * How changes in liquid calorie intake affects the body weight * How changes in consumption of specific beverages affect body weight * The effect of both in terms of time—6 months and 18 months This study is in Europe, more particularly in Switzerland and the sample population is adolescents.
We are going to use the same sample size of 224 adolescents that are overweight or obese and that consume sugar-sweetened beverages, juices, or any form of energy intake in the form of liquids on a daily basis. Just like the previous study, there will be a written informed consent provided by the parents and a written assent provided by the participants. The intervention includes participants to be involved in groups where they receive information and behavioral counseling; information and advice on the impact of sugar-sweetened beverage consumption on body weight.
Each individual receives two 30 min check-in sessions every month as well as group meetings every other week, in addition to the original monthly telephone call with the parents. In this study the control would be the baseline, as everyone is part of the intervention, and all participants would be studied closely in order to see the effects of decreased consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages as time passes. Data collection is done in three parts: at baseline, at 6 months, and at 18 months.
To begin, a questionnaire would be filled in order to get the baseline characteristics of each individual, followed by an interview via telephone to provide the “unannounced” 24 hour dietary intake (including portion size and exercise). This was done every time new results had to be measured, meaning at baseline, 6 months, and 18 months. The hypotheses formulated for the study: Hypothesis 1: changes in consumption of liquid calories will cause a reduction in weight; only when liquid calorie is decreased.
Hypothesis 2: changes in consumption of individual types of beverages will cause a reduction in weight. Hypothesis 3: Weight reduction in terms of any decrease of sugar-sweetened beverages will be greater in 6 months, compared to 18 months. The design presented: Independent variable (what we manipulate): Liquid calories Types of beverages Dependent variable (what we measure): Weight change Design 1 | Body Weight:| Liquid Calories: | 6 months | 18 months | No change | No change | No change| Increase on 100 kcal| Increase | Increase |
Decrease of 100 kcal| Decrease (0. 3kg)| Decrease (0. 2kg)| Design 2 | Body Weight| Beverage Category:| 6 months | 18 months| Decreased by one serving | Sugar-Sweetened| Decrease (0. 5kg)| Decrease (0. 7kg)| Diet Drinks| No effect| No effect | 100% Juice| No effect | No effect| Other (milk, coffee,.. )| Decrease (0. 1kg)| Decrease (0. 2kg)| The measures for this study: * Demographics: sex, race, date of birth, ethnic group, parents level of education, and total annual household income. * Physical activity: in collaboration with the persons metabolic equivalence.
Evaluated in the questionnaire, as a recall of the previous 7 day activity. * Dietary intake: includes portion size 1) beverages per servings per day 2) energy intake per calorie per day: a-sugar-sweetened beverages, b- juices, c- diet drinks. Received through “unannounced” telephone calls 24 hour dietary intake. * Beverages divided into categories: a- sugar-sweetened, b- diet drinks, c- 100% juice, d- other: includes milk, coffee, tea, … * Weight and height: in kilograms and centimeters – these are used to compute the BMI.
Results: The results do show that the change in liquid calorie intake does affect body weight and that a decreased in beverage type will also cause body weight to decrease, however, this is explained in more detail. In terms of hypothesis 1- a decrease in liquid calorie did cause a decrease in body weight. Results have shown that a reduction of 100 kcal was associated with a decrease of 0. 3 kg at 6 months and a 0. 2 kg at 18 months (Chen et al. , 2009).
In terms of hypothesis 2- there was a relationship with beverage type and body loss, however, not with all the beverage types; with some there was no correlation. When tested, a reduction of one serving of sugar-sweetened beverage was significantly associated with weight loss at both 6 months and 18 months. Diet drinks, 100% juice were inversely associated with weight loss, but this was not statistically significant, leading to not effect in weight loss; a decrease of one serving of the other beverages did show a slight decrease in weight loss along both time periods (Chen et al. 2009). In terms of hypothesis 3- weight reduction will be greater at 6 months, compared to 8 months, showed no significance; the opposite occurred. Compared to baseline, as stated in hypothesis 1, the weight loss was greater at 18 months, also proven at a reduction in sugar-sweetened beverages by one serving was associated with a 0. 5kg weight loss at 6 months and a 0. 7kg weight loss at 18 months (Chen et al. , 2009). Meaning at 18 months people lost more weight than at 6 months. Discussion/ Commentaries: From the proposed study, findings have suggested that a reduction in liquid alorie intake was significant with weight loss in both 6 months and 18 months, and that the reduction of sugar-sweetened beverages was also associated with weight loss in these periods of time. The original study by Ebbeling et al. , (2012) was an intervention to reduce the number of sweet-sugar beverages consumed and instead consume the unsweetened beverages or non-caloric beverages. This was studied without advising the participants on the effects of these beverages on the body and overall weight, just by observation and calculation of BMI.
Although the results were aimed at checking the weight gain in two years between a control group and an experimental group, their focus was on the result of the BMI which is a measure relative to weight and height: people had an increased BMI as they were growing taller and gained more mass. In this proposed study however, the intervention is focusing on the opposite outcome, the weight loss with time of using less sugar-sweetened beverages, the measure here was the overall weight difference caused by these beverages, shown in kg. It also includes counseling, advice, and information on the effect of these beverages on the body.
Overall, this is mainly planned so that people could accept this behavior change; and because this is done on obese and overweight participants, the behavior of reducing the intake of these sugar-sweetened beverages is one that should be continued – when participants see a change in the overall weight loss (in which the study has proven to be supported), they would be more motivated to carry on this behavior. It is merely a way of tackling the same issue but in a different way with a stronger intervention – more information given to participants.
Aside research has shown that the link between sugar-sweetened beverages and body weight is related to the high fructose content in these beverages. On the long-term this can promote fat storage and excessive food intake through an increase and change in the hormonal patterns that are related to this issue –called the “postpantrial hormone patterns” (Chen et al. , 2009). This is probably why in hypothesis 2, the other types of beverages did not have an effect on weight change, as they do not have the same amount of fructose.
The different nutritional components of each beverage type has a different effect on the body, some aiding in the process of losing weight and others adding difficulties, while some have no effect. Another point that is interesting to point out is that earlier, the term liquid calories was used, this is to state the specific energy intake, as there are two kinds of energy intake- the liquid and the solid form; this study is focusing on the liquid calorie intake of most prominent beverages. Strengths and Limitations:
Some strengths of this study is the duration of the study, it was long enough to test if there is a significant difference in the change of consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages, also the ability to evaluate a variety of beverages and knowing the effects of each on the body, as this might affect the overall effect. Another strength would be the responsiveness and excellent participation rate on the group meetings, the individual session, and the availability of information about the 24 hour dietary recall to measure dietary intake.
Some might argue that the “unannounced” 24 hour dietary intake may be a little bit faulty, that the dietary intake should be written on a daily or weekly basis in order to evaluate it better; not just done at baseline, 6 months and 18 months. Although this point may seem like a limitation, the study sees it as a strength as the intervention is focusing on the liquid calorie, with the behavioral counseling and advice on increasing or decreasing liquid calories is pretty clear that there is a tight control and a trust that the participants are following what is being told.
Some limitations of this proposed study would be the lack of follow up, the study was aimed at 18 months with the manipulation of calorie intake from different kinds of beverages along with counseling, there was no follow up to see if people maintained the lower calorie intake or not. Another limitation would be the lack of provision of these diet beverages or fruit juices in schools, we have not controlled what and where participants should obtain these beverages, we have just instructed them to do reduce the liquid calorie intake.
The study has used a rather small sample size in order to have more control and focus on all the results yielded; there is no doubt that the results would be different, however, it is always better to pick a larger sample size as we are referring to the country as a whole. What we learned: What we learn from this study is that the reduction in liquid calorie intake is associated with weight loss, specially in the reduction of sugar-sweetened beverages.
In this study, while focusing on the weight in kg, the result change in overall body fat was clear; the overall change in weight because of liquid calorie reduction is not a large amount, however; it does prove that it has an effect on weight gain or weight loss. Moreover, the study supports policy recommendations and public health efforts to reduce intakes of liquid calories, specially the reduction in sugar-sweetened beverages (Chen et al. , 2009).
A number of factors were assumed , however, more prospective studies with accurate measures of exposures and outcomes in terms of body composition are needed to provide more robust evidence on which to base interventions to achieve long-term behavioral change and prevent excess weight gains in adolescents (Rennie, Johnson, & Jebb, 2005). References Chen, L. , Appel, L. J. , Loria, C. , Lin, P. H. , Champagne, C. M. , Elmer, P. J. , … Caballero, B. (2009). Reduction in Consumption of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages is Associated with Weight Loss: the PREMIER Trial. American Society for Nutrition 89:1299-306. Retrieved from http://ajcn. utrition. org/content/89/5/1299. full. pdf+html. Christian Nordqvist. (2011). European Adult Obesity Rates Range From 7. 6% To 24. 7%. Medical News Today. Retrieved from http://www. medicalnewstoday. com/articles/ 238283. php. Ebbeling, C. B. , et al. (2012). A Randomized Trial of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages and Adolescent Body Weight. New England Journal of Medicine, 367:15, Oct. 11, 2012, 1407-1416. Intervention. (2007). In Medical Dictionary online. Retrieved from http://medicaldictionary. thefree dictionary. com/intervention. Duffey, K. J. , Huybrechts, I. , Mouratidou, T. , Libuda, L. , Kersing, M. , De Vriendt, … Popkin, B. M. 2011). Beverage Consumption Among European Adolescents in the HELENA Study. Eur J Clin Nutr. 66(2):244-52. doi: 10. 1038/ejcn. 2011. 166. Epub 2011 Sep 28. Retrieved from http://www. ncbi. nlm. nih. gov/pubmed/21952695 Rennie, K. L. , Johnson, L. , Jebb, S. A. (2005). Behavioural Determinants of Obesity. MRC Human Nutrition Research, 19(3):343-58. Just in case: http://ajcn. nutrition. org/content/87/6/1662. short http://pediatrics. aappublications. org/content/123/4/e661. abstract (used as a limitation cy my intervention did not include a policy inclusion in order to deal with the issue) http://ajcn. nutrition. org/content/84/2/274. full

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Food And Beverage

Resistance to Change in Food and Beverage Department

1 Resistance to Change: A Case Study in the Food and Beverage Department 2 Change is common in an organization and is initiated due to the need to survive and adapt to the changing market. As change is a disruption of routines and what people are used to, resistance to change is a common reaction of the change recipients. People resist changes because changes are uncomfortable and require them to adapt to a new way of thinking and doing things. Also, people have trouble envisioning how life will be like after changed; hence, they tend to stick to the unknown rather than embracing the unknown.
This essay is going to demonstrate why employees resist change in the hospitality and gaming organization with around 6000 employees and how the change agent can turn their resistance to advantages. The Food and Beverage department (F&B) is undergoing a change in the food safety management initiated by the new F&B director. The director attempts to introduce a new food safety audit scheme with the objective to raise the food safety standard of the dining outlets. The change recipients, the F&B Kitchen, Service and Stewarding eams, are resisting the change by ignoring the director’s requests and refusing to cooperate with him. The change of food safety management creates disruption in the daily operations of the change recipients. As a result, rather than providing improved services, the number of guests’ complaints and the turnover rate of F&B staff increase drastically one month after the change has started. The process of change is now stuck at its beginning because of the conflicts between the director and the F&B teams. The employees’ reactions and resistance are so great that the change The proposed change, which is ow appears to be impossible to implement. originally of a good intention to upgrade the F&B outlets, is doomed to failure because the change agent – the F&B director – is so engrossed in his plan that he never tries to understand the reasons of resistance to his proposed change. 3 When the change was initiated, the change agent employed a consultant to assist in the process of change. The consultant works out a plan of the new food safety practices on what has to be changed and to what extent these things have to be changed.
The use of outsider to teach and give comments to the F&B teams on how things should be done gives them an impression that their experience is not valued and their ways of work are not respected. The assumption in the change recipients’ minds is that their new boss thinks they have not been delivering a satisfactory performance in food safety so the director has employed an outsider to look for their wrongdoings. Other than the daily operation of the outlets, the change affects the social relationship among the three F&B teams and the food safety audit team.

The use of a stricter audit system means that they have to work harder to comply with the standards. Moreover, failing the food safety audit will result in disciplinary actions, such as issue of warning letters or temporary suspension of work. Therefore, the social relationship among the three teams changes from cooperating with one another into shuffling the blame of food safety standard non-conformance off to one another. In addition, in the past, the F&B teams worked closely with the food safety audit team in upholding the agreed standard.
However, because of the fear for failing the higher food safety standard, the F&B teams have become hostile to the audit team and are always trying to argue with the audit team on the result of audit. Another reason of resistance to change is that the director has put too much pressure on his teams in upholding the high standards and meeting the targets of continuous increase in restaurants’ income and reduction in operating cost. These unrealistic objectives lead to a huge workload and pressure and cause the teams overload. 4 Conflicts among the teams emerge, leading to frustrations and anger of the employees and finally, high turnover rate.
The shortage of manpower in the restaurants contributes to the unsatisfying customer service and increase in guests’ complaints. Besides, the pressure of the restaurant managers and chefs to fulfill the objectives creates panic and confusion in the operating level. In order to save cost, chefs tend not to maintain the food safety standards that request them to throw away unused food items. On the contrary, the food audit team and the outlet managers demand the This confusion in employees to comply strictly with the food safety standards. peration and food safety practices leads to employees’ frustration, high turnover rate, and, consequently, shortage of labor in the restaurants, especially when the unemployment rate of the economy is so low that it is very easy for the employees to get another job. In addition, the change agent fails to listen to the employees when he is implementing the changes. The outlet managers and chefs have already told him that the high food safety standard is unrealistic and impossible to attain. The neglect of the employees’ frustrations has led to the employees’ chronic resistance and persistent hostility towards the change agent.
As a result, that particular change and other beneficial changes introduced by the director do not work as planned and are totally rejected by the change recipients. Without the cooperation of the change recipients, the project is in slow progress because they try to fool around with the consultant and the director and refuse to cooperate. As the resistance of change persists, the change appears to fail sooner or later. The main reason of failure is that the change agent perceives the resistance as the “enemy 5 of change” because of the belief that a change process with only minimal resistance is a good change (Waddell and Amrik, 1998).
In fact, resistance, like pain, reflects that What something is wrong in the process, but not that the change itself is wrong. causes the resistance is how the change is implemented instead of what has to be changed. change. Resistance, when managed carefully, can be used as an advantage to assist In fact, resistance is an important form of feedback, giving the change agent some valuable inputs on what have gone wrong in the implementation of change. Therefore, the director should look into the resistance, try to understand it and use it to refine the change effort.
In order to reduce resistance, it is essential to build a guiding coalition with the restaurant managers and chefs. In order to build the coalition, the director should abandon the idea that he is doing the right and proper thing while the change recipients are throwing up unreasonable obstacles or barriers intent on “doing in” or “screwing up” the change (Dent and Goldberg, 1999). Furthermore, the change agent should always communicate with the change recipients and try to understand the uncertainties and potential problems, caused by the change, faced by change recipients.
He should also present his vision and the company goals clearly so that the change recipients can align their objectives with that of the change agent and the company. Moreover, Spreitzer and Quinn state that change agents contribute to the occurrence of what they call “resistant behaviors and communications” through their own actions and inactions, owing to their own ignorance, incompetence, or mismanagement (1996). The director, instead of trying to understand the difficulties his employees are facing in their operation, uses fear management and exerts pressure on the outlet 6 anagers and chefs to change because he believes that this particular change is good and necessary for the company. However, as Hultman (1979) comments that it is a fallacy to consider the change itself to be inherently good because change can only be evaluated by its consequences. This belief cannot be proved with any certainty until the change effort has been completed and sufficient time has passed. The change agent should, rather than getting an outsider – the consultant – to initiate the change, elicit participation from the teams and respected their opinions regarding the routines of the restaurants.
Besides, the change agent should create a great sense of urgency in that particular change, for example, whether it is government requirement or market driven (Ford et al. 2008). Without explaining the need and urgency of change, the change recipients In fact, the change are unable to relate the change with the objective reality. proposed by the director is driven by the government food safety policy which will be put into practice next year, the highly competitive market and the increase in customers’ demand of high quality food and services.
Therefore, there is an urgent need for the company to continuously improve and meet the demand of the customers in order to maintain profits and market share. It is fairly easy for the change agent to scapegoat the change recipients for the failure of change because of the uncooperative and hostile attitude of the change recipients. However, the change agent should understand that change is a situation that interrupts the normal patterns of organization and calls for participants to enact new patterns. This process involves the interplay of deliberate and emergent processes that can be highly ambiguous (Mintzberg and Waters, 1985).
Change is an interruption of normal operation and implies an increase in workload, at least during the period of 7 change implementation. It is not difficult to imagine that the change recipients are reluctant to accept change right at the beginning, especially when they cannot foresee any immediate or long-term benefits. Therefore, the process of change should be carefully planned and well-communicated in order to get the participation and support of the change recipients. On the other hand, participations of the change recipients should be valued respectfully.
Participation is a feeling on the part of people to be involved in a process but not just being called in to take part in discussions. People are more likely to respond to the way they are customarily treated and whose opinions are respected rather than being asked some carefully calculated questions about their opinions (Lawrence, 1969). The wrong way to elicit participation by overselling the positive and underselling the negative that the change will bring about will be perceived by the change recipients as intentional misrepresentation, injustice and violation of trust between the recipients and the agent (Mintzberg and Waters, 1985).
Consequently, the change recipients will be more defensive to change and may even intentionally deliver bad performance in order to prove that the change is a failure. In fact, resistance is a resource that can be fully utilized when it is acknowledged and understood. Change agents have to be aware of the problems caused by change because these problems are constructed from novel, discrepant, or problematic situations that are puzzling, troubling, or uncertain to the participants of change (Weick, 1995).
The emergence of problems demonstrates the potential obstacles that These problems, when will be encountered on the way to a successful change. managed carefully, can become advantages that greatly assist the process of change. Resistance is a form of conflict that strengthens and improves not only the quality of 8 decisions, but also the participants’ commitment to the implementation of those decisions (Amason, 1996). Hence, the F&B director should realize that he has to e-introduce the change as the benefits to the department and the company as a whole, and try to regain the trust of the F&B teams by inducing their participation with respect, taking more responsibilities in the occurrence of resistance and empowering the teams in the process of change. As a result, the process of change will be smoother and will ultimately succeed with the emergence of resistance. 9 Bibliography AMASON, A. C. (1996) Distinguishing the effects of functional and dysfunctional conflict on strategic decision making: resolving a paradox for top management teams. Academy of Management Journal, 39, pp. 23-148. BUCHANAN, D. A. and HUCZYNSKI, A. A. (2010) Organizational Behaviour. 7th ed. England: Pearson Education Limited. DENT, E. B. and GOLDBERG, S. G. (1999) Challenging “resistance to change”. Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 35, pp. 25-41. FORD, J. D. et al. (2008) Resistance to change: the rest of the story. Academy of Management Review, 33 (2), pp. 362-377. HULTMAN, K. (1979) The Path of Least Resistance. TX, Denton: Learning Concepts. LAWRENCE, P. R. (1969) How to deal with resistance to change. Harvard Business Review, 1, pp. 49-57. MALTZ, M and BASLER, F. (1997) Portable Conference on Change Management.
Hiam: HRD Press. MINTZBERG, H. and WATERS, J. (1985) Of strategies, deliberate and emergent. Strategic Management Journal, 6, pp. 257-272. PARDO DEL VAL, M. et al. (2003) Resistance to change: a literature review and empirical study. Management Decision, 41 (2), pp. 148-170. SHAPIRO, D. L. , and KIRKMAN, B. L. (1999) Employees’ reaction to the change to work teams: the influence of “anticipatory” injustice. Journal of Organizational Change Management, 12(1), pp. 51-66. SPREITZER, G. M. and QUINN, R. E. (1996) Empowering middle managers to be transformational leaders. Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 32, pp. 37-261. 10 TORMALA, Z. L. , and PETTY, R. E. (2004) Resisting persuasion and attitude certainty: a meta-cognitive analysis. In KNOWLES, E. S. and LINN, J. A. , (eds. ) Resistance and Persuasion. Mahwah , NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, pp. 65-82. TRADER-LEIGH, K. E. (2002) Case study: identifying resistance in managing change. Journal of Organization Change Management, 15(2), pp. 138-155. WADDELL, D. and AMRIK, S. S. (1998) Resistance: a constructive tool for change management. Management Decision, 36 (8), pp. 543-548. WEICK, K. (1995) Sensemaking in Organizations. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.