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education

Childrens physical creative social and emotions education essay

Using ICT resources is considered to advance childrens physical, originative, societal and emotional and communicating this is because it will heighten their acquisition in many ways. For illustration utilizing a computing machine can back up the kid ‘s physical development, this can be practised by an grownup puting their manus over a kid ‘s manus on the mouse this will show enjoyment and develop his all right motor accomplishments. Using a computing machine will besides direct the kids ‘s attending with conversation ; inquiries asked by them therefore increasing both his thought and communicating accomplishments. Thinking accomplishments can be enhanced when playing an onscreen saber saw game. When utilizing ICT kids should be encouraged to work in braces or groups this is because they will come on their societal development. Additionally kids can develop their creativeness accomplishments by pulling images on the Paint Software utilizing ICT. Besides originative development can be increased by electronic music devices that enable kids to utilize their imaginativeness and express feelings. Small, free-standing keyboards can play, series of vocals with a scope of different instruments, including carnal sounds. More complicated systems can be linked to a computing machine. Music produced by the kids can so be added to multimedia presentations to add with their images.
How to accommodate usage of ICT for kids of different ages, gender, demands and abilities
Younger kids will utilize appliances and toys that can execute digitally or sound effects e.g. talking dolls or remote controlled autos, the activity can include maneuvering the distant control to travel the auto. Besides early old ages programmes can be found in a computing machine e.g. whiteboard or pigment, presenting this will assist to learn them the engineering facet of making activities. However older kids will accommodate a different usage of ICT e.g. utilizing a computing machine to finish category activities or to utilize a digital camera to take a exposure of a category function drama.

It is common for misss to bask playing with speech production dolls ; hence supplying this kind of plaything to a immature miss nevertheless accommodating and promoting a different beginning of ICT for male childs broaden their cognition of the society this is because there gender are normally interested in remote controlled autos, or a speaking constabulary or some kind of doll etc nevertheless to advance a balanced position of genders the misss could be given the same plaything as the male childs and frailty versa.
Furthermore, kids with demands and abilities should meet different ways of ICT resources they should be supported when utilizing an electronic plaything, they must be instructed and an account of how to utilize the plaything has to be made clear to them. Additionally they should be watched most of the clip so that if they require aid they can be assisted. ICT resources used must advance the apprehension and empathy of particular demands e.g. giving simple instructions to show the usage of a digital camera or computing machine.
How to do best usage of ICT in bilingual or multilingual scenes
Children that have English as an extra linguistic communication must be considered in a manner that will act upon their literacy accomplishments e.g. they should be shown synergistic narratives that will construct up their literacy accomplishments. Besides, synergistic whiteboards and digital exposures can be used to expose exposures and support kids ‘s literacy accomplishments every bit good as societal development. Teaching rimes from books and vocals will besides better their apprehension of the English linguistic communication. Social accomplishments will besides be developed because working in braces or as a member of a group ; larning to portion and cooperate with one another would increase independent larning and decision-making.
In order to utilize some ICT equipment kids will necessitate to develop a scope of accomplishments e.g. all right motor accomplishments to utilize a keyboard and mouse, and will necessitate clip to research the equipment before they are able to utilize it.
Children will necessitate to develop all right motor accomplishments in order to utilize a keyboard or a mouse because motions of fingers and pollex to travel this equipment are required besides the custodies and eyes work together ( manus and oculus coordination ) . Fine motor accomplishments will give the ability to execute little accurate motions to direct a mouse.
How kids use ICT as a tool to back up larning in many course of study countries and in making this what they learn approximately ICT as a topic in its ain right.
ICT usage will back up the acquisition in many course of study countries this is because educational web sites can assist kids to heighten their acquisition for illustration utilizing ‘early old ages ‘ web site that contains every topic ( chiefly English, maths and scientific discipline ) will help them to be taught their topics in a more merriment and gratifying because they will be able to play games online related to the topic. Learning about a assortment of topics will besides spread out their cognition of ICT as a topic in its ain right because they learn the names of the computing machine parts this will increase their vocabulary, chair the usage of a mouse and distinguish the letters on a keyboard.
How to affect households in ICT in ways that are sensitive to their anterior cognition and degree of assurance
Families can be involved in ICT in ways which are antiphonal to their anterior cognition by inquiring a parent to take a exposure of their kid making an activity at place and direct it to the schoolroom for a exposure slideshow created by the category.
Using testing devices to forestall entree to unsuitable stuff via the cyberspace
Screening devices to forestall entree to unsuitable stuff through the cyberspace is of import because it ensures the safety of kids. Children should be protected from harmful web sites that could pique them or upseting images i.e. slaying, blood etc. When watching films targeted for category kids their age scope should be considered and the age certification should ever be checked on DVDs and web sites ( it should sooner province ‘Universal ‘ which fundamentally means that it is suited for all ages ) . Therefore it is important that there is a barrier between the unsuitable stuff to guard the kids and protect them from injury.
Safety issues for kids who entree the cyberspace
The possible to offer kids internet entree will profit them to research new chances and develop new accomplishments and acquisition.
The usage of electronic mail and instant messaging should be monitored both at place and in school. They should, if possible be restricted from these web sites. This is because there are elements of dangers in these web sites seeing that the kids could be harassed or bullied. Therefore to avoid these complications from go oning the usage of ICT should be controlled and extra usage of it is limited. Children should be educated to utilize computing machines and the cyberspace sanely. Both older and younger should be told that they should non give their personal inside informations to aliens i.e. there reference, phone figure and age etc. They should besides be informed that if they see endangering messages they must non react nevertheless, they should state an grownup instantly.
Useful online and offline resources that support appropriate usage of ICT
When online ( internet entree ) kids should do usage of the web site to educate their cognition by sing assorted educational web sites. They should utilize it less to socialise and more to prosecute their involvements in topics that will develop their originative accomplishments, believing accomplishments etc. For illustration they may desire to make some picture utilizing kids ‘s web sites they may besides bask playing puzzle games or escapade games that will heighten their creativeness accomplishments. In add-on to this they can see web sites that will develop their schoolroom larning e.g. ks2, ks1, ks3 Bitesize ; this web site inspires immature kids to larn at place and in school outside the schoolroom environment to construct on their thought accomplishments.
On the other manus when kids are offline and do non hold internet entree they can utilize packages like pigment to make simple drawings for art and originative activities, nevertheless a different package should be used for larning e.g. Boardworks is used to do advancement in kids ‘s acquisition in the schoolroom this is a package targeted for kids aged 12 and above that is implemented in an synergistic whiteboard session.
As ICT is a quickly developing and altering country how you will maintain up to day of the month in order to guarantee you provide the best service to kids and households.
Synergistic whiteboard is up to day of the month ICT package that has many resources such as games, educational beginnings it is used in schoolrooms to heighten kids ‘s acquisition. The board is touch screen hence you use a pen to drag, chink and compose this manner will be different from the boards instructor ‘s usually usage.
Children can analyze different topics and seek varied activities utilizing the whiteboard. Besides households can maintain up to day of the month by guaranting that they are provided with utile web sites that will assist their kids to develop many accomplishments.
Wayss of choosing good quality ICT resources that encourage positive acquisition for kids by using choice standards e.g.
By giving the kid good resources and leting them to be in control of the activities it will guarantee that they feel positive about their acquisition. It is of import that kids do non watch or play violent games that will promote them to contend and lose control of their behavior.
ICT resources should be easy to utilize so that kids do non happen it hard and detest the usage of it. Therefore they will portray ICT as merriment and an gratifying manner of acquisition. For younger kids rimes and mystifier games will be intuitive for them to finish utilizing ICT because they have already been introduced to this in the schoolroom.
ICT has more than one solution because it develops kids ‘s listening accomplishments and encourages kids to collaborate as a group.

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education

How Does Black History Month Relate to Education ?

The very essence and importance of Black History Month is to the whole world. It is of importance to educate the world and make sure that everyone is aware of the trials and hardships that we had to go through starting with slavery. There are various way that you can tie this significant month with education. Most Africans American do not realize how you need education to learn about these significant events that we lead up to today. Black History Month is celebrated during the month of February each year. Black History Month is not just a month but each day is a celebration for what our ancestors went through.
During Black History Month, there days where we look at the things that all our ancestors and famous African Americans did for us like Rosa Parks, Martin Luther King Jr, and the Little Rock Nine. All of these people had a special affect on the lives of African Americans today. They all had one thing in common also which was standing up for what they believe in. Rosa Parks allowed for us to sit in front of the bus, Martin Luther King Jr had a dream which we are still working on, and the Little Rock Nine allowed for the schools to become integrated.
Schools, churches, and the community help with this celebration. Most schools celebrate Black History Month especially predominately African American schools because without the events that African Americans went through, there would be no integrated schools, teams, or even jobs. Some might think that we still would have been slaves, not have the ability to interact with other races, or even still living without freedom or respect. Some would also say that we as African Americans would still be treated disrespectfully or like an untamed animal.

Not knowing about this month, would not allow for us to have freedom or even our rights. We as the a society need to make sure that we keep educating people especially African Americans on what we have been through and what we fought for especially with the people that fought for us including our ancestors. People take our rights and the freedom that we gained for granted. Without black history, we would not have a month, rights, freedom, or even equality.
They all went through disrespectful trials to make sure African Americans now can have the comfort to live. These events led us up to today with African Americans having the ability to go to school and to gain an education. African Americans and other races need an education to take them to follow their dreams on what ever they want to do. Now we are at the year 2013, where there are many African Americans succeeding and taking over the world such as our President Barack Obama.

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education

Making a Case for Premarital Education

Based on current information gathered from empirical analysis, professional/public opinion, and rational debate, Stanley (2001) constructed four arguments that support an increased need for premarital counseling. The arguments were “ presented for the plausible benefits of engaging in premarital preventive efforts on a broad scale” (Stanley, 2001, p. 272). The author’s arguments include: 1. Using premarital strategies to slow couples down in an effort to allow them time get to know one another better before jumping into marriage. . Using premarital counseling strategies to emphasize the importance of the marital union and the long-term family and societal consequences attached to the decision to marry. 3. The use of premarital strategies will demonstrate that there are resources available to assist couples when they start to experience marital discord. 4. Couples participation in premarital education programs are less likely to have marital problems and are less likely to divorce (Stanley, 2001).
Stanley (2001) presents the arguments as possible research programs that could be studied further to help develop a better understanding of what strategies can be implemented to lower and/or prevent divorce and decrease marital distress. Scott Stanley makes some compelling arguments for the need of premarital counseling and places emphasis on all of society taking an attitude of prevention in regards to developing strategies to effectively deal with the high divorce rate and high levels of marital discord that our country is currently battling.
While the arguments have a sound basis are very rational, they lack validity from empirical research. Stanley (2001) acknowledges the need for more empirical research is needed to determine how to successfully prevent marital distress for society as a whole and lower the current divorce rates. Silliman and Schumm (2000) support the need for more research on this topic when they discuss how further attention to theoretical frameworks to guide premarital counseling is needed although the research and practice of premarital counseling have already been established.

A high rate of divorce is one of many social problems affecting society today. Stanley (2001) states, “it is estimated that approximately 40% or more of new marriages among the younger generation will eventually end in divorce” (p. 272). There currently seems to be a push to put things in place to help prevent marital and family breakdown and the suggestion that couples should be required to undergo premarital education to help improve and prevent marital distress.
Risch et al (2003) support the use of premarital counseling when they state, “marriage preparation programs have been used by practitioners and couples for decades, generally speaking programs aim to enhance the quality and stability of marriages and the content is chosen with this goal in mind” (p. 2). This preventative approach is an area that is receiving much attention worldwide as some governmental units are requiring premarital counseling as a means to reduce divorce and strengthen families” (Stahmann, 2000, p. 104).
It is certainly advantageous to have preventative programs in place to assist couples who make a commitment to the union of marriage. This union affects the couple directly, their growing family, their separate families, and society as a whole. Premarital counseling strategies can be viewed as society’s commitment towards promotion and the attainment of a happy and healthy life. Anything preventative should be viewed as worthwhile means to the end. While new research is being developed, there is a lot to say for taking the necessary steps to put preventative measures in place to deal with what is currently known about the topic.
Premarital counseling should be viewed as a practice to promote general health to the entire family system. The preventative measures associated with these strategies can cleanse the entire family system as they can assist in the decrease in marital discord and divorce, which have a cause and affect relationship with domestic violence, child abuse, and mental health issues related to the consequence of a broken marriage. This is a good example of how “an ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure” (Benjamin Franklin).

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education

Cosmic Education

Rachael Jacobson Cosmic Education Exiled to India during World War II, Maria Montessori developed one of the basic tenets of her philosophy of education. This tenet is what she called cosmic education. In To Educate the Human Potential (ed 2007 p9) Montessori said that, “the stars, earth, stone, life of all kind form a whole in relation to each other, and so close is this relation that we cannot understand a stone without some understanding of the great sun”. This interconnectedness, the interconnectedness of every element of the universe, is at the heart of cosmic education.
As Dr. Montessori explains, “all things are part of the universe, and are connected with each other to form one whole unity. The idea helps the mind of the child to become focused, to stop wandering in an aimless quest for knowledge. He is satisfied having found the universal center of himself with all things”. Montessori believed that children who received a cosmic education would grow to have a clearer understanding of themselves because they had a better understanding of the natural world and their place in it.
She also believed that children are much closer to nature than adults. Therefore, the ideas of cosmic education can be impressed upon them more easily so that they can grow up with an appreciation and sense of wonder about the natural world and keep it as adults. An awareness of the interdependence between humans and the universe and the sense of gratitude that comes from that awareness are absolutely necessary if a child is to grow into a peaceful human being.

Montessori believed that providing a cosmic education to children would be a means to this end because children who are exposed to all the elements and forces of nature gain a sense of importance, purpose, and responsibility, which they carry into their adult lives. It was her belief that the future was in the hands of children and that their education would determine whether or not the future humankind was a peaceful or one fraught with destruction, violence, and war. Cosmic Education is held together by a“glue” known as The Great Lessons. The Great Lessons introduce the overall scope of cosmic education .
There are five Great Lessons. “Montessori believed that storytelling was an ideal way to introduce knowledge to elementary children, engaging both their imaginations and their developing powers of reason”. All of these lessons are accompanied by illustrations and charts, and many by scientific demonstrations. They are all told to the children in the first months of school, and are re-told each year to the returning children. They help children build a context for the knowledge that they will acquire throughout their years as EC, EI and E2 students. The Five Great Lessons are: 1.
The Coming of the Universe: This lesson introduces scientific thought on the origins of the universe and our own planet. Using charts and experiments, this first Great Lesson describes how minerals and chemicals formed the elements, how matter transforms to three states of solid, liquid, and gas, how particles joined together and formed the earth, how heavier particles sank to the earth’s core and volcanoes erupted, and how mountains were formed and the atmosphere condensed into rain, creating oceans, lakes, and rivers. From this story, students are introduced to lessons in physics, astronomy, geology, and chemistry.
For example, they learn about light, heat, convection currents, gravity, galaxies, planetary systems, the earth’s crust, volcanoes, erosion, climate and physical geography. 2. The Coming of Life: This lesson represents the beginning of life on Earth from the simplest forms through the appearance of human beings. The second Great Lesson explains how single-cell and multi-cell forms of life became embedded in the bottom of the sea and formed fossils. It traces the Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and the Cenozoic periods, beginning with the kingdom of trilobites and ending with human beings.
The teacher indicates on a time line where vertebrates began, followed by fish and plants, then amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals. In this lesson students are introduced to the basics of zoology and botany. 3. The Coming of Human Beings: This lesson is an introduction to prehistory and history that continues the exploration of life on Earth, with an emphasis on the development of humans. The aim is for the children to imagine what life was like for early humans. This lesson is the basis for lessons in history and the development of ancient civilizations.
They also learn how climate and topography influenced various civilizations. 4. The Story of Our Alphabet: This story is an introduction that follows the development of writing from its appearance in primitive cultures to its role in modern times. From this lesson, students use grammar materials, which help them examine how language is put together, and refine capitalization and punctuation. Students are introduced to the study of the origin of English words from other languages, the meanings of prefixes and suffixes and different forms of writing such as poetry and prose. 5.
The Story of Our Numerals: This story is an introduction that emphasizes how human beings needed a language for their inventions to convey measurement and how things were made. The story describes how number systems evolved throughout time and within different civilizations. This story is the basis for the children’s learning of mathematics, which is integrated into all studies. The first three stories are what Duffy (2002 p30) calls “the story of our origin and past,” while the last two stories are illustrations of “human cultural accomplishments and the evolution of human ideas. Stoll Lillard (2005 p134) calls this “a core of impressionistic knowledge that is intended to inspire the child to learn more. ” The Great Lessons simultaneously raise and answer questions. How did the universe come to be? Our solar system? Our planet? Our oceans, lakes, mountains, forests, flowers, and animals? The Great Lessons helps children see how interrelated all things are. They instill in children the understanding that all people are one and that we must all be our brother’s keeper. Most importantly, The Great Lessons provide the child with a macro view of the world.
Through the stories told in each of the five lessons, the child is introduced to “the big picture”. “Children become aware that the universe evolved over billions of years, and that it is based on the law and order through which all the plants, animals, and the rest of creation is maintained. From that point, students are introduced to increasing levels of detail and complexity within these broad areas and gradually understand that they are part of this order and are participants in the ongoing life of the universe.
Thus, The Great Lessons provide a springboard of sorts from which children can develop their individual interests and shape their own learning. The Great Lessons allow the child to move between macro and micro levels of knowledge. The basic premise of cosmic education maintains that no subjects should be taught in isolation. Rather all elements of the curriculum are viewed as interdependent upon one another. The outcome of cosmic education allows children to become thankful for the world around them and an understanding of their place in it. They will begin to understand that they have been given many gifts from the past and present.
They also develop wonder, gratitude, a sense of purpose, and a feeling of responsibility to others, to the earth, and to future generations. If young children grow up with love and respect and the knowledge that they matter, they have the best chance of growing up and meeting their full potential…no matter their circumstances. Duffy, M ; D (2002) Cosmic Education in the Montessori Elementary Classroom Parent Child Press: Hollidaysburg. Montessori, M (ed 2007) To Educate the Human Potential The Montessori Series: Amsterdam. Stoll Lillard, A (2005) Montessori: The Science behind the Genius Oxford University Press: Oxford

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education

Why My Education Is Important

Why My Education is Important? I often dream about having a successful career in the business world, but to achieve this goal, I must have an education. Education is extremely important to me. In the business world, success depends on lots of knowledge. In my opinion, education is the foundation of life, and it also increases my knowledge around the world. However, the most important thing about education is that education opens up the window of opportunities. The world of business is a very complicated place in which to survive.
For example; the stock market can change it’s mood every single day. What I mean by that is, a stock can change its value at any moment. People who are involved in the stock market struggle between becoming poor or becoming rich. To be able always to stay on the winners side, I need lots of education. Education helps me to make good decisions in the business world and for my life. Not just in business, education will also benefit me throughout my life, personally and socially. An education should help me to have less financial problems. It will enable me to become independent.
My educational experiences have provided me with many opportunities to solve problems in every day life. The education which I have received in history classes,for instance, has provided me with cultural information from every country. I believe education will help to build a circle of people who will be important to me in my career in the future. In summary, why education is important to me? Education helps me to understand the business world. It prepares me for a better future and numerous other things of which at this time I am unaware.

The most important reason education is so important to me is that education opens windows for me and it gives me opportunities for a better quality of life. My parents and many of my teachers (Mrs. Kirker, Coach Bowman and many more) care about my education. They explain why education is important to me almost every time they have a chance. As a responsible teenage adult, I need to focus on my education and elevate my educational level, so that my chances of having a difficult future will be less!

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education

Policies Introduced in the Past 25 Years Related to Education

Over the past 25 years, different policies have been put in place to influence the education system in different ways. Some sociologist would say that the main aim of these policies were to result in the marketization of the education system. Other sociologist would disagree; they believe that trying to create less inequality was the main intention when It comes to the educational reform. When the New Labour came to power, it seemed that policies they were in favour of were more aimed towards trying to create less inequality of different schools.
One policy The New Labour introduced was free places in nurseries, this would ensure children from all backgrounds started educational development early and started to gain skills needed to start school. This would also give working class parents a chance to go out and work whilst their child is at nursery. They also introduced ‘Educational Action Zones’ these areas of deprivation were giving extra funding in order to lessen the inequality between these schools in worse areas to the schools in better areas.
This is trying to give people of worse financial areas a better chance to gain access to good schools, and not just be limited to worse performing schools just because they live in a poorer area. They also introduced The EMA award, this was to try and get pupils to stay on in education past ages 16 (college, sixth form, apprenticeships etc. ) because if the pupils parent earned below a certain amount then the child would be entitled to ? 30 a week to help them with any costs that staying on in education may have.

Although this may be contradicted by the inequalities that have been put in place by the steep rises in fees for universities, this has meant that working class pupils are at a disadvantage in comparison with the middle class. Previous to this; the conservative government introduced new right policies which are viewed as trying to create a market place out of the education system. They introduced several policies in order to force different schools in to competing with each other; this would then result in schools doing better.
They aimed to create a parentocracy, where parents had much more choice when it came to schools for their children, they were able to choose which school they wanted their child to attend, rather than it being dependant on catchment areas like it was previously. This would result in schools upping their standards to gain pupils and ensure that parents would pick their school, funding was changed to be dependent on the amount of pupils a school had. By doing better than ther schools, more pupils would want to attend and result in more funding for the school, benefitting them and then helping them to improve further. Although, in order to rank schools against each other, there would have to be a system in place, so league tables were introduced and schools had to sit SATs and GCSE exams, the results were ranked in the league tables and parents could look through different schools to see where they were placed and pick the best school for their child, much like a market place.
OFSTED were also introduced to monitor and inspect schools, they would review the schools standards in several different categories giving a report to be viewed in order to judge the school as a whole and give parents a wider range of data on the schools, giving them more understanding and a better basis to choose which school they would like their child to attend. These policies meant that standards for schools rose as they competed against each other and parents had a greater understanding of schools and had more freedom when it came to choice.
On the other hand, it did also create problems, because the better schools got more funding and pupils, the worse schools weren’t able to get the funding they needed to improve which meant the gap between schools achievement became wider as the better schools got better and the worse schools became worse off this created greater inequality. Schools also started to exclude students that would affect their results in the league tables, this also created inequality.
These inequalities may have been the reason for the new labour’s aim to wipe out the inequality because there was so much created. Overall, The Conservative party and New Labour both introduced new policies to the education system; the conservative was more aimed towards creating a market in the education system, whilst new labour strived to wipe out inequality in the system and tackle the issue of poverty. Although this being said, the new labour may have created more competition in the system by introducing faith and specialist schools.

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education

The Relationship between Education and Income

I
TheRelationship between Educion and Income
The basic aim of this study is to analyze the link between instruction and income degree. For this ground primary information of marketing staff of Engro Corporation was gathered. This research included 40 functionaries of Engro Corporation. We gave study paper or questionnaire to all of them and besides informed them the ground behind this study so they give right replies.

Introduction
Education is the chief pillar for any country’s economic sustainability. Education ever play a major function in promotion of any state. Education plays a cardinal function in heightening human values of any state.
In many parts of the universe, instruction is good known as built-in portion of human rights. Now instruction is considered more of import than of all time because the universe is going a planetary small town so more and more competition is out at that place. Technology and new innovations are distributing by each passing twenty-four hours. Therefore to get by with this challenge of progress tech epoch states need to bring forth more and more educated and gifted population. As a consequence, poorness and favoritism eliminates itself.
For all underdeveloped states it’s of import to transport out all possible attempts to educate their people. Resulting in better homo life criterions, better economic growing and more and more productiveness in all economic sectors.
Pakistan as a developing state, it’s in country’s favour to increase literacy rate which automatically decrease poorness ratio in state and addition and prolong societal well-being.
With each passing twenty-four hours, demand of skilled and educated workers is increasing in all parts of the universe. This demand proves that both instruction and income are built-in portion of each other. More educated people in state consequences more ratio of income per capita.
As literacy rate in Pakistan is really low as comparison to SAARC states. In past few old ages Pakistan authorities seeking to diminish this illiteracy spread. To accomplish this end Government of Pakistan is increasing figure of schools and enrolling good experienced and skilled instructors in all states of Pakistan. More over authorities chief accent is on primary instruction, as primary instruction is the anchor of instruction construction. Due to all these attempts by the authorities, in recent old ages encouraging consequences are popped up. But still there is long long manner to travel. Besides one instruction system is the demand of clip so that every pupil get equal chance to acquire same criterion of instruction so there is no favoritism and stumbling among rich and hapless.
Some other factors besides leave immense impact on degree of income. Training and experience despite of the instruction are besides really of import portion to increase or keep degree of income. The degree of demand that exists for the type of labour you are skilled/trained/educated to supply. How long you have been making that peculiar occupation, senior status societal networking and dependability are besides really of import portion.
This study is based upon following aims:

To detect the verifiable nexus between instruction and income degree.
To detect link between the variables itself.
To detect short tally relationship between variables.
To detect the possibility of causality effects between the variables in Pakistan.

Population
The population is infinite for this research and all the marketing staff of Engro corporation of Pakistan is included in the population.
Target population
The population which is traveling to be studied here are the selling employees of Engro corporation of Pakistan
Appropriate sampling Techniques
A ) Simple Random Sampling
The appropriate ground to utilize the simple random trying that, it allows each point in the population to be included in the sample with equal chance of being selected.
B ) Stratified trying
It is appropriate as the selling staff of Engro corporation of Pakistan can be divided into different groups on the footing of their appellation, inducements and some other similarities. After doing these groups any component from any group can be selected in the sample.
C )Convenience Sampling
As no planning is required for this sampling and the research worker can choose any sample which is most convenient for him or her so this sampling technique can besides be used.
Adopted Sampling Technique
Convenience sampling is adopted for this research
The restriction involved in this sampling is that, any sort of biasness could go on during trying. For illustration, convenience sample can take to the under-representation or over-representation of peculiar groups within the sample.
Sample Size for Current Study
40 selling forces are selected as a sample for this research
Nature of Datas
The nature of informations for this research is primary.
Data aggregation tools/Sources
As the nature of informations is primary for research so:

The questionnaire was used for the aggregation of informations and it is given bellow

Gender

Male ( B ) Female

2 ) What is your instruction degree?
( a ) Matriculation ( B ) Bachelors or below ( degree Celsius ) Maestro or above
3 ) What is your per month income?
( a ) Below 20,000 ( B ) 20,000 to 40,000 ( degree Celsius ) Above 40,000
2 ) The inquiries for this research are self created and these are selected for the questionnaire because they are relevant to our research.
3 ) Numerical graduated table is used for the above questionnaire because it is largely used for ordinal informations or where there is some interval in the information.
Data disposal Procedure
As the information under our consideration is primary so:

The questionnaire were delivered to the respondents by manus.
We told the respondents about our research intent so they were ready to give serious response.
By manus the questionnaires were collected back from the respondents

Software for Data Analysis
SPSS is used for the analysis for the information in this research.
Calciferolata Analysis

Descriptive Statisticss

Nitrogen

Mean

Std. Deviation

instruction

40

1.6250

.74032

income degree

40

2.0000

.78446

Valid N ( list wise )

40

income degree

Frequency

Percentage

Valid Percentage

Accumulative Percentage

below 20000

12

30.0

30.0

30.0

20000 to 40000

16

40.0

40.0

70.0

above 40000

12

30.0

30.0

100.0

Entire

40

100.0

100.0

The information shows In the sample of 40 selling forces ofEngrOCorporation of Pakistanthere are 12 employees whose income is below the 20000 and 16 employees holding income in between 20000 to 40000 and there are merely 12 employees who are holding the income above 40000.

Education

Frequency

Percentage

Valid Percentage

Accumulative Percentage

matriculation

21

52.5

52.5

52.5

unmarried mans or below

13

32.5

32.5

85.0

Masterss or above

6

15.0

15.0

100.0

Entire

40

100.0

100.0

The information shows In the sample of 40 selling forces ofEngrOCorporation of Pakistanthere are 21 employees holding matriculation grade and 13 are unmarried mans and merely 6 holding the maestro grades.

gender

Frequency

%

Valid %

Accumulative
%

male

33

82.5

82.5

82.5

female

7

17.5

17.5

100.0

Entire

40

100.0

100.0

The information shows In the sample of 40 selling forces ofEngro Corporation of Pakistanthere are 33 employees are male and merely 7 are females.
Education degree ( Variable )
N=40
Mean=1.6250
Standard Deviation=0.74032
Income degree ( Variable )
N=40
Mean=2
Standard Deviation=0.78446
.
SecondtatisticalHypothesiss
The best manner to find whether a statistical hypothesis is true would be to see the whole population. Since that is frequently impractical, research workers use a random sample from the population. There are two types of statistical hypotheses.

Null hypothesis. The void hypothesis, denoted by H0, is normally the hypothesis that sample observations result strictly from opportunity.
Alternate hypothesis. The alternate hypothesis, denoted by H1or Ha, is the hypothesis that sample observations are influenced by some non-random cause.
Study Hypothesis
The hypothesis for this research is
( H1 ) Income degree is dependent of instruction.
( Ho ) Income degree is independent of instruction

Appropriate Analysis
In our research we are seeking to happen out the independency of income degree with regard to the instruction so the trial of independency ( Chi-square ) will be used for the analysis of the above said subject.

Chi-Square Trial
Education

Observed N

Expected N

Residual

Matriculation

21

13.3

7.7

unmarried mans or below

13

13.3

-.3

Masterss or above

6

13.3

-7.3

Entire

40

Chi Square trial give us the undermentioned tabular arraies in it the Observed Frequency of matriculation employees are 21 and Expected Frequencies 13.3 the remainders are 7 and 13 ascertained frequences of unmarried mans and remainders are -3 and in Masterss 1303 are observed and -7.3 remainders mean the informations are non explicating them.

Income degree

Observed N

Expected N

Residual

below 20000

12

13.3

-1.3

20000 to 40000

16

13.3

2.7

above 40000

12

13.3

-1.3

Entire

40

Trial Statisticss

instruction

income degree

Chi-Square

8.450a

.800a

Df

2

2

Asymp. Sig.

.015

.670

a. 0 cells ( .0 % ) have expected frequences less than 5. The lower limit expected cell frequence is 13.3.

The Chi Square expression is
X2 = ( O – Tocopherol ) 2/E
where O is the Ascertained Frequency.
Tocopherol is the Expected Frequency in the corresponding class
is ­sum of
df is the “ grade of freedom ” ( n-1 )
X2 is Chi Square.

As the value of chi-square for instruction is greater than 0.5 so it is concluded that the income degree is dependent of instruction so void hypothesis is rejected for this research…
Hydrogenistogram
A histogram is a graphical representation of the data..the informations should be quantitative veriables. It is foremost introduced by Karl Pearson.

The figure shows the information is usually distributed and histogram is symmetric or normal.

In the instance of Education the figure shows the histogram is right skewed and more educated employees holding more income and less educated employees holding low income.
Calciferoliscussion andConclusion
We get a Equation as
Simple Equation: More Education = More Income
The findings indicate that instruction factors play a important function in doing income.there is direct relation ship between income and instruction as the income addition instruction besides addition. Besides suggest that giving more to instruction is to cut down the degree of income inequality within a country..As state can construct a strong foundation for economic success by puting in instruction.
States can increase the strength of their economic systems and their ability to turn and derive high-wage employers by puting in instruction and bettering figure of knowing employees.
Investing in instruction is besides best for province s in the long tally, since workers with higher incomes make portion more through revenue enhancements over the class of their life-times. So in Pakistan there is demand to increase Govt budget for instruction so everyone can acquire instruction.As largely people have low income either by ain ego or parents so they don’t continue their surveies so literacy rate is up and frailty versa income degree low.in our state as instruction disbursals is really high a adult male holding low income cann ot continue the ducation and cant participate in growing of economic system of their state.
Calciferolirections for future Research
1.Future research should see some other veriables like accomplishments, experience, competency, diligence, fortune,
2.It should be addressed to increase the apprehension.
3.This survey was merely on corporate sector of Pakistan, but it should be conducted in other sectorsof state.
4.In this stresearch information was primary holding few variables ; if this restriction can be increase in the hereafter so consequences will be moreaccurate.
5. Future research should be done into different Sectors so as to detect the consequence of income on instruction at international degree.

Categories
education

Education a Continous Process

Baxter and Tight (1994) noted in their research that in many countries, people are being encouraged to be “lifelong learners,” people who return to school again and again throughout their lives, rather than looking at education as something that ends with graduation from high school or college (Baxter & Tight, 1994). The “Lifelong Learning” movement believes that education should be an important part of people’s lives throughout their lives instead of restricting it to childhood and adolescence.
The authors interviewed people who had returned to education later in life to see what factors supported or interfered with that choice. One of the observations they made was that for many older students, especially women, returning to school represented a real juggling act with their time management. This trend was so strong that a significant number of people asked to participate felt that they could not spare the hour the interview would take. This trend of women being stressed for time to do everything they and others expected of them was so strong that they mentioned that perhaps the idea of people attending school throughout their lives might be a male view because often men do not have to juggle as many important tasks as women.
The women who were interviewed noted that they had family, personal and work commitments, all of which had to come before school, with the result that when they attended classes, often there was no room in their lives for any social activities connected to their academic work (Baxter & Tight, 1994).

However, Palwak (1999) points out that in an age of rapidly changing technology, it may be necessary to include education in one’s career plans to the worker does not become stuck with archaic skills. The difficulty in juggling time is also demonstrated in discussions on this topic by the fact that so many articles focus on retirees who return to learning because they finally have the time to study things that have interested them for many years.

Categories
education

Motivation Interventions in Education

Motivation is a subject that has generated a plethora of theoretical models over time (Hidi & Harackiewicz, 2000; Ryan & Deci, 2000; Waugh, 2002), and is one of the most researched, complex, and controversial issues in education (Weiner, 1990). Ames (1990) defines motivation in education as a concern for students’ motivation to learn rather than to do. Motivation also leads to achievement, but only focusing on achievement admonishes the ends of the student’s desire to learn and the operational dedication to the educational progression (Ames, 1990). Motivational theories have substantially changed over the years, typically now focusing on the cognitive elements that drive an individual to make choices such as perception, interpretation, and belief (Ormrod, 2009).
Early motivational theory is manifested in the work of Sigmund Freud who suggested that human behavior is defined by an instinctive desire to satisfy unconscious and preconscious needs, mostly sexual in nature (Weiner, 1990). One’s unconscious beliefs have a considerable effect on behavior, and motivation was merely the effect of sexual stages in life (Ray, 1992). Freud believed that one’s behavior could not be identified by the individual but rather with the assistance of a trained psychotherapist (Weiner, 1990).
True behaviorists, even labeled “radical” (Bruning, Schraw, & Norby, 2011) such as B.F. Skinner believed in the absence of motivation and instead drive such as depriving an animal of food and water to make it thirsty. Skinner believed that one’s behavior was determined by past reinforcements and the uncertainties of environment (Ormrod, 2009). Skinner argued that consequences engage behavior, and behavior could be manipulated with the dispersion of positive consequence (Bruning et al., 2011).

Human beings were but blank slates waiting to be shaped and formed; frequent responses to behavior and progression in small steps would foster the fundamentals of learning (Bruning et al., 2011). Ormrod (2009) also notes that some behaviorists believe in a purposeful element to an individual’s behavior—one determines their behavior in order to attain a particular reward or consequence.
As psychology became more humanistic in nature, Abraham Maslow developed a need theory for motivation. He believed that need gratification was the most important single principle driving human development and motivation. His Hierarchy of Need is predicated on the most basic needs being met before others can be considered: 1) physiological needs, 2) safety needs, 3) love needs, 4) esteem needs, and 5) self-actualization needs (as cited in Taormina & Gao, 2013). Humanists like Maslow believed in an internal underlying ability to develop psychologically, and an individual persistently strives to fulfill potential (Ormrod, 2009).
A more contemporary approach to understanding motivation creates the foundation for internal motivation, known as Self-Determination Theory (Ormrod, 2009). Theorists such as Edward Deci and Richard Ryan propose that humans only have three basic needs: competence—self-worth, autonomy—control over the events within their life, and relatedness—close affectionate relationships (Ormrod, 2009).
Self-worth theory is founded upon the principle of preserving one’s sense of self which stems from experiencing success throughout the daily routine, “In our society individuals are widely considered to be only as worthy as their ability to achieve” (Covington, 2000 p. 181). In our typical school-setting grades are the determinant of our young people’s worth (Covington, 2000). Ormrod (2009) adds that sometimes an individual will purposely sabotage an event if failure appears to be inevitable which curiously will make failure even more imminent. Closely related to self-worth theory is the Social Cognitive Theory in which self-efficacy—believing in oneself—guides an individual’s motivation.
Social Cognitive theorists would argue behavior is goal-orientated which has evolved into Goal Theory (Ormrod, 2009). Goal theory is focused on the notion that an individual is motivated based on the types of goals set toward which behavior is directed (Ormrod, 2009). Within the educational context, goals are separated into mastery and performance.
The reasons for which one acts or behaves is contemporarily believed to be a metacognitive process. True behaviorists would contend that a particular behavior is the result of conditioning and consequence, but Attribution Theory seeks to offer perspective from the individual as to why things happen as they do. Ormrod (2009) explains that these attributions influence one’s belief about future success and subsequently their actions or in-action as a result of that belief.

Categories
education

Leadership and Management in Further Education

Abstract
The aim of this assignment is to carry out a study into the support that managers at College X receive to enable them to feel a sense of satisfaction and value in their contribution to the college and its performance.
The assignment reviews academic literature, on formal and informal mechanisms of support including induction, probation, performance management reviews, appraisal, and staff development together with informal methods such as peer support. The reviews, together with the use of primary research, seek to identify if the support offered to staff in college X enables them to feel as valued as the students, the education and training of whom is the core business of the institution.

Analysis of the primary research has revealed that the College Executive together with the Governing Body is committed to ensuring effective support is available to managers in an integrated and meaningful way. In so doing ensuring that the performance of the individual and the college continually develop and improve.
The main recommendations are that the performance management reviews and staff development support are firmly embedded into the college culture. This will ensure that strategic and operational level managers possess the skills required to effectively respond to the internal and, more importantly, external changes demanded of them whilst enabling them to develop a sense of achievement and job satisfaction.
1. Introduction
1.1 Rationale
Further Education Institutions (FEI) have been charged by Welsh Assembly Government (WAG) through DCELLS and Estyn to ensure and make as their main priority that effective learner support mechanisms are in place to enable the learner to learn and succeed in a nurturing, safe and supportive environment.
The research for this module will focus on the parity College X bestows on its managers, in respect of its responsibility to nurture and support them to achieve satisfaction in a similar way to its learners. In particular the use of formal and informal support mechanisms: their availability, deployment and level of effectiveness. The term ‘mechanisms’ is used to encompass the College policies and procedures that guide the manager and their teams to work effectively, the processes such as feedback on the performance of managers and the development and recognition required to create a sense of a job well done. According to Locke and Lathen (1976 cited in Tella, Ayeni & Popoola) ‘job satisfaction is a pleasurable or positive emotional state resulting from appraisal of one’s job or job experience’.
Estyn suggest that ‘Effective college leadership also requires that staff at all levels with leadership and management roles make an important contribution and understand, and are committed to their job roles’ ( Estyn 2010 p 33) in order for this to happen the use of support, training and feedback are required. Support and feedback are ‘essential to the working and survival of all regulatory mechanisms found throughout living and non-living nature, and in man-made systems such as education system and economy’ (Business Dictionary seen 23.3.2011) so should be key to the continual improvement in the institution.
1.2 Research Aims
To identify the effectiveness of the support mechanisms available in College X and how these impact on the performance of both strategic and operational level managers to positively increase their work effectiveness and sense of job satisfaction.
To analyse the informal and formal methods of feedback, recognition and reward available to all managers to meet the needs of the institution, their personal needs and that ‘support and challenge them to do their best’ (ESTYN 2010 p 35).
To examine the use of staff development as a tool for supporting continual improvements in the performance of strategic and operational managers and ultimately the performance of College X.

1.3 Research questions
What types of mechanisms are available in the college and to what extent managers are aware of and use these to give and receive support
To what extent does the senior management team create and maintain an environment that encourages individuals to feel valued by the institution
How does the use of feedback and recognition impact on the improvement of personal performance and accomplishment
How effective are staff development opportunities to support the strategic, operational and personal effectiveness of managers
1.4 Research Objectives
To identify the types of support available to all strategic and operational managers and their effectiveness in creating job satisfaction.
To analyse the effectiveness of the performance feedback managers receive from their superiors.
To assess the level of understanding managers have about their individual performance and its contribution to the college performance.
To evaluate the effectiveness in the provision of support offered through the use of learning and development opportunities.
To identify the processes by which outstanding performance is recognised.
1.5 Delimitations
This research is practice based and has used College X as the only institutional focus. Should other researchers wish to use the information or primary evidence questions, anonymity and confidentiality must be assured.
1.6 Ethical Issues/Permission

Permission was sought and granted by the Deputy Principal who has overall strategic responsibility for all staff development, performance management and quality. Full consent was given by participants in respect of collecting evidence through primary sources. Anonymity and confidentiality was assured by the author and the use of an electronic survey ensured only information on the responses was collected and not that of the respondent. No ethical policies or institutional regulations have been breached during the research of this assignment.
2. Literature Review
Whilst there are many management and psychological theories relating to job satisfaction and the concept of the positive effect of supportive relationships, the size of the body of literature available limits the author to use only some of the major theories as a starting point.
The identification of what support is and how it effects job satisfaction is key to the content of this investigation, Soonhee suggests ‘…that participative management that incorporates effective supervisory communications can enhance employees job satisfaction’ (Soonhee p1 seen 24.3.2011).
The use of management texts, theories, reports and web based materials together with College X’s policies has resulted in a greater understanding in the assumption that ‘…management support is seen as a key variable in the psychological well-being of employees.’ (Weinberg & Cooper 2007 p160) and therefore need effective mechanisms by which they can support and be supported. Support can be given formally through policies and, as suggested by Everard and Wilson, ‘Recruitment, appraisal and training are three activities which should not be seen in isolation from each other but as part of a comprehensive approach to developing a proficient, well motivated and effective staff…’ (Everard & Wilson 2004 p 93). Informal and emotional support and feedback ‘may increase individuals confidence in their ability to deal with the challenges that confront them’ (Wainwright & Calnan 2002 p 64) and ‘a well done or an objective signed off as completed can enhance the motivation to perform well in the future’ (Torrington & Hall 1995 p318).
‘More and more companies are realising that while they cannot offer a cradle to grave security blanket, they have a responsibility to create an environment that nurtures the individual’s ability to grow and thrive’ (Couillart & Kelly 1995 p 255).
Maslow’s ‘hierarchy of needs’ addresses an individual’s base needs such as safety and security. In a work environment these can be clean work areas, positive personal relationships and sufficient work time. The use of effective supervisory support can increase ‘self esteem’ needs through recognition, attention and confidence building. And the creation of ‘self actualisation’ can to some extent be achieved through the encouragement of individuals to be creative, demonstrate and utilise their innovativeness.
Oldham and Cummings in 1996 (cited in Soonhee p 1 seen 24.3.2011) ‘…found that employees produce the most creative outcomes when they work on complex, challenging jobs and are supervised in a supportive, non-controlling way’. To some extent Maslow’s classifications are similar, to the hygiene and motivation factors of Fredrick Herzberg’s two factor theory. As with Maslow, certain basic needs or Hygiene factors such as salary, status, working conditions, policies and psychological support have a direct effect on how a person functions within an institution. Herzberg’s motivational factors are therefore ‘… those aspects of the job that make people want to perform and provide people with satisfaction e.g. achievement at work, recognition and promotion opportunities’ (Kaur & Kainth p 7 seen 25.3.2011).
Recognition and reward should also be stimuli of job satisfaction, Steers and Porter in 1991 ‘…identified the distinction between Intrinsic and Extrinsic rewards – extrinsic arising from an individual’s own sense of satisfaction and from financial benefits (pay, health support) and intrinsic – between the individual and system wide rewards such as pride in the organisation’ (Steers and Porter cited in Gess 1994 p 87). However within the current financial Further Education (FE) environment, extrinsic factors may be limited by college accountability for the use of publicly funded finances. Couillart and Kelly state that ‘whether held implicitly or explicitly, consciously or subconsciously each person has adopted a unique mental system of rewards. And whether informally consistent or not, that reward system is what motivates one on a day to day basis’ (Couillart and Kelly 1995 p 241). This suggests that employees can develop extrinsic and intrinsic rewards though their own and their institutions Mission, Values and Vision.
Torrington and Hall suggest that ‘planning the training, development and resources necessary for employees to achieve their objectives is imperative. Without this support it is unlikely that even the most determined employee will achieve the performance required’ (Torrington & Hall 1995 p 317). Managers, like students need the opportunity to learn and become proficient in the acquisition of new skills. Therefore, a key function of management is to ‘… develop an ability to help individuals recognise their needs for development and facilitate the professional and personal development needed’ (Murgatroyd & Morgan 1992 p 146). The use of formal support mechanisms such as Performance Management Reviews (PMR) enable line managers to guide their subordinates to undertake development however ‘… a systematic and structured approach to identifying individual needs implies that there should be an equally structured approach to responding to those needs’ (O’Connell 2005 p 175).
Policies are another form of support available to the manager. Mullins suggests that they ‘…clarify the roles and responsibilities of managers and other members of staff and provide guidelines for managerial behaviour’ (Mullins 1985 p 301). Thus they enable a manager to be supported by institutional procedures and respond quickly without having to consult superiors as to the actions they take. This is a form of empowerment and implies a level of trust which has ‘been identified as one of the keys to successful management and indeed positive relationships at work’ (Weinberg & Cooper 2007 p 162).
The use of informal methods of support can be equally successful in developing job satisfaction, ‘supportive peer relationships at work are potentially more available to the individual and offer a number of benefits’ (Torrington & Hall 1995 p 429) including ‘… accessibility, empathy, organisational experience and proven task skills’ (Cromer 1989 cited in Torrington and Hall 1995 p 429). Peer and team meetings also allow managers ‘… to have their say in an impartially led session, thus permitting emotion to be expressed’ (Weinberg & Cooper 2007 p 170)
Summary
The use of formal and informal support enables the manager to work effectively as an individual, as part of a team and organisation. The need for College X to continue to develop responsive support mechanisms that parallel those given to learners is imperative. Senior managements need to ensure that whist the support mechanisms such as appraisal and staff development are in place, the basic physical and psychological needs of security, safety and satisfaction are addressed.
3. Research Methodology
3.1 Research design
The use of a case study based on the real working application in College X is the most effective method of undertaking this small scale research. It presents an opportunity to focus on relevant aspects of the formal and informal mechanisms used to support managers at both strategic and operational levels ‘… with a view to providing an in-depth account of events, relationships, experiences or processes’ (Denscombe 1998 p 32). The research methodology centres on the involvement of managers and the mechanisms by which they are supported and how these affect levels of effective performance and job satisfaction.
The primary sources of evidence come from a focus group, semi-structured interviews and the use of an electronic survey. The use of the qualitative responses from the focus group and semi-structured interviews contribute to the main bulk of the findings. Each group or individual was interviewed in privacy without the line-manager present to allow for a free and frank discussion, was shown a diagram illustrating the interaction of support systems (Appendix 1). All responses are anonymous and no information from the research sources was distributed or discussed with other participants.
Focus Group
The use of a focus group with six middle/operational level managers enabled the views of both academic and functional areas across the college to be identified. The managers were specifically selected, as they all have very different job roles and specifications within the college, and were therefore able to reflect on the different types of support they needed and received in respect of ‘clarity of performance goals and standards, appropriate resources, guidance and support from the individual’s manager…’(Torrington & Hall 1995 p 316). Each manager selected contributes to different facets of the strategic plan and where possible each has a different line manager so a possible correlation could be identified in respect of how management techniques and personality affect the support given – no formal measurement tools were used to identify this quantifiably. The participant’s views were given freely and no prompts were given by the interviewer, this allowed for a free discussion to take place. The results of the discussion are noted in bullet point form in the appendices.
Semi–structured interviews
Semi-structured interviews were held with the Human Resources (HR) officer; one of the two Vice Principals (VP); two of the four Faculty Directors (FD) and Clerk to the Corporation (CC) (Appendix 3). The findings from the interviews give an insight to the way support and job satisfaction is seen from the perspective of the Governing Body (GB) and how this is cascaded through the College Executive (CE) to the strategic and operational management levels. The questions used for the VP and FD were the same as those used in the focus group (Appendix 3), primarily to identify if there were any differences in the perception of support and job satisfaction across managerial levels.
The HR officer (HRO) interview (appendix 4) identified formal college policies and processes in respect of support and job satisfaction. The HRO is currently tasked with reviewing the PMR and is therefore aware of some of the issues being researched.
Electronic questionnaire
The electronic survey (Appendix 5) was sent to twenty four cross college managers at operational and strategic levels after interviews to prevent prompting. Twenty responses (83%) were returned. As the group of respondents is small, actual numbers not percentages are used. The questions have been formulated as statements to identify the level of understanding felt by the participants, in relation to whether they agreed or disagreed; there is no neutral response as all participants have involvement with the college support mechanisms. The questions used were arranged in sequence from induction through to job satisfaction because ‘… order inconsistencies can confuse respondents and bias the results’ (Mora 2010 p1).
Summary
The use and responses from the primary research methods enable the author to identify some of the positive aspects and potential issues of management support within College X and to what extent they have in providing a level of job satisfaction to its managers. This together with the literature review will enable a greater understanding of the mechanisms used to ‘respond to the new needs of employees and the environmental changes of the organisation……and that which executive leaders and managers should confront to facilitate participative management’ (Soonhee seen 24.3.2011).
4. Findings
‘When a Master governs, the people
are hardly aware that he exists.
Next, best is the leader who is loved.
Next, one who is feared.
The worst is one who is despised.
If you don’t trust the people, you make them untrustworthy.
The Master doesn’t talk, he acts.
When his work is done, the people say
“Amazing: we did it, all by ourselves!”
(Lao Tzu, translated by Mitchell 1999 p16)
The findings of the primary research and literature review seek to identify if the support mechanisms used by the college do in fact enable its managers to gain a feeling of satisfaction or achievement in their job roles without impinging on their sense of autonomy.
Formal Support
College Policies
College policies available on the intranet should give managers instant support in respect of specific issues and procedures. However, to address them they are not always aware that policies exist or how to use them. When a policy is introduced training should be given which as one interviewee responded is “meaningful and enables line managers to have a clear understanding of the support offered”, this in turn allows them to take ownership, and, for example, no middle managers interviewed were aware the college had a Stress Management Policy, a vital document which would have been useful as several of them have current issues with “stressed staff”.
Induction and Probation
College X provides all managers with a range of policies and processes that should offer effective cycles of support through the ‘… three key aspects of effective performance – planning performance; supporting performance and reviewing performance…’ (Torrington & Hall 1995 p 317). Formal approaches to the giving of support provide a balance that encourages managers to feel confident and trusted to make the right choices within the confines of college procedures and ‘…yet underline the feeling that there is not a stigma in asking for help’ (O’Connell 2005 p174). When participants were asked about the formal processes of induction and probation the responses showed that although the processes were informative and well organised, there were limitations in the effectiveness of ensuring a new post holder felt adequately prepared to undertake their job effectively.
These responses may in part be due to the lack of formal standardisation in the way line managers (LM) conduct the induction of new staff. Each adapts the process to suit their sections perceived priorities. Some have very supportive methods e.g. one manager gives new staff a memory stick with guidance to policies and procedures and a list of frequently asked questions. HR arrange a termly focus group to help new appointees, and these according to the HRO could be more timely as they often fail to be of use especially to new managers who have to react to rapid change usually brought about by external demands. The personality of the LM also affects induction and probation, several of the interviewees said their LM had been extremely supportive and that a “good working relationship had been established”, this was illustrated in the questionnaire responses to question 5.

The use of probation periods should allow an open platform for discussion however managers found difficulty discussing negative aspects partly because of fear of grievances being taken out against them. Where there is a conflict of interest, HR will try to match up managers who have the right approach for that subordinate.
Performance Management Reviews and Appraisal
PMR and appraisal should be the formal drivers of support in an institution, ‘an effective appraisal should not produce surprise: it should be an honest summative statement …’ (Tranter 2000 p 152) which ‘… offers a number of potential benefits to both the individual and the organisation’ (Mullins 1985 p 639). The PMR used in College X is currently under review as the GB feels there should more analysis of data and dovetailing of appraisal and staff development in the process, a view shared by several interviewees. The CE also recognise that the current provision/policy is not fit for purpose mainly because of the ‘one for all’ documentation which does not reflect the range of activities, duties and responsibilities staff.
The questionnaire responses for 6 and 7 identify that PMR is not universally seen as a positive and constructive experience although it gives a positive sense of well being and satisfaction.
The current PMR is an annual process; all interviewees felt this was ineffective as it was “difficult to remember and recognise performance across the year” and the idea of a phased or continual review based on both quantative and qualitative data would be more effective. There were however concerns that constant review could result in the ‘Big Brother’ effect and managers would lose their autonomy.
The HRO tasked with reviewing PMR suggested “there is a need to incorporate appraisal and general performance into the Performance Policy”.
As a result of the suspension, managers felt they have had to self evaluate relying on externally set performance indicators; these include Tribal Benchmarking, External Audits, Quality Development Plan (QDP) and the Self Assessment Review (SAR). Formal feedback is essential, as suggested by Herzberg for increased motivation and ‘… for finding ways of challenging and renewing the work of a team so that it can continuously perform at increasingly high levels and transform its work from being acceptable to outstanding’ (Murgatroyd & Morgan 1992 p 151).
Therefore to ensure managers are challenged and perform effectively the development of a new policy tool is seen by the GB as key to ensuring adequate support is identified and appropriately given. The responses for question 12 indicate that almost half the respondents do not receive the encouragement and challenge to explore learning and new skills that could positively influence their job satisfaction.

Appraisal is an effective method of communication, especially in relation to strategic objectives and innovation; it can act as a sounding board for managers to propose the changes needed for team and personal performance, Interviewees, especially at senior levels, felt this mechanism was important however the “lack of opportunities due to workloads could be frustrating because of the limited time to talk – this is not a criticism, just that everyone is busy”. All interviewees felt a sense of loss because of the suspension as they felt it was as important a means of support for their teams as it was for them. PMR enables the work and innovation of managers to be formally recognised, and the CE and GB encourage feedback of good practice to be formulated as resolutions which are rolled out across the college.
Middle managers (MM) questioned felt that although work was recognised by their LM but they felt disheartened when it was not always passed on the senior management. According to HR there should be a formal and consistent vehicle to notify staff of a job well done. The GB do send letters congratulating staff and commendations are minuted. O’Connell suggests ‘…we valued the ‘individual’ member of staff and thereby made him or her ‘feel valued’ (O’Connell 2005 p 157).
At a recent prize giving ceremony the Principal thanked staff publicly for their hard work as ‘senior management need to recognise, celebrate and reward quality improvements’ (Torrington & Hall 1995 p 303). This act made all managers feel proud to be a member of the college.
Staff Development and Training (SDT)
‘The job holder is uniquely placed to understand his or her needs, although support and training are likely to be necessary…’ (Wood, Barrington & Johnson cited in Goss 1994 p 75). All managers in the college participate in development and training much of which is self motivated. One interviewee commented that they had received more SDT in the first six months of working at College X than they did in their previous employment of twelve years. The GB fully support staff development and have taken the decision to keep the SDT budget high for 2010-11. However they want the college to develop a more synergised approach to SDT by linking the needs of the strategic plan directly to PMR. Question 9 implies that there does need to be more focus on SDT via the PMR, thus supporting the GB’s strategic direction.
Interviewees of all levels stated that no external development opportunity was rejected however there appears to be little evidence of how reports on training effectiveness and its methods of utilisation within the college are recorded and distributed, one suggestion for this was the use of SharePoint.
SDT targets are set for each unit or school in the college. Most managers felt there was little initial training in operational management skills. It has been proposed that when the new PMR policy is introduced all new management appointees should have to undertake formal training in leadership and management skills, in line with Institute of Leadership and Management (ILM) criteria.
Informal Support
The majority of interviewees agreed that “their peers gave them a sense of companionship and support that really helped them in the college”, however others felt isolated due to the nature of the post. The introduction of a mentoring programme could alleviate this by ensuring all managers have the same level of security and collegiality. FDs felt they rarely meet as a group and when they did “it tended to be due to crisis management, but it does allow us time to talk”. Informal and flexible support that was not rigidly monitored, i.e. an open door policy gave the majority of interviewees and questionnaire participants a sense of positivity and support.
All participants emphasised the need for Away Days – planned time when ‘… effective teams will stop working … and review the quality of their ways of working (Murgatroyd & Morgan 1992 p 145) enabling those involved to reflect as a group on past performance and develop new initiatives. The concept was introduced by the CE as an opportunity to involve all managers in the development of the college strategic plan. The most recent event enabled the CE and GB to give managers a strong sense of psychological support and security in troubled transformational times and established a shared mission, vision and values (Appendix 6).
Summary
Through examining key issues it is evident that a well structured management support system is necessary in order for those involved to feel confident and valued and fulfil the performance targets set internally and externally. The development of the new PMR, appraisal and induction processes together with a more integrated approach to SDT should enable managers to function to greater effect. The CE and GB are clearly aware of the need for proactive rather than reactive systems. The last staff satisfaction survey had a disappointing response of only 23.5%. Hence, the GB tasked the Principal, HR and Chair of the HR Committee to identify ways of increasing participation in future, as it is a key indicator of how the college is viewed as well a measure of job satisfaction amongst its employees.
Effective PMRs, development and training, attention to the emotional and physiological needs of being valued, trusted and empowered should therefore create ‘… confidence, loyalty and ultimately improved quality in the output of the employed’. (www.emeraldinsight.com seen 23.3.2011).

Conclusion
The aim of this assignment was to identify the effectiveness of the formal and informal support mechanisms available to all managers of college X. And if the psychological, social and development needs of employees are supported to the same extent as that of its students. From the results of the primary research it is evident that the available support does enable managers to carry out their day to day job roles. However this is not consistent across the college and the experiences of managers varies greatly, as one interviewee said “if you open me up I will have the college name through me like a stick of rock” illustrating the feeling of well being and genuine job satisfaction created by good support”. However at the opposite end of the spectrum, another commented “there is no incentive – when you do introduce something innovative someone higher usually takes the credit and gets recognition”.
Students have a plethora of support including; course tutors, learning coaches, counselling and financial support. To some extent this research does suggest that the majority of managers do have comparable support from their superiors, use of HR expertise and staff development. It is not sufficient to just have those resources, it is how their effectiveness contributes to the improvement in performance of the managers they support. Managers at all levels receive feedback on strategic or operational targets and indicators that is the priority although much of the feedback is ‘ad hoc’ and not recorded although many managers liked this informal approach. Ensuring feedback is regular and consistently applied coupled with finding the appropriate time and arena is proving to be a more difficult aspect to resolve.
The autonomy given to managers by the CE permits them to carry out their duties in a way they see fit, as one interviewee said “I’m paid to do the job, not continually ask what is to be done”, another commented “trust is absolutely a positive aspect, although there is no direction from my line manager, I feel empowered”. Trust and value in the individual’s judgement is seen by the majority of managers as implicit for the mature and positive work environment at college X.
The current support mechanisms are suggested by interviewees, as somewhat inadequate and outdated in respect of the feedback and development they need to undertake the roles and performance demanded of them in the fast changing climate of FE. Fletcher suggests that ‘… all systems have a shelf life – perhaps changes are required to the system to renew interest and energy …’ (Fletcher cited in Torrington & Hall p 327) and it is evident that the GB and CE are pro-actively committed to creating an environment where all supportive systems are integrated, have meaning in their relationships and recognise positive contributions from the individual employee and their effect on the performance of the institution as a whole.
4. Recommendations
At the end the focus group and interviews, all participants were asked what changes they would like implement so as to create a more supportive work environment which promotes job satisfaction. Many of these concur with the findings of the research undertaken.
Develop a system of mentoring and continue more effective induction and probation periods, which is timely and enables new managers to have first hand guidance and support in respect of college procedures and procedure thus enabling them to undertake their duties effectively from the very start.
Improve lines of communication in respect of the recognition and distribution of good practice by developing greater use of peer groups so that managers of all levels do not work in isolation benefit from the support of others. And increase the use of ‘away days’ to inform, give direction and feedback to strategic and operational managers thereby engaging everyone in the improvement of performance in college.
The anonymous data and findings collected for this research should, with the permission of all interview and questionnaire participants contribute to the current review of the PMR and appraisal processes.
Introduce effective methods of development and training to ensure all managers are aware of and confident in the use of procedures identified in college policies, this has been identified by the GB as a priority.
Establish through a skills audit or needs analysis a programme of management training for the next academic year in relation to actual issues such as conflict training, people management and motivational skills thereby ensuring their subordinates are effectively supported and managed.
Develop a system that enables the information and knowledge gained from development and training events is available for circulation amongst managers and appropriate measures are introduced to ensure value for money and positive outcomes in performance.
Use the findings of this report to act as a foundation for further research and literature review in preparation for dissertation.
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