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Cenralistaion vs Decentalisation

The main decisions are made by senior management, where little authority is passed down the organisation. advantages • decisions are made by experienced people with an overview of the company. • ensures policies are consistent throughout the company. • ensures quick decisions can be made without consultation. • procedures such as ordering and purchasing can be standardised throughout the company, leading to economies of scale. • in times of crisis the firm may need strong leadership by a central group of senior managers. disadvantages (mainly advantages of decentralisation) centralisation reduces the input of the day to day experts, e. g. , the shop floor staff, into the firms decision making.
• it risks demoralising branch managers who may feel mistrusted or powerless. Decentralisation Decisions are made by junior management as authority is passed down the organisation, thereby accepting less uniformity in how things are down. There has been a trend in the 1980s and 1990s is to decentralise to provide greater flexibility. advantages • reduces the stress and burdens of senior management • it can empower local managers encouraging them to be more innovated and motivated. it reduces the volume of day to day communication between head office and the branches, therefore giving senior managers the time to consider long term strategy. • subordinates may have a better knowledge of local conditions affecting their areas of work.
This should allow them to make more informed well judged choices, e. g. , salespersons have detailed knowledge of customers. • management at middle and junior levels are groomed to take over higher positions. They are given the experience of decision making when carrying out delegated tasks (management development). could allow greater flexibility and a quicker response to changes. If problems do not have to referred to senior management decision making will be quicker. Since decisions are quicker, they are easier to change in the light of unforeseen circumstances. disadvantages • reduction in uniformity may unsettle customers who expect every Sainsbury’s to look the same or for every McDonald’s hamburger to contain just one slice of gherkin. • head office is in a position to measure the success of every aspect of the product and sales mix, therefore its instructions may prove more profitable than local manager’s intuition.

Conclusion It is unlikely there will ever be complete centralisation or decentralisation. Certain functions within a business will always be centralised because of their importance, e. g. , decisions about budget allocation are likely to be centralised as they affect the whole economy. The decision to distribute profits is also taken only by a few. Some delegation is necessary in all firms because the limits to the amount of work senior management can carry out. Even if authority is delegated to a subordinate it is usual for the manager to retain responsibility.

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Essay Examples

Effective Broadcasting of Channel One

There is a large debate erupting within our nation”s education system. Corporate America is invading our classrooms and campuses at an alarming rate. Corporate conglomerates such as Coca-Cola, Pepsi, Nike, and US West are making their presence felt in the hallways, gyms and classrooms from grade schools to colleges. Should these companies be allowed to buy their way into the classroom? The answer is no. Corporate restructuring of our educational systems is not the way to solve our schools” funding problems. Big companies want to get into the classrooms as soon as possible.
Next year, 53 million American children will make up approximately $250 billion dollars worth of immediate spending (Long, 2000:1). If the children are properly marketed, this figure would rise exponentially in later years, leading to a lifetime of brand recognition. These children are beginning to associate certain products with the brand names that they see and use at school every day. This will then likely cause these children to continue to buy the same products later in life as well. This lifetime of purchasing power could lead to incalculable profits in future years.
Channel One is a daily newscast that is offered to students around the country. Nearly 40 percent of American schools tune into Channel One everyday (Manning, 1999:1). A controversial entrepreneur, Chris Whittle, founded this company in 1989. These students are supposedly tuning into this program every day in order to keep up on current events and issues around the world. However, Channel One is now known as the most profitable in-school marketing campaign in the nation. The company gives the schools, which will allot time for students to watch the program, free satellites and television sets.

What it also gives them is two minutes of paid advertising (Stark, 2000;1). Nearly all of the 86,000 schools across the country use some sort of program where the schools receive money or equipment in exchange for proof-of-purchase coupons or receipts (McQueen, 2000:2). Is our public education system nothing more than an incentive based purchasing program, or are we trying to teach independent thought and creative thinking? Third grade math is being taught by using “Tootsie Rolls. ” Classroom business courses are being taught by touring students through McDonald”s facilities.
Coca-Cola and Pepsi are feuding over multi-million dollar contracts that would ensure student consumption of their products first (Manning, 1999:1). Nike offers free apparel and equipment for sports programs, only if the athletes will become walking billboards, wearing large logos on their jerseys and clothing. US West builds team scoreboards only for schools that will agree to exclusive vending deals. However, there is something else to be said about the commercialism of our nation”s public education system. In standardized testing, our nation”s education system is falling behind the rest of the world.
The government has been lagging on education reform, and fewer dollars are being pumped into most areas of public education. Some would say that commercialism is a great opportunity to put money back into the schools. South Fork Highschool In Marlin County, Florida gave Pepsi the exclusive right to to market and sell its beverages to their students in exchange for $155,000 (Stark, 2000:3). A school that was in dire need of funding received compensation and Pepsi, in turn, gets to be the sole distributor of beverages to the school.
This is the business exchange. These companies will provide money and services for schools that are lacking proper funding in exchange for what is turning out to be rudimentary corporate brainwashing. This may not be necessarily bad for the students, but it does pose a threat to true consumerism. Another great example of this is The Wal-Mart Corporation. More than 1,800 Teacher of the Year awards are given by Wal-Mart, each teacher receiving $500 that can be turned around and spend at Wal-Mart to purchase goods and supplies for the class (Long, 2000:2).
This is where Wal-Mart”s investment begins to pay off. When the students see that Wal-Mart has recognized a teacher of theirs, and has in turn given money for the school, than the students will begin to see Wal-Mart as a good company. This may, in-turn, cause sub-conscious purchase intent in the future for these students. While this may seem like a fair trade, money in exchange for consideration, but there is a deeper issue at bay. Should this potential corporate brainwashing be allowed to occur when our children”s susceptible minds are at risk?
If this is allowed to happen, then our entire society could be interpreted as being one large marketplace, where commercialism dominates over everything, even basic public education. There are some people who are fighting back against the onslaught of corporate propaganda, and it can make a difference. A group in Seattle, known as the Citizen”s Campaign for Commercial-free schools (CCC), has been organizing meetings and “commercialism walk-throughs” in order to raise public awareness of the situation (Manning, 1999:3).
In these walk-throughs, groups from the CCC will go and collect as much marketing material in the schools as they can, and send copies of their reports to the appropriate school boards. One schoolboard, with pressure from the CCC and other supporters, issued a resolution stating “We are opposed to exposing schoolchildren to corporate values in an educational environment where they assume that whatever is presented to them carries the approval of the educational establishment (Manning, 1999:3).
After this resolution was issued, members of the CCC were put on a school-community task force responsible for studying the issue and making policy recommendations. Four states have also begun to limit certain types of advertising and other commercial activity from their public schools: California, Florida, New York, Maine, and Illinois (McQueen, 2000:1). According to the Center for Commercial-Free Public Education in Oakland, the Madison School Board in Wisconsin was the first ever to reject renewal of an existing corporate contract when they cancelled their contract with Coca-Cola after months of public debate (McQueen, 2000:2).
In closing, it is imperative that this corporate desecration of our education system be stopped now. If this problem is not remedied, then businesses could quite feasibly end up running our public education. People are making a stand, but the results are too far and in-between for any real difference to be seen. Consumerism will eventually take the place of learning as the goal of our schools, and we will fall further behind in terms of international education standards.

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Voter Participation in the 1800s

Unknown 4B 14 November 2012 The 1800s were a time of tremendous change that contained many valuable occurrences. While being well adjusted to the new world the building blocks of America were still in the process of being made. Many controversies and commands were made which made elections a bit more complicated. The participation in political campaigns and elections in the United States changed between 1815 and 1840 through economic, political, and social factors that corresponds to historical events that made the differences that created the change.
The conflicts that are occurring during the time of voting have a very large affect on the election. They show what the president needs to improve and how they are going to act to do so. In the 1820s it was the start of the idea of the American System, which includes promoting industry though tariffs, building road, canals, etc, and internal improvements to market agriculture. The democrats at the time opposed the system and the republicans were all for it. We are fast becoming a great nation, with great commerce, manufactures, population, wealth, luxuries, and with the vices and miseries that they engender. ” (Doc. B). This was the start of the market revolution, where everything changes from underdevelopment to a future run on technology. Immigration was a problem because it was replacing American workers with cheaper foreign workers. They didn’t have any solutions, as it was just beginning, so that would be something the president would have to work on and use in their campaign.
Being the highest executive officer of a modern republic, the president is a imperative position full of demand. Andrew Jackson boosted his reputation and helped prop him to the while house through the Battle Of New Orleans. That is a fine example of how historical events can boost your eligibility for votes. Through the Era of Good Feelings, it kept Monroe and the Republican party well known. Jackson was also in office for the Indian Removal Act and the Trail of Tears which was a horrible time but gained land for the people which increased Jackson’s favor. Also through Jackson, was he creation of the Whig Party, which was a big impact on the election of 1836 because it was the 2nd party compared to democratic. Van Buren was President for part of the ending of slavery which was a huge progressive state for America. These events explained what the main goals were for the presidential candidates and were the ways to gain votes. In 1828, the Democratic Party ballot only had Representatives to vote on while there weren’t very many competitors. (Doc. D). Social issues kept the public talking, were a major part of campaigning, and displayed who to vote for.

In the 1824 election between Adams and Jackson, Adams was blamed for Corrupt bargain which affected his presidency through the thought of scandal. Another point that brought scandal upon election was the spoils system which gave jobs for voters for a certain party. “We have trusted to the influence of the justice and good sense of our political leaders, to prevent the continuance of.. Abuses, which destroy the natural bands of equality so essential to the attainment of moral happiness, but they have been deaf to the choice of justice.. ” (Doc. E).
Voting also increased over the years through change of requirement to vote, after this time period, women could vote along with slaves. (Doc. A. ) Campaigns won over Americas heart and started in the 1840s with Martin Van Buren and William Henry Harrison. Harrison was thought of as an alcoholic by his competitor so Buren said that he would sit in a log cabin and drink hard cider. (Doc. I. ) Everyone had a different opinion so newspapers weren’t an official source for awhile. The more different types of newspapers the more different will the stories get stretched with candidates. Doc. G). It was all for means of convincing voters and sharing the ideas of the presidential candidates. Over time, the number of voters increased while the regulations decreased. Through economic, political, and social factors that fact can be explained through historical events and change. Presidents manifest themselves to prove that they can be the best leaders that they can be with hard work and tough campaigning. While split up through different parties and ideas, presidency has definitely changed throughout the decades.

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The U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission

The U. S. Securities and Exchange Commission In economic society, most people like to invest their fortunes in the capital market and security market.
As more and more investors join in the investing market which is very complex and fascinating, and it can be successful. Unlike the deposits are hypothecated by the federal government, stocks, bonds and other securities can lose value in capital market because their no surety.So the security and exchange commission play an important role in the capital market, and the important thing is the security and exchange commission demands the public companies should be disclose the meaningful financial and other information to the public. This provides an equitable environment and common knowledge for the investors who can make a decision for buy, sell or hold a security. The security and exchange commission supervises the key participants in the securities market, which contains securities brokers and dealers, securities exchanges, investment advisors, and mutual funds.The security and exchange commission is concerned primarily with promoting the disclosure of important market-related information, maintaining fair dealing, and protecting against fraud. Every year, the security and exchange commission works closely with other institutions, such as Congress, other federal departments and agencies, the self-regulatory organizations, state securities regulators, and various private sector organizations.
The other thing is the security and exchange commission use the securities laws to deal with civil enforcement actions against individuals and companies which has typical infractions.The responsibility of the U. S. security and exchange commission is to protect the investors, maintain fair, orderly, and efficient markets, and facilitate capital formation. This article is an overview of the Securities and Exchange Commission history, role of the division of different offices, how the Securities and Exchange Commission maintains market, and how Securities and Exchange Commission facilitates capital formation. (a)When, Why, and by What Authority the SEC was Formed The Securities and Exchange Commission was found in a special period and has a meaningful history.The mission of the Securities and Exchange Commission is to protect investors and make the market stability.

Before the Great Crash of 1929, fewness people support the federal regulation of the securities markets. After the post-World War I, the security activities increased faster, and the federal government required financial must prevent the fraudulent sale of stock and financial disclosed. During the 1920s, most investors found the advantage of the post-war prosperity, so they invested their money into stock market.When the Great Crash was occurred in 1929, investors lost their confidence for the markets plummeted. At the same time, banks who lent money to the investors lost much money ensuring Great Depression. In this background, there was a common sense to recover confidence of the investors for the stock market, so Congress held hearings to identify the problems and search for solutions. According the result of the hearing, Congress passed the Securities Act of 1933 during the Depression year.
The Securities and Exchange Commission was created base on this law and the Securities Exchange Act of 1934.The purpose was to restore the confidence of the investors in capital market and clear rules of honest dealing. Congress established the Securities and Exchange Commission in 1934, and implemented the newly-passed securities laws to promoted the capital and protect the investors. The important thing were monitored the securities industry, required companies should be offered securities for investment dollars, must told the public the truth about their businesses, the securities they were selling, and the risks involved in investing. b)The Role of the Division of Corporation Finance The role of the division corporation finance is that assists the Commission implement its responsibility to superintend corporate disclosure of important information to the investing public. Company must be obeying the regulations pertaining to disclosure that must be made when the initial stock is sold in the next period of time. The staff of division periodically reviews the disclosure documents submitted by the company.
The staff also provides assistance to explain the rules of the Commission to companies and recommend the new rules adopted by the Commission. The Division of Corporation Finance requires publicly-held companies should file the documents that reviewed by the Commission. These documents include registration statements for newly-offered securities, annual and quarterly filings (Forms 10-K and 10-Q), proxy materials sent to shareholders before an annual meeting, annual reports to shareholders, documents concerning ender offers, and filings related to mergers and acquisitions. The staff reviews and checks the documents by disclosure requirements to improve the quality of the disclosure documents by the publicly-held companies. The staff of Division offered guidance and counseling to registrants, prospective registrants, and help the public obey the law. Corporation Finance provides administrative explanation of the Securities Act of 1933, the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, and the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, and recommends regulations to implement these statutes.Working closely with the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB), generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP).
Corporation Finance uses a more formal manner is no-action letters to issue guidance. Corporation Finance also monitors the use by U. S. registrants of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS), issued by the International Accounting Standards Board. (c)The Role of the Division of Trading and Marketing The role of the Division of Trading and Marketing is that assists the Commission implement its responsibility for maintaining fair, orderly, and efficient markets.The Division’s staff provides monitor major participants of the securities market, such as the securities exchanges; securities firms; self-regulatory organizations (SROs) including the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority (FInRA), the Municipal Securities Rulemaking Board (MSRB), clearing agencies that help facilitate trade settlement; transfer agents (parties that maintain records of securities owners); securities information processors; and credit rating agencies.The Division also monitors Securities Investor Protection Corporation (SIPC) that makes sure securities and cash in the customer accounts of the failed member brokerage firms.
The additional responsibilities of Division include enforce financial integrity program for broker-dealers of the Commission, reviewing recommended new rules and change to existing rules submit by the SROs, assist the Commission to establish rules and publish interpretations on matters affecting the operation of the securities markets, and monitor the markets. d)The Role of the Division of Investment Management The role of the Division of Investment Management is that assists the Commission implement its responsibility for investor protection and for promoting capital formation through oversight and regulation of America’s $26 trillion investment management industry. This is an important part of capital markets include investment advisers and professional fund managers who advise customer exchange-traded mutual funds and other investments that monitored by the Division.The Division of the Investment Management insures the disclosures about the investment useful by the customers who can accept the regulatory costs. The additional responsibilities of Division include advising the Commission on adapting SEC rules to new circumstances, responding to no-action requests and requests for exceptive relief, reviewing investment company and investment adviser filings. The Division assisting the Commission in enforcement matters involving investment companies and advisers, assisting the Commission in interpreting laws and regulations for the public, and enforcement staff. e)The Role of the Division of Enforcement The security and exchange commission is a enforce agency of law.
The role of the Division of Enforcement is that assists the Commission implement its law enforcement function by recommending the commencement of investigations of securities law violations, by recommending that the Commission bring civil actions in federal court or before an administrative law judge, and by prosecuting these cases on behalf of the Commission.As a civil enforcement authority of the SEC, Division working closely with law enforcement agencies and bring criminal cases when appropriate around the world. The division acquires evidence from different souses. All investigations of the SEC are conducted privately. Through informal inquiry, interviewing witnesses, examining brokerage records, reviewing trading data, and other methods, Division’s staff may find some violations of the securities laws and provide its investigations to Commission who can authorize the staff bring an administrative action or to file a case in federal court.The Commission can make a decision with party to settle a matter without trial. (f)How the Securities and Exchange Commission Protects Investors The SEC is the truly “the Investor’s Advocate” and there has an Office of Investor Education and Advocacy to assist the Commission in ensuring that in all of the agency’s activities to serves individual investors who have problems when the agency takes action.
The responsibility of the office’s policy and Investor Outreach review all agency action from the perspective of the individual investor.The investor disclosures are written by plain English and interactive data format is provided by the agency’s technology initiatives. The responsibility of the Office Investor Advocacy has for acting on investor tips, complaints and suggestions. Investors contact the SEC use the agency’s online to ask questions on a wide range of securities-related topics, to complain about problems with their investments or their financial professionals, or to suggest improvements to the agency’s regulations and procedures.The specialists and attorneys are trained by SEC, they provide information for these investors, find out informal resolutions of their complaints, and accept their good ideas to the Commission and agency’s staff. The illegal or abnormal activities of trend information from investor reports are provided critical intelligence to other SEC offices and divisions. The Office of Investor Education’s responsibility is the SEC’s investor education program.
The major working is to guard against fraud for seniors.Also the investors can use the Securities laws to protect themselves, because the securities laws broadly prohibit fraudulent activities of any kind in connection with the offer, purchase, or sale of securities. An important aspect of the SEC’s reasonability is the disclosure of important financial and corporate information to the public. Through the Division of Corporate Finance, the SEC insures that corporate information is made issued available to investors as a result of obedience of corporations with the SEC regulations. g)The Meaning of Fair, Orderly, and Efficient Markets and How SEC Maintains Market in Such Fashion The meaning of fair, orderly, and efficient markets has a simple and straightforward concept that all investors, whether large institutions or private individuals should be obey the laws, public companies to disclose meaningful financial and other information to the public, through the steady flow of timely, comprehensive, and accurate information can help people makes investment decisions when they are trading in the capital market.For establish the fair, orderly, and efficient market, the SEC adopts some measures, such as oversees the key participants in the securities world, including securities exchanges, securities brokers and dealers, investment advisors, and mutual funds, to issue typical infractions. The SEC requires the public companies to disclosure their meaningful financial and other information for the public.
The functions of SEC is a monitor body to against fraud in securities sales, illegal sales practices and market manipulation in order to protect market honesty and facilitate capital formation.Through the Division of Trading and Markets, the SEC reviews trading enforced by securities exchanges, securities brokers and dealers, investment advisors, mutual funds, transfer agents, credit rating agencies, and the Municipal Securities Rulemaking Board (MSRB) to ensure fair and orderly markets. The responsible Division of Trading and Markets is for enforcing the SEC’s financial integrity program for broker-dealers, reviewing and suggesting changes to existing rules filed, and surveil the markets.Second, to make sure the purpose is always being met, the SEC working with all major participants of market, contain to learn some experience from the investors and listen to their concerns in our securities markets. Finally, the SEC deals with thousands cases against individuals and companies for violation of the securities laws to protect all investors. Other else, the divisions and offices of the SEC could enforce their responsibility in the market. h)Capital Formation and How SEC Facilitates Capital Formation The meaning of the capital formation is used in macro-economics, national accounts, and financial economic.
Sometimes it is also used in corporation accounts. It defined three ways, such as it has a special statistical concept and used in national accounts statistics, econometrics and macroeconomics. According this meaning, it indicates amount by which the capital stock or physical capital stock of a country or an economic sector in an accounting interval increased during an accounting period.As a modern general term for capital accumulation it is used in economic theory. In more recent times, Capital Formation has been used in financial economics to refer to savings drives, setting up financial institutions, fiscal measures, public borrowing, development of capital markets, privatization of financial institutions, and development of secondary financial markets. The SEC was established in 1934, which is an independent agency of the U. S.
Government. Its responsibility for enforce and enhance of the federal securities laws. Attempt to protect investors against fraud in the sale of securities.The SEC’s role to insure the operate information is issued available to investors who can make investment decisions. In this context, the responsibility of SEC is for the rule of the behaviors of securities professionals and the orderly and efficient functioning of the markets to facilitate capital formation. The SEC maintains neutrality in resolving disputes. The fair, orderly, and efficient markets would attract investors and institutions to invest and trade their capital.
The EEO Office is an independent office of any other SEC office.The EEO Office’s mission is to prevent employment discrimination, including discriminatory harassment, so that all SEC employees have the working environment to support them in their efforts to protect investors, maintain healthy markets, and promote capital formation. The Office of Public makes the work of the SEC open to the public, understandable to investors, and accountable to taxpayers. It helps every other SEC Divisions and Offices accomplish the agency’s overall mission to protect investors, maintain fair, orderly, and efficient markets, and facilitate capital formation.In conclusion, the SEC is the basic to the effective functioning of the U. S. economy.
It provides transparent markets and accurate information to institutional and individual investors. In this way, investor’s confidence in the U. S. stock market becomes stronger and the corporations would like invest and development of their securities in the fair condition. For a long time, the SEC contributes for the American society stability and confidence.

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What do you understand by the term ‘hegemony’?

Introduction
This essay will consider the meaning of the term ‘hegemony’. It will weave personal interpretation with the academic literature, concentrating on Gramsci’s theory of cultural hegemony. Hegemony arguably originated with the Ancient Greek conception of political and military dominance (hegemonia means ‘leadership’ and ‘rule’) (Chernow and Vallasi 1994: 1215). According to the traditional conception of hegemony the ‘ruler’ (hegemon) imposes its will upon subordinate states through the exercise or threat of military power, which is then translated into political dominance (Antoniades 2008). In the modern world, this kind of hegemony has largely disappeared. The mechanisms of control now operate in civil society in more subtle forms, such as politics, ideology, and the media. This essay will discuss some interpretation of hegemony and how they relate to contemporary capitalist society.
Some scholars and political commentators, such as the former French Minister of Foreign Affairs Hubert Vedrine, believe that the United States is currently a global hegemon due to its widespread influence in countries such as Iraq and Afghanistan. However, as realist scholars such as Mearsheimer and Nye point out, the United States has never established a system of governance in these regions (Nye 1993).

This political and military hegemony has largely disappeared. In its place one might say that there is a kind of ‘cultural hegemony’. This concept was theorised in the early 19th century by the Marxist philosopher Antonio Gramsci, who argued that the capitalist state was divided into two spheres, the ‘political society’, which rules through the use of force, and the ‘civil society’, which rules through popular consent. The latter is the public realm in which people, groups, trade unions and political parties interact. In this sphere, the ruling elite reproduce their ideology in popular culture and thus ‘manufacture consent’ for the bourgeois domination of the proletariat (Simon 1990). Domination is not imposed by force, but rather is adopted unwittingly and under the pretense of ordinary cultural development (Simon 1990; Bullock and Trombley 1999). This theory was adapted from Marx’s analysis of the socio-economic class system (another example of a hegemonic theory), and in a sense is part of a larger set of theories hypothesising that culture, ethics, and norms arise through what Bernard Mandeville called ‘the artifice of politicians’, although Gramsci placed greater emphasis on intellectuals. Indeed, it might be fitting to suggest that scholars such as Anderson and Hobsbawm, who spoke of ‘imagined communities’ and ‘invented traditions’, respectively, are also working within an intellectual framework of cultural hegemony. However, it is important to note that these theories do not describe an exploitative, alienating relationship in the same way as cultural hegemony does.
Both Gramsci’s theory of cultural hegemony and the modernist theories of nation are accurate in their analysis. Whether in the form of informal social and moral traditions transmitted from parent to child, or more structured systems conveyed through instruments such religion and law, culture is a means for the elite to control and manipulate the masses. As modernist anthropologists argue, patriotism is a particularly potent hegemonic force. Created in its present form in the 18th century by the state, today it provides justification for the foreign conflicts of the bourgeoisie. George Bush’s rhetoric related to the Iraq War (2003 – 2011) employed subjective concepts of the ‘enemy’, as well as identity terms such as ‘them’ and ‘us’, linguistic and cultural constructs designed to win over the American population.
Contemporary democracy is one of the clearest forms of cultural and political hegemony. It is an idealised political type, inculcated in the civil domain since the enlightenment, and now ‘perfected’ through universal suffrage. In Britain, politicians are almost exclusively from the middle class (usually educated at Oxford or Cambridge). Western liberal democracy is presented by the bourgeois state, operating in the civil realm, as the only viable political system. Thus the entire population willing participates in a game in which the middle class is demonstrably dominant.
Cultural hegemony can be seen with more clarity by looking at contemporary capitalist media. In many cases, the International News Agencies, such as Thomson Reuters, the Associated Press, and Agence France-Presse, control the information consumed by the public from start to finish. For example, in the coverage of the Egyptian Revolution, they commissioned the citizen-journalists who captured the news and then edited the copy that was distributed to clients, all of whom operated under contracts (Macgregor 2013). As Macgregor (2013: 35) argues, the coverage of ‘any major incident in the world originates as often than not in the words, photos, audio, and raw film footage coming from three main international agencies’. The American ‘televangelist’ movement, which is broadcast on channels such as the Trinity Broadcasting Network and The God Channel (featuring popular sensations like Joel Osteen), have been effective in propagating the religious ideals of a select few to a wider population. In this way, the state can feed the population the kind of information that supports its own cultural agenda. The best examples of this, of course, come from the pages of history, as in when the Nazi regime launched a calculated propaganda campaign through posters, the development of the ‘Hitler Youth’, and other devices to convince the people of Germany to support the persecution of the Jews.
It can be argued that in postmodern society, which is somewhat apathetic and cynical with regard to bourgeois cultural grade narratives, hegemony is less dominant. However, even here hegemonic capitalist consumerism has taken hold. The products produced by firms such as Google, Apple, and Nike provide the cultural pabulum for the people, who are controlled to an extent by corporations.
The meaning of the term hegemony is really a matter of interpretation. Cultural hegemony of the Gramscian type can clearly be seen in contemporary society. Some of it manifestations are centuries old, such as patriotism and religion, while others, such as consumerism, are relatively (but not entirely) unique to modern capitalism. Ultimately, hegemony has a variety of meanings, perhaps even one for every set of social, political and cultural instruments of control.
Reference list:
Antoniades, A (2008) From ‘Theories of Hegemony’ to ‘Hegemony Analysis’ in International Relations
Bullock, A. and Trombley, S. (1999) The New Fontana Dictionary of Modern Thought (3rd ed.)
Chernow, B. A. and Vallasi, G. A. eds. (1994) The Columbia Encyclopedia (Fifth ed.). New York: Columbia University Press
Simon, R. (1990) Gramsci’s Political Thought: An Introduction, London: Lawrence & Wishart Ltd
Macgregor, P. (2013) International News Agencies: Global eyes that never blink, chapter in Journalism: New Challenges (ed. Fowler-Watt, K. and Allan, S.) Centre for Journalism & Communication Research, Bournemouth University: pp. 35-63 http://microsites.bournemouth.ac.uk/cjcr/files/2013/10/JNC-2013-Chapter-3-MacGregor.pdf [Retrieved 21/02/2014]
Nye, J. S. (1993) Understanding International Conflicts: An introduction to Theory and History. New York: HarperCollins

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The Reluctant Receptionist

The Reluctant Receptionist Why was it important to be specific when describing job duties? The importance of being specific when describing job duties is very important. Having a well effectively developed employee job description is a communication tool between the employee and employer and it can determine the success between the employee and employer. Having a poorly written job description can add confusion to the workplace, also a lack of communication from the company. People working for the company may feel as if they do not know what is, to be expected of them.
In this scenario not being accurate of the written job description created a problem because it was not written but it became a verbal description and it had nothing to do with what Virginia applied for. Virginia was not hired to be a receptionist, but was to relieve the receptionist for an hour a day. Virginia felt that this company did not take her seriously and felt unappreciated. Even though she has a college degree, and the job she applied for was an HR assistant not a fill in receptionist.
The importance of job descriptions Employee job descriptions are written statements that describe the duties, responsibilities, and the qualifications of a particular job. Employee job descriptions are based on information obtained through a job analysis, understanding the skills required to accomplish the task that is needed, and the needs of the company. Having a well written job description can cover legal basis as well, if employment issue’s should arise: it will define the ongoing job responsibilities for the employee.

It will also identify the required knowledge , skills and abilities needed to be successful. What can be done in the future to prevent these problems, what are the job duties of an HR Assistant? In order from preventing this happening in the future is to be more detailed into what is expected of the job being performed. When writing a job description consider the task, duties, and responsibilities and define each one if needed. Job Description for Human Resource Assistant
Human Resources Assistants are generally assigned to help Human Resource directors and managers keep track of employee information. This information could include an employee’s name, address, job title, compensation, tax withholding information and benefits, such as retirement and insurance plans. Human Resource assistants also help with documentation concerning grievances, terminations, absences and performance reports. Duties of an Human Resource Assistant Human resources assistants may be required to complete a wide variety of duties.
Common tasks include answering questions, opening mail, receiving and transferring phone calls, giving directions, creating and distributing documents and providing customer service. Assistants may be required to use either traditional paper filing systems in their work, or more commonly, a computer data entry system. Other functions human resources assistants may fulfill include setting appointments, arranging meetings, maintaining calendars, copying files, entering data into computer systems and tracking payments or other financial information.
Assistants may also be required to write reports for their managers, compile spreadsheets and prepare presentations. Because they work with the public, human resource assistants must be able to present themselves well and have good communication skills. Assistants must also be aware of privacy concerns and the importance of keeping information confidential. References: Education Portal http://education-portal. com/articles/Human_Resources_Assistant_Job_Description_Duties_and_Requirements. html Career Builder http://www. careerbuilder. com/? cbRecursionCnt=1

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Democratization of Information

Facebook alone has over 500 million users, 70% of them are outside of the United States, 50% of it’s active users log on everyday, and the average user posts 90 pieces of content each month. That is a ample amount of information for just one website. From the moment we wake up until the moment we go to bed out lives are consumed by TV shows, e-mail alerts, radio broadcasts, and text messages. Countless hours are spent watching and listening to the propaganda being transmitted on the screen.Information has become increasingly democratized over the past several decades, the sharing of information has also evolved dramatically, and technology has completely altered the way we communicate with each other in this day and age.
Democratization of information means simply that general information has become readily accessible to anyone with a internet connection or cell phone signal. People have acquired information over the generations using several different methods such as the newspaper, radio, telephone, television and internet.The circulation of information has increased rapidly since the invention of the printing press around the year 1441. Today, social networking sites, particularly Myspace, Facebook, Twitter, Etc, have altered the way information is distributed. People spend over 700 billion minutes per month on Facebook alone. Either a blog post or a television show may reach zero people or millions of people. The sharing of information has expanded beyond anything we thought was possible only 50 years ago.
The definition of “information age”, according to Dictionary. om, is a period beginning in the last quarter of the 20th century when information became easily accessible through publications and through the manipulation of information by computer networks. In other words, the way we receive our information in the twenty-first century has changed the world. However, when technologies become obsolete they are tossed into trash bins or found yard sales. Namely, the telegraph and the typewriter, forms of information sharing devices have used in the past fell victim to one such a fate.Technology has molded the way we connect with others. Cell phones are just one of the ways we have opened up communications to the rest world.

For instance, cellular companies have been producing cellphones with capabilities of creating it’s own internet hot spot. Yet, some people make an effort to avoid information technologies all together. For fear that once sent, cannot be altered. A damaging photo or a hurtful text are all too easy to post with the world at your fingertips. In brief, who knows what the future holds for us.

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Essay Examples

Chapter One: Introduction

United States of America, with its rich history of immigrants, is a land of diverse cultures and civilizations. Classrooms have students from many different racial and linguistic groups like White Americans, African Americans, Caucasians, Hipics, Vietnamese etc. According to the various analysis done by the National Centre for Educational Statistics, the academic performance of the minorities continue to be below standard. Illiteracy or poor schooling background is a common phenomenon not only in rural areas but also in urban areas in many Latin American countries. Although there has been a rise in the number of such students being enrolled in public schools, but as a group they have the lowest level of education and highest dropout rate.
Let’s view the present status of the Hipic students. They make up 15% of the elementary school-age people and will possibly comprise 25% of the total school-age population by the year 2025. It is noticed that over past 20years, their enrollment have risen by 150 %( U.S. Department of Education, 2000). The U.S. Hipic population is varied in terms of their countries by birth, economic and social status, language skills, family background and education. They have different academic needs as well.
They make up 75% of all the students enrolled for limited English proficiency program (LEP), including English as second language program (ESL) and bilingual educational program. As for their academic achievements, the 1996 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) shows that 17 year old Hipic students were quite below in comparison to other White students in science, mathematics and reading (National Centre of Educational Statistics, 1996). It also brought to light that their drop out rate was very much high as compared to other minority groups and ranked lowest in the comparison of high school completion rate.

Furthermore, Baker & Hakuta (1998) state that the number of English language learners (ELL) in the U.S. has grown dramatically in the last decade. According to a 1991 national study, over 2,300,000 students in grades K through 12 are English language learners. This number has grown by over 1,000,000 since 1984. The majority of these students are Spanish-speakers (73%), followed by Vietnamese-speakers (3.9%). Because of the overwhelming proportion of ELL students is Spanish speakers, the issue of bilingual education is largely a Latino one. No other language group makes up more than 4% of limited English proficient students. This fact makes education a complicated issue for language minority students with low socioeconomic status.
Most educators and school administrators in American classrooms overlook that English language learners with minimal formal schooling have difficulties managing information input, organizing learning material, following verbal and written instructions, and processing large chunks of new language. Thus, the findings of Ramirez (1991) indicate that Latino students who received sustained L1 instruction throughout elementary school have better academic prospects than those who have not received instruction in their first language or those who received instruction only in English. Consequently, first language illiteracy in Spanish speaking students has negative consequences in the United States as it retards economic and social development.
According to the 1993 U.S. Census Bureau, many Hipic children living in the United States are likely to be from lower socioeconomic backgrounds, particularly those whose families have recently arrived and are depending in minimum-wage jobs. Approximately 40% of Hipic children live in poverty, compared to the 13% of non-Hipic white children (Holman, 1997). Similarly, data from the 2003 U.S. Census Bureau shows that 58.4% of Hipic students have completed high school level compared to 85.8% of White and 80.6% of Black population.
Eighty percent of ELL are poor and most attend schools where the majority of students also live in poverty and are English language learners. Such schools are poorly maintained due to lack of funds and fail to provide technologically updated class room environment and well qualified teachers. Poverty and socio economic status have many implications for educational achievement on Hipic students. For example, parents’ income levels and parents’ educational achievement is highly linked to that of their children’s.
They belong to families where the parents themselves are not educated, and therefore lay less importance to schooling and education of their children. Inadequate participation by parents in their child’s education has many other reasons too. They have less time to spend with their family due to heavy load of work taken up to make both ends meet and inability to communicate in English themselves
Lack of proficiency in English is another important hurdle for Hipic students. This is assumed to be the major reason why they fail to graduate from the high school. In typical classrooms, Hipic students fail to understand the course taught due to the inability to understand the medium of instruction. Thus, their performance always remains low and at times such negative educational experience acts as a reason for their early dropouts and absenteeism .There are various programs installed for teaching English as second language (ESL) in schools yet the dropout rate is on a rise. Terrence (1997) says that state and federally funded bilingual education programs reach only a fraction of eligible students. Three quarters of limited English proficient students receive ESL instruction, while only one-third to one-half of these students receives any instruction in their native language.
After working with ESL Hipic students 9-12 grades at Vance High School in Charlotte, NC for two years, I became aware of the academic underachievement some students were experiencing even after being in the same grade in some cases for up to three consecutive years. Even though the teachers, administrators have put in a lot of effort, but their situation doesn’t seem to be improving. This scenario touched me very much and i developed a particular interest in finding out the causes behind their failures in the classroom and the methodologies which could be implemented to improve the situation.
My research will examine and analyze in depth the weaknesses these students bring to the classroom based on the causes of their illiteracy. In addition, I will describe the negative effects of illiteracy in relation to the alarming increase of the growth of Hipics in the U.S. It is worthwhile to cite Huntley (1992) as she says, “The problem of illiteracy seems to be increasing and programs to remedy that situation are still inadequate.”
Spanish speaking students are not well versed in their native language. Most of the programs already being used don’t stress the importance on reducing first language illiteracy. This in turn has a great influence in learning English as a second language. Illiteracy in the first language causes hurdles in learning a second language. Polishing the first language itself will support and ease the process of learning a second language. There are basically four types of literacy in the first language (L1), which has an impact in English learning (Huntley, 1992). These include literate learners, semi-literate learners, non-literate learners and pre-literate learners. Such kind of L1 literacy backgrounds are usually overlooked by teachers.
This research explains the different levels or types of illiteracy in detail and their relative importance in learning English as a Second language for Spanish speaking students. One can say that learning a second language is hard, but it is even harder when there is a lack of literacy skills in the first language. McGee (1978) says, “We acknowledge that being an adult learner is difficult, that being an adult second language learner is even more difficult, and that being a pre-literate adult second language learner must be nothing short of a painful situation.” Difficulties arising in an individuals’ second language learning cannot be properly understood without simultaneous attention to the socio linguistic and socio cultural framework within which learning a second language is occurring.
Another major cause of illiteracy in Hipic students in the United States is attributed to the rate of dropout; this document includes an analysis of a study done by Crawford & Egemba (2003), about the factors that contribute to abandon school on Hipic students of grades 9-12. They based their analysis on demographic factors, academic ability, family background, school experiences and social influence factors.
The variables in this research include academic ability, family socioeconomic status, student gender, employment status, repeating a grade, citizenship status, English proficiency, truancy, urbanicity, gender, friends’ and siblings’ status, substance use, and pregnancy/fatherhood. It is also noticed that the drop out students eventually take part in criminal activities. According to Cassel (2003), “ Today in America one million of the two million prison inmates are high school dropout students and the primary reason for their dropping out of school is a general lack of personal development” (p. 1). This shows how much of a serious issue this ESL drop out learners pose. In addition, this part describes the alarming statistics of Hipic youth as the fastest growing minority segment in America.
It is since 1960s, that many researches have been done to identify the main causes behind such a high drop out rate of Hipic students. The researches were based on the logic that once the core issue is identified, it would become lot easier to devise measures to resolve it. This theory was termed as deficit theory and has guided much work in this field. The theory assumed that the cultural differences were a reason behind their academic failures. However, in 1970s the trend shifted and many more reasons were highlighted and worked upon.
Many researches have been carried out to see what will prove helpful in improving this scenario. Most of the educators believe that such educational crisis can be dealt with the help of better teachers and teaching methods. My research explores the different methodologies to teach preliterate or limited formal schooling ESL Spanish speaking students grades 9-12. Although there are several programs designed to teach English as a Second Language, they mostly promote the use of English as a media of instruction. Few programs neither consider the capacity for literacy in the students’ first language nor promote the study of the student’s native language. Therefore, it is necessary to take into account that English language learners have different literacy levels and come from a diverse socioeconomic background.
The research brings to light what could be effective for improving the situation. It will explain how teachers should be educated about the need and use of various teaching tools, seeing which helps the learning better. Curriculum should be designed in a way that provides equal opportunity for such minority students to read and write. It explains how and why the teachers should understand the cultural difference, and use it positively while imparting education. More resources and effective language teaching practices should be adopted for the students who have limited knowledge of English language. It will prove how the adoption of technologically updated teaching methods may go long way in facilitating teacher in meeting the special learning requirements of such students. This includes the usage of visual aids, computers and multimedia, recorders, audio tapes and language masters while teaching students.
It is also important that primary or native language is used for the purpose of instructions. Such method, if adopted, would help in concept development and better understanding. It is only through their primary language that the students will effectively learn how to read and write well. This method will also ensure that students don’t fall behind academically while they learn English. For this the teachers themselves have to be fluent and bilingual. Not only this, they also need to be certified to teach ESL students. Only the possession of certificates like BCC (Bilingual Certificate of Competence) or B.-C.L.A.D. (Bilingual-Cross-Cultural, Language and Academic Development Certificate) makes them eligible to teach such students. Teachers with other certificates like L.D.S. can team up with fully certified bilingual teachers to help such students.
Overall, this study underscores the importance of L1 instruction as a crucial tool for illiterate Spanish-speaking students in U.S. schools and the need to master literacy skills in their native language before they acquire a second language in order to achieve academically in the mainstream classroom.  According to Cummins (1981), the capacity for literacy in the first language affects in a dramatic fashion the ability to acquire a second language because metacognitive skills are transferred across languages.
For the purpose of this research, I present the two main methodologies Bilingual Education and English-Only instruction and their effects in learning a second language being a preliterate in the native language. In bilingual classrooms, interaction is split between the primary language and English language, whereas, in English-only classes English is the only medium of instructions. Various studies have proved that students in such bilingual classrooms are at various academic and linguistic benefits as opposed to the other method. Especially if such method is used for students in pre-school and lower grade levels.
This paper discusses in depth the advantages and disadvantages of both methods of instruction. Eventually, my study shows that good bilingual programs should be designed for illiterate ESL learners so as to provide literacy in native language first, so that the input they provide in the target language is comprehensible for them. Being a very controversial topic, its importance deserves more research to determine the effectiveness of each methodology, considering all the variables and the students’ needs. It also shows that Transitional programs (where primary instruction decreases the more English students learn) or Developmental programs (where primary language instruction continues throughout the entire study program) can be used according to the requirement of the students.
This research also shows that parental involvement in a child’s education is of utmost importance. This can be done by meeting parents regularly to discuss the academic progress and performance of their child. Not only this, they should also be convinced to encourage their children for higher studies. This will help in reducing the premature dropouts and may also guarantee higher attainment of education. It was proved through various researched how the lack of involvement was a reason behind early drop outs of such students. Thus, if parents become more aware about their role as their child’s partner in learning, they would themselves become the first teachers of their children.
It also shows how government can play their role in improving the situation. It can help in establishing special schools for Hipics, where the fee structure is affordable. Monetary and technological funds can be provided to such schools. Teaching program there should be designed with special care to address the needs and issues of students. At such schools, proper career guidance should be provided and scholarship programs should be introduced. Moreover, government should allocate more funds for the continued research in this area so that better methodologies can be formulated.
But it should be remembered that the success of all of these programs depends upon their proper implementation. Not only this, they need to be monitored and upgraded as and when required. Then only can they help in increasing academic achievements of Hipic ESL students.
Improvement in their situation will allow them to make meaningful contribution towards the society. It will prove helpful in social interaction and boost up their confidence. Not only this, better education would open many earning opportunities for them with which they can improve their economic status. English is an official language through out the nation, and having a good command over it means better position to work in. Moreover, know how of another language brings along with it many intrinsic advantages.
Various changes come within one’s personality. It gives a better insight to life, brings about tolerance for different life styles, and gives a better ability to express well. It provides ability to comprehend other cultures. Second-language skills help in providing maximum enjoyment while traveling as well. However, there have been researchers and educationalists have pointed out few drawbacks of bilingualism. But they in no way outstrip its benefits.
Being literate doesn’t only mean to possess the ability to read, write, listen and speak. But it means doing all this to a certain adequate level. Certain educationalists go as far as including the abilities to face and solve daily problems and make some contribution towards the society as important requisites of being a literate person.  Standard for what actually is literacy vary from society to society. Literacy rate determines the standard of living and progression of any state. Thus, it is important for all states to address the educational needs and issues of its minorities so that they add up to the success of the nation.
References:
National Center for Educational Statistics. (1996). NAEP 1996 long-term summary. Washington, DC.
Alexander, D., Heaviside, S., & Farris, E. (1999). Status of education reform in public elementary and secondary schools: Teachers’ perspectives. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics.
Huntley, H. S. (1992). The new illiteracy: A study of the pedagogic principles of teaching English as a second language to nonliterate adults. Unpublished manuscript. (EDRS No. ED356685).
Terrence, G. W. (1997). Myths about language diversity and literacy in the United States, SuDoc ED.
Miriam, B., Joy, P. (Feb, 2003) Reading and Adult English Language Learners: The role of first Language, National Centre for ESL Literacy Education.
Grabe, W., & Stoller, F. L. (2002).Teaching and researching reading. Harlow, England: Pearson Education.
Burt, M., Peyton, J. K., & Adams, R. (2003). Reading and adult English language learners: A review of the research. Washington, DC: Center for Applied Linguistics.
Fillmore, L.W. and Snow, C.E. (2000). “What teachers need to know about language.” U.S. Department of Education: Educational Research and Improvement. ERIC Digest No. ED-99-CO-0008
Birch, B. M. (2002). English L2 reading: Getting to the bottom. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

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Essay Examples

Assessment, Care and Support Planning

Abstract
This essay discusses a case study, and the most appropriate social work interventions to address the needs of the client. Daryl’s stable life situation has been severely disrupted by mental health issues, and he seems unable to cope with life outside hospital. Daryl’s situation is discussed in terms of relevant theoretical perspectives. The next sections looks at the most appropriate approaches to social work interventions to support Daryl, and at specific provisions available in the Kirklees and wider area. Constraints, particularly financial, on agency action are discussed, as well as relevant legislation and guidelines nationally.
1. Introduction

The following essay considers a case study, and the most appropriate social work interventions to address the needs of the client. Daryl’s stable life situation has been severely disrupted by mental health issues, and he seems unable to cope with life outside hospital. Daryl’s situation is discussed in terms of relevant theoretical perspectives. The next sections look at the most appropriate approaches to social work interventions to support Daryl, and at specific provisions available in the Kirklees and wider area. Constraints, particularly financial, on agency action are discussed.
2. The Case Study
The case study concerns Daryl, who suffers from manic depression. Prior to the advent of this mental condition, Daryl had a stable, responsible job, and a family (a wife and two children). Manic depression, in common with other mental illnesses, can have a devastating effect upon a sufferer’s life, with families falling apart and lost jobs, particularly if the illness is not recognised as such and symptoms viewed as personality traits or lapses of judgement (DePaulo and Horvitz 2002). The impact of his illness upon Daryl’s life has been severe: his wife is now divorcing him, and his daughter did not visit him in hospital. The symptoms of manic depression are varied, although generally include swings between periods of elation and depression (Jovinelly 2001). The term ‘manic depression’ is colloquial: the condition is more properly referred to as ‘bipolar disorder’. While 72% of those who suffer manic phases also suffer episodes of depression, the existence of depression is not necessary for a diagnosis of bipolar disorder. It has been estimated that between 0.7 and 1.6% of the population suffer the condition (Russell and Jarvis 2003). Daryl’s symptoms include paranoia: he feels as if he is being watched and talked about when he is walking in the park, for example. As well as paranoid thoughts, he also suffers hallucinations and mood swings. This is typical of the disorder: other symptoms may include impaired judgement, impulsive behaviours and increased sexual appetite (Russell and Jarvis 2003).
Daryl’s case has been affected by budget cuts. Mental health services throughout the UK have been subject to such cuts, with a claim that over 50,000 NHS jobs will be lost over the next five years, a loss which will disproportionally impact the most vulnerable in need of mental health care (Channel 4 2011 [online]). The psychiatrist who is in charge of Daryl’s care has to decide whether he should leave the psychiatric hospital where he currently stays, or be discharged so he can go home. Once discharged, he will be under the care of a psychiatric team. There is an argument that he would be better off in the community, where a dedicated community mental health team including community psychiatric nurses, clinical psychologists and a key worker would be available to help Daryl (The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2011). Some claim that community-based mental health care reduces stigmatisation of the mentally ill, and allows a patient to feel supported by his family (Hunt 2008), however, this approach has been widely criticised. Indeed, some claim that the main advantage of care in the community is cost: it is cheaper to treat a patient based at home with a mental health team than it is to keep him or her in hospital. In addition, and in practice, community services lack sufficient funding to provide the level of care patients need, and there is evidence that the level of suicide for mental patients outside hospital is higher than those who are institutionalised (Kirkby 2000).
Daryl himself, despite not realising that he was going to stay in hospital (it ‘just seemed to happen’) would now rather be in hospital, although has been moved on to a community care programme. He feels safe there, and doubts that there are the resources outside to support him. This reluctance to leave the institution was noted as early as 1971, when Wallace notes that “a sizeable body of patients (perhaps 40% or more) do not want to leave the mental hospital” (Wallace 1971, p. 22). Daryl feels safe in hospital, and since starting the community based programme visits the hospital every day, although he is not admitted. On one occasion he went to the ward and demanded to be admitted, getting very agitated and angry, and insulting the staff. The mental healthcare team are collectively worried that this is slowing the pace of his recovery, as he has few incentives to get up in the morning, and the focus upon the hospital gives him a daily motivation. Lack of motivation is a common feature of severe mental illness, and can mean treatment is more difficult, as patients are unmotivated to persist with courses of treatment (Villena 2007). Daryl also reports feelings of loneliness and isolation. Loneliness / isolation can both exacerbate or cause mental conditions (Glicken 2009) and be a function of such conditions (Kahn and Fawcett 2008). Daryl’s isolation has been noted by his mental health team, who have tried to engage him and empower him to structure is day more, through accessing clubs and drop-in centres, but Daryl is not interested. He feels negative about any change in his mental state or that his feelings can be alleviated. However, he has progressed regarding his attitudes to the hospital, now understanding that it is a place for treatment, not his ‘home’. There have also been some signs of progression and gradual improvement, backed by feedback from the team who encourage him and show he is able to cope.
3. The Optimal Way To Address Daryl’s Case
There are a number of social work approaches which might help Daryl live more positively with his mental condition. In particular, taking an anti-oppressive practice, building Daryl’s sense of empowerment and taking a social investment approach seem important. To some extent, a radical perspective with a structural critique focussed upon challenging inequalities in society also seems necessary. Social work practices which embrace cognitive-behavioural therapies might also be helpful. Anti-oppressive practice means being explicitly and critically aware of the way in which power and authority work to construct social divisions for example in areas of gender, class and race (Burke and Harrison 1998). Within mental health, there is a need to be aware of, and challenge, stereotypes about mental illness, both at the level of the institutions and individuals Daryl comes up against, but also negative views about mental illness that Daryl has internalised. The service provider also needs to be aware of negative stereotypes that he or she may have internalised concerning mental illness (Tew 2005).
Daryl clearly feels little sense of empowerment. While widely used, ‘empowerment’ is a much-debated term in social work theory, with a lack of consensus over precise definitions, claims that the term is paradoxical, and some lack of clarity over practical applications. However, despite these issues, there is general agreement that clients benefit from taking on more power over their circumstances, developing awareness of the impact of their actions, taking responsibility for their lives, and feeling more confident and able to bring about positive outcomes (Gould 2009). How, in practice, is Daryl to gain this sense of empowerment he lacksOne way is to ensure that Daryl is supported when dealing with the numerous institutions and formal bodies he encounters, and to be given support in finding out about, and attending, day-care facilities which will combat his isolation. The framework of the recovery model could also be used: this emphasises the likelihood of recovery from the illness, and suggests helping clients to develop self-motivated coping strategies to deal with episodes, rather than reliance upon authority figures (Gould 2009). Self-determination is central, and client participation is also encouraged. Practically, this means, for example, formulating plans of action and clear goals with the client in partnership, education about the condition, and training in ways to deal with acute episodes (Atwal and Jones 2009).
Another approach which might be of use is the ‘social investment’ approach. Rather than a case-study focus with an emphasis upon individual therapies, this approach works to improve social inclusion for mentally ill people “working with them to overcome the experiences of isolation and stigma that are often the most debilitating effects of mental illness” (Midgely and Conley 2010 p. 71). This approach has been influential in the United States, and in parts of Europe. It places mental health care in the wider political concept, stressing that investing in mental health can lead to economic progress for society as a whole. The concept emerged in the 90’s as part of a wider discussion of ways to modernise the welfare state in Europe and make them more sustainable, and involves better preparing individuals to cope with social risks over their lifetime, rather than repairing damage which is done (Policy Network et al 2011). The social investment model has been elaborated for the social work context, for example by Mayadas and Elliot (2000), linking the micro and macro level of practice. Social investment and economic investment address the macro level, tackling problems by spending money on infrastructure and bringing the marginalised into the wider community. At the same time interventions at the micro level can make families more sustainable and empower individuals (Healy and Link 2011). It can be asked, however, whether this is really a new approach, or rather a recontexualising 70’s radical approaches which focussed upon changing the system, as much as the individual (Norman and Ryrie 2004).
Criticism aside, a social investment approach would involve lobbying for better provision of mental health care services and investment in preventative treatments, but would also involve working with Daryl to empower him to realise he is capable of more than he currently realises, as described above. It might also involve work with the family. It is clear that there are issues both with the way Daryl views his family, and the extent to which they feel able to support him. New ‘integrated treatment’ approaches to social work emphasise the importance of, where possible, including a client’s family in treatment programmes, perhaps with family therapy in addition to CBT or other therapy for the client, and drug treatment (Pritchard 2006). Even where families are reluctant to engage with family therapy, or it is not appropriate, psycho-education can help prognosis by involving a client’s family more directly. Psycho-education covers helping the family understand the condition from which the client suffers, including the symptoms and events which might trigger them. It also offers the possibility of earlier interventions if families can recognise symptoms (Pritchard 2006). By involving his family through education, Daryl’s manic phases might be better managed.
4. Local Services Available
While the above describes options for Daryl’s care in an ideal world, in the real world options are limited by budget, what is available locally, and government constraints on agency action. Kirklees council are explicitly committed to ensuring the best possible deal for people with mental health problems, and believe that mental health services should be ‘mainstreamed’, that is, the council aim to “improve social inclusion, employment opportunities and educational achievement” for those with mental health concerns (Kirklees Primary Care Trust 2008). However, since this document was written, the global recession has led to cuts in funding to many local councils. The BBC reported in February 2011 that Kirklees council, based in Huddersfield, is scaling back adult social care in order to make savings following government cuts to local authority grants, with an aim of saving ?80 million by 2014 (BBC 2011 [online]). This is likely to mean that council-funded services are less available. However, at the time of writing, there are a number of independent local groups which might be beneficial to Daryl, particularly given the sense of isolation he feels. ‘Support To Recovery’, based in Huddersfield, works across Kirklees’ residents with mental health problems, providing both one-to-one support (to help Daryl work through his feelings) and also self-help workshops and drop-in services. They provide out of hours support, which might be helpful to Daryl in weekends and evenings. Other support services locally available include ‘Bartonians’, a lunch club for elders and people with mental health problems. Because Daryl has mentioned isolation as an issue, services offering social groups might be particularly useful, including the ‘Pathways’ day centre, offering activities to build confidence and sense of empowerment, and the St. Anne’s Befriending Scheme in North Kirklees, through which people with mental health issues are provided a volunteer ‘befriender’ to offer support (Kirklees Council [online] 2011). Research has suggested that creative arts may be beneficial as part of treatment for mental illness (Miles 2010), and there are a number of provisions within Kirklees to address this, including ‘Bead Therapy’, in Batley and Diva, targeted at people with mental ill-health and providing services to encourage creativity (Kirklees Council [online] 2011). Daryl might benefit from attending these providers, assuming he enjoys creative activity.
5. Conclusion
The above has discussed a case study concerning Daryl’s experience of mental illness and release into the community. The essay discusses the options which would benefit Daryl, in terms of his needs and current theoretical perspectives. It also discusses what is available to Daryl in terms of his location, constraints on spending and locally available services.
6. References
Atwal, A and Jones, M (2009) Preparing for Professional Practice in Health and Social Care, John Wiley and Sons, Chichester W Sussex
BBC (2011) ‘Where the Councils are Cutting’ [online] (cited 4th December 2011) available from http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-politics-12430851
Burke, B. and Harrison, P. (1998) ‘Anti-oppressive practice’, in Adams, R., Dominelli, L. and Payne, M. (eds), Social Work, Themes, Issues, and Social Work: Themes, Issues and Critical Debates, Palgrave Macmillan, 2009
Channel 4 (2011) ’50,000 NHS job cuts hit mental health services’, [online] (cited 3rd December 2011) available from http://www.channel4.com/news/50-000-nhs-job-cuts-hit-mental-health-services
DePaulo, J R and Horvitz, L A (2002) Understanding depression: what we know and what you can do about it, John Wiley and Sons, New York
Elliott, D and Mayadas, N S (2000) ‘International Perspectives on Social Work Practice’, in P Allen-Meares and C Garvin (eds.) The Handbook of Social Work Direct Practice, Sage, Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 633-650.
Glicken, M D (2009) Evidence-based counseling and psychotherapy for an aging population, Academic Press, Burlington, USA.
Gould, N (2009) Mental Health Social Work in Context, Taylor & Francis, Abingdon Oxon.
Healy, L M and Link, R J (2011) Handbook of International Social Work: Human Rights, Development, and the Global Profession, Oxford University Press, Oxon.
Hunt, R (2008) Introduction to community-based nursing (4th edn), Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, USA
Jovinelly, J (2001) Coping with bipolar disorder and manic-depressive illness, Rosen Publishing Group, New York.
Kahn, A P (2008) The encyclopedia of mental health (3rd edn.), Infobase Publishing.
Kirby, M (2000) Sociology in perspective, Heinemann, Oxford
Kirklees Primary Healthcare Trust (2008) ‘Kirklees Joint Mental Health Commissioning Strategy 2008: Mainstreaming mental health. From segregation to inclusion – a new direction for Kirklees’, [online] (cited 2nd December 2011) available from
http://www.kirklees.gov.uk/community/care-support/health/mentalhealth/mentalhealthstrategy.pdf
Kirklees Council (2011) ‘Support Networks and Social Groups’, [online] (cited 4th December) available from http://www.kirklees.gov.uk/community/care-support/health/mentalhealth/pdf/5_social.pdf
Midgley, J and Conley, A (2010) Social work and social development: theories and skills for developmental social work, Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Niles, N J (2010) Basics of the U.S. Health Care System, Jones & Bartlett Learning, Sudbury MA
Norman, I J and Ryrie, I (2004) The art and science of mental health nursing: a textbook of principles and practice, McGraw-Hill International, Maidenhead Berks
Policy Network / Wiardi Beckman Stichting / Foundation for Progressive European Studies (2011) ‘Social Progress in the 21st Century: Social investment, labour market reform and intergenerational inequality’, Policy Network, the Wiardi Beckman Stichting and the Foundation for Progressive European Studies (FEPS).
Pritchard, C (2006) Mental health social work: evidence-based practice, Routledge, UK
Tew, J (2005) Social perspectives in mental health: developing social models to understand and work with mental distress, Jessica Kingsley Publishers, London
The Royal College of Psychiatrists (2011) ‘The Mental Health Team’ [online] (cited 3rd December 2011) available from
http://www.rcpsych.ac.uk/mentalhealthinfo/communityteam.aspx
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Enlightened and Romntic Views of God

Essay I During the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries in Europe, change was always constant, and two different movements that were brought about by this change were the Enlightenment and the Romantic movements. These two different schools of thought had both things in common as well as differing opinions. An example of how this is applied is when the matter of God and religion is discussed.
These two different views encompass a lot of similarities with regards to theological matters, but the main difference between the Enlightened and Romantic views of God is that Enlightenment does not put as much focus and emphasis on such matters as Romantic thinking does. The Enlightenment era was brought about during the time of scientific inquisition and governmental criticism. During this time, philosophers were writing sociological doctrines about how man is best governed, and scientists were pushing the boundaries and frontiers of their respective fields even farther.
During this time, which also included such events as the French Revolution, religious affairs took a back seat to issues that were of a secular nature. As opposed to times before, where religious persecution was encouraged, thinkers of the Enlightenment period highly promoted religious toleration, and it was a more common policy during the Enlightenment than any time before that. There was a higher abundance of different religions and denominations because religion was not seen as imperative as it was before because there were many new things to learn that did not involve the church.

One similarity between romanticism and the enlightenment is that each movement held an unconventional way of seeing God. Each movement valued an individual relationship with God, rather than the conventional way of congregationalism. Each movement was disdainful towards formal church groupings and the imposition of religious doctrines upon the individual. The Romantic Movement was similar to the Enlightenment in several ways. They were both influential events that were quite impactful, and they stressed unconventional methodology.
These movements differed as well, and a main difference was that the enlightenment emphasized things that were within rationality, reason, and could be proved. Romanticism tended not to focus on such things, because it investigated the realms of human emotion, while the enlightenment was based on intellectual and logical principles. Hence, Romanticism held more of an interest of the relationship between God and the individual, because it had a lot to do with human emotion and things that were considered to be beyond human comprehension and reason.
The enlightenment shied away from religious topics in order to focus on such fields as science and government. The Enlightenment and Romanticism both held things in common as well as significantly differed. The enlightened mind was more inclined to think about science, and the romantic mind was more prone to theological thoughts. Each were similar in the fact that they believed in the individual discovering the truth about God rather than blindly listening to a group’s opinion. In general, each movement saw God in a similar way with different details.