Media Manipulation

There are certain negative roles of Pakistani media . Medal Is negatively manipulating the Interests of the people. People of Pakistan are yet not critical / educated enough to realize this manipulation / twisting of facts. There is a famous dictum that “a lie spoken 100 times becomes greater than a truth” Pakistani media is also blamed for overwhelming negative exaggeration. It glossaries issues, resorts to negative exaggeration of matters, newspaper headlines are depicting violence, etc all this demoralizes the nation.
At times news are given without authentication / confirmation. Unethical material / photographs / scenes are shown on our media promoting popularization. Medal Is damaging basic fiber of our nation and has created a crisis of miss identification. Our initial investigation into the topic of truth manipulation began by conducting a ‘cultural probe’, followed by an extensive literature review from various sources. Further primary methods such as surveys, questionnaires and focus groups may be used to further enhance our learning and knowledge.
User testing will be used during the design development stage to determine if the target market is receptive to NY developed outcomes. Our aim is to equip the public with knowledge as to the ways and means the media uses to Influence their opinions. This will open up the option for our target market to form their own opinions on Issues, rather than taking the political or social stallion at TTS alliance. t TN ten meal wellness to Insult II upon I Following on from semesters group discussions, we begin by discussing and looking into issues concerning our views and perceptions of communication.

Self-promotion and publishing, via the forming of new media outlets such as You Tube, My space, Face book and web logs has recently provided an alternative to the traditional way of receiving news information. The idea of creating and selecting the kind of information we wish to enrich ourselves with has steadily become more attractive as of late. With such a dynamic flow of information happening around the globe, North Korea somehow stands out in its shelter.. We, as a eastern society, on the other hand are exposed to various kinds of information on a daily basis.
Up to 3000 advertising messages per day to be precise. We cannot walk around a block without being attracted to buy a certain product, use form of service, or have a particular view. There is an absolute abundance of options. But are we really free to choose? Who is it to say that our source of information does not choose our information for us? Are we, despite having freedom of choice, not at all This idea formed the basis of our selected topic of research and led to the exploration of truth manipulation in the current media landscape.
AIMS & OBJECTIVES Firstly to create awareness amongst the public about techniques employed by media corporation to spin truths and push their political and social agendas and opinions upon society. Then to equip the audience with necessary means in order to defend themselves against truth manipulation in the current media landscape. The objective is not to dictate views or opinions but to encourage a critical perspective when listening to, reading and taking in news and current affairs information.
We would like to encourage the audience to think for themselves, form their own opinions and draw logical conclusions from the media they absorb. PURPOSE, NEED & SIGNIFICANCE As a consumer driven society, the public are often immature to the variety of ethos employed by media giants in order to influence opinions to support with their own agendas. Many of these cooperation’s have continuously dishonored their responsibility to serve public interest and raise unbiased awareness of news and current issues.
As time progresses, and sophistication in technology becomes more and more advanced, consumers are becoming more at risk to truth manipulation as they do not nave ten addle TTY to Keep up Witt meal movements I Nils provokes ten meal giants with the opportunity to force their opinions and as a result the unsuspecting public come more susceptible to the success of the medias deeds. This is a demoralizing factor in today’s society, as society puts a certain amount of trust into the media and hope that what they are delivering is authentic and unaltered information rather than issues that have been fictitious to benefit secondary needs.
This is where the public are being misled. What is needed to overcome these troubling issues is a raise in public awareness. Propaganda and truth manipulation must be exposed so the public are able to see that the information they receive is not necessary the whole truth. Once this occurs, e as a society will be better equipped to form our own opinions, and perhaps even regain some power over media giants. Grassroots is where this movement must begin and it is our aim to assist such a cause. RESEARCH METHODS This project centers around research and investigation.
In order to absorb and analyze as much information as possible on the chosen topic of truth manipulation, we have decided to employ several vastly different research methods. Initial investigation began by conducting a ‘cultural probe’. This method is a first- hand data gathering attempt. The exercise involved using five people to participate in series of news, media and communication related activities. The aim of this method is more about gathering inspiration than information. The outcomes and results of this method are outlined below in the section entitled ‘Cultural Probe Results’.
Secondary research took the form of a literature review, as included on the following pages. Each group member selected or was assigned a series of literature and information sources to investigate and report. Sources included documentaries, films, publications, Journals, articles, case studies and electronic resources. Both global and local issues were explored. This form of research aided a better understanding of our topic, and helped us form individual and collective opinions of the issues arising. The outcome is the following argumentative essay.
At the point of writing this research proposal, third and fourth methods of investigation are being discussed. Further primary methods such as surveys, questionnaires and focus groups may be used to further enhance our learning and knowledge. User testing will be used during the design development stage to determine if the target market are receptive to any developed outcomes. Major meal corporation’s use tenet power Ana meal outlets to portray an oaten hidden political or social agenda. To do so they spin and manipulate truths, molding information to suit their cause.
Authenticity of information is lost owing to this trend, and it has become increasingly difficult for the public to separate fact from fabricated fiction and false, misleading information. The media has a role to portray true and relevant information and so serve public interest. This idea is seemingly lost on many media giants who are more focused on profit and swaying opinion than delivering a realistic and reasonable account of rent affairs and issues. This goes against the Journalistic promise to honor societies right to true and honest information.


Multimedia Assignment

Multimedia Assignment BY mck10101 Module code: 5M 299 Pre-production encompasses everything you do before you start recording and producing your media. Good pre-production will save time and hardship in the production and post-production stages. (McLaughlin, 2013). The overall goal is to maintain control during the high pressure production and post-production stages. Research and exploration i. There are two forms of research that can be carried out before starting a project: Primary Research (interviews, surveys, questionnaires, etc. Secondary Research (websites, reports, books, Journals, etc. Often it is secondary research that is undertaken as this is less time consuming and more cost effective. it. There are two categories that require exploration for an efficient project to take shape: Analysing the industry and marketplace by comparing competiveness, usability and Human Computer Interaction Getting to know your audience by carrying out usability tests, primary research and site analytics (McLaughlin, 2013) Layouts and Sketches These play an integral part of creating a visual representation of any given project.
They are used for the following reasons: Show the placements of elements Provide a rough plan for the client such as text, graphics, links, headers, footers and banners (McLaughlin, 2013) Layouts and Sketches can be for the Web, Flash and Animations. Here are some examples of how layouts and sketches can be presented: Content Generation There are two forms of content generation: Client generated User generated Client generated content is where the client provides the webmaster with the text, images, logos and graphics.
User generated on the other hand, is real time content with information flowing two ways. Social media is a prime example of this. Information Architecture, including storyboards and flowcharts Information architecture is about helping people understand their surroundings and find what theyre looking for – in the real world as well as online (IA’, 2013). The goal is to design a project where the navigation feels natural and the content is logically grouped.

Some techniques that can be used to help with the visualisation of a project are: Primary Research (getting feedback from real users) Storyboards (rough draft visual representation) Flowcharts (pictorial representation showing all steps involved in process) Here is a ypical example of a flowchart that is used in helping people understand the navigation process: Another visual aid is a sitemap which can be created and understood by non- technical viewers: Scheduling and project management These are vital to maintain that a project is delivered within a certain time-frame and that the objectives and requirements are clearly defined throughout.
According to McLaughlin (2013), Project management is a 5 step process: 1. Initiating (Client commitment stage) 2. Planning (Pre-production ; Production stages) 3. Executing (Production stage) 4. Monitoring and controlling (Production stage) . Closing (Post-production stage) File Formats and associated Extensions Video File Format: Extension: Description: Audio Video Interleave Windows standards. Moving Pictures Expert Group 4 . mpeg4, . mp4 Good for Web as it is supported by everything. Flash Video Format . flv Delivers MPEG video through Flash.
DVD Video Object . vob DVD standard container. Audio Wave Files . wav CD quality and very large files. Moving Pictures Expert Grout 2 Audio Layer Ill . mp3 Good for streaming and small file size than wave. Free Lossless Audio C . flac Half the size of WAV files. Musical Instrument Digital Interface . midi, . mid Good for synthesised sound and easy to edit. Images Portable Network Graphics . png Standard format for web and suitable for crisp logos. Photoshop documents . psd Large files and Adobe propriety files. Vector Image . i Adobe propriety and Adobe Illustrator project file. Scalable Vector Graphic . svg W3C standard and specific for Web vector graphics. Animation Animated Graphics Interchange Format Very small, supports transparency but not sound. Shock Wave Flash . swf Good for web, compressed and supports audio playback. Requires Shockwave plug-in for browser. Abobe Flash Project file . fla Propriety Adobe format. Actionscript for user interactivity. Not compressed and can create entire websites. SWISH Project File . swi Part of Coral DRAW Graphics suite.
Coral DRAW is the equivalent of Adobe . fla file. Can be export as wt, . avi, and . git List four examples of Devices and Platforms Devices According to the Macmillan Dictionary (2013), a ‘device’ is a machine or piece of equipment that does a particular thing. The following listed devices are capable of displaying Multimedia content: Smartphones Tablets Laptops MP3 Player Platforms: According to Merriam-Webster Online (2013), a ‘platform’ is the computer rchitecture and equipment using a particular operating system.
Here is a list of different platforms available: Smartphone Mac iPhone Windows Android osx iOS Linear and Non-Linear The difference between linear and non-linear is on the interactivity. If the user can control the access and the order of the content then it is a non-linear structure. Watching a movie used to be an example of a linear media experience, but now the DVD format allows you to have a non-linear experience by choosing scenes and going forward and backward (BMCC, 2011). Linear can be distinguished trom non-linear because i nas literally no interactivity ot any in k d.


Media’s Negative Effect on Adolescents

America’s youth has become overwhelmed by the media. What was started as just a media stream has become an issue to today’s adolescent society. Before World War II, the only form of media that was available to young people was only print, motion pictures, and the radio (Roberts12). In a ten year p, the television distribution increased from fifty percent to fifty-five percent; then in a four year p it increased to eighty-seven percent. Coinciding with the growth of the media available to adolescents, the content of the media has changed (12).In today’s society, the media has created specific contents aimed at the youth.
In Roberts article Trends in Media Use, he states that “ Television has moved from family programming, to children programs, and now to complete channels aimed at the youth market” (12). Ever since the creation of novels and comic books, the effect of media has been debated. Mass media have existed for centuries; its history is traced back when dramas were performed in the early days in different cultures. The term “mass media” evolved as a result of the printed media (Bhattacharyya). In 868 A.D, the first newspaper was printed in China. Due to the expense of paper and the inability for people to read, the use of newspapers was not popular therefore making it unsuccessful.
Europe can boast about being mass media’s primary source because it was in 1453 that Johannes Gutenberg that he printed the first book in a printing press. It was during World War II that the radio, television, and video were introduced. As a result of its information and entertainment, the audio-visual facilities became popular which later paved the way for internet, the later form of mass media.The internet later became popular because of the different things that individuals can do such as generate information about literature, politics, fashion, etc. when others can listen to music while working and playing games (Bhattacharyya). Other forms of mass media include: magazines, video games, compact disc, digital video disc, advertisements, and more. Adolescents have particular needs that they would like fulfilled.

They have the need to be accepted in friendship groups, to become popular, to have relationships with people of the opposite sex, etc.Because mass media publishers and producers understand this need, they create advertisements on television, the internet, on billboards, etc. on how to meet that need using a particular product or doing something contrary to how they were raised (Kulkarni). Therefore, publishers and producers should monitor what they put in mass media because of the violent behavior, sexual influence, and the false body image portrayal to adolescents. Publishers and producers should monitor what they put in the mass media because of the violent behavior displayed by adolescents as a result of the violent behavior showed on TV and/or video games.There have been about three-thousand studies on the effect of media violence on adolescents; few of the studies show no effect (Strasburger 557). According to the American Academy of Pediatrics, an American child would have viewed about two-hundred thousand acts of violence on TV alone by the age of eighteen.
“The Mediascope National Television Violence Study found that children are learning aggressive attitudes and behaviors, becoming desensitized to real world violence, and are developing a fear of being victimized by violence” (The AAP). For instance, in the year 1963, Professor A.Badura along with other professors “studied the effect of exposure to real-world violence, television violence, and cartoon violence”. ‘They divided 100 preschool children into four groups. The first group watched a real person shout insults at an inflatable doll while hitting it with a mallet. The second group watched the incident on television. The third watched a cartoon version of the same scene, and the fourth watched nothing.
When all the children were later exposed to a frustrating situation, the first three groups responded with more aggression than the control group.The children who watched the incident on television were just as aggressive as those who had watched the real person use the mallet; and both were more aggressive than those who had only watched the cartoon. ” (Media Awareness Network) One might make the observation that adolescent children will try to mimic what they have seen on because of the fact that they saw someone else do it. Secondly, publishers and producers should monitor about what they place in the media because adolescents are being exposed to sexual explicated medium.The studies of sexual messages displayed in television shows, movies, etc. have discovered that there has been an increase in the number of portrayal and conversations about sex, along with intense explicitness of these portrayals (Huston 1). “ The television research shows a fairly consistent sexual message across TV genres,” Huston states, “most portrayals of sex depict or imply heterosexual intercourse between unmarried adults, with little reference to STDs/AIDS, pregnancy, or use of contraception” (1).
A 2006 news article from CBS, states that “adolescents who have see and hear frequently about sex in the media may be more than twice as likely to have been involved in intercourse verses those who are rarely exposed to it. ” (CBS News) According to a study published in Pediatrics, “researchers surveyed more than 1,000 public middle school students in North Carolina when they were twelve to fourteen years old and again two years later when they were fourteen to sixteen years old.Researchers measured each teen’s sexual media diet by weighting the frequency of exposure to sexual content in four major types of media: TV, movies, music, and magazines. The teens were divided into five equal-sized groups ranging from the lowest exposure to the highest exposure. The results showed that exposure to sexual content at ages twelve through fourteen increased the risk of early teen sex even after taking into account other factors known to reduce the likelihood of teen sex, such as parental disapproval of teen sex and getting good grades.In fact, each increase in grouping of sexual content media exposure increased the risk of teen sex by thirty percent “(CBS News). Because adolescents are becoming curious from being exposed to sexual explicit medium, this should be an eye-opener to publishers and producers that they should be more careful about the sexual explicit content they are placing in the medium.
A study was done on popular shows viewed by adolescents on Prime-Time television. Results display that fifty-percent of characters in the shows encounter some form of sexual intercourse.These shows display Sex as something that is done for recreational purposes, not having anything to do with having a relationship or even the intention of reproducing (Ward). In addition, the Music Television(MTV) is a prime example of television program that depict sexual messages to their viewers, adolescents. “From the beginning, MTV transformed music into television programming by using fast-paced visuals to grab the attention of a very specific youthful audience – a new generation that had been raised with television and had different ways of processing nformation (Sherman and Etling 378).” Finally, publishers and producers should monitor what they place in the mass media because it portrays false body images of actors and models. Body image is a term that embodies an internal perception, thoughts, and self-evaluation of an individual’s physical outward appearance (Presnell 2007).
The media can be one of the main contributions in the formation of body self-images and could be responsible for displaying unrealistic expectations and body dissatisfactions among adolescents, particularly young girls (Strasburger 560). Adolescence is a critical developmental period, bringing numerous physical changes, social challenges, and role transitions that increase vulnerability to body dissatisfaction (Presnell 2007). ”  Conveyed messages in the media about body images are often associated with increased body dissatisfactions, while exposure to the ideal thin image contribute to decreasing self-esteem among adolescents, females in particular (Presnell 2007). “Beauty standards that are sanctioned by an individual’s culture are hypothesized to influence how individuals perceive and evaluate their bodies.Western culture currently endorses an ultra-thin figure for women and a lean, muscular one for men. Pressure to conform to these ideals is evident in messages from the media, parents, and peers (Presnell 2007). ” According to the American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, studies have proven that there has been an increase in the number of plastic surgery procedures among adolescents from 59,890 in 1997 to 205,119 in 2007.
This increase in plastic surgery was a result in adolescents wanting to be accepted by society after watching some type of mass media.The most common procedures among adolescents include Rhinoplasty, Breast Reduction, Correction of Breast Asymmetry, and Chin Augmentation (Conwell 2008). In addition, promiscuity is celebrated in the media. Nelly Furtado, secular artist, sold more albums from her hit “Promiscuous,” than other albums she made, due to her sexed up image. “Party girls Paris Hilton and Britney Spears forgot their underwear for a night out, and teen girls echo those images on their MySpace pages. ” This devastation caught the attentions of many as well as the American Psychological Association. The APA classify this era as “The Sexualization of Girls.
In a report done recently, psychologists and educators express that these images are damaging to the self-image and mental health of girls which is also teaching them to disrespect themselves (Dahl 2007). One may argue that mass media does not effect adolescents in negative ways. In the year 1999, Dylan Klebold and Eric Harris were the suspects in what is known as “The Columbine Shooting. ” Klebold and Harris killed 12 people along with themselves at their high school in Columbine, Colorado. It was reported that this horrific event was inspired by a video game entitled “Doom,” which was a shooting game.The day before the killing, Klebold and Harris made a homemade video about how they were going to reenact the violent video game. Witnesses say that these two teenage boys went through the school randomly shooting under tables, desk, and in different locations of the school; as if they were playing the game in real life (Cullen 1999) According to Ofcom, the broadcasting industry watchdog, television channels have the ‘human right’ to broadcast offensive material.
A mother of two disabled kids was offended by what was said in a television program.The regulator claimed that what was said in the TV program was “editorially justified (The Telegraph 2010). ” The producers may feel that it is alright to put, what viewers may call, offensive because they are trying to provide true entertainment and want to known for having some of the high ranking show with the most viewers. However, moral responsibility is the key. Just because they have the right to display what they want, they should still monitor what they place in mass media because of the behavior that adolescents will display as a result of they see in various medium.The real life experiences should be an eye opener to media publishers and producers to monitor what they display. It is true that publishers and producers have the freedom of expression, according to Article Ten of the European Convention on Human Rights.
However, this article does not just apply to publishers and producers of medium, but also to concerned parents. They too have the freedom to express their concerns about what is being placed in the media simply because they want to protect their offspring from being contaminated from what is being showed to them.In conclusion, the media does contribute the development of adolescents and it important that publishers and producers monitor what they place in the media because some parents are not responsible enough to monitor what their kids watch. It can and will have a short or a long-term effect on them. The media has influenced adolescents to do crazy things such as behaving violently, participating in sexual activity, and going to extreme measures to make themselves look and feel good, all as a result of something that they have seen on television, in a magazine, in an advertisement, and more.Publishers and Producers cannot accomplish this task alone, but the parents must help out and work with them in achieving such tasks. If the publishers and producers does not work along with the parents, adolescents are open to whatever comes their way; which may result in something tragic such as the Columbine Shooting.


Kill the Media

The formation of personal identity in present-day society can be seen as awkward and challenging. Many teenagers gravitate towards the media for direction on how to stay up-to-date and fresh on trends while going through a tumultuous puberty stage. The dominant influence of accepted media affects every individual’s sense of self. Lauren Moak, author of “Is This What You Really Want? ” attempts to explain the effect media portrayal has on a younger audience’s stance on beauty and self-esteem.
She states, “The media sends the same message on every commercial, billboard, and television show out there. If you do not have the perfect shape, clear complexion…well, you’re not “beautiful”. ” (Moak). Moak verifies that the mainstream media crafts images that youthful individuals struggle to become. Every day many girls strive to fit the mold the media has created. Girls fixate over thin frames, tan skin, and unattainable facial features. What many fail to realize is that most, if not all, images are airbrushed or photo-shopped to transform the average face of a model to an unrealistic being.
Moak further elucidates her point by saying, “The media says that if we all fail at achieving this “ideal” body image, we must try harder no matter what the costs. ”(Moak). Attempting to assemble an identity in a media-saturated world is nearly impossible. Everything one does is inspiration from the media and what society deems as “right”. Self-individuality cannot coexist with popular media. Personal identity, as well as gender identity suffers from the media. Many images from popular media exhibit cliched, constricting, and naive perceptions on various issues, most commonly being gender.

David Sedaris, author of “I Like Guys”, explains his self-awareness of his own sexuality and the portrayal of homosexuals by the media and close people around him. Early into his essay, he describes, “It was my hope to win a contest, cash in the prizes, and use the money to visit a psychiatrist who might cure me of having homosexual thoughts. ” (Sedaris). By Sedaris wanting to instantly be cured from homosexual thoughts, it shows that homosexuality is not acceptable in his society. He also explains viewing homosexual men on television and looking down upon them.
This is parallel to the gender identity issues in present-day society because the media is yet again forcing their viewpoints onto others and limiting individual’s perception of people. This, in turn, leads to new stereotypes and discrimination against sexes. One should not feel ashamed, but instead entitled to one’s own views and standpoints on issues. Sedaris expresses the immediate shame he felt after an encounter with another boy. He states, “My jealousy stemmed from the belief that he had been cured.
One fistful of my flesh and he had lost all symptoms of the disease…why couldn’t I do the same? ” (Sedaris). The media’s continuous backlash to painful topics causes gender identity issues to prevail. Judith Ortiz Cofer, author of “The Myth Of The Latin Woman: I Just Met a Girl Named Maria” attempts to explain the effect media portrayal has on a younger audience’s stance on beauty and self-esteem. She states, “The media sends the same message on every commercial, billboard, and television show out there. If you do not have the perfect shape, clear complexion…well, you’re not “beautiful”. (Cofer). Moak verifies that the mainstream media crafts images that youthful individuals struggle to become. Every day many girls strive to fit the mold the media has created.
Girls fixate over thin frames, tan skin, and unattainable facial features. What many fail to realize is that most, if not all, images are airbrushed or photo- shopped to transform the average face of a model to an unrealistic being. Moak further elucidates her point by saying, “The media says that if we all fail at achieving this “ideal” body image, we must try harder no matter what the costs. (Cofer). Attempting to assemble an identity in a media-saturated world is nearly impossible. Everything one does is inspiration from the media and what society deems as “right”. Self-individuality cannot coexist with popular media. The formation of personal identity in present-day society can be seen as awkward and challenging. Many teenagers gravitate towards the media for direction on how to stay up-to-date and fresh on trends while going through a tumultuous puberty stage. The dominant influence of accepted media affects every individual’s sense of self.


Media Studies

Racism is the theory that people from one race is superior to the other. It asserts the separatists view of the different races in terms of physical characteristics, cultural patterns and modes of behavior (“Racism”). Racism results into many forms of prejudices and inequities in terms of education, employment, social respect and the likes. In the US, one of the races that have been severely discriminated is the African Americans.
The history of mass media in the United States laid witness to various racial discrimination experienced by cultural minorities. Perhaps the most noticeable form of discrimination is that of the employment opportunity in the mass media wherein only 16.2% of all employees involved in mass communication where from the minority groups (Mohammadi, 1995). To give more emphasis, only 8.9% are African American, the rest are Latins, Asians and etcetera. From the numbers given above it is evident that the media do not give equal opportunities to these minorities.
However, what the public often fail to notice is the discrimination and mockery that the African-Americans experience in movies and other TV shows. Though the African-American TV host Ophra Winfrey is now enjoying much success and popularity, we need to have a deeper understanding for us to notice the hidden mockery in blockbuster hits of today. One fine example of such is the science fiction comedy Men in Black which is loved by many. The first release of the movie in 1997 grossed over 500 million dollars world wide and was later on followed by a sequel in 2002 which also gained much success. It was enjoyed by everyone including myself, however a deeper analysis would reveal the stereotypes given to African Americans and the discrimination that’s well hidden in the guide of comedy.

Will Smith, a black comedian, is famous for his humor and in the movie he capitalized on it so well. However, he is placed side by side with the well composed, organized, calm and respected agent played by Tommy Lee Jones who is a white American. In the movie, Will Smith was a black agent who was incompetent in handling weapons and often complicates situations only for it to be solved by Tommy Lee Jones. The stereotype of blacks being incompetent in professional work is shown in the movie while hailing the whites as the great problem solver and savior of the blacks. Simple stereotypes as these often go as jokes and are pretty much enjoyed by many; however the social impact of these stereotypes should be given more emphasis.
The next movie is that of Julia Styles and Sean Patrick entitled Save the Last dance. It’s a romantic movie in 2001 which revolved around the Application of Julia Styles in a dancing school. It was also a top grosser and was even voted as the most romantic movie in 2001 and won the MTV best kiss award. The movie was pretty obvious in stating the discrimination experienced by a white female white American and a male black American couple who lived in a city occupied mostly by blacks. In the movie, Sean and Julia ended up together in a supposedly “happy ending”, however if we take a deeper look, white supremacy is evident as she won the heart of Sean who is a cream of the cream in his school.
Sean is a promising student with a lot of admirers in his school only to be smitten by the gorgeous white American therefore snagging the opportunity of black Americans to have a decent black man in their household. Though the movie aimed to show the struggles of the lovers in the process of fighting for their love, it only magnified the discrimination experienced by the blacks and the unequal opportunities especially when it comes to relationships. The movie further stressed that white women are more talented and beautiful and would therefore have better chances in ending up with a descent man. Their love story is a mockery to all African American Women.
It seems that the media landscape in America has been reduced to black and white. The border of colors is evident though movie makers try to hide it with a veil of humor and drama. The stereotypes and the types of roles given to African Americans clearly show how this nation discriminates towards people with color.
Furthermore, the roles given to African Americans are mostly of the goons with guns who deal with crimes and often sell drugs in sidewalks. Often they play menial jobs as car technicians and the like. These roles create a stereotype of African Americans in the mind of all whites. This further strengthens social stratification in our society. Now we need to ask is this reality? Are these roles as close as it is in real life?
Though we can argue that in reality there are a lot of African Americans who are successful in what they do and are now rich and powerful. However we can never hide the fact that the ratio to those African Americans who are rich and powerful and those who are still mired in poverty is not equal. Even if many African Americans have climbed the economic ladder, most of them are still poor and poverty stricken. Poverty then leads to crime, thus, this is where movie makers get their stereotypes. Movies of gangsters only try to depict the realities in the ghettos.
As what we have mentioned above, these stereotypes greatly affect the social stratification of this country. Perhaps we can’t blame the media for such discrimination. After all they only try to portray reality in how they view it.  Maybe we ought to examine society upon which the media and the movie makers cater to. Maybe then we will be able to realize that these stereotypes will remain as long as the audiences are willing to pay the tickets for a movie that enables them to laugh at the mockery of the current state of discrimination in this country. The movies are reflections of who day to day reality. The roles that actors portray is as close to reality as we may think, if we cannot erase the landscape of black and white in our own society then that landscape will prevail even on screen.
Mohammadi, A. (1995). Questioning the Media. A critical Introduction. Sage Publications
Chang, E. (1992). Ethnic Peace in the America City. Building Community in Los Angeles and Beyond.


Role of financial intermediaries in the modern world

A financial intermediary is an institution ‘that provides indirect means for funds from those who wish to save or lend to be channeled to those who wish to invest or borrow’. Financial intermediaries have become crucial drivers of modern economies due to their role in acting as mediators who facilitate the flow of funds between deficient and surplus units. Financial intermediaries have played a key role in the development of the world’s economy throughout the years. Role of financial intermediaries in the modern world
The need for financial intermediaries arose when the lenders and borrowers of money were confronted with the difficulty of finding and dealing directly with each other. Financial intermediaries are engaged in bringing these two parties together by borrowing funds from lenders and lending them to borrowers in such a way that both parties find the transaction more favorable than if they traded directly with each other (Mathur 85). Without financial intermediaries, this task not only becomes tedious, but it would also be costly for both the parties.
Moreover, transactions through financial intermediaries are according to the up-to-date regulatory system, and are reliable and transparent. Financial intermediaries also help in efficient allocation of funds by transferring funds between deficient and surplus units in order to achieve higher productivity and efficiency for the economy as a whole. Financial intermediaries such as banks, investment companies, insurance companies and mutual funds pool funds and resources from various investors, which are then lent to units in need of those funds.

This creates a balanced economic system, where a smooth flow of funds results in efficient allocation of resources (Mathur 89-90). Perhaps it is due to this system of allocation of resources that has resulted in the staggering development of modern economies. Large corporations have become essential for sustained economies. The creation and subsequent maintenance of these corporations would not have been possible without involvement from financial intermediaries.
Financial intermediaries help in as diverse functions as stock broking, underwriting, acquisitions and mergers, capital restructuring, portfolio management and many other functions which have helped corporations of the world in ways unimaginable in the absence of these intermediaries (Brigham and Daves 152). Corporations have direct role in the economies of the modern world. Time and cost of transaction is of essence in modern economies. Financial intermediaries reduce the transaction cost through economies of scale due to their huge size. They reduce transaction time due to their efficient system and their expertise in the field.
A key role of financial intermediaries is their role in facilitating global financing needs. With increased globalization, flow of funds among global entities becomes essential. Modern global organizations of United States have expanded into global markets with the help of many financial intermediaries such as global banks which provides these global organizations with timely funds in many forms. Conclusion Financial intermediaries have become crucial for the development of economies of the modern world. Without financial intermediaries, the high productivity and efficiency of modern economies would be very difficult to achieve.
Their role in achieving higher productivity and efficiency has been growing with time. In essence, the modern world could not exist without financial intermediation due to their crucial role in the development of modern economies. Works Cited Brigham, Eugene F. and Daves, Phillip R. Intermediate Financial Management. South-Western College Pub, 2003. Mathur, Iqbal . Introduction to financial management. Collier Macmillan, 1997. “The role of financial intermediaries. ” Riskinstitute. 5 Oct 2008 <http://riskinstitute. ch/135660. htm>.


Media Policy

The issue of coming out versus staying in the closet is one that has the potential to provide a news media organization with a large amount of readership or viewer-ship because of the still novel aspect of the situation. America is quickly becoming a more liberal society, yet the conservatism within the country is still high. While many people have pushed the envelope of conservatism, still a lot struggle with the idea of challenging traditions because of the many consequences that attend such a decision.
The idea of being homosexual (gay or lesbian) within American society still carries with it a stigma that many try to avoid. The main reasons for the avoidance of this stigma are the attention that such a lifestyle will bring to those who live it and the possibility of overt protest against such a lifestyle by activist or religious groups. Therefore, the “coming out” of a homosexual provides news that the public is highly interested in, and the developments that often follow such a declaration are also highly news worthy. Since it is the business of this media house to provide information to the public that it finds interesting and seminal, it is therefore the policy of this organization to aim to be the first at announcing the “coming out” of individual homosexuals.
The information regarding the lifestyles in which people choose to engage is often considered by critics of the media as personal and not as the business of the public. However, the American public has consistently identified what it considers its own business through its attention to the details of the lives of many individuals. In fact, the public has demonstrated its commitment to learning such news through its active awareness of televised news programs, feature stories on the internet, and its paid subscription to print media of varying levels of credibility.

Unlike some media houses of lower credibility status, this media house is dedicated to providing the truth about the lives of any individual labeled as coming out of the homosexual closet. This media house takes this type of claim very seriously and is held to a high level of integrity in providing proofs of any claims made to such effect. In this way, the curiosity and concern of the public regarding such matters will be satisfied not with lies and fabrications, but with factual accounts of very real and troubling issues.
The media as an industry is not just a group of organizations that provide an update or commentary on the things that take place in our society. Rather, its role encompasses that of creating cultural artifacts and historical records of the socio-cultural metamorphosis of a particular society over time (Gauntlett 115-6).
Without this record, anthropologists who study a given era are at a loss when trying to compile an accurate account of the cultural practices within a given society. Homosexuality is an integral part of the social practices of many Americans today, and fear or an inordinate level of concern for privacy often pushes people into a mode of overprotection of such lifestyles. The role of the media is to effectively uncover such practices by aiding these persons in making their lifestyles and sexual preferences known to the public and therefore to posterity.
Statistical considerations also prompt the media to engage in practices that “out” homosexuals who would otherwise remain hidden. Many reasons exist why statistical bodies seek out demographical data that will give the percentage of homosexuals within a given district or in the country itself. Such measures as the creative capital level of a town use data concerning the gay population as integral factors for calculation (Florida, 41).
Such measures help gauge the tolerance level of certain regions, cities, or towns. In fact, it is often in the interest of even the homosexuals themselves to come out, as it increases the confidence level of others like themselves who want to live their lives out in the open and refrain from hiding. Yet, homosexuals who decide to keep their lifestyles in the closet succeed only in skewing the statistical data, resulting in the underestimation of the level of homosexual practice in a given region. This media house is committed to playing a role in this by encouraging, prompting, or otherwise effecting the open acknowledgement of the true level of homosexuality within a given area.
The role of the media as an announcer of the coming out of certain homosexuals is one that succeeds also in helping such persons to liberate themselves from a confining public image that, in effect, adversely affects their lifestyle. Homosexuals who remain in the closet tend to have unnecessary burdens placed upon them, which the media should consider its humanitarian duty to remove. Such persons are unable to proclaim their love in the open.
They are unable publicly to perform simple actions, such as holding hands or kissing, which demonstrate their feelings toward their significant other. It is often the case that such persons want desperately to rid themselves of these confinements and reveal their sexual preferences to the world. However, they lack the courage or the nerve to stand up and make the declaration themselves. The media therefore provides a service to many of these persons by performing the unsavory act of “coming out” for them, so that they may begin their enjoyment of life openly professing and living what they indeed are in private.
The media also plays a role that publicizes the lifestyle of homosexuals far beyond the borders of influence than they themselves would have been able to proclaim it. Public knowledge of the true proportion of the population that desires such a lifestyle provides in turn an impetus for changes in the legal structure of society that would facilitate such lifestyles. In other words, if enough homosexuals step forward and “come out,” they may even get the legal recognition they desire.
The media therefore facilitates not just the open lifestyle of such persons, but also justification and recognition of such a lifestyle so that they may be more able to live fulfilling life that contains all the accessories that make life fulfilling for heterosexuals. The role of the media in helping these persons come out will broadcast the view that such a lifestyle is legitimate. This is likely to prompt legislation that will allow such persons to marry, adopt children, and perform other partnership roles once available only to heterosexuals (Vargo, 114).
Critics of the media are likely to cite the observation that the publicizing of lifestyle practices of homosexual should be left to their discretion. However, it is often the discretion of these persons that lead to the media finding out about their lifestyles in the first place. Furthermore, the media is also involved in publicizing romantic details about the lives of heterosexuals—mainly those persons such as public servants and entertainment personalities who live a large portion of their lives in the limelight.
Since such stories are the domain of the media, then other very similar stories involving the coming out of homosexuals are also considered to lie within the jurisdiction of the media. It is often the case that people are opposed to things only when they affect them personally, and this double standard ought to be avoided. Since a large proportion of Americans show themselves interested enough in this type of material to purchase magazines, then the media should consider it a duty to provide that material.
It should be considered the perpetual policy of the media to continue to provide information to the public regarding the sexual status of the individuals who live within its domain. The efforts made by the media to out these personalities are beneficial not only to the individuals themselves, but to anthropologists and sociologists of posterity who may seek to understand the socio-cultural practices of persons of this era.
The actions of the media concerning the state of homosexuality in a given area are also beneficial to historians, who are likely to consult the media as cultural artifacts that give insight into the synchronic and diachronic development of certain occurrences of note in a given time. The media should be active in publicizing the coming out of homosexuals because of its role in informing the public and in legitimizing the homosexual lifestyle in a manner that is likely to lead up to the legalization of activities that occur in connection with it.
Work Cited
Florida, Richard. The Rise of the Creative Class: and How It’s Transforming Work, Leisure,       Community and Everyday Life. Cambridge: Basic Books, 2002.
Gauntlett, David. Media, Gender and Identity: An Introduction. New York: Routledge, 2002.
Vargo, Marc E. Acts of Disclosure: The Coming Out Process of Contemporary Gay Men.           Birmingham: Haworth Press, 1998.