Categories
Environment

Marks & Spencer Natural Environment

1.0 Executive Summary
Marketing environment is very important for any given organisation as it relates to the macro environment, the microenvironment as well as the internal environment. The above sub types of environment are very important in the performance of any given organization. Marks and Spencer is affected by the three sub types of environment. The microenvironment at Marks and Spencer involves suppliers, consumers as well as customers, who deal directly with the organisation and impact on the performance of the organisation.
The microenvironment will be discussed in length in this report with an aim of demonstrating how the natural environment operates. The macro environment as it relates to Marks and Spencer refers to the factors that influence the company’s performance but are out of control of the company. This touches on the legal aspects such as laws on environmental issues that impact on the operations of Marks and Spencer. Finally, the report incorporates internal environment issues, which basically involve; men, money, machinery, materials as well as markets. The above are discussed with an aim of demonstrating how they interrelate to cause positive change in Marks and Spencer.

2.0 Overview of the natural environment (Marks & Spencer)
In a bid to address possible threats and challenges in regard to the natural environment of the organisation, Marks and Spencer has several plans in place as part of its strategic repositioning for future business scenarios. Plan A program at Marks and Spencer constitutes of a five-year, 100-point plan to tackle some of the biggest challenges facing the organisation in relation to the political, economic, social, and technological environment.
The plan is designed to facilitate a smooth working relationship between the customers and the suppliers to; combat climate change, through initiation of programs, which embrace safe environmental practices bearing in mind that the company gets its raw materials from the environment and it has a corporate duty and responsibility to conserve the environment. This calls for the company to embrace modern business practices, which are environment friendly such as the use of fuels, which cause little or no pollution to the environment.
3) Identify TWO areas of the natural environment likely to impact on Marks and Spencer in the medium term
Marks and Spencer has embarked on initiatives to reduce wastage by realigning its production roles with emerging technologies, which ensure that there is little or no wastage of raw materials considering the fact that the rate of harvesting of raw materials from the natural environment is far much higher compared to the rate at which the natural environment is rejuvenating. By embracing wastage control methods such as recycling, Marks and Spencer is promoting a symbiotic relationship between the organisation and the local communities, who are affected by the actions of the company on the environment.
The company is committed to safeguarding natural resources by putting in place several initiatives such as community-based environmental programs, which are aimed at enlightening the local community on the importance of preserving nature. In addition, the initiatives geared towards safeguarding nature have targeted all stakeholders including the employees because it is viewed that if every stakeholder understands and appreciates the individual role in safeguarding the environment, this would be beneficial not only for the sustainability of the organisation but also for the benefit of all.
Trading ethically constitutes an important function in Marks and Spencer. This is important due to the fact that ethical practices are aimed at protecting the given organisation from harming any of its stakeholders. Marks and Spencer has a code of conduct as well as corporate responsibility policies, which guide the organisation in relation to its duties to the stakeholders.
Marks and Spencer is committed to building a healthier nation by ensuring that it fulfils its social, political, legal, and environmental obligations to its stakeholders. As a retailer, they use a huge range of raw materials to produce our goods. Because of this, it is critical that the organisation manages the use of these materials sensitively and pays proper regard to how they affect natural habitats and bio-diversity.
But making a difference here is not as simple as they would like. Change process in an organisation is a demanding and challenging process. It requires new types of standards to be set and adhered to across the world. As some materials – such as cotton and palm oil – are traded globally, the ability to affect change may at times be modest. There is a need for the organisation to work closely with suppliers, government bodies, environmental groups and local communities to promote sustainability.
4.1 Description of the marketing strategy the organisation currently employs to accommodate the key features of the natural environment.
The Marketing strategy would become the parameter for a company to be a successful company.
Although environmental issues influence all human activities, few academic disciplines have integrated green issues into their literature. This is especially true of marketing. As society becomes more concerned with the natural environment, businesses have begun to modify their behaviour in an attempt to address society’s “new” concerns. Marks and Spencer have been quick to accept concepts like environmental management systems and waste minimization, and have integrated environmental issues into all organizational activities. Some evidence of this is the development of journals such as “Business Strategy and the Environment” and “Greener Management International,” which are specifically designed to disseminate research relating to business’ environmental behaviour.
Marks and Spencer uses a green marketing strategy for purposes of promotion of products with environmental characteristics so as to promote environmentally friendly behaviour amongst consumers. For Marks and Spencer the green marketing strategy applies to consumer goods in that the company promotes the concept of eco-tourism.
The company has engaged in plans, which has seen product modification geared towards producing more environmentally friendly systems especially in the area of product packaging. Marks and Spencer has invested in production facilities, which significantly reduce wastage as well as preserving energy. In the same manner, the company has adapted ethical advertising policies, which aim at ensuring that every advertisement is considerate of environmental implications in terms of the decisions that consumers make. To this end, the company has participated in several forums and especially those organized by American Marketing Association (AMA) where is has shown support to consumer goods advocating for sustainable environment practices.
4.2 Explanation as to why the above strategies are likely to be of the greatest future significance to the organisation.
Social Responsibility
How a company is viewed by the public goes a long way in determining its future performance in relation to consumers. The strategies Marks and Spencer has adopted in a bid to promote natural environment can be seen as efforts geared towards good corporate social responsibility. Many firms are beginning to realize that they are members of the wider community and therefore must behave in an environmentally responsible manner by putting in place corporate social responsibility policies.
Hence the reason why Marks and Spencer allocates huge budgets for its natural environment conservation efforts. This results in environmental issues being integrated into the firm’s corporate culture. Firms in this situation can take two perspectives; 1) they can use the fact that they are environmentally responsible as a marketing tool; or 2) they can become responsible without promoting this fact. For the case of Marks and Spencer, the company has promoted the first perspective of promoting environmentally responsible practices.
The strategies the company has adopted in as far as acting responsibly in relation to the environment have taken marketing related dimension. Despite pressure from the government through legislations aimed at protecting the consumers and the society at large, the impact has been felt at Marks and Spencer. Governmental regulations relating to environmental marketing and designed to protect consumers have in one way or the other contributed to Marks and Spencer’s decision to realign its production systems towards achieving less wastage, use of ethical advertisements, as well as engaging in raising the level of awareness on environmental issues is an indication that Marks and Spencer is reposition itself for future implications of government policies on environment.
Specifically, Marks and Spencer has adapted two concepts of food miles and field to fork in a bid to respond to emerging situations.
“Food miles” is a relatively new idea in the debate about sustainability. Typically it is taken to mean the distance travelled to move food from the place it is produced to the store where it’s bought. But increasingly the definition goes wider, to include issues like locality, freshness, use of preservatives, packaging, choice, support for UK farmers and quality. Many environmental groups attach particular importance to food being produced close to where it is sold.
Field-to-fork
In 2003, Marks and Spencer launched a new over-arching set of standards to cover the management of the supply chain for fruit, vegetables and salads. These were drawn up after consultation with suppliers, government bodies and other organisations and covers aspects of production from “field-to-fork”.
The company has commissioned independent research to look at similar systems around the world. As a result, they believe our Field-to-Fork scheme goes beyond the British and European assurance schemes used by other retailers, being the first to include such a wide range of requirements. Their standards cover traceability, minimising pesticide use, ethical trading, support for non-GM foods and food safety.
5.0 Recommendations for changes to the internal operations of the organisation to best meet their potential impact.
Although Marks and Spencer has done a recommendable job in terms of promoting the natural environment, there is still room for improvement. The organisation particularly needs to work on its internal environment by; initiating more training programs for its human resources geared towards environment related issues. Secondly, the organisation needs to increase its budget allocated to environment conservation efforts. In addition, the organisation needs to invest in modern production technologies to further reduce wastage.
There is also a need for the company to find lasting solutions to the management of materials especially in regard to conservation of its sources of raw materials. Finally, Marks and Spencer must look further from its traditional markets and diversify its brands to cover new markets as a potential source of increasing sales revenues, which will avail more money to be used in promoting the natural environment. The above can only be achieved by the organisation utilizing modern business analytical tools such as SWOT analysis, PEST analysis as well as Michael Porters Fiver Forces analysis so as to arrive at informed decisions, which are also sustainable.
References
http://www.theage.com.au/ Accessed on 20/05/2007.

Categories
Environment

Environmental Issue Against Greenpeace International

Who do you call when you witness a ship dumping toxic waste in the ocean, and another ship doing commercial whaling? Or while traveling across states you happen to pass by a group of men doing logging activities at a forest under conservation? Or you’ve heard of a nuclear test being undertaken few miles from your home? If you have enough concern for your environment, you’ll probably be calling the Greenpeace International. Yes! With this fragile earth already in existence for million years, it should need volunteers like the Greenpeace to protect its environment from further degradation.
Throwing poisonous substance1 in the ocean pollutes the water and endangers the aquatic resources which are the source of livelihood of many families living at the coastal villages. Commercial whaling2 poses risk at the dwindling species of whales in the ocean which causes imbalance in the aquatic ecosystems. World’s remaining forests are being conserved to help in the fight against air pollution and lessen the effect of global warming3. Nuclear weapon testing4 poisons the air and makes the soil unfit for planting. We all should care about our environment for our healthy existence including the generations to come.
But while I agree with all the environmental protection, prevention and conservation activities of the volunteer organization5, this essay argues with Greenpeace International’s worldwide banning of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane or DDT on the following points: ? The banning on the use of pesticides like DDT has resulted to death of million people in Africa caused by malaria6, ? The deaths and sickness annually, according to World Health Organization (WHO), brought about by malaria reduces the gross domestic product (GDP) of African nations by 1. 3 percent and suffers economic loss by as much as $12 billion7, No less than the World Health Organization promotes the use of DDT in fighting the dreaded malaria in developing countries8, and ? United States Agency for International Development (USAID), America’s lead agency supporting countries in the African continent eradicate malaria, has significantly increased their budget for DDT 9 The Greenpeace International Greenpeace International10 is an independent, non-profit organization. Started in 1971, the group was initially an anti-war crusader who boarded a fishing boat and sailed in the effort of stopping a nuclear test in Alaska.

Inspired by their success in their first encounter11, the organization, mostly manned by volunteers, is now sailing around the world, going to remote parts of the globe, campaigning and standing as witness to the destruction of mother nature and going against individuals, government agencies and private corporations who are trying to destroy our environment. The approach is direct but non-violent12. Greenpeace primary objective is ensuring the continuation of life on earth in all its beauty and complexity12B.
They conduct educational campaign and information drive all geared towards protecting seas and endangered forests13. They are promoting the use of renewable energies instead of fossil fuels which are proven to cause climate change. They lobby against the continued use of toxic chemicals and its improper disposal. The earth’s friends14 also strongly oppose the release of genetically modified organism into the environment15 and vigorously campaign for the eradication of nuclear weapons and its testing which poison the air.
For the operational budget, Greenpeace depends mostly on individual supporters’ voluntary contribution s and grants from supportive foundations. Soliciting or accepting financial contributions from government entities, private corporations or political parties are avoided16 so that its integrity, independence, goals and objectives will not be compromised. The organization commits itself to non-violence confrontation, political independence and internationalism.
In their effort to show to the world some of the environmental risks and in trying to come to effective solutions, Greenpeace International considers no permanent friends and adversaries17. Greenpeace International has been a great factor in making the world a better and safer place to live. Its 35 years of protecting Mother Earth has led to: the banning of dumping of toxic substances to underdeveloped countries, issuance of moratorium on the practice of commercial whaling, better administration of world fisheries as agreed upon during the U.
N. Convention and the establishment of whale sanctuary in the southern ocean. The Earth’s Friends also succeeded in obtaining a 50-year moratorium on the exploration of mineral in Antarctica, pushed for the prohibition of disposal in world’s oceans of radioactive materials, factory waste and abandoned oil exploration facilities. The organization has also stopped massive driftnet system of fishing on the high seas and succeeded in their original mission of stopping nuclear weapon testing18.
With the continued climate change, Greenpeace International hopes to get the support of more foundations and individual supporters. They also wish that more people from around the world will join them in their crusade by reporting any activities that will put a threat to the environment. Greenpeace’s Concept of Environmental Law According to Jamie Benedickson’s book, Environmental law is depicted as a complex system of various concepts which are put together to enable man to fully understand the causes and effects of some impacts brought about by human activity.
These concepts range from the main source of problem, down to the effects and the ones greatly affected, up to the possible solutions that could be taken into consideration. There are concepts regarding precaution principles that could be taken, as Greenpeace eagerly shows in most of its protests. This includes how the people could participate, the possible sanctions given to those who violate these rules and many more. It also includes some experiments on their quest to find better methods to implement and spread the laws for the environment, and how will the people react or interact with this body of law.
This effort is all for the benefit of mankind in the future. These laws regulate their freedom, but are surely essential for all (Benidickson). Biodiversity. Environmental law seeks to preserve biodiversity in nature. This is to ensure that there is always a balance that the nature follows. If there is imbalance, there could be a great impact on the organisms living on the system, and this includes us, human beings. If biodiversity is damaged, there could be a tip-off in the balance and there could be problems like food supply shortages, spread of diseases and more.
That is why the Environmental law seeks to protect wildlife and marine species, and their respective habitats. Biodiversity depends on these concerns, to preserve the number of organisms, to keep everything in order, to keep everything, every organism diverse. Pollution. Pollution is the contamination of some of the most important aspects in human life, like air, the soil and the water by toxic or harmful materials and substances. Because of this, the Greenpeace seeks to regulate the amounts of these contaminants, or as much as possible keep them away from our basic needs, like air and water.
However, there are already laws on how to dispose toxic and dangerous materials so that it would not harm people. It also seeks to impart on the people on the proper management and treatment of this environmental problems. Conservation. Preserving and maintaining balance in the environment is an important concern in the Environmental Law. This is because of the various efforts from different sectors of the people. This is where the idea of Sustainable Development enters.
There should be enough resources left in the environment so that it could sustain the future generation. The idea is to be able to spend and utilize these resources without jeopardizing the future. The idea of replacing and replenishing spent resources are important to assure a future supply for the people, thus, conservation and protection of these natural resources play an important role in the Environmental laws specifically against the issues being raised by Greenpeace. The Argument – Worldwide Ban on the Use of DDT The use of DDT was banned in 1972 by the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). But the ban does not apply outside of U. S19. Knowing the harmful effect of the chemical in human as well as in animal, Greenpeace International is pushing for its worldwide ban. The organization invokes the U. N. treaty on the so called persistent organic pollutants (POP). The treaty will cause the elimination of DDT which is believed to be the most affordable yet effective pesticide available20.
While Greenpeace was just consistent in their purpose of eliminating substances that pose risk to the environment, the prohibition on the use of DDT should have been reviewed considering the sudden increase of deaths shortly after the implementation of the ban. Malaria disease became widespread and millions, particularly pregnant women and children died in Africa and in other developing countries. The sickness and death also gave serious implication such as significant reduction in the gross domestic product and the loss of billions of dollars in the economy.
With the ban in effect, devastation of people’s health and the economy will continue21. The momentum that the Greenpeace Intenational was able to establish as a result of their successes in previous years in many aspects of environmental protection is so strong that it was able to convince wealthy countries to adhere to the ban. Yet bigger and more credible institution are waking up in an apparent deep slumber as they started to provide funds in an effort of preventing the spread of malaria by killing the infected mosquitoes through the use of the banned DDT.
No less than the World Health Organization began the active promotion of the pesticide DDT in fighting malaria in the third world. It took the loss of ten million lives caused by the supposed to be preventable malaria disease that made WHO spring into action. Wall Street Journal comments, “It is good to know, WHO has come alive”22. Another institution which came into its senses after long years of avoiding the consistent lobbying of some scientists on the need for an effective malaria control in Africa is the United States Agency for International Development (USAID).
Enthusiastic officials of the U. S. government have endorsed the increase of budget appropriation for developing countries in the sub Saharan region. The aid is intended to win the war against the most dreaded disease that hit the region. The budget will specifically go into the purchase of DDT23. The Greenpeace might have the momentum but it has to collide with the WHO and USAID if it wants to push its ambition to still put total ban on DDT despite the millions of death and the ruin of the economy. The risk that the DDT may pose to the environment, if any, may later be treated.
Saving the lives of million of people region will have to come first.. What is the sense of having a clean environment if it will not be enjoyed by either of the dead and the dying? If the sick has already been treated, the shift to a safer pesticide will follow. Arata Kochi, WHO malaria chief said, “Among the twelve insecticides that WHO endorses as harmless for indoor spraying, the most effective is DDT”24. We take the necessary action base on observation and on the available data. DDT aside from being affordable is the most effective way of containing a disease.
This has been suggested by United Nations’ health agencies but pressure from environmentalists prevented the use of DDT. The effectiveness of DDT may have been incorrectly presented but studies point out that right amount of the insecticides used in killing mosquitoes will not be harmful to human, animals and environment. Insecticide may not totally eradicate malaria and its endorser doesn’t guarantee its result, nevertheless, keeping the people alive and healthy can bring about growth and development that will be a lasting solution to problem of poverty in the region25.
WHO’s decision to fund the use of DDT in malaria eradication has a negative effect on the Greenpeace self-esteem. The fight that they know all along, to have already been won, have suddenly turned to be the other way around. But looking at the positive side, they can research and recommend to DDT users the right amount when spraying and the proper protective gears that have to be worn in spraying. They can educate families that clean sorroundings will not provide a breeding ground for mosquitoes and thus will save them from the dreaded disease.
USAID on the other hand had identified areas in the sub saharan Africa that need help. The assistance involves mostly of DDT indoor residual spraying26. Environmentalists suggest that the effort of USAID to eradicate malaria be focused on handing out medicines and pesticide-treated bed netting to families in areas with threat of heavy mosquito infestation. Greenpeace can now volunteer to distibute these drugs and bed nets in remote parts of the continent. Conclusion I believe DDT being a chemical can pose risk to human’s health, animals and environment.
I believe too that there are insects like the mosquito which possesses dangerous bites that can kill people. And that is where DDT is needed. In this case, there should never be a worldwide ban on the use of substance unless the world is declared as malaria-free. Selective banning is preferred. DDT can be banned in highly developed and clean cities where there is no place for mosquitoes to breed. It can openly be sold, bought and used in areas like the African continent where malaria has grown into epidemic proportion.
However, after the problem had been treated banning of DDT in the place can be proposed. If malaria is eradicated through the use of DDT, there is no assurance that it will not provide illnesses to people in the environment no matter how little the amount sprayed. Chemicals usually float in the air and may be inhaled. It can land on soil that can affect vegetation or it can mix with water which can be poisonous when drank or cause skin allergies when used for washing or bathing. The effect of chemical is not immediate. It may manifest its effect after 10 years, 20 year or more. .
If the Greenpeace International failed to implement worldwide ban on DDT, it doesn’t mean that they also failed in protecting the environment. They are right when they assert that DDT has its deadly effect in human, animals and environment. But DDT can also help in some ways. Like in developing countries it was able to prevent malaria. Experts claimed that if DDT was not banned, millions of people should have been saved. But who knows of the grand design27. End notes 1 This is strongly being opposed by Greenpeace International. 2 There is an existing moratorium on this type of fishing 3 Causes earth’s temperature to rise
There is an existing ban on all nuclear testing 5 Actually, I wish I can join someday 6 if DDT was not banned, millions of people should have been saved, see Milloy 7 see Milloy 8 see National Center for Policy Analysis 9 see National Center for Policy Analysis 10 see Greenpeace International 11 that test was stopped and became Greenpeace’ first ever victory 12 but sometimes violence cannot be avoided, there are times they were sued and were jailed 12B Greenpeace International Mission Statement 13 I’m wondering how rich they can be, most of them are volunteers and are not receiving any salary 4 similar to Greenpeace International 15 if they are released there is no way to retrieve them 16 they are serious about it. They return checks if they came from corporations 17 & 18 see Greenpeace International, Mission Statement 19, 20 & 21 see Milloy 22 National Center for Policy Analysis 23 see National Center for Policy Analysis 24&25 see National Center for Policy Analysis 26 see National Center for Policy Analysis 27 God’s design
Bibliography
Greenpeace International, Mission Statement, The Greenpeace Story, accessed April 10, 2007, http://www. greenpeace. org. k/contentlookup. cfm? SitekeyParam Milloy, Steven J. , “Rock Stars’ Activism Could Be Put to Better Use”, accessed April 15, 2007 Competitive Enterprise Institute, ; http://www. cei. org/gencon/019,04632. cfm National Center for Policy Analysis, Daily Policy Digest, “DDTs New Friends”, accessed April 20, 2007, http://www. ncpa. org/sub/dpd/index. php? page=article;Article_ID=12363 National Center for Policy Analysis, Daily Policy Digest, “United States Takes New View on DDT in Africa” accessed ,April 20, 2007, http://www. ncpa. org/sub/dpd/index. php? page=article;Article_ID=3283

Categories
Environment

World Environment Day

World Environment Day is celebrated each year on 5th June. The United Nations established in 1972 to mark the opening of the Stockholm Conference on Human Environment. World Environment Day is used by the United Nations to encourage awareness of the environment. The first World Environment Day held at Stockholm, was the first time political, social and economic problems of the global environment were discussed at great length in view of taking some definitive action.
World Environment Day is celebrated in many ways. Street rallies, parades, street plays create awareness about world environment. In many cities contests like poster contests, essay contests, poetry contests, slogan contests and debates are held to celebrate this event further. The main objective always is to get the people involved with the environment. Some cities have art exhibitions with art made from recycled materials. Banners are put all across the street promoting the message of World Environment Day.
Tree planting is also held in some cities. Awards are given out to those neighborhoods that have made a significant effort to take care of the environment. Broadcast of public service announcements on TV and radio help to renew people’s efforts to saving the environment. Conferences are held to educate people about the efforts that can be made to preserve the environment. The World Environment Day’s agenda is to give importance to environmental issues. It hopes to empower people to become active agents promoting the cause of the environment. Change can happen only if it is affected at the community level; hence programs are held on World Environment Day that creates community consciousness.

Heads of Government and Ministers of Environment deliver speeches’ advising the people of what has already been achieved and what still needs to be achieved. Some even go a step further and set up permanent government bodies that will look specifically into environmental issues. Each World Environment Day has a special topic that related to the environment that it addresses. The topic for World Environment Day for 2007 was “Melting Ice – a good Topic?” It discussed the affects the climate change was having on the polar ecosystems and communities and the resulting global impacts of these changes.
The topic for World Environment Day 2006 was Deserts and Desertification and the slogan was “Don’t desert dry lands” World Environment Day is a day for us to inspect the state of our environment. It calls for us to stop in our tracks one day in the year and examine our surroundings. It asks us to pledge, in a small way at least, to do something for the environment. The young and the old can contribute to the saving of the environment.
Not everyone needs to make hefty contributions to world environment organizations. The little things, the ones that really matter are things like recycling our waste, using paper and products made of wood discriminately and these can be done by anybody and everybody. Children can also contribute to this cause by not wasting water, by switching off the lights and fans in the house when not in use. There is something each of us can do to preserve the environment. So let us all pledge to do something, at least one thing.

Categories
Environment

Environmental & Health Impacts of Mining on Surrounding Communities

Background of the Study INTRODUCTION To achieve rapid economic development, many countries resort to various activities to use and take advantage of natural resources. One of such activities is mining. Thus, mining became an important activity which has potential for the contribution of development of areas enriched with resources. Having visited Surigao Del Norte once a month starting February until August of this year, I was deeply frustrated by the negative impact of mining in the province. I saw how communities affected by mining.
I heard how indigenous people had been shifted off their lands to make way for mining and how their consultation rights had been ignored. I saw polluted rivers, destroyed mangrove forests, damaged coral and ruined agriculture. I concluded that Surigao del Norte is in danger of losing much of its rich biodiversity and damaging the lives of unique indigenous cultures. Surigao Del Norte is a province of the Philippines located in Caraga Region in Mindanao. It has a population of almost 450,000 lines between the different groups which cannot be accurately distinguished.
It has an area of 2,740 square kilometers. It embraces within its domain 27 municipalities and a component city. Mangrove is the major theme in the coastal areas of the province. It has also many caves and tunnels in its islands. The ironwood forests of the province are one of the watersheds most productive resources. By its nature, it is growing and adapted to a mineralized soil. So it should be carefully managed for sustained productivity. Its biggest islands are usually mountainous and rich in minerals. Its islands have one of the world’s largest deposit of nickel and chromite.

The smaller ones either rest on sand and gravel or have a limestone base bonded by boulders ( large rounded mass of rock lying on the surface of the ground or embedded in the soil ), reefs, and sandbars. There are also springs, lagoons, caves, waterfalls, mangroves, marshes and whirlpools which made the province more appealing to all nature lovers. Surigao is home to the “Mamanwa” ethnic tribe. The Department of Labor and Employment – Caraga Region released an official list of mining companies in Caraga for 2012 Inspection.
There are 35 mining companies declared in the list that continuously operate in the whole region. And there are other non registered mining companies that are not included in the list that are pursuing mining operations. Mining activities have lots of environmental and health impacts. This has derived from the methods of operation by the mining companies, of course it has effects on the natural environment as well as the people in the surrounding communities. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Surigao del Norte has a variety of mineral resources and corrispondingly there’s large-scale mining companies invested more and expanded their operations in the province. Nickel production in the province is dominated by these large mining companies that are operating in different communities in Surigao del Norte. The three giant and controversial mining companies located in the province are Tag-anito High Pressure Acid Leaching (THPAL-Sumitomo), Tag-anito Mining Corporation (TMC), and the Platinum Gold Metal Corporation (PGMC).
The giant Tag-anito Mining Corporation (TMC) is one of three mining companies of the Nickel Asia Corporation in Surigao del Norte owned by Manny Zamora, located at Brgy. Taganito,Claver. The TMC has ravaged the area for many years and has immensely destroyed the environment of the province. It has ruined both fresh water and marine sources, devastated mountains, violated the rights of the indigenous people and workers. The Platinum Gold Metal Corporation (PGMC) is mining nickel ore for foreign buyers with a permit to operate under the name of Mr. Atayde, but is currently operated by one Mrs.
Tata Dasmarinas Marahomsar. Millions of tons of nickel ore have already been plundered and shipped to imperialist countries, which has resulted in the total effacement of forest and mountains within its concession, as well as the destruction of rivers and seas. Almost all workers in this company are under contract-basis. This gigantic Tag-anito High Pressure Acid Leaching Plant (THPAL), which processes nickel, is principally owned by the Japanese imperialist Sumitomo Mining Corporation, which is in partnership or connaivance with the Nickel Asia Corporation owned by Manny Zamora.
Its operation uses massive quantities of sulfuric acid that is highly toxic to both humans and environment. It is also a coal-fired plant that exhausts out tons upon tons of highly toxic fumes into the atmosphere. The said plant also only processes millions of tons of low-grade nickel ore coming from different mines from the four provinces of Caraga, as they prefer to export high grade nickel ore to foreign countries. At the rate they are currently mining both low and high grade nickel ore, in the net few decades, the environment in the province will be completely destroyed.
The method of extraction that is mostly used by these mining companies is open-pit. It is a kind of surface mining that the mining companies choose to get rocks and minerals out of the ground because it is easiest and cheapest way. The top of the layers of the land are removed. After that, layer after layer is taken away until the rock or mineral is visible. This is taken out and processed. Taking away layer after layer of land creates a gigantic, open hole or pit that keeps getting deeper and deeper until there is nothing left to bring out.
Heavy machines are used for this purpose. The use of heavy machines and chemicals underground do not only cause instability within the earth crust but also underground water which serves as source of water to various waterbodies in the area are affected by infiltration of toxic materials. Also, explosives like dynamites are used to blast the large rocks out of the earth. The loud noise and the vibrations from the blasts have affected people within the surrounding communities. There is also spillage of poisonous chemicals used in the process in drainage to nearby streams.
This causes aquatic life loss, as these chemicals are highly toxic. It also seeps down into the soil causing plant roots to die. The combination of inadequate protection measures and natural hazards can be and has been calamitous. The province’s record of mining incidents is evident of this. Last January 2011, Surigao del Norte was under state of calamity as several towns were hit by floodwaters . Numerous houses were totally and partially damaged, and the floods killed number of people. Families from barangays provincewide were affected.
Last October 2011 more than 200 heavily armed New People’s Army rebels attacked three mining companies in Surigao del Norte, burning heay equipment, disarming guards and briefly holding several people in their attack. This conflict between the rebels and the mining companies had made the local people alarmed and troubled. These incidents are proof how mining brought distruction on the livelihoods, health and even the human rights of indigenous people and other local communities of Surigao del Norte.
These environmental, health, and social effects of mining activities have been attracting attention, thus, need to be addressed. Although, the mining company is believed to have made steps to improve health conditions of residents within the surrounding communities, however, the extent to which these efforts are reducing the negative environmental and health impacts is yet to be established. For instance, the three mentioned large mining companies in the province said that their top priority is local employment in the communities they operate.
Also they claim that they are engaged in environmentally responsible practices in their mining operations, complied with local and national guidelines and programs on the preservation and restoration of the environment. But it is clear in the incidents happened in the province that their missions/vissions to care for the environment and community are not met. OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY In line with the problems outlined above, the aim of this research is to answer the following concerns: a. What are the effects of the method(s) used in mining on the environment? b. What are the health effects of mining on the people living in Surigao del Norte? . What measures have been put by the government and other organizations to reduce the negative effects (environmental & health) of mining activities on the people of Surigao del Norte? Accordingly, the main objective of the study was to ascertain the environmental and health impacts of Surigao del Norte on the surrounding communities. The specific objectives were to: 1. 3. 1 Determine the methods of mining operations and their effects on the environment and health of the people. 1. 3. 2 Determine and examine the measures of the mentioned mining companies (TMC, PDMC,THPAL) in ensuring the safety of residents in the surrounding communities. . 3. 3 Assess the role of the Chamber of Mines Caraga Region, inc. , Department of Environmental and Natural Resources (DENR), Local Government Units (LGU), and Non government organizations (NGO’s). 1. 4 HYPOTHESES 1. 4. 1 Appreciation of mining effects on the environment by residents is related to their number of years of stay in the communities. 1. 4. 2 Knowledge of mining effects on health is positively related to years of schooling (education). 1. 4. 3 The infections/diseases among residents are related to mining activities. 1. 6 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
The data collected included background data on respondents, awareness, perception and effects of mining within the surrounding communities. Also data on the methods of the mentioned mining companies were collected, as well as data on the effects of their operations. Also data interventional measures of the organizations involved were collected. 1. 7 Sources of Data and Methods of Data Collection Data for this study were from primary and secondary sources. Primary data included administering of questionnaires in the field to residents of surrounding communities of the mining companies and some mine workers.
There were also interviews with staff and officials of the mentioned mining companies (TMC,PDMC,THPAL) as well as officials of government agencies such as LGU and DENR for relevant information. Moreover, there were field observations to the mine sites and other areas to determine the effects of mining operations on the environment. Secondary data were gathered from books, relevant articles from journals and reports of researches conducted on the effects of mining operations on the surrounding communities. There were data also obtained from library of Far Eastern University – Makati, internet and other sources. SAMPLING DESIGN 5 people were randomly selected for the execution of a detailed questionnaire. The justification of the sample size lies in the fact that the time and resources available were not enough to cover the entire area with its whole population. CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK Provision of Health Facilities Land Degradation The conceptual framework shows the impact of mining on the environment and the health of people. Mining method used by mining companies in surigao is open-pit ( surface mining). The method used have environmental and health impacts.
Opininon of Respondents on Effects of Mining on the Environment Years of Staying in town Do Methods affect the environment? Yes No Total 1-4 years 3 3 5-8 years 2 2 9-12 years 13-16 years 2 2 17-20 years 3 3 21-24 years 2 2 25-28 years 5 5 29-32 years 1 1 33-36 years 1 1 37-40 years 6 6 41+ years Total 25 25 It is evident from the table that those who have stayed longer period within the mining area gave a large percent attestation that mining methods affect the environment. The analysis confirms that the years of staying in town affect respondent’s knowledge on mining effects on the environment.
Therefore , the first hypothesis is validated. Table 2. Respondents’ responses to environmental effects of mining on the locality Effects of Mining Frequency Percentage Land Degradation 17 32. 08 Air Pollution 12 22. 64 Water Pollution 15 28. 3 Noise Pollution 9 16. 98 Total 53 100 NB: The total frequency is exceeding 25 because there were lot of respondents noted more than one form of effect. The highest percentage of the respondents noted that contributes environmental problem is land degradation followed by water pollution , air pollution , then noise pollution.
The pollution are associated with mining activities in their respective communities. Table 3. Respondents’ views on relationship between mining and health by education Years of education Are diseases related to mining? Yes No Total None (illiterate) 3 3 6 7-9 yrs ( basic) 4 4 10-15yrs ( secondary) 4 3 7 16-18 yrs ( tertiary) 8 8 Total 19 6 25 Approximately 76% of the respondents asserted that the diseases endemic in their communities were as a result of the mining activities , while 24% disproving this claim.
The analysis also shows that the years of schooling of respondents (education) affected the views of respondents on relationship of diseases endemic in the area of mining activities. For those with higher years of schooling (10-18 yrs. ) asserted that mining activities had caused diseases endemic in the area. The second hypothesis that knowledge of mining effects on health is positively related to education levels of respondents is therefore validated. Table 4. Diseases frequently contracted by respondents Diseases Frequency Percentage Malaria 2 8 Diarrhea 11 44 Skin Diseases 4 16 Fever 5 20 Cough and colds 3 12 Total 5 100 Most of the respondents complained of incidence of diarrhea from mining activities. Then some noted infections of fever, skin diseases, cough and colds ,then malaria. Health effects associated with the mining activities are noteworthy. The research revealed that there is high prevalent rate of diseases such as diarrhea and other infections among residents which were direct and indirect effects of mining activities. Summary of Research and Findings The research examined the mining methods of the three mining companies (TMC,PGMC, THPAL) and their environmental and health effects on the surrounding communities.
Moreover, measures being put in place by the mining companies to moderate the environmental, health and other socio-economic effects of their activities on the people of Surigao del Norte. Also the roles of some public sector mining industry support organizations were also examined. The three big mining companies that are currently operating in the province of Surigao del Norte, on their part, have realized the effects of their activities on the people living in the communities and have sought to institute measures to reduce and moderate the environmental, health, and other effects on the people.
Measures that have been undertaken which include reforestation, resettlement and compensation to affected communities, and providing alternative sources of drinking water to communities whose water resources have been contaminated with toxic chemicals. On health, the mining companies have built clinics and health posts within the communities for the benefit of both workers and people within the communities.
With the view to ensuring better conditions for residents within the mining area, some public sector mining industry support organizations such as Chamber of Mines of Caraga Region, also government agencies like Department of Environmental and Natural Resources (DENR) and Local Government Units contributed their contributed efforts of restoration. The Department of Environmental and Natural Resources whose primary duty is to ensure that mining companies undertake their operations in conformity with the laws, is responsible for the monitoring of mining activities from time to time.
The Local Government Units, as a government agency responsible for taxing and imposing charges for mining companies that are operating in communities of the province , ensures that the just amounts were collected from these mining companies. Also LGU implemented and supervised social support programmes in mining areas. The Chamber of Mines in Caraga Region (CNC), the peak mineral industry association not only in Surigao del Norte but in the whole Caraga Region, represents the collective interest of companies involved in mineral exploration, production, and processing in the province.
The chamber has not only functioned to promote and protect the interest and image of the mining industry but has also committed itself to addressing mining related environmental and socio-economic problems. This is evident in the Chamber’s commitment in initiating alternative livelihood programmes and executing its corporate social responsibility in host communities of mining activities. CNC initiated inland rehabilitation and reforestation in the Surigao del Norte province. It initiated and committed about 5 hectares of mined-portion for rehabilitation and reforestation.
The activity involved re-contouring of the area, backfilling of the topsoil, preparation of site, and planting of endemic and exotic tree species. Despite of the efforts by these organizations in ensuring that mining activities are carried out on sustainable basis without serious problems to the environment and the host communities, the public is yet to feel the impact of their activities. A critical assessment of their activities therefore shows that there is more to be achieved than what has been accomplished so far as far as environmental and health problems in the mining industry are concerned.
Conclusion In as much as we acknowledge the economic benefits of mining activities in Surigao del Norte, there is the need also to recognize the environmental and health hazards that come with it in order to find ways of dealing with them. It must be recommended that further researches are conducted into the assessment of intervention measures adopted andimplemented by mining companies and stakeholder organizations in reducing and moderating the economic, social,environmental and health impacts of mining activities on the people in the surrounding communities.
There should be funding from the government and other institutions for researches conducted, with a move to educate the general public on the need to provide information needed for researches since they will ultimately lead to the development of the country. There is the need for an effective collaboration and coordination among governmental agencies and others so that they can perform their roles effectively in dealing with the environmental and health problems associated with mining activities within the affected communities.

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Environment

Textile Dyes Biosorption Using Dead Fungal Biomass Environmental Sciences Essay

Over the past three decennaries or so the find and farther development of biosorption phenomena has gained impulse and has transformed the methods by the agencies of which waste H2O wastewater is treated to take pollutants and retrieve valuable resources present in these aqueous systems like dyes. Biosorption is going a promising alternate to replace or supplement the present dye remotion processes from fabric industries wastewater. This engineering has drawn the attending of industries as it is economically feasible and environmentally friendly. The position of scientific development of a engineering can be reflected through analyses of the literatures refering to it, in this reappraisal, we qualitatively examine about all facets of biosorption research through research articles and other reappraisal documents. We have fundamentally focused on biosorption of textile dyes utilizing dead fungous biomass obtained from autoclaved or inactivated Aspergillus Niger. Materials used, methodological analysiss used and informations obtained has been assimilated from literature cited below. Finally, we summarized the of import considerations of the current research on biosorption, the consequences and decisions obtained from the information, every bit good as the suggestions and our ideas and thoughts for its future waies.
Introduction
Rapid industrialisation and urbanisation all over the Earth has resulted in the coevals of big measures of aqueous wastewaters, many of which contain high degrees of toxic pollutants. Assorted physical, chemical and biological procedures are being employed to take pollutants from industrial effluents before discharge into the environment as in the instance of intervention of adsorbent pollutants like heavy metals and ionic dyes, nevertheless, most of the conventional intervention procedures, particularly chemical precipitation, curdling, activated Cs and the usage of ion-exchange rosins go less effectual and more expensive when the adsorbates are in a low concentration scope and their high cost and low efficiency and deficiency of practicality have limited their commercial usage in the field. Since any type of solid stuff has the capacity to absorb pollutants to some grade, a figure of industrial inorganic wastes, such as ash, or natural inorganic stuffs like clay, man-made stuffs, every bit good as, populating or inanimate biomass/biomaterials, have been investigated as inexpensive adsorbents capable of replacing the well-known, but more expressive 1s as their cost is low and efficiency is higher and the biosorbants can be regenerated, and the possibility of dye recovery following surface assimilation biomass-based adsorbents or biosorbents as they are normally called, are the most attractive options to physical and chemical procedures. The usage of biosorbents for the remotion of toxic pollutants or for the recovery of valuable resources from aqueous waste Waterss is one of the most recent developments in environmental or bioresource engineering. Biosorption of dyes has become a popular environmentally driven research subject, and is one of the most sought after procedures in the modern twenty-four hours where bioremediation is cardinal in continuing the environment for future coevalss. Bohumil Volesky, a innovator in the field, defined ‘biosorption ‘ as the belongings of certain biomolecules ( or types of biomass ) to adhere and concentrate selected ions or other molecules from aqueous solutions. Biosorption by dead biomass ( or by some molecules and/or their active groups ) is inactive and occurs chiefly due to the ‘affinity ‘ between the biosorbent and adsorbate.

Types of Biomass or Biomaterials: Pollutants like metals and dyes can be removed by surface assimilation by populating micro-organisms, but can besides be removed by dead biomass. Surveies on practicality in the field for large-scale applications have demonstrated that biosorptive procedures utilizing dead biomass is much more feasible option than the procedures that use populating biomass, since the latter require a alimentary supply and complicated bioreactor systems. Plus the usage of dead biomass eliminates the care of a healthy microbic population, and the other environmental factors like temperature and pH of the solution being treated. Dye recovery is besides limited in life cells since these may be bound intracellularly. Therefore maintaining these factors in head, attending has been focused on the usage of dead biomass as biosorbents. As mentioned above, dead biomass has advantages over life micro-organisms. A intercrossed procedure can besides be employed which uses both dead and living biomass so as to increase the efficiency of biosorption. However, we have chosen to concentrate on individual biosorption processes in this reappraisal and to avoid treatment of intercrossed procedures combined with biosorption. The first major challenge faced is to choose the most promising types of biomass from an highly big pool of readily available and cheap biomaterials. To streamline this when taking biomass, for on field or industrial utilizations, the chief factor to be taken into history is its handiness and bargain rate. Therefore maintaining these factors in head, native biomass can come from ( I ) industrial wastes free of charge ; ( two ) organisms easy gettable in big sums in nature ; and ( three ) organisms that can be grown rapidly and which can be cultivated easy. A wide scope of biomass types have been tested for their biosorptive capacities under assorted conditions at this point in clip, but there are no bounds to geographic expedition of new biomass types holding low cost and high efficiency. Biosorptive capacities of assorted biomass types have been quantitatively compared in many reappraisal documents. Biosorbents chiefly fall into the undermentioned classs: bacteriums, Fungis, algae, industrial wastes, agricultural wastes, natural residues, and other biomaterials. Quantitative comparing of the 100s of biosorbents reported therefore far is non possible hence informations from assorted documents that have done these types of comparings of biosorptive capacities of assorted biosorbents for assorted pollutants were used. It should be noted that the biosorptive capacity of a certain type of biosorbent depends on its pretreatment methods, every bit good as, on experimental conditions like pH and temperature. When comparing biosorptive capacities of biosorbents we consider it for a mark pollutant, hence, the experimental informations should be carefully considered in visible radiation of these factors. After taking a signifier of inexpensive and abundant biomass, the biosorbent capableness for taking a mark pollutant can be derived through simple chemical and/or physical method ( s ) . New biosorbents can be manipulated for better efficiency and for multiple reuses to increase their economic attraction, compared with conventional adsorbents like ion-exchange rosins or activated Cs.
Class
Examples
Bacterias
Gram-positive bacteriums ( Bacillussp. Corynebacteriumsp. , etc ) Gram-negative bacteriums ( Es-cherichia sp. , Pseudomonas sp ) blue-green algae.
Alga
Micro-algae ( Clorella sp. , Chlamydomonas sp. , etc ) macro-algae ( green seaweed ( Enteromorpha sp. ) brown seaweed ( Sargassum sp. ) and ruddy seaweed )
Industrial
Wastes
Agitation wastes, food/beverage wastes, activated
sludges, anaerobiotic sludges, etc.
Fungus kingdoms
Molds ( Aspergillus sp. , Rhizopus sp. Etc. ) mushrooms ( Agaricus sp. , Trichaptum sp. Etc. ) And Yeast.
Agricultural
Wastes
Fruit/vegetable wastes, rice straws, wheat bran,
soya bean hulls, etc.
Natural residues
Plant residues, sawdust, tree barks, weeds, etc.
Others
Chitosan-driven stuffs, cellulose-driven stuffs, etc.
Table 1: Different type of biosorbents.
Mechanisms of Pollutants Removal by Biosorbents: There are many types of biosorbents derived from bacteriums, Fungis, barms, and algae ( Table 1 ) . The complex construction of these implies that there are many ways, by which these biosorbents remove assorted pollutants, but these are yet to be to the full understood. Therefore, there are many chemical/functional groups that can pull and sequester pollutants, depending on the pick of biosorbent. These can dwell of amide, aminoalkane, carbonyl, carboxyl, hydroxyl, imine, iminazole, sulfonate, sulfhydryl, thioether, phenolic, phosphate, and phosphodiester groups. However, the presence of some functional groups does non vouch successful biosorption of pollutants, as steric, conformational, or other barriers may besides be present. The importance of any given group for biosorption of a certain pollutant by a certain biomass depends on assorted factors, including the figure of reactive sites in the biosorbent, handiness of the sites, chemical province of the sites ( i.e. handiness ) , and affinity between the sites and the peculiar pollutant of involvement ( i.e. adhering strength ) . The apprehension of the mechanisms by which biosorbents take pollutants is really of import for the development of biosorption procedures for the concentration, remotion, and recovery of the pollutants from aqueous solutions, besides on the footing of these mechanisms alterations can be made on the biomass so as to increase the adsorption-desorption capacity of it. When the chemical or physiological reactions happening during biosorption are known, the rate, measure, and specificity of the pollutant consumption can be manipulated through the specification and control of procedure parametric quantities. Biosorption of metals or dyes occurs chiefly through interactions such as ion exchange, complexation, and surface assimilation by physical forces, precipitation and entrapment in interior infinites.
Conventional diagram for treating different Biosorption mechanisms
types of native biomass into biosorbents.
Recovery and Regeneration: One of the of import grounds why biosorption is favoured over conventional procedures is due to the recovery of pollutant from the biosorbent and coincident regeneration of the biosorbent for reuse which makes it economically feasible for industries. In fact, the utility of a specific biomass as a biosorbent depends non merely on its biosorptive capacity, but besides on the easiness of its regeneration and reuse. However, most research workers have tended to concentrate merely on the biosorptive capacity of biosorbent tested, without consideration of the regeneration required for industrial applications. The adsorbate edge onto the surface of a biosorbent through metabolism-independent biosorption may be easy desorbed by simple non-destructive physical/chemical methods utilizing chemical eluants, but intracellularly bound adsorbate through metabolism-dependent bioaccumulation can be merely released by destructive methods like incineration or disintegration into strong acids or bases. If inexpensive biomass is used as a biosorbent for retrieving a certain pollutant, so destructive recovery would be economically executable. However, most attending to day of the month has focused on non-destructive desorption from the laden biosorbent. For this ground, the pick between life or dead biomass systems is of import because of the deduction for recovery. In many instances, dilute mineral acids or bases allow efficient desorption from the biosorbent, but they besides cause serious structural harm to the biosorbent itself, ensuing in a bead in the biosorptive capacity of the biosorbent following regeneration. Organic dissolvers such as ethyl alcohol can be besides used for desorbing organic pollutants such as dyes from the biosorbent. Sometimes heating or micro-cooking can help desorption with an eluant or mixture solution. As good, as antecedently mentioned, the solution pH will hold a strong influence on biosorption of a mark pollutant ; therefore, simple use of the pH of the desorbing solution should theoretically be a good method for regeneration of the biosorbent and recovery of the pollutant.
FUNDAMENTAL REVIEW
How is the fabric wastewaters treated today?
It is non easy to handle the wastewaters by the conventional biological and physico-chemical procedures, e.g. visible radiation, heat, wash and oxidising agents, used in regular intervention workss. That is because of the complexicity of the dyes aromatic molecular constructions. Adsorption is the most helpful physical procedure in the handling these dye waste Waterss. Today activated C is usually used for surface assimilation in many intervention workss. But the bring forthing costs for activated C is really high, there is a demand of an alternate stuff that is more cost capable. A low costs adsorbent is defined as one which is rich in nature or one that is produces as a by-product in another industry. There have been surveies on tonss of different natural stuffs as adsorbents in handling fabric wastewaters, for illustration proverb dust and agricultural wastes like wheat straw and maize hazelnut. Now biosorption is investigated as a method to absorb the wastewaters and different beings handling different sorts of dyes are tested.
Man-made dyes are widely used in fabric industries. As a consequence, about 10-20 % of the dyes are lost during the built-up and dyeing procedure, bring forthing big sums of dye-containing effluent. Largely dyes used are azo, anthraquinone and triphenylmethane dyes, categories is based on its chromophore.The white putrefaction Fungis are known to be really efficient for azo dye decolorization as assorted Aspergillus species, have been reported to bleach assorted dyes.
Aspergillus Niger
The dye solution will be treated with inactivated Aspergillus Niger. A. Niger is a Fungi which has already been used industrially in bring forthing citric acid. Citric acid used to be produced by extraction from lemons and other citrous fruit fruits, but today microbic agitation is a loosely spread technique and about all citric acid is produced this manner. In these agitation industries A. Niger besides comes out as a waste merchandise which makes it suited for probes of the biosorption ability. A. Niger is a dark colored Fungis ( see Figure a and B ) that could be seen at decomposing nutrient and is so called black cast. It is largely fruits and veggies that are affected by the cast, for illustration grape fruits, onions and peanuts. One should non bury when covering with the Fungi that it could do fungus diseases on both worlds and animate beings. Aspergillus Niger is a common saprophytic fungus in tellurian environments. If the cells of the Fungis are active they are easy affected by toxic compounds and chemicals in the waste H2O and they may so foul the environment by let go ofing toxins or propagules.
Figure a: Aspergillus Niger turning Figure B: Onion with black cast
on Czapek dox agar in a Petri dish.
Dyes:
On the whole a big many figure of dyes have been used by different research workers but it is non possible to show the information for all the dyes which were tested therefore in this reappraisal we have concentrated on a few dyes which are most normally used by the fabric industries.
Direct Blue 199
Acid Blue 29
Basic Blue 9
Dispersed ruddy 1
Table 2: Different types of dyes.
Culture Conditionss and Microorganism: Aspergillus niger pellets were used to obtain the paramorphic signifiers of A. oryzae. Pure civilization was maintained on alimentary beef agar medium at 4 & A ; deg ; C or were grown in potato-dextrose stock at pH 5.6, 29 ± 1 C on the shaker. After seven yearss, when monogenesis occurred, the biomass was autoclaved at 121 C, 103.42 kPa for 45 min in order to kill the fungous biomass ( figure degree Celsius ) . The biomass was separated by filtrating the growing medium through Whatman No. 1 paper after rinsing the fungous biomasses it will dried at 80 C for 20 h. The quantification of fungous biomass was carried out utilizing a additive standardization between volumes of fungous pelletized civilization and its several dry weight. The concentration found may hold suffered minor alterations, accordingly to the processs made during its paramorphogenesis.
Figure degree Celsius: Biosorbent powdered
Biosorption Experiments
Experiments were conducted 30 milliliter of the dye solution at an orbital shaking of 120 cycles/min. The temperature and pH conditions were varied for the different experiments The estimative biomass ( autoclaved ) for entire remotion of the dyes were calculated at three different pH values ( 2.50 ; 4.50, and 6.50 ) After the choice of the better pH ( 2.50 ) , the dye solutions were equipped with the same dye concentration. Therefore, the solutions were inoculated with A. niger pellets ( mg mL?1 ) acquiring through different biomass concentration. Samples were withdrawn at specified interval of clip to supervise dye surface assimilation by UV-VIS ( Scanning was performed between 300 and 800 nanometer ) spectrophotometer at the optical density upper limit of the several dye.

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Environment

Environmental Class Project Lab

These social notations might be encouraged in less developed countries exposing the coo entry to more modern cultures or the distribution of and education on birth control options. 3. Early, middle, and late demographic transition map the concepts of first, SE Condo, and third world countries because early countries are usually third world and late count rye’s first. 4. The most developed countries have shapes that are more like blocks and the e least developed countries have steeper triangular shapes. 5.
If a country has a steeper triangular shape than there are more children the n those in the ‘prime of their life’ can take care of, causing the quality of life to go down. 6. The Use’s demographic pattern about 1 00 years ago would be similar to thou SE countries in the Mechanization of Agriculture/ arbitration like Mexico or Nigeria. 7 . China would be in the presidential Age because their change occurred moor e rapidly. Factors that prompt women to have few children later in life include the rise I n birth control and social equality.
Lesson 2 Responses to Questions: 1 . Population momentum is an important factor to consider when studying the demographics Of a country. The shape changes from being a steep triangle to being mostly blob click during all the generations after the change if a less developed country is given the birth rate of a more developed country. This is because the birth rates are from a more demographer hectically stable country, causing the shape to look more stable. Because of population meme mount. The change continues to affect the shape in subsequent generations.

When the average c hill bearing age is increased, the population decreased because when women start having babe later in life, they have less time to have healthy children. Conversely, when the age is decrease d, the population increased, as women have more time to have children. “First world” country’s tend to have older childbearing women do to the cultural factors of social gender equality and birth control. 2. The results from Italy were not what predicted. I thought the changes woo old have a greater effect on birth rate than they did. This is probably because the population pry amid of Italy is more stable than that of Nigeria.
Monetary incentives to employees who have ultimate children would encourage more child birth in Italy. 3. The government might want to do this because their birth rates are decree sing. This would affect their demographics because a baby boom would make Italy’s pyramid s deeper. Lesson 3 1 . Another factor that may be explored when considering the demographics o f a country is how they change when the birth and date rate are changed. 2. My prediction of how much the birth rate would have to be lowered and ho w much the death rate would have to go up to give Egypt a 0% population growth in 2050 ere far too low.
To make my prediction, I compared Egypt population growth rate in 205 O, birth rate, and death rate to other countries and then tried to gauge how much the birth rate would have to decrease and the death rate increase to achieve a 0% growth rate. Then a adjusted the values based on the results. In order to achieve a zero growth rate, Egypt would have to either lower the birth rate or increase the death rate. Obviously, decreasing the birth rate I s the logical choice as there are ethical implications of artificially increasing the death rate. However, the Egyptian government would also face ethical debates on deck reassign the birth rate if they tried to enact laws against having a certain number of children. Egg yap would need to change more than the Mexico and a lot more than the LIST to achieve a 0% p population increase in 2050 because it is further from having a 0% population growth UN deer current conditions. 4. Mexico has a higher birth rate and a lower death rate than the United State s. This is probably because the United States is further along in the transition than Mix ICC is.

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Environment

How Effective Is Solar Energy Environmental Sciences Essay

Solar energy is beaming energy that is produced by the Sun. Solar energy has been used since 400 B.C. It started to be commercialized during the eighteenth century. In present times, energy emitted by the Sun is harnessed by photovoltaic ( PV ) cells for assorted applications. These include domestic family utilizations, industrial usage, cardinal power Stationss and H2O warming intents. However, due to the technological restrictions, families can non be entirely dependent on solar energy.
Compared to non renewable fuels, solar energy may stand for a cleansing agent alternate solution as it does non breathe harmful waste. In add-on, solar energy requires comparatively low care costs. But on the other manus, photovoltaic cells may be harmful to animal home grounds due to their broad land ingestion. In add-on, the presence of PV cells may interfere with natural lighting, rainfall and drainage. To get the better of such jobs, panels are mounted on roof tops of houses and industrial edifices. Another concern is in the signifier of wellness hazards to worlds presented by harmful substances contained within solar panels. Last, there is a possibility of H2O taint if H2O used for the intent of chilling photovoltaic cells is non treated decently.
Even though solar merely accounts for 1 % of energy used globally, the hereafter of solar energy applications looks assuring. As the universe is progressively concerned about impacts on planetary environment and as more people use solar energy, economic systems of graduated table may cut down solar energy related costs. Many on-going surveies are concentrating on ways to increase the efficiency of photovoltaic cells every bit good as to bring forth electricity from solar energy at lower costs. Such betterments would do solar energy more feasible in the hereafter.

History/Background of Use and Technology
Background
Solar energy is beaming energy that is produced by the Sun. Every twenty-four hours the Sun radiates an tremendous sum of energy. Yet, merely a little part of the energy radiated by the Sun into infinite strikes the Earth. About 15 % of the Sun ‘s energy that hits the Earth is reflected back into infinite. Another 30 % is used to vaporize H2O. Solar energy is besides absorbed by workss, the land and the oceans ( The Need Project, 2008 ) . The remainder could be used to provide our energy demands.
History[ 1 ]
Peoples have harnessed solar energy for centuries. Equally early as the seventh century B.C. the ancient Greek and Native Americans were the first to utilize solar power to their benefit. Peoples used simple magnifying spectacless to concentrate the visible radiation from the Sun into beams so hot they would do wood to catch fire. The first solar aggregator was built in 1776. The solar H2O warmer gained popularity early in 1920s and was in full swing merely earlier World War II. This growing lasted until the mid-1950s when low-priced natural gas became the primary fuel for warming. The populace and universe authoritiess remained mostly apathetic to the possibilities of solar energy until the oil deficits of the 1970s ( Solar Energy History, 2006 ) . Today, people use solar energy to heat edifices and generate electricity. While solar power is normally used today than any other clip in history, the basicss are about the same as they have ever been. The photovoltaic engineering has been updated so that the panels are thin and smaller but the engineering is fundamentally the same.
Uses and Technology[ 2 ]
In past decennaries, solar energy was used widely in different Fieldss of life. Back in 400 B.C. , Native Americans and ancient Greeks built their houses into the side of hills to take advantage of the heat storage from the Sun during the twenty-four hours that would so be released during the dark. On the other manus, Romans were the first to utilize glass Windowss to pin down the heat of the Sun in their places. They were focussed about the saving of solar energy that they erected glass houses to make the right conditions to turn workss and seeds.
During the eighteenth century, legion discoverers came up with different thoughts of merchandises that facilitate use of solar energy. The first solar aggregator built in 1776 would so execute undertakings like infrigidation and motive power. The steam engine built in 1861 used 100 % solar energy. In 1880, the first visible radiation change overing photovoltaic cells were made from Se. 10 old ages subsequently, the first commercial H2O warmer was introduced. In the 1990s, solar power was seen as a great alternate to oil and crude oil merchandises. Therefore, it has been and is being utilised with the aid of engineering in bring forthing power.
Presently, solar energy is used around the universe. It has been introduced and used extensively in industrial applications, residential places and cardinal power Stationss.
Current Uses and Issues of Solar Energy
The Earth ‘s atmosphere absorbs about 3.85 ten 1024 Js per twelvemonth, nevertheless merely a little portion of this energy can be harnessed by worlds due to technological restrictions. Nowadays, solar energy has many applications in around the universe and they are traveling to be discussed along with the issues they can do.
Applications[ 3 ]:
Residential Homes
In recent old ages, there has been a rapid growing in the figure of installings of photovoltaic ( PV ) panels on to edifices that are connected to the electricity grid. This country of demand has been stimulated in portion by authorities subsidy programmes and by green pricing policies of public-service corporations or electricity service suppliers. In these grid-connected systems, PV System supply electricity to the edifice and any day-time surplus may be exported to the grid. Batteries are non required because the grid supplies any excess demand. In most states implementing the engineering, a policy called the Feed-In-Tariff ( FIT ) has been implemented in the system. This policy allows consumers to bring forth their ain electricity utilizing the PV system and to sell it to the grid. This has the possible advantage of cut downing their monthly electricity measure.
The chief drawback of this application is that the monetary value of electricity will finally lift as the bring forthing companies will hold to maintain up their income and therefore the consumers will stop up paying more than they were paying before put ining the PV panels. Furthermore, the PV system can non bring forth adequate electricity at a stable rate for an full place to depend on it. Hence, houses can non be wholly dependent on solar energy with the current engineering.
Industrial Applications
Solar energy has been the power supply of pick for many industrial applications, where power is required at distant locations. These applications are economic and without subsidy. Examples of such utilizations are powering microwave repeater Stationss, Television and wireless, telemetry and wireless telephones. Solar energy is besides often used for transit signalling. For illustration, offshore pilotage buoys, beacons, aircraft warning visible radiations on pylons or constructions, and progressively in route traffic warning signals.
The great benefit of solar energy here is that it is extremely dependable and requires small care so it is ideal in topographic points that are difficult to acquire to. However the PV panels may non be able to bring forth adequate electricity to carry through the electrical demands of the applications on cloudy or showery yearss. Therefore, these Stationss have to be connected to the grid or be equipped with generators working on oil or some other fuel.
Cardinal Power Stations
Solar energy can be harnessed utilizing PV panels to bring forth electricity. The largest solar power station can bring forth 354 MW of electricity. However to bring forth this sum of energy, people have to put in big Numberss of solar panel on a big sum of land, about 6.5 km2. This is really dearly-won. Furthermore, solar energy is intermittent and besides the solar panels have to be invariably adjusted so as to maximize the solar energy harnessed.
Water warming
Solar hot H2O systems use sunlight to heat H2O. In low geographical latitudes ( below 40A grades ) 60 % to 70 % of domestic hot H2O with temperatures up to 60A A°C can be provided by solar heating systems. The usage of solar hot H2O warmers is ideal if full Sun exposure is available and the use is traveling to be moderate.
The cost to put in a domestic solar hot H2O system may be more than the money saved by non utilizing electricity from the grid for heating the H2O. Furthermore, the Sun is intermittent and therefore a uninterrupted supply of hot H2O can non be provided.
Environmental Impact and Issues
To cover with the issue of planetary heating and other jobs raised by non-renewable beginnings, solar energy represents a clean, alternate power solution towards the universe ‘s energy job. One of the chief grounds that make solar energy favorable compared to other is that it is environmental friendly, and the more efficaciously it is consumed, the more opportunities of it replacing fossil fuels as a chief beginning of energy. Although the after-effect of solar energy is mostly positive, the overall consequence should be to the full studied as attempts to detect its possible to travel frontward ( Vaux, 2010 ) . Some of the impacts and countries of concern are land perturbation, infinite consideration, risky constituent disposal and impact to H2O resources.
To bring forth a perceivable sum of energy, a big figure of PV cells are required, which can take up a comparatively tremendous sum of infinite. For the intent of bring forthing electricity at a commercial graduated table, the building of solar energy installations requires relatively big countries for solar radiation aggregation ( Vaux, 2010 ) . Such big graduated table installings may interfere with natural sunshine, rainfall, and drainage, which could hold a assortment of effects on works and carnal life. This translates to an extra job where wildlife protection is concerned. Besides that, solar installations besides may interfere with bing land utilizations, such as farming. One practical solution for all these jobs could be to take advantage of fresh infinite on the roofs of houses and edifices and in urban and industrial tonss ( Vaux, 2010 ) .
Photovoltaic panels may incorporate risky stuffs. Although risky constituents are good isolated under the solar operating system, there is a potency for environmental taint if improperly disposed of ( Solar energy Development Programmatic EIS Information Center ) . For illustration, liquids such as hydraulic fluids, coolants, and lubricators which normally use in most industry installations may show a spill hazard. Other issues are wellness concerns due to the risky stuff used such as arsenic, Si, and Cd. Inert Si can be unsafe if inhaled. Cadmium is highly toxic and can a cumulate in a given ecosystem if it is non monitored ( Vaux, 2010 ) .
Other than land usage impact and risky disposal, H2O resources could besides be affected excessively, particularly the H2O that is required for the chilling of conventional steam workss used to bring forth electricity. In other words, addition in the demand for solar energy would necessitate a immense sum of H2O which could strive available H2O resources. Furthermore, if the chilling H2O is non appropriately treated, pollution of H2O resources could happen. However, this hazard can be minimized by good operating patterns ( Solar energy Development Programmatic EIS Information Center )
Current Future Outlook of Solar Energy
Since the Sun is an ultimate energy beginning, the hereafter of solar energy seems assuring as no other beginning of energy may last forever. Solar power non merely promises a simple and non-polluting energy but besides a renewable beginning of energy ( Locsin, 2009 ) . However, the cost of using this solar energy is comparatively high ( Locsin, 2009 ) . While monetary values for electricity from photovoltaic cells may non go widely competitory compared to sweeping monetary values for electricity from conventional bring forthing engineerings within the following 25 old ages, they may be competitory with high retail electricity monetary values in cheery parts ( EIA a, 2009 ) . In cheery countries, the cost can be every bit low as 23 US cents per kilowatt-hour. EIA ‘s[ 4 ]Annual Energy Outlook 2009 undertakings that, by 2030, nightlong capacity costs for new bring forthing workss utilizing solar photovoltaic cells will be 37 % lower than the 2009 costs ( mention to calculate 1 ) .
The sum of Sun energy that is presently able to be converted to electricity is comparatively low, about 7 % -17 % ( Bellis, 2010 ) . The possible energy that could be extracted from solar radiation is really big. Some experts estimate that the Sun can bring forth 10,000 times every bit much energy as the Earth used at the bend of the twenty-first century ( Ellis, 2010 ) . Entire U.S. installed solar thermic capacity, presently 400 megawatts, is projected to increase to 859 megawatts in 2030 ( EIA a, 2009 ) ( refer to calculate 2 ) . Therefore, to be ideal and remain sustainable in the hereafter, world is suggested to efficaciously reap the energy from the Sun.
As stated in the article, “ Make Solar Energy Economical ” ( 2008 ) , solar energy merely accounts for 1 % of the entire portion of energy consumed. Yet, the chances for bettering solar efficiency are assuring. Current criterion cells have a theoretical maximal efficiency of 31 % . But, add-on of new stuff may foster heighten the efficiency up to 34 % ( Think Solar Energy, 2009 ) . Another manner of bettering the efficiency involves a nanotechnology development which proposes that C nano-tubes may duplicate the efficiency of solar cells ( Think Solar Energy, 2009 ) .
The use of solar energy is expected to increase with society ‘s turning concerns towards planetary heating and other issues related to planetary environment. In other words, to make a more sustainable universe, a great hope is laid on the solar energy. Research workers are besides working on developing engineerings that may let solar energy to be used in H2O electrolysis. The H from the H2O can so be used in fuel cells for transit and other utilizations ( The Optical Society of America, 2008 ) .
Efficiency additions, coupled with other technological progresss, have been proven to cut down the cost of solar photovoltaic capacity from about US $ 300 per W in 1956 to less than US $ 5 per W in 2009 ( EIA a, 2009 ) . The efficiency of solar photovoltaic applications is expected to better farther as the engineering continues to be developed. As such, U.S. solar photovoltaic bring forthing capacity is projected to increase from 30 megawatts in 2006 to 381 megawatts in 2030 ( EIA a, 2009 ) ( refer to calculate 2 ) . Scientists are encouraged to carry on more research in developing cheaper and more compatible solar panels with better efficiency that can vie with that of fossil fuels or other beginnings of energy to hike solar energy ingestion in the hereafter.
Figure 2 -Net Generating Capacity
Figure 1 -Projected Solar Capital Cost
Brief Comparisons of Various Sources of Energy in the Future
The current hereafter mentality for solar energy ingestion and demand show that it will non be the lone turning energy beginning. In the IEO[ 5 ]2009 survey, universe coal ingestion is besides forecasted to increase by 49 % from 2006 to 2030 and from 127.5 quadrillion Btu in 2006 to 190.2 quadrillion Btu in 2030 ( mention to calculate 3 ) . Coal ‘s portion of universe energy ingestion will increase from 27 % in 2006 to 28 % in 2030. The growing rate for coal ingestion is reasonably even over the period, averaging 1.9 per centum per twelvemonth from 2006 to 2015 and 1.6 per centum per twelvemonth from 2015 to 2030. In the electric power sector its portion declines somewhat, from 42 per centum in 2006 to 40 per centum in 2020, and so increases to 42 per centum in 2030 ( EIA B, 2009 ) ( refer to calculate 4 ) .
Yet, behind the promising future mentality, over a p of clip and in the visible radiation of turning planetary heating argument, many consumers would choose for an surrogate more environmental friendly beginning of energy. Chiefly because of harmful coal emanations every bit good as the issue of militias handiness in the hereafter. Advancement in engineering is expected to drive down the use costs of solar energy to the degree where it is able to vie with coal and consumers will slowly get down devouring more solar energy.
Figure 4 – Universe Coal Share Consumption
Figure 3 – World Coal Consumption
World liquids ingestion for the intent of electric power beginnings at the same clip is reported to increase in the IEO2009 mention instance from 85 million barrels per twenty-four hours ( 173 quadrillion Btu ) in 2006 to 107 million barrels per twenty-four hours ( 216 quadrillion Btu ) in 2030, despite universe oil monetary values that remain above US $ 100 per barrel ( in existent 2007 dollars ) from 2013 through the terminal of the projection period ( refer to calculate 5 ) . In the mention instance, the mean universe oil monetary value rises from US $ 61 per barrel in 200911 to US $ 110 per barrel in 2015 and US $ 130 per barrel in 2030 ( US $ 189 per barrel in nominal footings ) . In the low monetary value instance, oil monetary values average US $ 50 per barrel in 2030 ( US $ 73 per barrel in nominal footings ) , compared with US $ 200 per barrel ( US $ 289 per barrel in nominal footings ) in the high monetary value instance ( EIA c, 2009 ) ( refer to calculate 6 ) .
Sustained high universe oil monetary values due to proficient trouble, bad and really expensive polish undertakings – including those located in ultra-deep H2O and the Arctic, in combination with the draining of fuel militias and the pollution job will in the long term force consumers to exchange to cheaper, cleaner, and more eco-friendly energy such as solar.
Figure 6 – Universe Oil Monetary values
Figure 5 – World Liquid Consumption
Last, in the IEO2009 mention instance, natural gas ingestion in non Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development ( OECD ) states in peculiar is reported to turn more than twice every bit fast as in OECD states. Worldwide, entire natural gas ingestion will increase by an norm of 1.6 % per twelvemonth from 104 trillion three-dimensional pess in 2006 to 153 trillion three-dimensional pess in 2030 ( EIA d, 2009 ) ( refer to calculate 7 ) . Despite its turning demands and ingestion in the hereafter, keeping the premise of universe oil monetary values that remains high through the terminal of the projection of 2030, consumers would choose for the relatively less expensive natural gas for their energy demands whenever possible ( EIA d, 2009 ) . Natural gas has besides become an attractive pick for new bring forthing workss for its comparative fuel efficiency and less C dioxide produced compared to char or crude oil.
However, in the long tally, the handiness of the recoverable natural gas militias will besides be of concern and costs will non stay as they are but will increase over clip hence driving consumers towards the use of solar energy as an surrogate energy that has greater length of service.
Figure 7 – World Natural Gas Consumption
Decision
Solar energy has been used for centuries. It is a cleaner energy beginning with great potency for a universe where assorted steps are being taken to follow greener, more sustainable patterns. Intermittent Sun, high operation costs and ongoing research into efficient engineerings limit current solar usage. Research into methods of increasing harnessed energy from the Sun will in bend addition solar energy usage which presently is a infinitesimal part of the universe ‘s entire energy usage. There are environmental concerns but these can be minimised with equal handling.
To be more sustainable, mankind are suggested to efficaciously reap energy from the Sun. Although the cost of using this solar energy in comparing with of other non renewable beginnings of energy is still comparatively high, through promotions in engineering and research, it is projected to diminish to a degree where it is able to vie with other beginnings of energy such as coal, fuels and natural gas. The Sun, unlike any other energy beginning, is an ultimate energy beginning that may last everlastingly assuring a simple and non-polluting energy.

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Environment

Macroeconomic Environment

In contrast, the external scenario was characterized by increased uncertainty in international financial markets as a result of the mortgage crisis in the United States and the price rises in foodstuffs and petroleum which, together with a greater weakening of the dollar, generated strong inflationary pressures worldwide. These external factors had a strong impact on domestic inflation -measured by the Consumer Price Index (ICP) of Lima Metropolitan- which reached 3. 9 percent in 2007, the highest inflation rate observed in the country since 1998.
It is worth pointing out that Peru recorded the third lowest inflation rate in Latin America after Ecuador (2. 7 percent) and Mexico (3. 8 percent), and that Chile, China, Taiwan, United States, Singapore and Japan showed in 2007 the highest inflation rates of the last ten years, while inflation in the Rezone (3. 1 percent) reached the highest level since this region was created. Macroeconomic Environment By Philomena dyestuffs and imported inputs (wheat, maize, soybean oil, and petroleum), as reflected in the rate of imported inflation which reached 10. 5 percent in 2007.
In Peru, this affected both the prices of some final goods included in the consumer basket (bread, food outside the household, evaporated milk) and firms’ production costs (fuels and related inputs, such as plastics and fertilizers, and inputs for the production of foodstuffs). As mentioned above, the dynamism shown by domestic demand (1 1. 6 percent), – particularly as a result of the evolution of private expenditure- reflected the growth f non-primary sectors, especially construction and non-primary manufacturing, which led the Peruvian economy to grow 9. 0 percent in 2007 (the highest growth rate seen over the past 13 years).

The Central Government accounted mainly for this surplus (1. 8 percentage points), while entities in the rest of the General Government -particularly local governments- and state enterprises accounted for 1. 2 percentage points and 0. 1 percent of GAP respectively. This high growth of domestic demand is explained by consumers and business optimistic expectations given the country’s macroeconomic robustness, favorable reedit conditions, and the growth of formal employment seen in all the economic sectors and in most regions, as well as by increased announcements of investments in all production sectors.
The changes in the shorter rates resulted from preventive adjustments implemented by the Central Bank in the reference rate in July and September 2007 (25 basis points in each case). On the other hand, long-term interest rates increased as a result of greater uncertainty in international markets and of investors’ demand for higher yields – spreads- in emerging economies. In 2007, in line with the robustness of the economy, financial entities showed a good performance, as reflected in their indicators of solvency, quality of portfolio, operational efficiency, and profitability.
The capital market showed a positive evolution both in terms of fixed and variable income instruments, as reflected in increased public and private long-term bond issues in uneven soles and in the participation of new issuers. The indices of the Lima Stock Exchange (ELSE) showed an important growth in 2007 (36. 0 percent), as a result of which the ELSE was one of the most profitable bourse in Latin America, surpassed only by the SAA Paulo Stock Exchange. The growing resources of institutional investors, particularly mutual funds, private administrators of pension funds (Fps), and insurance companies, account for this evolution.
The growth of the monetary base in 2007 (SSL. 3,916 million) was mainly associated with the BPCS exchange operations (amounting to SSL. 21,914 million or IIS$ 7,070 million), which included purchases of foreign currency (SSL. 32,057 million or IIS$ 10,306 million) that were partially compensated by net sales of dollars to the public sector (S’. 10,263 million and IIS$ 3,275 million). Conversely, the monetary base shrank due to net placements of BPCS Certificates of Deposit (S’. 13,393 million) and higher deposits from the public sector at the central bank (SSL. 6,751 million).

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Environment

Environmental Justice

Two Boats Heading Down One Stream: Environmental Justice and Consumer Resistance In the 1980s, an issue emerged which exposed the correlation between racism, poverty, and environmental threats in the United States. This issue known as environmental injustice suggests that ethnic minorities and the poor communities are targets for toxic industries. The consistent lack of governmental representation and lack of political clout caused these targeted communities to take leadership in the environmental justice movement through grassroots organizations.During the rise of environmental justice movements, there was a market revolution. Technological advancements, such as portable phones, faster cable, laptops, etc.
, were becoming more accessible to the public. These new resources of communication encouraged market forces to advertise and promote their products and/or services more expansively. This growing capacity for advertisement in the United States led to habits of overconsumption in American society. Soon the “nation of opportunity” became infamously known as “the nation of gluttony. This perception created animosity in the United States, and anti-consumption sentiments spread. Market rebellion soon followed. Mainstream forms of consumer resistance are continuing to develop, however the foundation of consumer resistance lies in the minority communities of the United States.
The simultaneous emergence of both the environmental justice movement and consumer resistance is no coincidence. Both movements have similar traits; they share the same actors, purpose, and resistance tactics.In my analysis I will demonstrate the leading forces in both movements, which consist of ethnic minorities and low-income level communities. I will then address the shared purposes of both movements. I will examine the similar incentives in participating in these movements, as well as the psychological/social concepts of voluntarism and civic participation. The final correlative factor that I identify between the environmental justice movement and consumer resistance is the tactics of resistance, such as, grassroots protests, boycotting, and product purchasing commitments.This analysis will determine that consumer resistance is a function of the environmental justice movement.

Actors Women and ethnic minorities, such as, African Americans, Mexican Americans, and Native Americans, are the dominant leaders and actors in the environmental justice movement and in consumer resistance. Mexican Americans and Native Americans have deep knowledge of ecology and respect for natural resources that originate in the moral foundations of their cultures and identities. African Americans and Women share the resentment of industries to target them and construct them in terms of their roles in society.These sentiments are addressed in their acts of consumer resistance and environmental justice movements. The importance in sustaining the environment and natural resources is apparent in Native American’s traditional ecological knowledge. The significance of nature in Native American culture is shown in their spiritual beliefs and pagan religion. Many tribes idolized animals by emulating them through warrior garments, physical markings, tribal chants, and dances.
They also relied on plant life in their medicinal practices. N.Scott Momaday of the Kiowa Tribe summates the ethics of Native American tribes by stating, “We humans must come again to a moral comprehension of the earth and air. We must live according to the principle of a land ethic. The alternative is that we shall not live at all” (Churchill 1983, 47). Native Americans are ideal leaders in environmental justice movements and consumer resistance due to their strong views of sustainable resource management and their personal conflicts over land ownership and property rights. Native American communities are arguably the most susceptible to having their land taken by corporations or industries.
In terms of agricultural practices, the Native Americans, especially those tribes residing in California, have sustainably managed the agricultural cultivation without relying on machines or pesticides (Churchill 1983). Mexican Americans have a deep respect for the environment and have a deep awareness of how to use natural resources sustainably. This knowledge is important to the survival of the culture and community, and reflects their Chicano identities. Sister Teresa Jaramillo, another San Luis native, describes a local sense of place that weaves her body and spirituality into the land, La Sierra. I know the names of the creeks and lakes and ponds with beautiful fish. I know the names of the hills where trees can be found…They are my spiritual brothers and sisters, my teachers. I know the place where the animal trails take you and the beaver ponds, and the places where my uncle took sheep to graze.
I know La Sierra because she is my home” (Pena 2005, xxv-xxvi). The Mexican American people have an intimate relationship with the wilderness, which makes them appropriate actors in issues of resource exploitation. “In the land grant communities at the time of Pinchot and Muir, wilderness was inhabited; it was home.It was not a mere commodity. Nature was inseparable from civilization. Their material culture is based on this sustainable relationship to wild spaces. The wilderness is woven into people’s identities” (Pena 2005, 31).
When the common lands of and water rights of his ancestral land were taken and destroyed, Adelmo Kaber felt susto, a fright so intense it may result in the loss of soul. Mexican Americans are severely affected by environmental threats in terms of their well-being because of the significance of natural resources in framing their cultural identities and morals (Pena 2005).African Americans have been prominent leaders in combating industries through environmental justice movements and consumer resistance. Industrial forces have performed acts of environmental racism that directly affect the health and labor rights of those targeted black communities. These acts have been successful in the formation of groups meant to hinder the progress of services and industries that have destroyed the health, the environment, and the civil rights of black communities. Women have also been prominent leaders in combating industries through environmental justice movements and consumer resistance.A university study shows that women think of “big business as a deterrent to positive change in the area of the environment” and it also showed that women defined themselves in opposition to the dominant consumer culture” because of “their idea that consumption did not provide solutions to environmental problems” (Fournier 1998, 2).
During the 1980’s, women broke out of their former social constructs of the 1950s by entering the workforce and abandoning their roles as being solely the housewives. This created women’s growing resentment for household and childcare products being targeted at just a female audience.The rising influence of women in leading environmental justice movements and consumer resistance is due to the growing influence of Ecofeminism. This new sector of environmental justice “is based on the idea that domination and exploitation of women and of the environment are interconnected. ” (132) Ecofeminists identify the problem as being “the capitalist system of economic exploitation and its control of science and technology” (Pena 2005, 133). The growing credibility of this approach provides another portal for women to combat industries through environmental justice movements and consumer resistance. PurposeThe environmental justice movements and consumer resistance share the same purpose in terms of hindering industries that are detrimental to the environments they target.
Both movements have a cause-and-effect relationship. Collectively changing consumption patterns reduces exploitation of resources and environmental degradation. Reversely, advocating for more environmentally benign production practices in toxic facilities creates eco-friendly products and services. This relationship is reflected in the shared incentives and the psychological implications of the environmental justice movements and consumer resistance.Many notable environmental organizations, such as Greenpeace, Co-Op America, and Earth First, address both issues of environmental justice and overconsumption in order to improve their credibility in the realm of environmentalism. In current environmental issues, Greenpeace “opposes the release of GMOs into the environment” and “advocates immediate interim measures such as the labeling of GE foods and the segregation of genetically engineered crops and seeds to prevent them contaminating conventional and organic produce” (Greenpeace).This demonstrates how Greenpeace merges consumer resistance and environmental justice by altering the content of GE food labels, which would reduce consumption of GE food, as well as improve human health and the environment.
It is apparent that the intentions of consumer resistance includes the intentions of environmental justice movements because anti-consumption depends on a sense of identity grounded in social positions, such as, pro environmentalism, empowerment, and a vision of society that involved eco-friendly market behavior and structure. Anti-brand movements merge concerns of consumer resistance and environmental justice. Issues prominent in the anti-brand movement range from workplace equality and corporate domination to environmentalism and marketing propaganda” (Hollenbeck 2006, 1). These sentiments are reflected in the Fair Trade Coffee campaign of the Global Exchange Organization. The Fair Trade Coffee campaign “assures consumers that the coffee we drink was purchased under fair conditions. To become Fair Trade certified, an importer must meet stringent international criteria; paying a minimum price per pound of $1. 26, providing much needed credit to farmers, and providing technical assistance such as help transitioning to organic farming.
Fair Trade for coffee farmers means community development, health, education, and environmental stewardship” (Fair Trade Coffee 2009). It is apparent that achieving environmental justice and consumer resistance simultaneously is easily attainable. Many social and psychological concepts draw connections among the purposes of both movements. The notion of voluntary simplicity, which is “the idea that personal satisfaction, fulfillment, and happiness result from a commitment to nonmaterial aspects of life,” can be applied to the purpose of consumer resistance and environmental justice movements (Zavestoski 2009, 154). This belief is put into practice by minimizing consumption of material goods, exercising self-reliance, and improving one’s intellect” (Zavestoski 2009, 155). Both movements exercise this theory in their counteractions against corrupt industrial forces by educating their communities about environmental injustices and the negative effects of overconsumption, as well as belittling the credibility of those industries by protesting, boycotting, or make purchase commitments. Another common purpose of environmental justice movements and consumer resistance is to terminate the exploitation of natural resources.
Our society’s unhealthy dependence on resources is shown through one of Marxist’s meanings of alienation: Due to the fact that who we are is defined by what we produce; when we are separated from what we produced, we are alienated from ourselves. In a system in which forms of production cut the laborer off from what she or he produces, as in capitalism, the laborer can no longer create his identity through production (Zavestoski 2009, 157). This implies that corrupt industrial forces are detrimental to self identity and independence.Mexican Americans and Native Americans share this sentiment of blaming industry and resource exploitation for threatening the integrity of their identities and moral beliefs of environmentalism. Marx also identifies two contradictions of capitalism. The first contradiction is the tendency for the profit rates to decline while capital expands globally. This leads to overproduction because “each individual capitalist seeks to lower costs in order to maintain profitability by out-producing his or her competitors” (Pena 2005, 134).
The unintended effect is the reduction of total market demand for commodities.Both movements adopt this theory because it implies that industrial overproduction and labor/consumer demand are to blame for the exploitation of resources (Pena 2005). The second contradiction is characterized as a problem of underproduction. “Individual capitalists lower costs by externalizing costs to labor or nature,” but “the unintended effect of this is to raise costs on other capitals…and lower profits” (Pena 2005, 134). This contradiction is the main concept in Ecosocialism, which declares that “the economic system destroys the natural conditions of production and provokes an ecological crisis” (Pena 2005, 134).This theory draws the connection between consumer resistance and environmental justice movements because it blames corrupt industrial forces for creating environmental threats and exploited resources. Tactics Environmental justice movements and acts of consumer resistance share the same tactic of boycotting as well as forming or joining grassroots organizations.
Native Americans have used boycotting to combat industries that claimed the land in which they resided in. The Navajo community boycotted the uranium mining in Churchrock, New Mexico.The miners significantly reduced the limited water supply, and also contaminated what was left of the Navajo water supply with uranium. Kerr-McGee and United Nuclear Corporation, the two mining companies held responsible, argued that the Federal Water Pollution Control Act did not apply to them. The boycotts did achieve legal attention, but the courts did not force the companies to comply with US clean water regulations until 1980 (Shaiman 1998). The Native Americans referred to boycotting to avert consumption of certain products.The Native American boycotts regarding Crazy Horse Malt Liquor began when the Hornell Brewing Co.
introduced Crazy Horse Malt Liquor in a distasteful and insulting manner. The introduction “demeans the name of revered Oglala Lakota Leader Tashunke Witco [Crazy Horse]” (Friedman 1999, 139). This statement reflects the feelings of the American Indian Movement (AIM) as well as two other organizations (the Wisconsin Greens and Honor, Inc. ) that performed boycotts the two associated brewers. The boycott gained Native American constituencies in Congress. However, the beverage is still sold in some 40 states (Friedman 1999).Historically, Mexican American led environmental justice movements using strikes as their main tactic.
The Cananea Strike of 1906 was documented as the first successful strike in terms of ending environmentally hazardous working conditions. The Cananea Mine in Sonora, Arizona was notorious causing fatalities among workers, who died in the explosions or from asphyxiation due to the buildup of toxic gases. On November 19th, 1906, Mexican workers went on strike against the owner, Anaconda Copper Company, a multinational corporation based in the United States.This strike was one of the first involving demands to improve workplace environmental conditions. Following that strike, Mexican Americans were excluded from the American Federation of Labor (AFL), and thus were forced to form their own unions. The environmental injustices of this occupational segregation led to numerous conflicts and strikes over the course of the 20th century (Pena 2005, 101). Mexican American tactics for environmental justice movements involve forming grassroots projects and organizations to boycott and campaign for better living conditions.
The Southwest Organizing Project (SWOP) was a collective response by Mexican Americans in Albuquerque to an urban environment containing patterns of discrimination and police brutality. The toxic brownfields, polluting industries, and deteriorating housing degrade urban neighborhoods (Pena 2005, 168). Mexican-origin urban residents participate in movements for amenities, such as, better housing, community-based health care, and local food security by boycotting corrupt businesses that surround the community. Mexican Americans have utilized boycotting in their consumer resistance efforts.The organization responsible for the boycott was Justicia, one of several Mexican American groups active in media reform efforts in the late 1960s and early 1970s This group successfully dropped the advertisement of “Frito Bandito” by the Frito-Lay Company from its Fritos Corn Chips commercials. Another success was the purging from prime time of “Jose Jimenez,” the Hipic character created by comedian Bill Dana (Friedman 1999, 157). African Americans utilize boycotting in their actions of consumer resistance.
The Street Car boycotts of the early 1990s occurred in response to Jim Crow streetcar laws.Every one of the boycotts failed to reverse the legal tide of segregation in the South. As the only protest mechanism realistically available to African Americans, however, the boycott tactic continued to be embraced even though failure was inevitable. In the 1950s, the bus boycotts of Montgomery and Tallahassee regarding segregated seating proved to be effective. The bus boycotts put the buses out of business in the black community. When the Supreme Court ruled against bus segregation in Montgomery, blacks in Tallahassee resumed riding buses, with desegregated seating (Friedman 1999).Many black communities also used boycotting as a mechanism to combat the environmental injustices of landfills in the last 50 years.
In 1967, black students of Houston boycotted the city garbage dump in their community that had claimed the lives of two children. In 1968, residents of West Harlem, in New York City, fought unsuccessfully against the sewage treatment plant in their community. In 1982, the black community of Warren County boycotted the newly constructed hazardous waste landfill in the small town of Afton. State officials disregarded concerns over toxic chemicals leaching into drinking water supplies.This forced the community to confront the dumping trucks. Lying down on roads leading into the landfill, the community stopped the dumping. After six weeks of marches and nonviolent street protests, more than 500 people were arrested.
The boycotting was ineffective and the toxic waste was eventually deposited in that landfill. However the boycotts of Warren County did receive national attention and gave the environmental justice movement mainstream acclamation (Bullard 1990). Consumer resistance and environmental justice movements have contributed to female empowerment in American politics.Women are the leading actors in the current anti-consumption and environmental movements. New studies of Ecofeminism and the evolution of women’s rights contribute to the progress in women’s role in society. This changes the social construct of women and displays the shift in female roles of American society. Ethnic minorities are also empowered as a result of these popular movements.
Grassroots organizations led by minorities are gaining notoriety and credibility in the domestic policies of U. S. politics. These movements have also contributed to the modernization of resistance tactics.The Internet has made these movements more global in scale. Resources for grassroots organizations are more accessible, and there are more opportunities to gain political clout among impoverished communities. For the benefit of future generations, these positive shifts in the roles of previously undermined social groups will hopefully raise the relevance of consumer resistance and environmental justice movements in the legislative and judicial branches of government in order to create effective and permanent change.

Categories
Environment

Broad Dimensions Of External Environment

The macro environment in which Google’s operate broadly consist of the economic environment, the political and legal environment, the socio cultural aspects and the environment related issues like pollution, sustainability etc. The technological temper and its progress has been the key driver behind the major changes witnessed in the external environment making it increasingly complex. These factors often overlap and the developments in one area may influence developments in other.
Political: Politics has a serious impact on the economic environment of any industry. Political ideology and political stability or instability strongly influence the pace and direction of the economic growth. Also it contributes to the economic environment which is conducive for some businesses to grow or remains indifferent for some businesses and at times is a hurdle. Economic factors throw light on the nature and direction of the economy in which a firm operates. The firms must focus on economic trends in segments that affect their industry.
Legal: Licensing policies, quota restrictions, import duties, Forex regulations, restrictions on FDI flows, controls on distribution and pricing of commodities together made business difficult during earlier years. COMPARISON STANDARDS In order to arrive at some meaningful conclusion regarding strengths and weaknesses, the analysis should be supported by appropriate standards for comparison, for example, Industry norms, Historical performance and Benchmarks. These are commonly accepted comparison standards which are often found useful for internal analysis by the organizations.

Industry Norms The industry norms compare the performance of an organization in the same industry or sector against a set of agreed performance indicators. Data on industry norms are widely available and can be found from several published sources. Using such data and comparing an organization against others in its industry helps the organization understand its true position. Benchmarking Benchmarking compares an organization’s performance against other’s performance wherever that is found.
When the search for best practices is limited to competitors, the process is called competitive benchmarking. G. ) MARKET PLAN: The nature of business and the scope will lead to the objectives of the project. The goal and objectives are interlinked. Achieving the goal may be flexible but the project objectives are always specific. Two types of objectives be made, short term and long term, which should work parallel to each other. Objectives have many advantages-first these add important detail into the plan and secondly they are strategic just as a business plan.
H) ADVERTISING AND PROMOTION STRATEGY: Present market is very competitive and unless the business plan is offering something extra, people may not like to purchase, in other terms it should be as best offer sale. The customer will be able to purchase better quality and more in quantity with the same value of money. PERSONNEL STRUCTURE A. )MANAGEMENT: The specifics of the business model need to be stated, such as whether the company is a trading firm, a brokerage company, a manufacturing company or a charitable institution.
Investors are particular to look into the business model to classify their future business activities. B. ) OPERATING EMPLOYEES: The most important part of the plan is to tell the customer the details of the products being handled and the services offered. At times it may not be possible to give a description of each and every product but the list of sections and the items that particular section will handle will serve the purpose.