Modularity in Development

Modularity is found in all facets of life and is very important in the biological development of an organism. Simon (1962)(in Gilbert, 7th ed.) argued that modularity is important in nature for the design and description of complex systems at all levels. He gave the example of two matchmakers to explain how modularity is important in the stable development of complicated system.
Living beings are not composed of hierarchies. “Each entity is an organized array of constituent modular parts, and at the same time, the constituent of a larger module.” (Gilbert S., 7th ed.) These modules interact among themselves to form a larger coherent module. An evolutionary module is characterized as a unit that functions as an individual in respect of three processes of replication, interaction and evolution. (Lewontin (1970), in Bolker, 2000)
One level in which modularity is clearly seen is in the later stages of embryonic development. According to Bonner (1988, in Gilbert 1998, pp.172), “Modularity is associated with ‘gene nets’ that can participate in many different aspects of development.” This happens through discrete and interacting modules. Klingenberg has defined modules as “units that are internally coherent by manifold interactions of their parts, but are relatively autonomous from other such units with which they are connected by fewer or weaker interactions.” (Klingenberg, 2002)

Modules are, therefore, said to be “individualized” units separate from their surroundings. Raff listed the characteristics of developmental modules in his definition. He said that modules must possess certain “discrete specification, hierarchical organization, interactions with other modules, a particular physical location within a developing organism, and the ability to undergo transformations on both developmental and evolutionary time scales.” (Raff 1996, qtd. in Bolker, 2000) He explained that modules are “dynamic entities” which represent localized processes as seen in morphogenetic fields rather than “simply incipient structures” like organ rudiments.
Modules are found to have external connectivity along with internal integration. So, modules allow for the three processes of dissociation, duplication and divergence, and cooption. (Raff 1997, qtd in Gilbert, 1998) Dissociation lets one module change without affecting other modules and that, in turn, permits heterochrony. Dissociation also allows allometry, letting different parts grow at different rates.
The principles of duplication and divergence are seen in the variations of themes produced by morphogenetic fields. These are seen in different sizes and shapes of teeth, and the difference in hind limb and forelimb. Modularity also permits cooption, such that the same module can create both, jaws in fishes and mammalian middle ear cartilage. (Gould 1990, in Gilbert 1998)
Modules can also undergo developmental and evolutionary change separately from other modules. The signaling interactions within modules over a distance are carried out by morphogens (Neumann, Kersberg, Ferguson, Gudon and Bouiillot, qtd.  Klingenberg, 2002) These are proteins of families like FGF, hedgehog, Wnt or TGF-?, or molecules like retinoic acid. These are termed as “panacrine” factors. These factors stimulate the transcription factors in cells through the signal transduction cascades between them.
This brings about a stimulation of a specific feature or factor in the cells in a module. Each module in an embryo makes a different level of a living entity. E.g. a cell is a part of tissue and organelles are parts of cells. Organelles must function to make a coherent cell and cells must function to make a coherent tissue. Modular units lets different parts of the embryo develop without interfering with other units. So development occurs through discrete and interacting modules.
According to Keller (1986) (in Bolker, 2000), the best-characterized module is the dorsal marginal zone (DMZ) of the “Xenopus” gastrula. It fulfills all the necessary criteria for a module. It can be physically isolated from the rest of the embryo and still undergo shape change, so it can be said that convergent extension is intrinsic to DMZ; the force-generating function is uniquely localized to DMZ; all cells within the DMZ interact to produce overall shape change; and lastly, this region can be identified in other amphibian embryos and related fish, like sturgeon.
Other modules, apart from morphogenetic fields, are imaginal discs, like the wing imaginal disc of Drosophila; cell lineages like inner cell mass or trophoblast, insect parasgments, and vertebrate organ rudiments, somites, rhombomeres in flies, RTK-Ras or Wnt, or IP3 pathways are also considered to be developmental and evolutionary modules.
Katherine Anderson first discovered a morphogenetic determinant i.e. an mRNA for the snake protein in her laboratory of Cristiane N?sslein Volhard. “She rescued eggs from homozygous snake mothers by injecting them with small amounts of cytoplasm from wild eggs.” (Gilbert, 1998) Instead of an entire dorsal cuticle being developed, the dorsoventral pattern was restored in them. They also carried out experiments on Drosophila. They showed that a morphogen could be stored as mRNA, but it could be localized to a region of cytoplasm.
Modules can associate with other modules in new ways. Examples at molecular level are proteins like ?-catenin, which can be either a part of Wnt pathway or a cell adhesion factor. At cellular level, the Hedgehog module, which is used to make a border in insect blastoderm, is later used in making eyespots of the wing (Keys et al 1999, in Gilbert, seventh ed.). Buffering of modules is also seen, e.g. the “double assurance” of Spemann (1927) (in Gilbert, 7th ed.)
Modules play an important role in evolution. Evolutionary biologists consider modules as sub-units or components of a larger system. Averof and Patel (1994) showed that the pattern of Ubx and abd-A Hox gene expression correlates with the presence or absence of the modification of thoracic limbs and feeding maxillipeds.(Gilbert, 1998) The maxillipeds form only when the genes are inactive. In vertebrates, the distinction between cervical and thoracic vertebrae, and that between cervical and lumbar vertebrae is mediated by Hox genes.  This is apart from the main role in development. Thus, modular units play important parts in an embryo.
Works Cited

Gilbert, Scott. “Modules: Key Pieces in the Integration of Developmental and Evolutionary Biology.” Chapter 23. Developmental Biology. Seventh Edition. [Online]<>
Klingenberg, Christian P. 2002. “Integration, modules, and development: molecules to morphology to evolution.” [Online]<>
Bolker, J.A. 2000. “Modularity in Development and Why It Matters to Evo-Devo.” American Zoologist, 40:770–776, 2000. [Online]<>
Gilbert, Scott F. 1998. “Conceptual Breakthroughs in Developmental Biology.” Journal of Biosciences, 23, No. 3, Sep 1998, pp. 169-176. Indian Academy of Sciences. [Online]<>


Key Historical Developments in Nursing Research

The aim of this paper is to discus key historical developments in nursing research and nursing research utilization. The aforementioned events will be grouped into five categories, namely Nursing Research, Nursing Publications, Emergence of Nursing Schools, Establishment of Research Institutes, and Research Utilization. Two examples per category will be presented. Also, the paper will analyze how and to what extent the selected events have influenced nursing research.
Nursing Research

Many nursing theorists deserve being mentioned in this section, however, the selected ones produced the most significant impact on further nursing research and research utilization. Dorothea E. Orem, the author of Self-Care Deficit Nursing Theory, began its development in 1950’s. The theory holds that adults are generally expected to perform self-care themselves, but if they fail to do so, nursing should be provided. Another important theory, namely Modeling and Role-Modeling theory, was developed by Tomlin, Swain and Erickson. It was presented in a book, which was first published in 1983. Theoretical models exemplified the need for a new approach to nursing. They showed that nursing, like any other science, should be based on
Nursing Publications
American Journal of Nursing was first published in 1900. It is believed to be not only the oldest but also the most widely read nursing publication in the world. Slightly more than half a century later the first issue of Nursing Research, the official journal of the Eastern Nursing Research Society and the Western Institute of Nursing, was published in 1951. Professional journals are crucial for knowledge exchange among specialists from the given field. In addition, emergence of nursing journals legitimized nursing research as a separate field of study.
Emergence of Nursing Schools
Yale School of Nursing established in 1923 was the first autonomous to teach and research nursing issues. In 1956 the Columbia University School of Nursing became first in the country to award a master’s degree in a clinical nursing. All reputable nursing schools focus not only on teaching but also research. As the official website of Yale School of Nursing informs, the school “relies heavily on its deep tradition of excellence in research” and assures that at “one of the world’s most distinguished research universities, scholarship reflects the interchange between practice and knowledge” (Yale School of Nursing, 2007, “Research and Scholarship”).
Establishment of Research Institutes
Western Institute of Nursing was established in 1957 as the Western Council on Higher Education for Nursing (WCHEN) and given its present name in 1985. It is best known as the organizer of the annual Communicating Nursing Research conference, the older event of such kind in the United States (The Western Institute of Nursing, 2007). The National Institute for Nursing Research (NINR) was founded in 1986 and played an important role in further advancement of nursing research by offering funding opportunities and coordinating the effort by many dispersed institutions. Both institutions offer small grants for nursing research and sustain a network of organizations and individuals involved in this research.
Research Utilization
There are different models of nursing research utilization, which were developed during the last four decades. Developed by the Michigan Nurses Association model referred to as Conduct and Utilization of Research in Nursing (CURN) advises determining the credibility of scientific studies before implementation (MacGuire, 2006). Historically, this method can be attributed to 1970s-1980s decades, since the most prominent works advocating this method, namely “Research utilization as an organizational process” (1978) by Horsley, Crane and Bingle, “Developing research-based innovation protocols: process, criteria, and issues” (1979) by Haller, Reynolds and Horsley, and “Using Research to Improve Nursing Practice: A Guide” (1983) by Horsley, Crane, Crabtree and Wood appeared during these decades.
The Stetler Model of Research Utilization and Iowa Model for Research in Practice appeared simultaneously in 1994 (Beyea & Nicoll, 1997). The first model establishes six-step model for nursing research utilization (preparation, validation, comparative evaluation, decision making, translation and application, and evaluation), while the latter is based on Quality Assurance Model Using Research (1987) and emphasizes multidisciplinary approach to evidence-based healthcare. The emergence of these models provided a clear framework for the implementation of nursing research findings into everyday nursing practice.
Nursing research and nursing research utilization evolved over the centuries, yet the most important period in the history of nursing research started in the second half of the 20th centuries due to the emergence of scientific theories, specialized publications, nursing schools, and research institutes.
Beyea, S.C., & Nicoll, L.H. (March 1997). “Research utilization models help disseminate research findings and ultimately improve patient outcomes.” AORN Journal, 65(5), 978-9.
MacGuire, J.M. (2006). “Putting nursing research findings into practice: research utilization as an aspect of the management of change.” Journal of Advanced Nursing, 53 (1), 65-71.
Yale School of Nursing. (May 25, 2007). Home Page. Retrieved June 17, 2007, from the World Wide Web:


Internal Migration and Development

In discussing the differences between the migration of the internal Chinese migration compared to the international migration of the Poles to UK, I will look at a variety of push and pull factors. I will then go on to look at the impacts to both the area from which these immigrants left as well as the area that they went to.
Firstly I will discuss the push and pull factors relating to the immigration seen internally in China. The migration is voluntary and from rural villages (where there is very little employment and a poor standard of living) to the constantly expanding big cities such as Shanghai. It is important to point at that this is nearly always a temporary migration as the migrants generally have the intent to return within a few months. The migration is of working aged adults who leave their children in the rural villages being looked after by the grandparents. The main reason for this migration is certainly an economic reason.
There is nearly always work in cities such as Shanghai in areas such as building and working in factories. The jobs pay very badly and working conditions can be poor. The reason for leaving there children to work in this environment is in the aim of getting a better quality of life for them and their children. It is easily arguable that this is the main economic reason that not they themselves benefit from the migration but their children.

I will now go through the Polish migration to the UK. This was an international and voluntary migration. Like the Chinese migration the reasons are mainly economic. However in contrast people do have jobs in Poland however wages are very low and people want to raise their standard of living. More money can be made in better conditions and less time in British jobs. The difference is so great that people the Polish workforce in Britain are often overqualified for the jobs that they obtain and are still paid more than they would be in jobs they are qualified for back in the UK.
Also similar to the migration seen in China the Poles want their children to lead a better life from the move. However their goals differ slightly in that the Poles aim for their children to lead a more materialistic life from the migration. EU freedom to migrate and get work acts as a pull factor. This is due to the simplicity of the move. It also means that people are more likely to get work and not be discriminated against. Towns with a history of locals excepting migrants (such as Peterborough) mean that people are more inclined to move as they do not have a great fear of prejudice.
The most obvious affect that the migration in China has on the areas from which the migrants left from is that children left with grandparents which in turn means that the dependency rate is extremely high. Money is sent back to these villages from the parents however they visit back home to these villages relatively rarely. On returning to the villages the parents will often bring goods such as TVs and they often bring fireworks to celebrate their return. So to a certain extent their goal to improve the quality of lives for their children is achieved.
In contrast the impact in Gdansk was that women had many more opportunities to work due to the lack of males in the population. The country now has much more migrant Labour from countries like Korea and Lithuania to help with the lack of a workforce in Poland. Poland are now sending officials to the UK in and attempt to bring people Polish people back to places in Poland such as Gdansk.
In looking at the impacts on the countries receiving the migrants in China it is clear to see that overcrowding is a major problem in cities such as Shanghai. An underclass seems to be developing in the major urban areas of poor illegitimate workers with a lack of options and without a real chance of their situation changing any time soon. Discrimination is also apparent in the Cities due to the local workers not willing to be paid what the migrant workforces are. However the cities are expanding extremely quickly and this is simply due to the cost of the manual labour.
With the Polish migration many more police are certain school workers have to be bilingual. The Poles do contribute to the economy in the UK as they pay tax and often open shops or businesses which can employ British people. Many industries are now reliant on the migrant workforce such as Stanford Stands simply due to the cost and often efficiency.


Current Developments

In Early 2001, EADS Airbus, set out to attack the monopoly of Boeing by officially launching the A380, which now will become the largest passenger aircraft with more than 550 seats. This aligned snuggly with our analysis, based in 2000 that Airbus should forge ahead with the project due to positive present value of estimated future cash flows. The launch of the A380 programme pushed Boeing, which had previously led the pack in commercial aviation, into the position of challenger.
The roles were now reversed and now Boeing had to come up with an answer. The first answer was the B747X, an extended and face-lifted version of the B747. This move fell within with our analysis in Section 3.2, about Boeing’s retaliation to Airbus’s launch of the A380. They had indeed poured in huge research and investments and developed a stretched version of the 747s. But despite a heavy marketing effort in the beginning of 2001, Boeing did not have the same success with its 747X as Airbus did with the A380. Given the segment’s slim size, Boeing had no other choice than to withdraw from the race and create another niche in which to compete.
In April 2001, Boeing retaliated by presenting the concept of the Sonic Cruiser, which does not only have a surprisingly new design with canards and delta wings, but also a very different strategic approach to the market. While Airbus’ competitive driving factor is a more comfortable super-jumbo intended to fly between the world’s major hubs at a very low cost-per-seat, Boeing’s one is a faster, smaller and more flexible long haul aircraft designed to meet the customers’ desire for direct point-to-point flights between smaller distant, medium-sized flights, foreseeing the increasing congestion of the world’s large hubs.

This move is an explicit attempt by Boeing to “sandbag” Airbus. Once Airbus had committed to develop the super-jumbo, Boeing announced a change in the game in large aircraft, from a focus on size to a focus on speed (and range), knowing that Airbus could not imitate, in terms of resources and speed in launching. However, the fact that Boeing has yet to commit to the sonic cruiser, it may plausibly (still) be regarded as a feint or a phantom plane that simply gave Boeing something positive to announce as it was forced, by credibility constraints, to withdraw from the contest to develop new very large aircraft. Moreover, future changes in public opinion about ecological aspects as well as the evolution of the world economy and the oil price will certainly be decisive for whether low operating costs and higher-flying comfort will win over high speed and flexibility.
However, with the global economic slowdown, many fear that Boeing and Airbus would be exposed to overcapacity. However, Airbus is still confident about its A380, especially in these times where cost savings are asked and demanded by the airlines, will be the right offer, so Airbus should stick to their time schedule. In contrast, Boeing is considering whether to ditch their proposed Sonic Cruisers and focus on building a new, cheaper conventional airplane since the airline industry is struggling and everything these days is about doing things cheaper, instead of faster. Some, however, think this is a short-term view that Boeing is taking, and that the company has historically stayed strong by making big bets during downtimes that pan out when the economy picks up.
Airbus continued to achieve impressive results in 2001, despite the economic downturn. An extensive and state-of-the-art product line, combined with prudent industrial policies, rigorous order book management and a truly customer-oriented approach enabled Airbus to consolidate its position as market leader in civil aviation. Day-to-day business was conducted according to plan and the Airbus aircraft family continued to grow with the A340-600 making its maiden flight, final assembly of the first A318, the first A340-500 entering production and preparations for manufacturing the A380 underway at Airbus sites all over Europe.
Indeed, Airbus’ A380 met with overwhelming market success in 2001, winning almost 100 sales, as anticipated, just one year after commercial launch. Despite the downturn, Airbus won more new orders than its competitor for the second time in the last three years, and delivered a record number of aircraft leading to its largest turnover ever. In addition, Airbus maintained a healthy and strong order backlog, larger than the competitor’s for the second consecutive year. This backlog constitutes a major asset for the coming years. It has continued to increase with respect to the competitor’s and, purged of orders from airlines facing severe financial difficulties, it represents more than five solid years of production.
In conclusion, Airbus showed great success on the whole. The launch of the A380, indeed, had benefited Airbus Industrie greatly, hence substantiating our analysis about the project’s positive NVP and that the project should be eventually launched. On the other hand, Boeing Commercial Airplanes Chief Executive Alan Mulally announced that Boeing will cease work on its proposed high-speed Sonic Cruiser and instead develop a conventional airplane that will use lightweight materials, better production processors and other technologies to operate at significantly lower costs than today’s commercial jets, coupled with lower fuel burn.
The new “super-efficient” aircraft would help financially foundering airlines would improve their balance sheets by reducing operating costs 15 to 20 percent. It is not clear when the new jet would enter service, as it would depend on the pace of the airline industry recovery. Boeing Chairman Phil Condit said the company would not have a full-fledged launch of any airplane project until late 2003 at the earliest and research and development expenditures are to be hold down at 3 to 3.5 percent of revenues, so Boeing can maintain its profitability during the current down cycle. That will mean a shrinking pool of money for new projects.
Many in the aerospace industry have anticipated the demise of the Sonic Cruiser since last year’s September 11 terrorist attacks. The subsequent economic downturn, which triggered more than $7 billion in losses at U.S. airlines in 2001, only heightened pessimism about the project. Many initially gushed about the Sonic Cruiser’s promise to cut travel times 15 to 20 percent. By offering such speeds at costs roughly equivalent to today’s 767, the Sonic Cruiser would allow airlines to make more money by charging frequent business travelers an even greater premium over coach passengers. That was the idea, at least. But since the dot-com bust, business travelers have stayed in their offices more and, when they travel, are paying cut-rate prices.
Against that backdrop, a premium product such as the Sonic Cruiser lost much of its appeal. No one can predict with full confidence as to whether Boeing or Airbus would emerge as the ultimate leader in the market. However, the evolution of the world economy and the oil price, together with the development within each of them, will definitely contribute to the overall performance.


Training and Development Project / Reserch Report

Chapter 1 Introduction 1. 0 Introduction The chapter describes the research topic, background of the study, research problem, research objectives, research methodology, and importance of the study, limitations and chapter outlines. 1. 1 Research topic Training and development Training and Development is a vital function of Human Resource Management. Training and Development act as the core factor which deals with maintaining and improving efficiency and effectiveness of the human resources at work in the organization.
It is concerned with enhancing individual employee job performances as well as collective / group performances. Thus it will assist ultimately to improve organizational performances. Therefore it is clear that Training and Development plays a crucial role in the organization. 1. 2 background of the study This section will display important of the study and background of the study. Definition: “Training and Development is a formal process of changing employee behavior and motivation in the way that will enhance employee job performance and then organizational overall performance. Thus T&D improves employee’s capabilities in a way that will make him perform well in current job. The skills, abilities and attitudes obtained from T&D make a better demand for the employee in the job market. In organizational environment there are service oriented organizations such as banks, hospitals, educational institutes and production oriented organizations such as garment factories, motor vehicle companies… etc. Usually both kinds of these organizations are using same methods to give sufficient training for their employees.
And also most organizations are using common procedures in the training process. This may sometimes become a success while sometimes does not appear as a really efficient way to give a proper training to the employees in the organization. In this research, I have considered about clearly identifying the difference between the service oriented training methods and production oriented training methods. These two training methods differentiate from each other by the specific characteristics that are unique to each of these training methods.

My research issue is arising within this environment. So in this project I’m expecting to find out the most suitable training methods based on the nature of the organization (service oriented or production oriented). And also I’m going to find out that is there any other modifications that should be used in traditional training process in selected organizations. 1. 3 Research problem The specific problem addressed in this study is to identify the most suitable training and development methods for production oriented and service oriented organizations.
The employee training and development programs and necessary to improve employee’s morale as well as encourage the workers to perform their jobs in a proper way. So with that purpose organizations should choose most suitable training and development methods considering about their nature of functions. Some training methods may not suitable for service oriented organizations and some methods may not suitable for production oriented organizations. The research design is used for this study was the descriptive survey research design, to determinate proper training for both production and servile oriented organizations. . 4 Objectives of the study In this project I expect to achieve these objectives through a pre designed methodology. These objectives are aimed at finding a reasonable solution for the research issue. * Identifying the training methods using currently in service oriented organizations and production oriented organizations. * Identifying the relationship between training methods and performance improvement of the employees in the organization. * Identifying the necessary modifications for the training process and finding out most suitable training methods for service oriented and production oriented organizations. Directing employees to follow pre identified training methods in the purpose of enhancing employee productivity. 1. 5 Methodology To achieve these objectives there should be a pre planned methodology. In this sector I’m going to describe that methodology which consist the following steps. * Selecting Organizations * Selection of samples * Data collection * Analyzing and presenting data 1. 5. 1 Selecting an organization – organizations are selected on both production oriented and service oriented basis. A brief description about the organizations which have been selected for this research appears below:
Production Oriented organization – Dong Young Company This is a rice mill manufacturing company located in Kurunegala area. This is a small scale organization. Mother company of this firm is located in South Korea. Importing Single Phase rise mills, assembling them and distributing and selling them island wide are the major operations of this company. Currently more than 30 employees are working in this company. Service oriented organization – Sampath Bank PLC This is one of the most reputed commercial banks in private sector of Sri Lanka.
There are more than 200 branches in island wide and more than 2000 work force. But for this project I have selected a sample of more than 25 people from 4 branches in area 7 located in western province due to the difficulties in collecting data in a large sample. 1. 5. 2 Selection of samples Dong Young Company – Total population = all the permanent employees working in Dong Young company (more than 30) Sample size = Number of people who given the questioner (at least 20 people) Sampath bank PLC – Total population = all the permanent employees working in Sampath bank (more than 2000)
Sample size = Number of people who given the questioner (at least 20 people from Minuwangoda, Gampaha ,Ja ela , Mirigama branches ) These samples will include all the operational level staff including staff assistant, executive officers, branch managers, assistant managers, labors, technicians in both organizations. 1. 5. 3 Data collection The relevant data for the purpose of study were collected through the both primary and secondary sources. 1. 5. 3. 1 Primary data: The research was used following methods for collecting the data. In this research primary data were collected through the questionnaire.
To collect the relevant data questionnaire was designed as follows. Questionnaires are the most common data collection method for any research. In this research, survey questionnaires have been formulated by consisting 18 questions and it has been categorized in to tow sections as follows * Seven questions for personal characteristics * Eleven questions for employee training and development related data. Section One- Personal Profile The personal characteristics of employees are requested in the first section of the questionnaire and it is included five question items, they are 1. Age 2.
Gender 3. Civil Status 4. Education Level 5. Designation In this section, it was given the range of answers and respondents were requested to mark the relevant cage that was extremely matched with their personal characteristics. Responses from the questionnaire were analyzed to form of the study’s sample Section two in this section question designedwith the pupose of gatherin data related to training methods of both organizations. 1. 5. 3. 2 Secondary data Following sources use for research as secondary data. 1. Using Bank of Ceylon annual report, central bank report and other magazines 2.
News papers 3. Using internet 4. Using various books that related to the topic 1. 5. 4 Data presentation and analysis Presenting of data- following methods use for presenting the data. * Figures- Figure is one of data present method in this research. It was used this method to present the collected analyzed data, because this method is very simple and easy to understand * Tables- Table is other method for presentation of analyzed data. It also easy to understand and very simple method in this research. There columns, under relevant data column, number of employees and percentage columns. Chart- Chart is most popular method for presenting the data. In this study it was used bar charts & Pie charts to present the data illustrated by relevant table. 1. 6 Importance of the study As Schuler& Youngblood, 1996 the need of training and development is determined by the employee’s performance deficiency and it is computed as follows. T & D need = Standard Performance – Actual Performance So from this definition we can understand that the T & D has a very strong relationship with the performance of the employees.
With the achieving above mentioned objectives I believe this kind of befits can get to the organization. * Most important thing is can have a clear idea about what different kind of training methods is suitable for service oriented organizations and production oriented organizations. * So both kind of organizations can direct their employees to get training more effectively * If any kind of modification needs is discovered in training process using currently on this organizations, they can change the process and move in to a better training method. So the both kind of organizations an give most suitable training to their employees to the point and enhance their job related knowledge. By giving a good training employees can have following benefits. * Increase the quality of products * Increase the productivity * Reducing unnecessary wastage * Improve employee’s moral & motivation. * Create a better demand on employees in the job market by having proper T & D * Increase efficiency and effectiveness * Employees can have more self confidence and reduce the degree of supervision * Increase salaries, promotion opportunities, rewards and job security.
When all of the above mentioned matters are considered T & D is advantageous for the organization as well as individual employees. 1. 7 Limitations * The research exercise will be conduct in a limited duration. Hence a detailed study could not be made * The sample of selected employees is limited only to kurunegala and western province. * The finding conclusions are based on the knowledge and experience of the respondents, sometimes may subject bias. * Primary data is collected only through a questioner. The production oriented organization is a small scale organization when considering with the service oriented organization. CHAPTER 2 Literature review 2. 0 Introduction The chapter describes the review of the literature, concerned the concept of training and development with relevant theories, definitions, concept and models. 2. 1 Human Resource Management Introduction to HRM Every organization irrespective of its nature and size has four resources namely men, material, and machinery. Of this men I. e. , people are the most vital resources and they only make all the differences in an organization.
In this connection L. F. Urwick says that “Business houses are made? Broken in the long –run note by the markets or capital, patents, or equipments, but by men”. Peter F. ducker says that, “man, of all the resources available to name can grow and develop”. This gives geneses to the concept of HRM, the sub –system. HR is the central sub-system of an organization. As the central sub- system, it controls the functions of each sub –system and the whole organization. Concept Human resource management is concerned with the human beings in an organization.
It reflects a now philosophy, a new outlook, approach and strategy, which views an organization’s manpower as its resources and assets. Human resource management is a managerial function which facilitates the effective utilization of people (manpower) in achieving the organizational and individual goals. Simply, HRM is a management function that helps the managers to recruit, select, train and develop the organizational members for the purpose of achieving the stated organizational goals. Definition HRM is defined as follows, “The part of management which is concerned with the people at work and with their relationship within an enterprise.
It aims to bring together and develop into and effective organization of the men and women who make up an enterprise and having regard for the well-being of the individuals and of working groups, to enable them to make their best contribution to its success” -National institute of personnel management, India. “Human resource management is a series of decisions that affect the relationship between employees and employers; it affects many constituencies and is intended to influence the effectiveness of employees and employers”. -Milkovich l boudreau.
So finally we can say HRM is the efficient and effective utilization of human resources to achieve goals of an organization. There is a series of functions to be followed order to accomplish the goals and the objectives of the HRM. This series of functions includes: * Human resource planning * Recruitment, selection, and placement * Orientation, training and development * Job analysis and design * Role analysis and role development * Career planning and communication * Performance appraisal * Human relation * Safety and health * Wage and salary administration * Compensation and reward * Grievance handling Quality of work life and employee welfare * Organizational change and development * Industrial relation From this series of functions training and development takes most important place and it is defined as the HRM function that formally and systematically provides new learning to increase employee’s capabilities so as to increase their current job performance and future job performance as well. Training and Development is a vital function of Human Resource Management. Training and Development act as the core factor which deals with maintaining and improving efficiency and effectiveness of the human resources at work in the organization.
It is concerned with enhancing individual employee job performances as well as collective / group performances. Thus it will assist ultimately to improve organizational performances. Therefore it is clear that Training and Development plays a crucial role in the organization. 2. 2 Training and development Definition Training and development is a formal process of changing employee behavior and motivation in the way that will enhance employee job performance and then ornisatonal overall performance.
Employee Training is distinct from management or Executive Development. While the former refers, training is given to employees in areas of operations, techniques and allied areas, while the latter refers to developing an employee in areas of important techniques of the Management Administration, Organization and allied areas. Training means to continuously nurture the employees or workers towards better performance in a systematic way. This can be either at the work spot or at the workshops. This is mainly to improve the technical skills of the employees or workers.
Development means bringing out the actual potentialities and thus willing to high motivation and commitment standards towards work. This will be generally with regard to improvement in the behavioral skills. Training and development will increase employee job related abilities through the following three primary ways. * By imparting job related knowledge. * By creating job related skills. * By generating positive attitudes for proper organizational functioning. In the HRM literature clear distinctions about knowledge and skills are hardly available.
But following definitions can found bout above terms and they will help to get an idea about these three factors. Know means ‘to learn or to have information about something” and knowledge means ‘what is known”. * English business dictionary (1986) “Skills is the ability to do something because of training” * Dictionary of personal management, 1988 So knowledge is for having information and understanding that information. Skills are for doing and applying the obtained knowledge. And also the terms education and training are highly interrelated.
But there are some differences among these terms. We can make a distinction among training, education and development. Such distinction enables us to acquire a better perspective about the meaning of the terms. Training- Refers to the process of imparting specific skills Development- refers to the learning opportunities designed to help employees grow Education – is theoretical learning in classroom Though training and education differ in nature and orientation, they are complementary. An employee for example who undergoes training is presumed to have had some formal education.
Furthermore, no training programme is complete without an element of education. In fact the distinction between training and education is getting increasingly blurred nowadays. As more and more employees are called upon to exercise judgments and to choose alternative solutions to the job problems, training programmes seek to broaden and develop the individual through education. For instance, employees in well-paid jobs and/or employees in the service industry may be required to make independent decision regarding their work and their relationship with their clients.
Hence, organization must consider elements of both education and  training while planning their training programmes. Development refers to those learning opportunities designed to help employees grow. Development is not primarily skill-oriented. Instead it provides general knowledge and attitudes will be helpful for employees in higher positions. Efforts towards development often depend on personal drive and ambition. Development activities, such as those supplied  by management developmental programs, are generally voluntary. 2. 3 Purpose of the training and development
The fundamental aim of the training is to help the organization achieve its purpose by adding value to its key recourse – people- employees. In here it is defined like this, “Training helps the organization, the individual, and the human relations of the work group. “ * Werther and Davis , 1989 – As this definition training means investing in the people to enable them to perform better and to empower them to make the best use of their natural abilities. And that investment pays dividend to employee, organization and other employees. Importance of Training and Development Optimum Utilization of Human Resources – Training and Development helps in optimizing the utilization of human resource that further helps the employee to achieve the organizational goals as well as their individual goals. • Development of Human Resources – Training and Development helps to provide an opportunity and broad structure for the development of human resources’ technical and behavioral skills in an organization. It also helps the employees in attaining personal growth. • Development of skills of employees – Training and Development helps in increasing the job knowledge and skills of employees at each level.
It helps to expand the horizons of human intellect and an overall personality of the employees • Productivity – Training and Development helps in increasing the productivity of the employees that helps the organization further to achieve its long-term goal • Team spirit – Training and Development helps in inculcating the sense of team work,team spirit, and inter-team collaborations. It helps in inculcating the zeal to learn within the employees. • Organization Culture – Training and Development helps to develop and improve the organizational health culture and effectiveness.
It helps in creating the learning culture within the organization. • Organization Climate – Training and Development helps building the positive perception and feeling about the organization. The employees get these feelings from leaders, subordinates, and peers. • Quality – Training and Development helps in improving upon the quality of work and work-life. • Healthy work-environment – Training and Development helps in creating the healthy working environment. It helps to build good employee, relationship so that individual goals aligns with organizational goal. Health and Safety – Training and Development helps in improving the health and safety of the organization thus preventing obsolescence. • Morale – Training and Development helps in improving the morale of the work force. • Image – Training and Development helps in creating a better corporate image. • Profitability – Training and Development leads to improved profitability and more positive attitudes towards profit orientation. • Training and Development aids in organizational development i. e. Organization gets more effective decision making and problem solving.
It helps in understanding and carrying out organizational policies. • Training and Development helps in developing leadership skills, motivation, loyalty, better attitudes, and other aspects that successful workers and managers usually display. 2. 3 Climate for Training With all these things organization must have a climate or suitable environment for deliver a successful training programme. so to create a necessary environment, fulfill the following requirements may helpful. * Incentives that encourage employees to participate. * Managers who make it easy for employees to attend T& D programs. Employees who encourage each other. * Rewards for the use of new competencies. * No hidden punishments for participating. * Rewards for managers who are effective trainers With this kind of proper environment, an organization can develop and implement an effective training and development program. There are short term and long term effects for both employees and organization. 2. 4 Effects of training and development 2. 4. 1 Short-term effects * Reactions to T & D activity * Learning * Changes in behavior & attitudes * Performans on a task 2. 4. 2 Long-Term effects – For the organization Improved productivity * Lower cost * Improved customer services * Pool of competent global leaders * Improved retention rates * Applicant pool increases 2. 4. 3 Long-term effects – For the Employees. * Greater self confidence * Increased job satisfaction * Career advancement * Employability * Ability to resist unethical influence 2. 5 Principles of the training The principles, which have been evolved, can be followed as guidelines to trainees. Clear objectives about the Training Program are: * Training policy for designing and implementing the training programme. Acquisition of knowledge and new skills through motivation. * Reinforcement to trainees by means of awards and punishments. * Organized material should be properly prepared and provided to the trainees. * Learning periods has to be fixed as it takes time to learn. * Preparing he instructor who is both good at subject and job. * Feedback regarding the performance of the trainees in the jobs. * Practicing the skills taught by the trainee. * Appropriate techniques related to the needs and objectives of the organization. 2. 6 Roles and responsibilities in Training and Development
In the subject of training and development, there are many roles in an organization hierarchy contributes up to various limits. And also they have deferent responsibilities relevant to T & D 2. 6. 1 Line managers * Cooperate with HR professionals in identifying the implications of business plans for T & D * Work with the employees to determine their individual training and development needs. * Participate on the delivery of T & D programs. * Support employees participation in T & d opportunities and reinforce the transfer of newly learned behaviors to the job. Do much of the on-the-job socialization and training. * Participate in efforts to assess the effectiveness of T & D activities. 2. 6. 2 HR Professionals * Identify training and development needs in cooperation with the line managers. * Assist employees in identifying their individual T & D needs * Communication with employees regarding training and development opportunities and the consequences of participating in them. * Develop and administer T & D activities. * Train the line managers and employees in how to socialize; train and develop employees. * Evaluate the effectiveness of the training. 2. . 3 Employees * Seek to understand the objectives of training and development opportunities and accept responsibility for lifelong learning. * Identify own T & D needs with HR Professionals and line managers. * Consider employment opportunities that will contribute to your own personal development opportunities. * Assist with the socialization, training, and development of co-workers. 2. 7 Systematic training and Training process A System is a combination of things or parts that must work together to perform a particular function. An organization is a system and training is a sub system of the organization.
The System Approach views training as a sub system of an organization. There is a formal order of doing the training. If isn’t, the trainee will have to learn everything in his own, he will take long period to perform as organizations expectations. But if he has a opportunity to get a well designed training , it will be easy to learn how to perform well in the organization. So through a systematic training process trainee will learn appropriate methods of doing the duties resulting in achieving organizations’ goals. In here the steps of systematic training process is listed 1.
Identify training needs 2. Prioritize training needs 3. Establish training objectives 4. Determine training evaluation criteria 5. Make other related training decisions 6. Implementation 7. Evaluation the success of training 2. 7. 1 Identifying training needs. Training activities must be related to the specific needs of the organization and the individual employees. A Training Program should be launched only after the training needs are assessed clearly and specifically. The effectiveness of a Training Program can be judged only with the help of training needs identified in advance.
In order to identify the training needs, a gap between the existing and required levels of knowledge, skills, performance and aptitudes should be specific. The problem areas that can be resolved through training should also be identified. Without training need identifying any kind of training effort may not be done. In training process tow major errors are possible. One is training for a wrong training need. In this cause because of the wrong identification of training needs of the employees of the organization, a real training program may implement but for worthless training need. Second major error is training owing to wrong performance diagnosis. There must be genuine need of training. Generally training need is arise when there is a gap between expected job performance level and actual job performance level. But we cannot say the gap is created only because of the need of training, but there will many factors influence that job performance level. When considering about identifying training needs there are three types of analysis, organization analysis, and job needs analysis, person needs analysis.
Organizational needs analysis Organizational needs analysis refers to identifying training needs in the organizational level. It can define like this, “organizational needs analysis tries to answer the question of where the training emphasis should be placed in the organization and what factors may affect the training” -Bernardin and Russell- In the organizational level there are three factors affecting to decide organizational needs. They are Human recourse analysis, climate indexes and efficiency indexes.
Human recourse analysis conceder translating strategic plans, demand for products, customer requirements etc. The climate indexes are acting as indicators of the quality of the working life of the organization. They includes employee turnover, absenteeism , grievances , productivity etc. efficiency indexes are measures or indicators of the current efficiency of work groups and the organization. They includes cost of labour, wastage, gap between input and output, late delivers etc. Job needs analysis The specific content of present or anticipated jobs is examined through job analysis.
For existing jobs, information on the tasks to be performed (contained in job descriptions), the skills necessary to perform those tasks (drawn from job qualifications), and the minimum acceptable standards (obtained from performance appraisals) are gathered. This information can then be used to ensure that training programs are job specific and useful. The process of collecting information for use in developing training programs is often referred to as job needs analysis. In this situation, the analysis method used should include questions specifically designed to assess the competencies needed to perform the job.
Job needs analysis can be defined as below ” Job needs analysis tries to answer the question of what would be taught in training so that the trainee can perform the job satisfactory. “ – Bernardin and Russell- By finding answers for these three questions below mentioned, may give a clear idea of job need analysis. What are the tasks, duties and responsibilities of the job? What types of abilities, qualifications and experience are needed to perform the job? What are the minimum acceptable performance standards? So deretmined training needs by job analysis can be used to train employees.
Person need analysis After information about the job has been collected, the analysis shifts to the person. A person needs analysis identifies gaps between a person’s current capabilities and those identified as necessary or desirable. Person needs analysis can be either broad or narrow in scope. The broader approach compares actual performance with the minimum acceptable standards of performance. The narrower approach compares an evaluation of employee proficiency on each required skill dimension with the proficiency level required for each skill.
The first method is based on the actual, current job performance of an employee; therefore, it can be used to determine training needs for the current job. The second method, on the other hand, can be used to identify development needs for future jobs. Person need analysis can be defined as below, “Person need analysis tries to answer the question of who needs the training in the firm and specific types of training needs. ” – Bernardin and Russell- 2. 7. 2 Prioritize training needs Identifying training needs is possible but identifying or prioritize training needs is difficult.
And also meeting all kind of training needs with training programs is difficult due to many reasons. Main reasons are limited recourses especially financial recourses and limited time. Any kind of organization cannot spend too much for training as investment than their day to day functions. And also if there available financial support, finding enough time is also difficult. Here are some factors influence prioritizing training needs, 1. Time to be spent 2. Budget essential for training 3. Desires of top management 4. Possibility of measuring the results of the training 5.
Trade union influence 6. Competencies and interests of the trainers Considering these factors the need of special process or technique to prioritize training needs is arise. So there is a special technique can be used to prioritize training needs. It is called Nominal Group Technique. Nominal Group Technique Nominal Group Technique (NGT) is designed to encourage every member of a group to contribute, and prevents the more vocal group members from dominating the discussion. Simply we can say, NGT method is group method that drawing out ideas from people on a specific topic.
NGT facilitates discussion, stimulates creative contributions, increases group productivity, uncovers divergent viewpoints, and leaves group members feeling satisfied that they have contributed and that their voices have been heard. NGT is especially effective when difficult decisions must be made with input from every person, and when discussion has become heated and/or when group members are attempting to influence other members of the group. NGT requires a facilitator. A step-by-step process to implement NGT follows. If the group is small (15 or fewer members), the steps can be accomplished working as a hole. If the group is large (more than 15 or so), you may find it easier to organize members into groups of six or eight and let these small groups work together. In step 3, for example, each table would take a turn contributing an idea. So it can be used in second step in systematic training process like prioritizing training methods. From the viewpoint of Human Recourse Management NGT can defined as technique that uses a group of seven to fifteen people who are competent for the purpose do identifying training needs of the organization. Nominal Group Technique process 1.
Generating Ideas: The moderator presents the question or problem to the group in written form and reads the question to the group. The moderator directs everyone to write ideas in brief phrases or statements and to work silently and independently. Each person silently generates ideas and writes them down. 2. Recording Ideas: Group members engage in a round-robin feedback session to concisely record each idea (without debate at this point). The moderator writes an idea from a group member on a flip chart that is visible to the entire group, and proceeds to ask for another idea from the next group member, and so on.
There is no need to repeat ideas; however, if group members believe that an idea provides a different emphasis or variation, feel free to include it. Proceed until all members’ ideas have been documented. 3. Discussing Ideas: Each recorded idea is then discussed to determine clarity and importance. For each idea, the moderator asks, “Are there any questions or comments group members would like to make about the item? ” This step provides an opportunity for members to express their understanding of the logic and the relative importance of the item.
The creator of the idea need not feel obliged to clarify or explain the item; any member of the group can play that role. 4. Voting on Ideas: Individuals vote privately to prioritize the ideas. The votes are tallied to identify the ideas that are rated highest by the group as a whole. The moderator establishes what criteria are used to prioritize the ideas. To start, each group member selects the five most important items from the group list and writes one idea on each index card. Next, each member ranks the five ideas selected, with the most important receiving a rank of 5, and the least important receiving a rank of 1.
After members rank their responses in order of priority, the moderator creates a tally sheet on the flip chart with numbers down the left-hand side of the chart, which correspond to the ideas from the round-robin. The moderator collects all the cards from the participants and asks one group member to read the idea number and number of points allocated to each one, while the moderator records and then adds the scores on the tally sheet. The ideas that are the most highly rated by the group are the most favored group actions or ideas in response to the question posed by the moderator. Advantages of NGT Generates a greater number of ideas than traditional group discussions. * Balances the influence of individuals by limiting the power of opinion makers (particularly Advantageous for use with teenagers, where peer leaders may have an exaggerated effect over group decisions, or in meetings of collaborative, where established leaders tend to dominate the discussion). * Diminishes competition and pressure to conform, based on status within the group. * Encourages participants to confront issues through constructive problem solving. * Allows the group to prioritize ideas democratically. Typically provides a greater sense of closure than can be obtained through group discussion. Disadvantages of NGT * Requires preparation. * Is regimented and lends itself only to a single-purpose, single-topic meeting. * Minimizes discussion, and thus does not allow for the full development of ideas, and therefore can be a less stimulating group process than other techniques. According to the ranking of training needs, organization or the authorities can select most important training needs for their organization and deliver the rest steps of systematic training process. 2. 7. 3 Establish Training Objectives. Objectives can be defined as ‘criterion behavior’, i. e. the standards or changes of behavior on the job to be achieved if training is to be regarded as successful. This should be definition of what the trainee will be able to do when he or she goes back to work on completing the course: in other words, terminal behavior. Transfer of training is what counts: behavior on the job is what matters. ” -Armstrong (1992 p. 433)- Objectives are established based on training needs, in other words after completing training program there should no lack of training or performance in relevant field.
Establishing objectives in time related is very important. And also success of the program can be measured by checking whether pre established objectives are completed or not. There are several proposes of establishing training objectives. 1. When a trainer deciding contents of the training program the objectives are very much helpful. 2. Objectives are essential for formulate criteria and standards in order to measure success of the training program 3. By noticing objectives of training program , participants will know what’s going to be happen 4.
Establishing training objectives related to organizational goals may helpful to achieve them 2. 7. 4 Determine Training evaluation Criteria Training evaluation refers to the process of collecting the outcomes needed to determine if training is effective. Training evaluation criteria provides the data needed to demonstrate that training does provide benefits to the company. There are two types of evaluating training program, Formative evaluation – evaluation conducted to improve the training process * Helps to ensure that: the training program is well organized and runs smoothly * trainees learn and are satisfied with the program * Provides information about how to make the program better Summative evaluation – evaluation conducted to determine the extent to which trainees have changed as a result of participating in the training program * May also measure the return on investment (ROI) that the company receives from the training program Why Should A Training Program Be Evaluated? * To identify the program’s strengths and weaknesses To assess whether content, organization, and administration of the program contribute to learning and the use of training content on the job * To identify which trainees benefited most or least from the program * To gather data to assist in marketing training programs * To determine the financial benefits and costs of the programs * To compare the costs and benefits of training versus non-training investments * To compare the costs and benefits of different training programs to choose 2. 7. 5 Make other related decisions 2. 7. 4. 1 Training contents
Training contents refers to all the things trainees going to learn in training program. Training contents are decided after the analyzing of training needs and training objectives. In training contents there are 3 parts regarding any kind of training objective or training need. They are Knowledge, Attitude and Skills. E. g. : Training objective – After the training program accidents and health issues in the organization should minimize by 15%. Training contents – The participants should gather knowledge about what are the accidents and health issues, how to revent them, how to identify them before arise, what are the steps to be followed if an occupational accident happen and basic first aid knowledge. Attitudes – attitudes refers to believing positively, feeling positively and tending to behave positively about the knowledge gathered by the training program. Skills – Skills are ability to do things that learned by the training program, in this cause skills related to first aid and preventing occupational accidents is important. 2. 7. 4. 2 Trainers When we choosing trainers to the training program there are some factors should be consider about them.
Their educational background, their knowledge about relevant subject, previous experience in training and skills in delivering a effective training program. Managers, supervisors or peers (senior) can utilize in-house training programs. Because they are already know about organization and its culture. Training specialists or consultants or university professors, tutors can be utilized to in-house but off the job training. And also when we selecting lecturers should careful that they are able to train educated people and non educated employees like drivers, technicians at the same time.
Because when the university lecturer delivers the training program , non educated people may not affected by the program because the their education level not sufficient for understand the important thing in the training program. 2. 7. 4. 3 Training methods The most suitable training method should select considering training objectives and training contents. Not only the objectives and contents, but also should consider about training budget, availability of trainers, number of trainees availability of time and other relevant factors. Sometimes more than one method have to be used when consider about these kind of factors. . 7. 4. 4Training budget This refers to hoe much can spend to this kind of training program. Normally organizations are allocating funds for their training and development activities from their annual budget. Allowances to the trainers, expenses to meals and refreshments, rental and travelling fees, expenses on training materials are some expenditures that taking place in a training program. If the training program effective for the employees and their knowledge, attitudes and skills are developed as expected ROI will be high. 2. 7. 4. 5 Training time
In a proper training program specific time table or time schedule must prepared. When preparing a time table training programmers should consider about availability of trainers, holidays, availability of trainees. If the training program is held in outside the organization, organizers should care about availability of lecture hall and other facilities. In time table it is necessary to mention about starting time, ending time, intervals, and how many days training will continue. And also organizers are responsible for continue training program as time table.
When the program is running as the time table it will motivate participants at the same time trainers also will satisfy with the program and will give maximum output for trainees. 2. 7. 4. 6 Training place Training place refers to where the training to be conducted. There are three kinds of places to held training program. When conducting on-the-job training the training place will be office room or site, other employees also working. And when a training program conducting in the organization premises but not in the working site or office room , can be identified as second method. Third one is off-the-site.
That means the training program will be conduct in a lecture hall, university or conference hall. Some organizations have their own lecture halls for training programs. 2. 7. 4. 7 Meals and refreshments This is a most important factor that influences a success of a training program. Sometimes organizers may ask from participants supply meals for themselves. In addition a some payment can be done to get meals. But commonly organization is provides meals and refreshments to the participants. If financial ability is not sufficient to provide meals for everyone, organizers can provide meals for trainers.. . 7. 6 Implementation In this step the pre planned training program will implement. All kind of dictions taken in above steps will be taken in to action under this step. When a training program implementing it should supervise by organizers whether the program is running as the schedule. Before implementation of the training program trainees should evaluate. It will be making easy to evaluate trainees and measuring what kind of knowledge gathered by trainees after the training program. 2. 7. 7 Evaluate the success of training Training evaluation defined as, Any attempt to obtain information (feedback) on the effects of a training program, and to assess the value of the training in the light of that information. ’ Evaluation leads to control, which means deciding whether or not the training was worthwhile (preferably in cost/benefit terms) and what improvements are required to make it even more cost-effective. ” – Hamblin (1974)- Evaluation is an integral feature of learning activities. In its crudest form, it is the Comparison of objectives (criterion behavior) with outcomes (terminal behavior) to answer the question of how far the event has achieved its purpose.
The setting of objectives and the establishment of methods of measuring results are, or should be, an essential part of the planning stage of any learning and development program. Levels of evaluation 1st level – Reaction At this level, evaluation measures how those who participated in the training have reacted to it. In a sense, it is a measure of immediate customer satisfaction. * Determine what you want to find out. * Design a form that will quantify reactions. * Encourage written comments and suggestions. * Get 100 present immediate responses. 2nd Level – Evaluating learning
This level obtains information on the extent to which learning objectives have been attained. It will aim to find how much knowledge was acquired, what skills were developed or improved, and the extent to which attitudes have changed in the desired direction. So far as possible, the evaluation of learning should involve the use of tests before and after the program – paper and pencil, oral or performance tests. 3rd Level – Evaluating behavior This level evaluates the extent to which behavior has changed as required when people attending the program have returned to their jobs.
The question to be answered is the extent to which knowledge, skills and attitudes have been transferred from the classroom to the workplace. Ideally, the evaluation should take place both before and after the training. Time should be allowed for the change in behavior to take place. The evaluation needs to assess the extent to which specific learning objectives relating to changes in behavior and the application of knowledge and skills have been achieved. 4th Level – Evaluating results
This is the ultimate level of evaluation and provides the basis for assessing the benefits of the training against its costs. The objective is to determine the added value of learning and development programs – how they contribute to raising organizational performance significantly above its previous level. The evaluation has to be based on ‘before and after’ measures and has to determine the extent to which the fundamental objectives of the training have been achieved in areas such as increasing sales, raising productivity, reducing accidents or increasing customer satisfaction. . 8 Issues on Training and Development When an organization tries to deliver a training program there are many kind of issues that influence the training program. Trainers and organizers are often forced to deal with a wide variety of important issues that arise from inside of the organization and outside of the organization. * External environmental pressures influence training practices: * Legal issues related to training practices * Cross-cultural preparation * Diversity training * School-to-work programs * Hardcore-unemployed training programs Internal environment pressures which influence training practices * The need to train managerial talent * Training and development opportunities for all employees (regardless of their personal characteristics) * Use of the company’s compensation system to motivate employees to learn In here some of issues are described briefly. * Legal issues related to training practices There are some legal issues that can be arising during the training sessions. These legal issues can be due to external and internal influences. * Employee injury during a training activity Employees or others injured outside the training session * Breach of confidentiality or defamation * Reproducing and using copyrighted material in training classes without permission * Excluding women, minorities, and older Americans from training programs * Not ensuring equal treatment while in training * Requiring employees to attend training programs they find offensive * Revealing discriminatory information during a training session * Not accommodating trainees with disabilities * Cross-cultural preparation
To successfully conduct business in the global market place, employees must understand the business practices and the cultural norms of different countries. So organization may had to sent their employees to foreign countries and let them gather knowledge about global market place and new trends in market. Cross-cultural preparation involves educating employees and their families who are to be sent to a foreign country. * Diversity training Diversity training refers to training designed to change employee attitudes about diversity and/or developing skills needed to work with a diverse work force.
When talking about attitude, this will focus on increasing employees’ awareness of differences in cultural and ethnic backgrounds, physical characteristics, and personal characteristics that influence behavior toward others. The assumption is that by increasing their awareness of stereotypes and beliefs, employees will be able to avoid negative stereotypes. At the same time in behavioral changing it will focus on changing the organizational policies and individual behaviors that inhibit employees’ personal growth and productivity. One approach is to identify incidents that discourage employees from working up to their potential.
Another approach is to teach managers and employees basic rules of behavior in the workplace. Here are some important characteristics related to Successful Diversity Efforts * Top management provides resources, personally intervenes, and publicly advocates diversity. * The program is structured. * Capitalizing on a diverse work force is defined as a business objective. * Capitalizing on a diverse work force is seen necessary to generate revenue and profits. * The program is evaluated * Manager involvement is mandatory. * The program is seen as a culture change, not a one-shot program. Managers and demographic groups are not blamed for problems. * Behaviors and skills needed to successfully interact with others are taught. * School-to-work programs Combine classroom experiences with work experiences to prepare high school students for employment. This is a common activity in most of high schools and universities in today. These training opportunities will a huge advantage to students. * Training and development opportunities for all employees In an organization, all employees have a right to participate relevant training and development programs.
So if only selected employees only gets chance to participate training programs rest of other employees will take actions against training programs because the selected employees only gets high demand for their skills and knowledge than other workers. 2. 9 Training methods In practical usage there are many training methods available for organizations for the purpose of the training their employees. In this section some of training methods are briefly described. Mainly training methods can classified as on-the-job training and off –the-job training. In below there is a brief description on commonly using training methods. 2. 9. On the job training This is most popular job training method and it is also known as Job Instruction Training (JIT). Under this method, the individual is placed on a regular job and taught the skills necessary to perform the job. The trainee learns under the supervision and guidance of a qualified worker instructor. On-the-job training has advantage of giving firsthand knowledge and experience under actual working conditions. While the trainee learns how to perform the job, he is also a regulars worker rendering the serve for which his paid. The problem of transfer of the trainee is also minimized as the person learns on the job.
The emphasis is placed on rendering the services in the effective manner rather than learning. This method is using commonly both service sector companies and production oriented companies because of following advantages * Most simple and low cost method * Allowed to the trainee to be active * Allow trainee to repeat * Allow trainee to participate 2. 9. 2 Job rotation This trainee involves the movement of trainee form one job to another. The trainee receives job knowledge and gains experience from his supervisor or trainer in each of the different job assignments.
Though this method of trainings common in training managers for general management position, trainees can also be rotated from hob to ob in workshop jobs. This method gives an opportunity to the trainee to understand the problems of employees of other jobs and respect them. 2. 9. 3 Coaching The trainee is placed under a particular supervisor functions as a coach in training the individual. The supervisor provides the feedback to the trainee on his performance and offers his some suggestions for improvement. Often the trainee shares some of the duties and responsibilities of the coach and relieves his of his burden.
A limitation of this method of training is that the trainee may not have the freedom or opportunity to ex press his own ideas. 2. 9. 4 Committee assignments Under the committee assignment, group of trainees are given an asked to solve an organizational problem. The trainee solves the problem jointly. It develops teamwork. 2. 9. 5 Cause study Is a written description of an actual situation in business which provokes, in the reader, the need to decide what is going on, what the situation really is or what the problems are, and what can and should be done.
Taken from the actual experiences of organizations, these cases represent to describe, as accurately as possible, real problems that managers have faced. Trainee studies the cases to determine problems, analyses causes, develop alternativesolutions, select the best one, and implement it. Case study can provide stimulatingdiscussions among participants as well as excellent opportunities for individuals to defend their analytical and judgment abilities. It appears to be an ideal method to promote decision-making abilities within the constraints of limited data. 2. 9. 6 Vestibule training
Utilizes equipment which closely resembles the actual ones used on the job. However, training takes place away from the work environment. A special area or a room is set aside from the main production area and is equipped with furnishings similar to those found in the actual production area. The trainee is thenpermittedto learn under simulated conditions, without disrupting ongoing operations. A primaryadvantage of vestibule training it relieves the employee from the pressure of having to produce while learning. The emphasis is on learning skills required by the job.
Of course, the cost of duplicate facilities and a special trainer is an obvious disadvantage. The advantage of simulation is the opportunity to ‘create an environment’ similar to real situations the manager incurs, but without the high costs involved should the actions prove undesirable. This method using mostly to train pilots in aircraft industry. in pilot training airlines use flight simulations for safety, learning efficiency, and cost savings, including savings on maintenance, pilot cost, fuel and cost of not having a aircraft in regular service.
And also this method is using to train astronomers. It is huge advantage for trainers because there is no place to give training to astronomers in the world other then vestibule training. And also there are some disadvantages of this method, i) It is difficult to duplicate the pressures and realities of actual decision-making none the job and (ii) individuals often act differently in real-lifesituations than they do in acting out a simulated exercise. 2. 9. 7 Role playing Generally focuses on emotional (mainly human relations) issues rather than actual ones.
The essence of role playing is to create a realistic situation, as in case study, and then have the trainee assume the parts of specific personalities in the situation. For example, a male worker may assume the role of a female supervisor, and the supervisor may assume the role of a male worker. Then, both may be given a typical work situation and asked to responds they expect others to do. The consequences are a better understanding among individuals. Role playing helps promote interpersonal relation. Attitude change is another result of role playing. Case study and role playing are used in MDP s. 2. 9. Apprentice training Training is given to people who are new to the jobs which are craft jobs such as plumber, machinist, carpenter, printer, electrician and tool and die maker. This training is for new employees. It is designed to give employees an understanding of the rules and procedures they must follow in carrying this job in future. This type of training has high levels of participation, practice, relevance and transferability. Most suitable method for production oriented organizations. 2. 9. 9 Sensitivity training Sensitivity training uses small numbers of trainees, usually fewer than12 in a Group.
They meet with a passive trainer and gain insight into their own and others’ behavior. Meeting have no agenda, are held away from workplaces, and questions deal with the ‘here and now’ of the group process. Discussions focus on ‘why participants behave as they do, how they perceive one another, and the feelings and emotions generated in the interaction process. Specific results soughtincludeincreased ability to empathize with other, improved listening skills, greater openness,increased tolerance of individual difference and  increased conflict-resolution skills.
The drawback of this method is that once the training is over, the participants are themselves again and they resort to their old habits. The objectives of sensitivity training are to provide the participants with increased awareness of their own behavior and how others perceive them-greater sensitivity to the behavior of others, and increased understanding of group’s process. 2. 9. 10 Programmed instruction This is a method where training is offered without theintervention of a trainer. Information is provided to the trainee in blocks, either in a book of thought a teaching machine.
After reading each block of material, the learner must answer question about it. Feedback in the form of correct answers is provided after each response. Thus, programmed instruction (PI) involves: 1. Presenting questions, facts, or problems to the learner 2. Allowing the person to respond3. Providing feedback on the accuracy of his or her answers4. If the answers are correct, the learner proceeds to the next block. If not, he or she repeats the same. The main advantage of PI is that it is self-paced-trainees can progress through the program meet their own speed.
Strong motivation is provided to the learner to repeat learning. Material is also structured and self-contained, offering much scope for practice. The disadvantages are not to be ignored. The scope for learning is less, compared to other methods of training. Cost of preparing books, manuals and machinery is considerably high. 2. 9. 11 Skill builders A skill builder is an assignment or an exercise that aims at allowing the trainee to develop a certain skill or certain skills rather than his/ her knowledge. The learner is given the skill builder and is required to do it.
Later trainer will gives a right feedback. 2. 9. 12 In-basket method The trainee is given a special box that includes a number of business papers such as memoranda, reports, letters, emails and telephone messages that would typically come across manager’s desk, and it required to act on the information contained in these business papers. This training most suitable for managers and it more practical training that has realism, high participation, high relevance, high transference and built-in motivation. 2. 9. 13 Lecture method
Lecture method is most frequently used method for training and development. Lectures are verbal presentations that deliver subject knowledge to participants by expert on relevant subject. To increase effectiveness of the method lectures can use presentations, hand outs and other extras. This method can use to a large number of participants in a one time. It is one of huge advantage of this method. And also cost per trainee is very low. This method can use both service oriented and production oriented organizations. 2. 9. 14 Conference
It is a method obtaining the clerical, professional and supervisory personnel. This method involves a group of people who pose ideas, examine a those facts, ideas and data, test assumptions and draw concussions, all of which contribute to the improvement of job performance. It is possible to classify the above discussed methods in training and development according to these bases. 1. On-the-job method An on-the-job method gives training to the trainee while he/ she is performing the duties of the job 2. Off-the-job method


Contemporary Developments in Business and Management

The organization that I have selected to make this report is British Airways. I would be discussing many things in this report; however more emphasis would be laid down on the impact of external and internal factors on the organization followed by the evaluation of British Airways.
Introduction of British Airways
British Airways is a worldwide airline service that offers airline services all year round ensuring low fares and has a vast flying network. It is one of United Kingdom’s largest global airline, flies over 550 destinations at appropriate timings and on the best located airports around the world. It provides the best services to its customers whether they are on ground or in the air. The British Airways group consists of British Airways Plc and other subsidiary companies including British Airways Holidays Limited .The Company has registered office at Waterside, Harmondsworth and has a registered office in England and is also a member of IATA & AEA. (British Airways n.d.).

Primary internal influences
The primary influences basically revolve around the performance of British Airways and the features that contribute to the success of British Airways, etc.
British Airways performance and growth strategy: problems and opportunities
The business strategy that is adopted by British Airways is directly linked to its growth plan. This would justify the financial position of British Airways. Although there is a threat of the increase in prices of the fuel, however British Airways also has opportunities that can enable the organization to compete with the market.
Problems of communication within organizations
Communication between managers and workers at work is essential for the growth of British Airways. The industrial relationships, leadership roles, employee motivation, flexible working, organisational change and its impacts on psychological contracts should be considered by British Airways. (Clawson & Conner 2004)
Intercultural Issues
British Airways placed a ban on its employees from wearing religious symbols and this was done due to their uniform policy.
Marketing Mix and Value Chain analysis of British Airways
The value of British Airways should be examined and Porter’s value chain analysis should be conducted. The 4 P’s are the key marketing concepts that are described as academic literature related to relationship marketing is reviewed and applied to the practices of British Airways. (Kevin ; Kotler 2008)
Read also: PESTLE Analysis for Hotel Industry
Executive compensation analysis at British Airways
The salaries of the executives at British Airways are pre determined according to the main theoretical principles for executive compensation that is explained and it also provides a short overview on the current operation activities of British Airways. Furthermore, the compensation package of the executives should be worked on and suggestion for its enhancement should be proposed.
Importance HRM Practices in Organization Strategy
For this, British Airways should identify the growth of their performance. Furthermore the factors related to Human Resource Management practices such as to study the factors that affect the workforce of British Airways. Other than this, they should also think about ways in order to make their workforce effective.
Strategic management
Due to the emergence of new low cost carriers in the aviation market, the major market share of this industry has risen due to which many coalitions have occurred.
Budget Planning: Airline Industry and British Airways
British Airways has to do proper budgeting as budget planning explores the risks and uncertainties that can be faced by the company or by the whole industry.
Environmental Scan
British Airways in one of the most well known airlines and provides the customers with all kinds of airline services worldwide and they have their operations in 75 countries covering the entire globe from Europe, North America, and South America to Asia. (British Airways n.d.).
Strategic Tourism Management: Factual Strategies from British Airways Plc
This evaluates how the British Airways evaluates its strategies, however these strategies are factual. Other than this, the resources and capabilities, the competitive structure of the tourism industry, cultural or behavioral consideration, and exploring how globalization has impacted the strategy and structure of the organization and examine the ethical basis of a global strategy of the organization have to be looked upon by British Airways.
PEST Analysis
British Airways provides all kinds of airline services to the customers and operates in around 75 countries across Europe, North America, South America and Asia. PEST Analysis assists in carrying out an environmental scan of British Airways in order to highlight a specific factor or trend that might affect the organization.
Services Marketing
This refers to the strategy that British Airways would adopt to differentiate by offering high quality services. Furthermore, it involves the theoretical marketing concepts such as the 7P’s of services marketing mix, the flower of services, the positioning map and customer relationship management, etc.
Primary external influences
The primary influences basically revolve around the competition from low budget airlines and the company’s pressures and future perspectives, etc.
One of the most external factors that influence British Airways is globalization. It affects the performance of British Airways and further pressurizes British Airways to adapt to the changes and introduce new ways for organisational planning and strategic management. British Airways has make changes according to the growing trend in the airline industry and focus more on the impact it has on the stakeholders, PEST factors and the policies of the European Union.
Environmental Changes in Global Airline Industry
This factor creates an impact on the global economic processes in the airline industry around the world and it further involves the accomplishment of PEST and Porter’s five forces analysis of the changes that occur in the environment of the airline industry. The future trends in competitive strategic patterns have to be looked upon by British Airways.
Analysis of the competitive environment
British Airways has to face the most important issues in the competitive and macro environments. For this a PESTLE analysis can be done that would help British Airways in identifying the macro factors that are impacting the airline industry. The PESTLE analysis done by the British Airways will highlight the social factors e.g. any kind of changes in demographics. This is done to increase the demand of the passengers and also highlights that the improving trend in the technology has creates lots of opportunities.
Analysis of British Airways
This examines both the internal and external problems faced by British Airways. Other than that it conducts Porter’s value chain analysis of British Airways and further discusses the PEST and HRM factors that are likely to affect the performance of British Airways after which the company’s strategies are assessed in the competitive environment of the industry.
Structure and Culture Analysis
British Airways is the second largest airline in the world and here, we will examine the organizational structure of British Airways, furthermore, the assessment of the value and the organizational culture being adopted, the cultural values and their impact on the behavior of the employee.
The changing competitive environment
Although British Airways is UK’s largest global airline and it meets all the travelling needs of the customers, along with the facility of online booking, this fact still cannot be forgotten that there are many competitors of British Airways and like other companies, even British Airways has to make sure that they beat the competitors on every way so that they receive maximum market share.
Following are the competitors of British Airways i.e. the UK Airlines.
1.      Air 2000 is a UK charter airline, charges low prices to its customers and serves Europe. (UK Superweb n.d.).  Other than this, they can also make online reservations of flights as the system allows them to check the availability of flights online.
2.      Air Southwest also charges low prices for the South West of England.
3.      Astraeus is one of the UK’s charter airlines that is independent and it flies to destinations all over Europe. Other than Europe, it also flies to other places such as Asia, the Middle East, North America and Africa. (UK Superweb n.d.).
4.      Britannia Airways is now known as Thomsonfly and offers flights to Europe and many other places around the world.
5.      British Mediterranean Airways was formed in 1994 and two years later, they agreed with a joint franchise partnership with British Airways.
6.       British NorthWest Airlines is an airline basically for the business travellers, commuters, and the tourists, it charges economical prices and the customers can fully enjoy the professional, caring services available for them by the airline.
7.      City Star Airlines is an executive airline.
8.      Eastern Airways basically provides services for domestic flights in the UK. It has 17 airports in UK and it carries on its operations from many airports across the UK and in Europe.
9.      Easy Jet operates all over UK and Europe and charges low prices.
10.  Emerald Airways operates both freight and passenger airplane all over UK and Europe.
11.  Excel Airways also offers charter flights with lower prices along with cheap hotel services and offers flights from all  the major UK airports like Spain, Egypt, Greece, etc.
These are some of the competitors of British Airways in United Kingdom. Other than these, there are also many other competitors around the world with which British Airways has to compete. One thing noticed in all competitors is that they are offering low prices. Therefore, to stay in the competition British Airways also has to offer their services with reasonable prices if not lower than these. However, the competitive edge that British Airways can develop is by providing high class services both on ground and in the air.
British Airways is already a well known airline company but the emergence of the existing and up coming airlines companies can always be a threat to British Airways and can pull away the customers. As I mentioned above about a lower pricing strategy being adopted by the other airline companies, British Airways should either lower their prices as well or continue providing with excellent services to the customers. Nowadays, people have started thinking more economically and they tend to save more and more of their money and for this they may even sacrifice the quality of services. This however is not true in all cases as there are always some customers who do not want to compromise on quality of services they receive at any cost.
How it influences policies and decision-making
The strategic management at British Airways includes the description of their background, critically appraising their current competitive environment, identifying the stakeholders and the national policies that have influence over British Airways , conducting PESL analysis, and outlining the challenges faced by the company. (Butteriss 1998). Strategic options are suggested in order to assist the organisation in meeting these challenges.
British Airways should looks for a strong academic record when assessing the application of employees to cope up with the changing competitive environment. Past experience shows that academic skills are seldom sufficient to be a successful professional within a company as challenging, dynamic, diverse and global as British Airways. Therefore, British Airways has identified four skills and qualities as being essential to performing to the high standards that they expect from their employees. Capacity, achievement, relationships and technicality are these skills identified by Shell. Capacity is the diagnostic ability to put problems in an extensive but in a relevant view. Achievement is the ability to get things done. Relationships refer to the ability to work efficiently with others in a team and technicality is the ability to understand and approach technical issues coupled with an enthusiasm for technical challenge. The HR management refers to these qualities throughout their assessment and selection process, looking for candidates who can show them to a greater degree than their contemporaries.
To give their candidates the best value they can get from the organization, British Airways should make sure that it provides the job that the person wants. If the employee is more flexible about their preferred job and location, the more likely British Airways will be able to give what the employee want.
Training and development facilities should be provided by British Airways to cope up with the growing competition. Training usually refers to teaching lower level employees how to perform their present jobs, while development involves teaching managers and professional employees broader skills needed for their present and future jobs. (Leat 2001)
British Airways should provide training programs to their employee that is important for the employees who are new to their jobs. British Airways should focus on its performance and for this it should provide training to the employees needed to improve their performance. It is at the peak because of its employees and their skills. British Airways should develop its employees’ skills according to company’s needs.
British Airways should invest in training to enhance individual performance and organizational productivity. It should focus on developing management and developmental skills and supervisory skills, technical skills and communication skills. It should also provide training to the lower-level employees who are new to the company for their better performance to get good results.
British Airways should use MBO to achieve a set of goals that is clear, specific and reachable, and when managers want to empower employees to adapt heir behavior as they deem necessary in order to achieve desired results. The standard of performance at British Airways should be based on job analysis after which performance standards are notified to its employees. Management by objectives i.e. MBO is a course of action in which objective set by a subordinate and manager must be reached within a given time period. This is another name given to “Results appraisal.”
With the growing competition in the airline industry it is essential for British Airways not just to hire employees but to retain them as well and for this certain provisions and set of benefits should be given to the employees. They should also provide job security to their employees. Employees should be invited to join the valuable benefits programs run by British Airways that should include pension/retirement plans and healthcare coverage. (Lewis 2003)
At the time of retirement they should provide their employees a sufficient amount of money so they can use this money after the job. In case of any accident, if the employee loses his life, the company provides money to the family of the employee in order to help them.
Other than this, different ways of advertising should be used and campaigns should be run. Online campaigns can be run in many different ways. (Meyerson ; Scarborough 2007). They can run randomly, daily, weekly or monthly and all this depends on the type of business. There are many techniques that can be used to encourage repeat visits of the customers to the websites and this would then lead to an increase in sales made by the customers. For this, British Airways can use many brand promoting schemes for their websites. (Brown 2006)
Evaluation of  the effectiveness of British Airways
Organizational Development is necessary to assure the success of British Airways and is vital for a company to form a hierarchal reporting system. Accountability is set for the employees and it clearly defines who is accountable for what and to whom is he responsible. They also consult the company’s management team to make sure they recognize what the company’s core business is and the culture being followed.
The training that British Airways gives its employees should include certain steps. First, British Airways should conduct analyses to discover the jobs, employees and departments that require training. Employees’ performance can be measured due to this. Not just this but British Airways should also plan out the training program for its employees and objectives of this program after which decisions about the training methods are taken. They should provide on-the-job training to the employees. They should use certain methods for that purpose, like lectures, role playing, case discussions, conferences, and job rotation. Finally, British Airways should evaluate the programs effectiveness in terms of employee reactions, learning, and behavior transferred to the job, and bottom line results. (Evans 2003)
Nowadays the trend of customer relationship management is increasing day by day. More and more companies are becoming aware of the fact how important customer relationship management is. As the customer is getting aware about the products, they also have complaints about them that have to be handled carefully and patiently by the customer relationship officers. Therefore, even British Airways should focus on this.
The types of methodologies that help a company to maintain customer relationships in an organized way is called customer relationship management. Its not always that customer might have any complaints but they might also have some suggestions for further improvement or there can also be prospective customers who would want to know more about the company.
Areas for improvement
It is the duty of the leader to make innovation an expectation. The leaders are the ones who should encourage their juniors to suggest ideas that could lead to creativity and innovation. The employees should be rewarded, supported and proper amalgamation should be provided for the processes.
Fund learning should be encouraged. This can be done by prioritizing it into budgets and work plans and to of course make it accessible to the employees or it would be of no use.
Trust and respect should be placed on all the levels of the organization. Free communication and personalization should be allowed.
The leader should set up an example for the others so that he can lead them properly. He should regularly update his staff if any changes have occurred in the company policies. He should always be compromising and should always try to learn new things even if he is not an expert in that particular field. Every organization has many people who can be from different cultures and backgrounds and so it is the duty of the leaders to introduce diversified teaching and learning methods. More focus should be laid on risk taking activities than to run away from the losses.
Staff should always be rewarded for their efforts. Constant training or at least monthly or yearly training programs should be held for all the staff to keep on learning new things.
The return on investment should be taken care of. The employees should know how much they are contributing to the company.
Questions to Ask
·         What’s the history of multi-directional communication in your organization? Have there been repercussions for contributions in the past?
·         Where we are and what have we gained? (Instead of, “What have we lost?”)
·         What needs to change in the organizational policies, systems and structures to encourage and support learning and innovation?
·         What needs to change in my leadership style to foster more of a learning culture? When and where should I practice being a learner?
Things to Consider
·         Hierarchy is not inherently a problem.
·         Technical hierarchy not social hierarchy.
·         Acknowledge power ; power dynamics. The more open this is, the less it will be a subtext of interaction.
·         Be in the role of teacher, when the authority in a particular skill or situation, and of learner when not.
·         Trust, trust, trust. Trying to control everything accomplishes the opposite.
·         Communication. Encourage interaction among different organizational functions.
·         Documentation. Document learning in one area or project such that it can be shared with other areas and projects.
Summary of the Main Findings
The British Airways is an international airline with a diversified workforce and provides excellent airline services. However, the competition prevailing in the airline industry is intense due to the eruption of many airlines.
To cope up with the existing competition and the competition that British Airways would have to face in the future has to be taken into consideration and some steps should be taken in order to reduce it and to gain a competitive edge over other airline companies in the airline industry.
Therefore, British Airways needs a proper human resource department in order to carry out their functions well. This report begins with a short introduction of British Airways after which it highlights the impact of external and internal factors on the organization followed by the evaluation of British Airways.
Then we have talked about the changing competitive environment in the airline industry and how British Airways will have to cope up with the competition. Furthermore, the reports consist of the areas for improvement, how the competition influences policies and decision-making and the evaluation of the effectiveness of British Airways.
British Airways., n.d., About British Airways. Viewed September 22, 2008.;;
Butteriss,M., 1998, Re-inventing HR- Changing Roles to Create the High Performance Organization, Wiley..
Brown, B.C., 2006, How to Use the Internet to Advertise, Promote and Market Your Business or  Website with Little or No Money. Atlantic Publishing Company.
Clawson, J.G. ; Conner, M.L., 2004, Creating a Learning Culture: Strategy, Technology, and Practice, Cambridge University Press.
Evans,C., 2003, Managing for Knowledge – HR’s Strategic Role Butterworth-Heinemann, 1st edn.Butterworth-Heinemann.
Kevin,K.& Kotler,P., 2008, Marketing Management. 13th Edn. Prentice Hall.
Leat,M., 2001, Exploring Employee Relations, Butterworth-Heinemann.
Lewis,P., 2003, Employee Relations: Understanding The Employment Relationship,Financial Times Management.
Meyerson, M & Scarborough, M.E., 2007, Mastering Online Marketing. 1st Edn.Entrepreneur
UK Superweb., n.d., UK Airlines. Viewed September 22, 2008.


Reasons for Lack of Development in Laos

In South East Asia, in the centre of the Southeast Asian peninsula, lies the land-locked country Laos. The country that is now the Lao People”s Democratic Republic (LPDR, or Laos) has a slightly greater land area than Uganda and is bordered by several countries. On the north lies China, on the north-east Vietnam, on the south it is bordered by Cambodia, on the west by Thailand, and on the north-west by Burma. These neighbours have, to varying degrees, influenced Laotian historical, cultural, and political development. The recorded history of Laos began in the fourteenth century with Fa Ngum (reigned 1353-73), the first king of Lan Xang.
Prior to this, Laos was inhabited by Mongols. Under Fa Ngum, the territory of Lan Xang was extended and it remained in these approximate borders for another 300 years. In the 1690″s conflicts arose with Burma, Siam (Thailand), Vietnam, and the Khmer kingdom, and they continued in the eighteenth century ending in Siamese domination. Early in the nineteenth century, Siam held authority over much of the territory of contemporary Laos, which then consisted of the principalities of Louang Phrabang, Vientiane, and Champasak.
Siam at the time sought to extend its influence in Indochina since it faced conflicts with France, which then had established a protectorate over Vietnam. By the end of the nineteenth century, France had replaced Siam as the dominant power on the South East Asian peninsula. In 1890, Laos was integrated into the French colonial empire of Indochina as a group of directly ruled provinces, except for Louang Phrabang, which was ruled as a protectorate. The French ruled indirectly through the king of Louang Phrabang and a hierarchy of royal officials, although the French resident supervisor always had the final word.

The French in 1946 signed an agreement with the king of Louang Phrabang that established him as king of a unified Laos within the French Union. The French granted internal rule over a united Laos in 1949 and most of the nationalist leaders, who had fled at the time of the French reoccupation, returned to the country. However, Laos remained part of the French union. In 1954, independence was recognised by the Geneva Conference. In the following years the Pathet Lao, a group of pro-Communist nationalists that was aided by North Vietnam, gained strength as a rival to the Royal Lao Government (RLG).
Coalition governments in 1957 and 1962 lasted only a very short time, and fighting intensified between the two sides. Meanwhile Laos became increasingly involved in the conflict between the United States and Communist forces (Vietminh) in Vietnam. In 1964, the United States began bombing Laos with the aim of stopping the flow of troops and supplies along the Ho Chi Minh Trail, which ran from North Vietnam through Laos to South Vietnam. The bombing continued for several years and caused immense damage. In 1973 a cease-fire was finally arranged in Laos and the following year a coalition government was formed.
In 1975, after the Communist victories in Vietnam and Cambodia, the Pathet Lao took control of government and in December the Lao People”s Democratic Republic was declared. After that the American aid was withdrawn, Laos formed special relationships with the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) and Vietnam, which stationed many thousands of troops and advisers in the country. But by 1986 the state of the economy was so poor that the government introduced major reforms, including making the majority of public enterprises independent of state control.
One of the government”s aims was to decrease dependence on Vietnam, and in more recent years it has also established better relations with neighbouring Thailand, as well as other countries such as the United States, which has agreed to extend development aid in return for a crackdown on the drug trade. Laos is largely mountainous and forested, and only about 4 percent of its total land area is arable. With about 54 per cent covered with forests, the country is made up of a mountainous area extending north and south throughout most of the country and a small area of lowland on the southern and south-western borders.
The mountainous area covers about nine-tenths of the country and can be divided into a northern section and a southern section. The northern section has heavily forested mountain ranges and plateaux cut by deep, narrow valleys and gorges, and the south section contains more barren forested limestone terraces. The principal river of Laos, the Mekong, enters in the north-west from Thailand and flows south along the border between Thailand and Laos before entering Cambodia. The offshoots of the Mekong rise in the mountains and flow through deep valleys.
The climate of Laos is tropical, but there are wide variations in temperatures within different areas, mainly because of the variations in elevation. However, the principal climatic features are determined by the monsoons. The wet summer season takes place from about May to October, while the cool season lasts from about November to February. The remainder of the year is hot and humid. Laos has extensive forest resources, and although there has been a considerable deforestation in recent years, about half of the country is still covered with forests.
There exists a so-called slash-and-burn agriculture which means that forests are burned in order to create fields for growing crops. The consequence if this is that the soil fails to fertilise, the lands are therefore abandoned and even more trees are cut down in another location. Together with poor forest management, the slash-and-burn methods are the main reasons behind the deforestation. Another negative consequence of the reduced forest resources, together with the changes in cultivation, is the deterioration in Laos” abundant water resources.
Less than one-third of the rural population has access to safe drinking water. Recently, Laos has also had great environmental difficulties with its wildlife. About 70 percent of the wildlife habitat was lost during the 1980s, and a number of species of mammal, bird, and plant have been threatened with extinction. The population as of 1996 was estimated at approximately 4. 9 million people. The population growth rate is relatively high, it is estimated at about 2. 9 percent per year. However, child and infant mortality rates are also high, and life expectancy averages less than fifty-two years.
The population density of Laos is quite low, with more than 85 percent of the population being rural, living in small villages of less than 1,000 people. Rural life is dependant of the changing agricultural seasons, such as conditions of drought or flood. Those staying in urban areas mostly live in the Mekong River valley towns and those of its offshoots. Vientiane, the capital and largest city of Laos, is also the centre of a very limited industrial sector. The effects of recent economic reforms have been rather limited and mainly concentrated to the Vientiane plain.
There is a great lack of recent statistics of Laos and many of them are not very reliable. Nonetheless, it is safe to say that Laos is one of the poorest countries in the world, with a gross national product (GNP) estimated to range from US$295 to US$350 per inhabitant and a gross domestic product (GDP) of US$206 per capita. The Laotian economy is heavily influenced by the weather since it is mainly based on agriculture, which employs most of the population. The main crop is rice but corn, vegetables, tobacco, coffee, and other foods are also grown.
It has been said that Laos has a largely unskilled work force and that it needs development. Advancements such as these are particularly important for two areas with potentially high foreign exchange earnings; agro-forestry and hydropower. Forestry has been a source of economic benefit despite the lack of a modern transportation network. Laos” other many resources include gypsum, tin, gold, and iron ore, but the potential for the exportation of these resources has not yet been realised. However, the government is attempting to expand industrial activities.
By far, imports surpass exports. The country has to import manufactured goods, medicine, and machinery. Laos exports electricity from its hydroelectric power stations, wood products, textiles, coffee, and tin, but these commodities are all very limited. Laos is also a major producer of opium. The economy depends heavily on foreign aid which comes mostly from Western nations. Some of the aid that the government receives is used to stop the drug trade. Today the literacy rate of Laos is approximately 57 percent.
The education and social services of the country are primitive, although some improvements have been made lately. The LPDR has made a commitment to five years of universal primary education, but limited financial resources and a lack of trained teachers and teaching materials have restricted educational opportunities. Enrolments have increased, however. Western health care is largely restricted to the more “urban” areas, due to the difficulties of transportation. Similarly, improvements in health care are constrained by finances and the limited numbers of trained health care workers.
About 85 per cent of the Lao are Theravada Buddhist and many Lao, especially the highland mountain peoples, practice animism. Buddhism has long been a strong force in Lao culture and remains a major influence in everyday life, despite a Communist government. Even top officials worship in the Buddhist tradition. Each Lao village has its own temple, called a wat, which is the centre of festivities and rituals. The Laotian culture is closely knitted with its religion. Buddhist temples in every village serve as intellectual centres.
The life of the Lao peasant is organised around religion, and most activities are directed by the Buddhist calendar. Louang Phrabang and Vientiane are known as “Cities of a Thousand Temples” and have many examples of traditional Buddhist art and architecture. There are various reasons for the poor economic state and welfare position of Laos. The main reasons are three: political, economical, and geographical. The location of Laos has often made it a buffer between more powerful neighbouring states, as well as a crossroads for trade and communication.
Migration and international conflict have contributed to the present ethnic composition of the country and to the geographic distribution of its ethnic groups. On the other hand, this position has also often meant that the country has been a target for conflicts and considerable pressure. Its neighbours, such as Thailand (Siam) and Vietnam, have tried to influence and exploit Laos” weak position for their own interests, which in turn has been of great detriment for the country. As in most other underdeveloped countries, Laos has not had the capacity to exploit successfully its human and natural resources.
The educational level of the population has stayed relatively low, and its rich natural wealth has not been developed in an appropriate manner. The weak political leadership has resulted in a mismanagement of the economy and of the potential possibilities of its population. Laos is the only landlocked country in South East Asia, and this naturally faces the country with great problems. Its natural resources are mostly unexploited or unsurveyed. Because of its mountainous topography, Laos has few reliable transportation routes.
This inaccessibility has historically limited the ability of any government to maintain a presence in areas distant from the national or provincial capitals. It has also limited interchange and communication among villages and ethnic groups. The Mekong and Nam Ou rivers are the only natural channels suitable for large-draft boat transportation; furthermore, from December through May low water limits the size of the craft that may be used over many routes. The Khong falls at the southern end of the country also prevent access to the sea.
Despite all the negative aspects of the Laotian political and economical environment that has been described above, many experts predict a relatively happy future for the country in the longer perspective. The country is today in peace and harmony, at least in comparison with the conditions ten or twenty years ago. There is no open threat from its neighbours, and no open rebellion from forces within the nation. The expectations from the donors community have grown, and many observers have great hopes that the economic development will go for the better in the coming years, partly as a consequence of the for relaxed conditions in Laos.


The study of Hallyu development in Vietnma

Mongo Lee Ivy (Student) Ho Cal Mini city multiversity of Pedagogy, English Department Fifteen years ago, not so many people in Vietnam knew much about Korea, but now, it seems that the Korean wave, well known as “Halley”, has successfully re- defined the notion of “Korea” in this South East Asia country community. In a few past decades, this phenomenon has become a familiar subject in Vietnamese citizen daily life since it brought a new trend to the country’s entertainment market – romance dramas and visual music.
K-drama first came to Vietnam In 1 998, and since then, it has gone through three vital developing periods, which are Introduction (1998-Bibb Expansion (2002-2008) and Renewal (2008-now). Along with the popularity of K-drama Is the Integration Into Vietnam entertainment market of Korean drama Orlando sound tracks In 2002 and then K-pop In 2003. After over a decade, K-drama and K-pop have become panache envoys of Korean modern culture spread and gradually left their marks on Vietnamese society in various ways.
While the K-drama bewitches audience at all ages by the heart-touching storyline, sugary romance and good looking actors, the K-pop casts a spell over this country youngsters with its general melody, fluid dance moves and elaborate music videos. Nowadays, K-drama and K-pop seemingly are the kings of drama and music with at least three channels broadcasting its products on prime time. They also bring about the popularity of Korean cuisine, fashion and make up trend among the Vietnamese youngsters.

Moreover, they help opening a path for he expansion of Korean giant cooperation and companies, such as CA, Lotto, Samsung, Into Vietnam market. As a result, they take big part In building up Korea reputation In this South East Asia country society when more and more people recognize the Korean brand products and take them as first choices. But not everyone in Vietnam receives this culture wave with open arms. Because of its deep culture authorities do not encourage the spread of Korean wave. Beside that, the craze of Halley immature automatons makes this phenomenon opposed by a great portion of adults.
In this discussion, the presenters aim is to provide a brief look over the development progress of Korean drama (K-drama) and Korean pop (K-pop) wave, explain their popularity, clarify their impacts, identify their obstacles and bring up some suggestions for their continuation in Vietnam. In order to overcome these obstacles, the Korean culture spread is highly suggested to have a specific and appropriate developing program which fits the Vietnamese society. In addition, K- drama and K-pop are encouraged to continuously renew themselves to avoid being hackneyed.


The Stages of Group Development

1. How could an understanding of the stages of group development assist Christine in leadership situations such as this one? A group is defined as “a collection of people who interact with one another, accept rights and obligations as members and who share a common identity” (Neill, 2007, “Group Dynamics, Processes & Development”). In the case of Christine and her group which is composed of her classmates in accounting, their goal is to generate a well-written analysis in reviewing a 7-page case.
This 5-member group is a dynamic bunch because of the mix of different personalities. Since there is diversity within the group, it cannot be prevented that a variety of perceptions and work attitudes affect the group processes and development. This is where the “understanding of the stages of group development” can help Christine as a team coordinator to keep the group united and productive as well.
In the first place, Christine was not aware of the “stages of group development” which if she knew could have gave her a clue on how to handle the different circumstances of her team mates. Through “orientation (forming), dissatisfaction (storming), resolution (norming), production (performing) and termination (adjourning),” Christine can help in re-assimilating Mike back into the group to make positive contributions as a group member in an effort to produce a high-quality group output.

Orientation is the phase wherein the members get to know one another and build a working relationship. In the dissatisfaction stage, group members address their differences while at the resolution stage, these differences are acknowledged and resolved. The production stage is when members work as a team and their skills and values are developed which are needed for successfully accomplishing the group work. More so, all the tasks assigned to each member are effectively achieved.
The last stage is called the termination which shows the culmination of the group work. Also, this is the time when group members get the chance to assess their performance as an individual and as a group (Teambuilding Inc. , 2007, “Stages of Group Development”). If these process are introduced and practiced by Christine and her team mates, the likelihood of having problems would be lessen. More so, if there will be issues or conflicts, they would have easily solve it thus time and group efforts are optimized and maximized.