System Analysis and Design Bec Part 1 Answers

1. What qualities have led to BEC’s success so far? I think the most notable quality that has led to BEC’s success is their ability to adapt to change. The company seems very dynamic and it seems like they notice trends and adapt the business to meet these trends. The company is also successful because they have such great teamwork and great management running the company 2. Is the IS organization at BEC poised to undertake significant systems development in the near future? Yes.

The company has grown and is continuing to grow so they will need to move towards a new IS system. They are going to need to update to keep with the demand of online rentals. 3. What specific management skills do systems analysts at BEC need? The analyst is going to need risk management in order to be able to forsee what could go wrong during the project and try to prevent or respond to the damage that is caused. The analyst will also need change management to help the users transition onto this new system. . What specific communication skills do systems analysts at BEC need? The system analyst will need interpersonal skills so that they can communicate clearly and effectively what needs to be accomplished to the team. 5. What specific areas of organizational knowledge do systems analysts at BEC need? The analyst will need to know the companies goals and mission statement. They will also need to know the policies and procedures so that they can design a system that meets these.


Precis: Graphic Design Theory “Design and Reflexivity”

Precis: Graphic Design Theory “Design and Reflexivity” by Jan van Toorn, 1994. Verbal and Visual Rhetoric, University of Baltimore Publication Design Master’s Program, Spring, 2011 Dutch graphic designer Jan van Toorn is known for his radical ideas about what the function of design should be, and what qualities designers should possess and promote with their designs. Van Toorn’s distinctive style is messy, peculiar, and deeply interwoven with political and cultural messages, unapologetic with their intent to force critical thinking upon viewers.
Van Toorn advocates design which encourages the viewer to reach their own conclusions, insisting that designers shouldn’t function as objective bystanders, but instead, designers have an important contribution to make. Design is a form of visual journalism and van Toorn urges designers to take responsibility for their role as “journalists. ” Van Toorn begins his argument by stating that all professions contain a certain level of schizophrenia––inescapable contradictions, including graphic design, which must balance the interest of the public with the interests of the client and the general expectations of the media profession.
To survive, design must “strive to neutralize these inherent conflicts of interest by developing a mediating concept aimed at consensus […. ] to accepting the world image of the established order as the context for its own action. ” (Page 102, first paragraph) By reconciling the differences of various ideals and opinions, and establishing a cultural norm, design develops a “practical and conceptual coherence” in mass media, thereby legitimizing itself––legitimized “in the eyes of the social order, which, in turn is confirmed and legitimized by the contributions that design make to symbolic production. (Page 102, second paragraph) The cultural industry, comprised of corporations, the wealthy, the educated, and the powerful elite, dictate to the rest of society what is popular, distasteful, and overall socially acceptable, imprisoning design in a false sense of reality. Design becomes stagnant as it conforms to the ideals put forth by the ruling class. Van Toorn refers to this stagnation as “intellectual impotence” and designers tend to deal with it in two ways.

Designers either resist the assimilation into popular culture by attempting to redefine or “renew the vocabulary” or they integrate smoothly into the “existing symbolic and social order. ” (Page 103, first paragraph) The lines separating these two approaches have become blurred with the rise of post-modernism and proliferation of niche marketing, as competitors try to distinguish themselves. Van Toorn observes that “official design continues to be characterized by aesthetic compulsiveness and/or by a patriarchal fixation or reproductive ordering. (Page 103, second paragraph) Van Toorn then begins to examine what he refers to as “symbolic productions,” specifically ads, commercials, etc. , which misrepresent reality. These symbolic productions are ideological instruments, serving private interest in the guise of a universal one. (Page 103, last paragraph) The so-called “dominant culture” doesn’t serve to integrate different social classes; rather, it contributes to the facade of an integrated society, by forcing all other cultures to define themselves by an established set of rules, fostering a “communicative dependency. (Page 104, first paragraph) Van Toorn argues that everyday life is falsely represented and causes tension between ethics and symbolism. In order to make what van Toorn refers to as an “oppositional cultural production,” the designer must take care not to create a specific alternative to an established convention, but to simply present it in a creative and new way, while keeping the universally accepted concept intact.
A designer’s opportunity to upset the status quote can only be sought when a political or ideological shift is underway, which results in “creating new public polarities,” usually targeting real social problems. (Page 104, last paragraph) Now the designer can encourage an oppositional stance, one that goes against the communicative order. The ultimate goal of this approach is to evoke questions and reflection among the public and encourage a more pragmatic view of reality, forcing them to identify their own needs and desires.
Van Toorn cautions that despite the ever-changing nature of culture, design has to be “realistic in its social ambitions. ” (Page 105, paragraph 3) The awareness of the unstable relationship between the symbolic and the real world requires a high level of discernment and critical thinking ability. Design must recognize “substance, program, and style as ideological constructions, as expressions of restricted choices that only show a small sliver of reality in mediation. ” (Bottom of page 105, to top of page 106)


Database Design

5. 1:DEFINITION OF DATABASE A database is a shared collection of interrelated data designed to meet the varied information needs an organization. A database has two important properties that it is integrated that it is shared. 5. 2: IMPORTANCE OF DATABASE The data resources of organization and its management are very important. The recognition by management that data or information is indeed a resource is a recent development. Information, which in essence is analysis and synthesis of data, will unquestionably be one of the most vital of corporate resources. It will be structured into models for planning and decision-making.
It will integrate into product design and marketing methods. In other words information will be recognized and treated as an assets. By integrated mean that previously distinct data files have been logically organized to eliminate redundancy and the facilitate data access. By shared mean that all authorized users in the organization have access to the same data to use for variety of other activities. 5. 3: BENEFITS OF THE DATABASE APPROACH The database approach offers number of important advantages. 5. 3. 1:Minimal Data Redundancy There is not as much storing of multiple copies of the data as in manual system.

It is designed into the system improve performance and the system is aware of the redundancy. 5. 3. 2:Consistency of Data By eliminating or controlling redundancy in the database approach, it greatly reduce the approach, it greatly reduce the opportunities for inconsistency. When controlled redundancy is permitted in the database, the database system itself should enforce consistency by updating each occurrence of data item when change occurs. 5. 3. 3:Integration of Data Database data are organized into a single logical structure with logical relationship defined between associated data entities.
In this way user can easily relate one item of data to another related item. 5. 3. 4:Sharing of Data A database in intended to be share by authorized users in the organization. Most database system today permits multiple users to share a database co-currently; each functional department can access this data by using their own views of that database. 5. 3. 5:Enforcement of Standard Establishing the data administration function is an important role in the database approach. This organizational function has authority for defining and enforcing data standards.
The database administrator will approve all data names, formats and data usage throughout the organization. 5. 3. 6:Data Accessibility & Data Responsiveness A database system provides multiple retrieval paths to each item of data giving a much greater flexibility in locating and retrieving data to user. 5. 3. 7:Reduced Program Maintenance A database system data are independent of the application programs that use them within limits. Either the data or the application programs that use the data can be hanged without necessitating a change in other factor. As a result program maintenance can be significantly reduced in a database environment.


Describe the Role of Hr Professionals in Designing

Introduction This question asks to address how bullying policies and procedures are a task of HR to implement in the workplace therefore this answer will define exactly what bullying is, what policies should be in place and any recommendations for the occurrence of bullying in the workplace. Relevant case examples will be used to support the argument along with relevant referenced authors, on this topic. On concluding, how bullying can be prevented will be reflected on after stating what the future may hold for bullying in the workplace.
What is bullying? Since the shift from Uni-cultural societies to multi-cultural societies in recent times, there has been a significant decrease in perceived inequalities in the workplace. However, the issue of bullying is still prominent in many organisations, (especially throughout Ireland today). Baillien et al. (2009) defines bullying as persistent negative behaviour at work in which the victim is subject to psychological, physical or sexual acts by the perpetrator and often find themselves in a position where they are unable to defend themselves.
The analysis carried out found that bullying, or some form of harassment, was likely to occur out of one of three pathways: interpersonal frustrations, interpersonal conflict and intragroup level. The problem with the latter is that the culture of gossip within organisations has become a norm and hence the certain behaviours by perpetrators may often be overlooked. Although bullying is often associated with actions that people carry out, it also includes actions that individuals fail to do such as providing necessary training to a particular employee. For example, if new technology is introduced into the firm, extra training will be required. Hence, if bullying of a certain employee was occurring, this may lead to their deprivation of sufficient training which in turn will have a negative consequence for the entire firm. ) Within Maslow (1943) hierarchy of needs framework, safety needs are crucial to all employees and the victimisation due to bullying will prevent the fulfilment of this need in the workplace. As a result, low productivity and low morale may be present within the workforce.

Policies/Procedures As the question states, it is the task of the HR department to ensure the design & implementation of policies and procedures to prevent or deal with the occurrence of workplace bullying. The event hierarchy of the bullying (reference) intervention process has three levels: the prevention zone which involves policy enquiries by the target, the intervention zone which begins with an informal complaint and may lead to a formal complaint, and the failure zone where legal action is taken.
In order to prevent an employee reaching the highest level and engaging in legal action, it is the responsibility of HR to assist in dealing with the problem immediate to the first complaint. Bullying/Harassment must be occurring in the workplace as opposed to personal life conflicts between workers in order for HR to manage the situation but studies carried out in this area have shown that senior level management are often weak in dealing with issues of bullying or harassment. (Baillien et al. 009) Consequently, when HR is implementing practices, they need to ensure the co-operation and comprehension of senior level managers in this area. There are three main actions HR can take in order to reduce bullying situations. Firstly the implementation of clear, concise policies needs to be carried out which state unacceptable behaviours classed as bullying or harassment and the procedures an individual may take if found subjected to this behaviour. In addition to this, a Code of Conduct should be established in order to set out training procedures for employees and management as a means of preventing 7workplace bullying.
Within management training, conflict resolution and mediation skills need to be provided in order to act effectively. During the recruitment of management in an organisation, it is vital to ensure they have people management skills along with task related competence. Finally, often the most important thing HR and senior managers can do is lead by example. If policies and procedures are implemented but managers are not behaving in a way that complies entirely with these, then this could lead to adverse effects by subordinates. Example
One primary example of where HR failed to act on behaviour of a new employee that initially was unacceptable by the firm but resulted in unacceptable behaviour to moral society was in relation to Rob Parsons within Morgan Stanley. (Burton, 1998) Parsons was hired to achieve a growth implementation strategy as Nasr believed he was the man to do it. However, a culture of strict policies and procedures within the organisation meant that Parsons Non-compliance immediately stood out. Initially, he was not involved with bullying but was seen as a ‘lone wolf’ within the firm, significantly seen through his inability to perform within a team.
As time lapsed, HR and Parsons Management failed to confront him on his behaviour and essentially allowed the collapse of their organisational policies for him due to the fear he may leave the firm. Eventually, he was fired as a result of a bullying case that occurred at a client meeting. He had been making unacceptable critical remarks to a fellow female employee of the firm, humiliating her in front of the client. Hence, the occurrence of Parson’s psychological bullying was finally evident and may have been prevented if HR followed through with their policies with all employees including Rob Parsons.
Future of Workplace Bullying Due to the increase of technology, the working environment now often extends into the realm of personal life. In effect, this may cause the enabling of workplace bullying to stretch further than the perimeter of the four walls of the organisation and in particular, social networking sites are a primary target for the extension of this bullying. However, since present policies and procedures focus on ‘workplace bullying’, victims may be limited to the actions they can take.
With the growth in the integration of personal and work life, HR may be unable to re-address their policies to include outer work boundaries due to legal constraints. Although, conversely it may be easier to identify and prosecute the perpetrators of bullying or harassment if the behaviour extends to personal life, such as through social networking sites. Conclusion Bullying and harassment is often a topic ignored within the workplace as victims sometimes feel ashamed and managers choose not to deal with the problem. However it is the responsibility of HR to ensure these practices are implemented and abided by all, including management.
Failure to do this will undoubtedly lead to extensive consequences such as reputational damage to the firm, direct costs including replacement costs and indirect costs such as low productivity. Although not a continuing case of bullying, the Morgan Stanley case briefly highlights how the failures of HR and senior management to address his unacceptable behaviour from the outset led to undesired effects, including his removal from the firm and legal action by a fellow employee. All in all, the prevention of workplace bullying can be assisted by appropriate practices carried out by HR.


An overview of fashion design history

Manner is a heating issue in day-to-day life, which is near to about every facet of society. As the enlargement of globalization, manner companies are seeking to more chances in international market by set uping subordinates all over the universe. Harmonizing to Helen ( 1965 ) , manner design is utilizing dedicated art in vesture and accoutrements to set up a alone manner. In today ‘s manner field, Italy is considered in the prima topographic point for its elegant and dedicated manner. However, France and Japan are besides produce first-class interior decorators who have gained international repute in manner design and set up celebrated trade names.
The history of manner design could be dated back to 19th century with Charles Frederick Worth to run up label into the garments, and merely vesture created after 1858 could be considered as manner design1. During that historical period, most manner interior decorators are freelance in a family-based vesture store and supply design service to single client, which are rather different from today ‘s forte shops or high-fashion section shops. During the whole twentieth century, manner design had bit by bit been developed consistently and has become an of import industry in society. It is hence utile for analysing the manner history of 20th as a usher for the new century ‘s development. This essay will pick up specific decennary between 1940 and 1950 as the research mark.

Background information of twentieth century manner design
The development of manner design in twentieth century has experienced a alone procedure. The first decennary of the century was a period to prosecute new component into the design ( Baudot, 1999 ) . The outgrowth of new female coevals and solid tendency in humanistic disciplines had stimulated manner design to unite new elements. The Europe tendency was still focused on elegance and grace, while U.S tendency was developed to natural manner, provided a measure from the dedicated manner of 19th century. Between1910-1919, there was a great alteration in manner design influence by Deco humanistic disciplines. The distinguishable character of Deco humanistic disciplines was the usage of heterosexual and folded line. It brought a boylike manner in the manner design to follow a conciseness manner and add some eastern elements. During following decennary, the manner design added girlish manner to the apparels and go on to maintain the young person elements in the design. Chanel ‘s manner created by combination of coat, skirt and frock privailed and expanded until presents. Another feature is the attending on athletics apparels design. There is besides manner design tendency in China with the amend of traditional cheong-sam. 1930-1939 was an of import decennary for the manner design. In reaction to the economic crisis, the patch-up skirts which represented economy appeared. Then a long skirt lap prevailed until the Second World War. The broken of war stimulated a tendency of nostalgic new Victorian manner. Another of import part of this decennary is the constitution of modern manner design standards, uniting the elements of elegance, beauty and gustatory sensation to stress the corresponding of apparels and fortunes. The following decennary, besides the mark period in the research, is 1940-1949. The epicurean manner during the war clip was restricted by jurisprudence and moral codifications. Practicality had become a standard for manner design. The pursue of map made the adult females apparels be input more male elements by the prevail of ground forces apparels and frocks. The war clip besides provided America with the opportunity of developing its ain manner design alternatively of wholly trusting on Europe.
Purposes of the research
Presents, manner interior decorators create their original work to show their alone gustatory sensation and manner. However, they besides produce plants to follow the bing manner tendencies. They are hired by mass market makers to make apparels for work forces, adult females and kids. The most successful interior decorator trade names today are those trade names with long history, such as Chanel, Christian Dior and Louis Vuitton. It took them old ages to set up and develop their places as manner icons. In respect to the historical context, 1900-1950 is a really of import revolution in manner history, industries started more originative on the design of their apparels. Fashion design corporations have to bring forth their ain trade name with high quality and repute to last and vie in the promising market. To specify and understand what constitutes manner design and how manner design has emerged in today ‘s clip as topographic point the manner design in certain imperative clip periods is of import manner to understand manner industry. The purpose of this research is to present manner design in the decennaries of 1940-1950 to research the relationship between manner design and a series of factors, such as humanistic disciplines, wellness & A ; beauty, scientific discipline & A ; engineering, and so on.
Fashion Design and Its Related Factors
Humanistic disciplines
Before twentieth century, manner design is merely a inactive contemplation of humanistic disciplines. When came to twentieth century, particularly the decennary between 1940 and 1950, manner interior decorators were willing to cooperative with humanistic disciplines. They combined their design with major humanistic disciplines genre. Schiaparell ‘s desk apparels and laniate apparels are representation of super-realism ( Buxhaum, 1999 ) . During this period, the popular music tendency was bop and large set. In the dance country, swing, swing and fox-trot was in the warming place. All the tendencies in humanistic disciplines have influenced manner design deeply. All this new thoughts brought manner market into a new coevals. At this clip, endeavor were usually operation by interior decorators them or household concern.
Politicss and current events
The most influential event during this period is the Second World War. War as an of import factor to alter the history of human being, every bit good as the development of manner design. During the decennary after the Second World War, manner design had a great transmutation. Women ‘s manner of the beginning of the decennary was masculine, and by the terminal of the decade2 it changed to highly feminine. During the war clip, the manner design manner was changed from elegance, dedicated to conciseness, while it was emphasized on feminine once more after the war. Furthermore, the pursue of practical map during the war clip enabled the manner interior decorator to add more male elements in planing female apparels, some even used male mode into adult females design ( Marsha, 1993 ) . The strictly limitation on dressing was besides carried out in several states, for illustration, there was a point system in Britain to curtail the dressing manner of adult females, set out a series of regulations to take adult females ‘s dressing manner ( Janet, 1977 ) . This sort of limitation non merely set on female dressing, but besides guided male ‘s manner of dressing. Male ‘s unvarying manner was most affected portion such as public-service corporation suit of Britain and victory suit of America ( Boucher, 1987 ) . The whole decennary was dominated by the wartime practical map and the after-war feminine manner.
Health & A ; athletics
After 1945 a series of radical alterations took topographic point in athleticss clothe. First, slipover frocks, underwear and gym tops frequently used new scope of man-made fibers which suited in the early yearss of production to knitted cloths. During the 1950ss, some earlier innovations and new usage of man-made fibers peculiarly nylon combined with practical techniques developed in military vesture were introduced into civilian production. For illustration, goons that were concealed in cervix neckbands ; pockets in jacket foreparts which were designed to hive away snack nutrients ; baseball mitts with nothing pockets for ski base on ballss ; elastic inserts in the sides of ski bloomerss and stirrup straps underfoot made for pull on, draw off apparels. These characteristics are expected by us automatically today. In add-on, nylon running trunkss and cotton vests3 were adopted by jocks. Zip up parkas and parkas were taken onto the sports and athleticss field, though pant undersides frequently appeared to be uneven, they helped to maintain off the iciness. Stretch garments became rather popular by the mid 1960ss ; and one attractive advantage was the comfort factor of being able to travel with a garment.
Hair & A ; beauty
In this decennary the most popular hair manners is braids curled and rolled longer. The film stars of that clip such as Veronica Lake and Lauren Bacall gave the best presentation of the long curling manners. Though seting your hair up into compact elegant up-dos was the standard manner for nuptialss and proms, this sort of occasions became rarer and rarer.
World War II to a great extent influenced the beauty industry in this decennary. The manner, cosmetics used and beauty criterions were affected by the temper of sad and depression. As Ingrid Bergman showed in the 1942 film Casablanca, a typical beauty manner should seek to show serious, glamourous in a really subdued, sophisticated way4. A wholesome expression was much more acceptable than showy. The temper for surplus and flamboyancy was considered as inadequate, both because the effects of the Depression still were act uponing people ‘s life, and because a batch of American immature work forces were directing to European battlegrounds to contend and decease.
The manner icon in this period was Rita Hayworth. The Great American Love Goddess was born in Brooklyn, New York. She represented the most stylish manner of 1940s in the films of “ The Strawberry Blonde ” ( 1941 ) , and “ Blood and Sand ” ( 1941 ) . The musicals “ You`ll Never Get Rich ” ( 1941 ) and “ You Were Never Lovelier ” ( 1942 ) , both with Fred Astaire, “ My Gal Sal ” ( 1942 ) , with Victor Mature, and “ Cover Girl ” ( 1944 ) , with Gene Kelly, made her a musical star and a favorite pinup miss of American military mans during WWII ( Stach, 1987 ) .
Science & A ; engineering
The development of scientific discipline and engineering enable manner design develops from hand-made household workshop to the machinery production. The importance of client design began to be recognised. As the betterment of industry engineering, the off-the-rack apparels were considered to be the major issue during this period. The scientific discipline of human organic structure stimulates the constitution of comprehensive size system for apparels. The engineering besides made the fabrication of apparels divided into three classs: Haute Couture apparels, senior off-the-rack apparels and ordinary off-the-rack apparels. Meanwhile, the enlargement of stuffs scope provided sufficient footing for interior decorators to show their alone manner in their chef-d’oeuvres. Although the conflict broke out over the universe, new merchandises came out at the same clip. Nylonss were sold to the populace in 1940 when the conflict of Britain started. In the following twelvemonth, Nipponese attacked Pearl Harbour, and the landrover was invented in the same twelvemonth. In 1942, when the conflict of Midway and the conflict of Stalingrad broke out, T-shirt was introduced to the populace.
Furthermore, the promotion of societal scientific discipline besides played great function in the manner design within the period. Peoples established positive attitudes towards beauty every bit good as manner design and were tolerance on prevailed tendencies, which enabled some subculture tendency become popular in the mainstream of the society.
1940-1950 was an of import period in manner design due to the influence of World War II. Affected by the war, many manner corporations closed such as Maision Vionnet and Maison Chanel, while others relocated in New York ( Turner, 1958 ) . Paris ‘s prima topographic point was still continued although Germany was taking half of Gallic fabrication and was sing relocate the original Gallic haute couture to Berlin. The religion of manner design was established and developed rapidly ( Peacock, 1998 ) . Its enomous alteration was driven by several factors include humanistic disciplines, political events, hair & A ; beauty, scientific discipline & A ; engineering, etc. Conduct research on this specific decennary is non merely dating back to the history, it is besides provides sufficient information for the development of manner design in the new century.

Baudot, F. ( 1999 ) A Century of Fashion. London: Thames & A ; Hudson Ltd.
Boucher, F. ( 1987 ) A History of Costume in West, London: Thames & A ; Hudson Ltd.
Buxhaum, G. ( 1999 ) Icons of Fashion, the twentieth century. New york: Verleg.
Helen, B. ( 1965 ) . The Theory of Fashion Design, New York: John Wiley and Sons.
Janet, A. ( 1977 ) . Patterns of Fashion 2: Englishwomans ‘s Dresss and Their Construction c. 1860-1940, Wace 1966, Macmillan 1972. Revised metric edition, Drama Books.
James, L. ( 1979 ) . The Concise History of Costume and Fashion, Abrams.
Marsha, H. ( 1993 ) . The Way We Wore: Manners of the 1930s and 40s and Our World Since Then, Fallbrook Pub. Ltd.
Peacock, J. ( 1998 ) Fashion Sourcebooks, the 1940s. London: Thames & A ; Hudson Ltd.
Stach, L. ( 1987 ) . Hollywood and Seventh Avenue: The Impact of Historical Films on Fashion, in Hollywood and History: Costume Design in Film, Los Angeles County
Turner, W. ( 1958 ) . The Mode in Fashion, 1942 ; 2nd expanded edition New York: Scribners.

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Typography & Typeface Design

Design Is everywhere. It may be a bit of click, but It Is definitely true. We live In an age of mass consumption and mass communication, and everywhere we look we can find examples of design. As an industrial design student l, naturally, tend to focus at product design, but there are of course many other design disciplines. However, there is one design discipline that I for some reason never perceived as design, until I was scribbling In my notepad one day. I was bored and drawing variations of the letter At first, it was just mindlessly doodling, but then I realized what I was actually doing.
I wasn’t just drawing the letter, I was designing it. It may sound Like a trivial discovery, but for me It was a revelation that Immediately triggered my curiosity. The truth is: typeface design is everywhere, and because of this it easy to forget that typefaces are products of design too. Somebody designed the logo of your favorite soft drink brand, somebody designed the font that is displayed on the “emergency exit” sign, and somebody designed the very letters you are looking at right now.
Even In product design typefaces and typography can play a major role. Once I started to take notice of the amount f typography around me, it became almost overwhelming, and I couldn’t help but starting to wonder. Who designed these typefaces and with what purpose? Where do they come from and how did they become such a big part of our everyday life? But above all, what can I as an industrial designer learn from studying this huge but for me uncharted design discipline?

Typography In the middle of the desert HISTORY If we trace typography back to its roots, it is fair to say that it typography and typeface design emerged somewhere mid-1 5th century with the Introduction of movable type printing in always handwritten, but movable type printing allowed for new possibilities and systematic typography. Johannes Gutenberg designed the first typeface: Texture. The design was heavily influenced by the gothic style of the German area scribes. This style is called Gothic or Blacklisted.
This new form of printing spread fast across Europe, and played a major role during the Renaissance. In Italy the German gothic style was replaced by the Venetian style, which was based on the instructional capitals on Roman buildings and monuments. These new typefaces were designed in a very structural way, and were very detailed and balanced. They soon became he main typeface for western civilization. The Italians also reintroduced the Roman concept of “minuscule”, or lowercase letters. The “minuscule” where kept in a case at low level easy access, while the capitals where kept in a case above that one.
This is where the terms lowercase and uppercase come from, which are still used today. Eventually all these different elements melted together and these typefaces are referred to as Roman types. Late 15th century Italian printers realized that they could print text in a slanted way, so that the vertical space a word occupied could be minimized. This way they could print more ext on a page. This style is called Italics, and is named after its place of origin: Italy. So in the early 16th century there where three main type classifications of Western typography: Roman, Blacklisted and Italic.
However, people started combining Roman and Italic type, and nowadays Italics are often only used for emphasis, quotes and names or titles. During the 17th and 18th century typefaces evolved further, and typeface designers were experimenting with different stroke-weights and serif styles. Serifs are the little strokes at the end of characters In the 19th century the industrial revolution kook place. The rise of advertisement demanded for large-scale typefaces that Egyptian, or Slab-serifs, and were recognizable by their thick block like serifs.
Early in the 20th century a new movement within typography emerged: modern typography. Modern typography was part of the modernist movement, which was a movement that strove for a new, modern interpretation of art, architecture, literature, etc. Modern typography strove for an universal form of communication, and by this is meant that they did not want the typeface to interfere with the message in any way: typefaces should be neutral, and their arm should be dictated by its function. They wanted information to be displayed in a visually linear and ordered way.
One of the most characteristic developments of modern typography is the popularization of the sans-serif typefaces. Sans- serifs (literally “without serifs”) appeared as early as 500 B. C. , but modernists looked at them with new interest. They were clean, simple typefaces, and they lent themselves perfectly for the “function over form”- ideology of modern typographers. Gothic Roman Slab-serif Sans-serif Some modernist movements started to experiment with the form and placements of rods as well. Especially Dadaism experimented a lot with typography and pushed it in another direction.
The Dada movement was a movement that rebelled against the established art forms. They deliberately avoided all logic and order in their works, and it is fair to say that the Dada typography was the counterpart of modern typography. Dadaist typography is characterized by the many use of different typefaces and letter sizes. Words were printed in both horizontal and vertical directions, random letters were placed throughout the poster and punctuation was often illogical. For Dadaists the form of the ext was more important than the message itself.
A great example of this is the poem “Boom Pauses” of the Belgium poet Paul van Stained. Movement during the early 20th century. They started experimenting with shape of letters, trying to abstract them and build them up from basic shapes like circles and squares. These types are called geometrical typefaces. They were heavily influenced by the Dutch art movement “De Still”. During WI, art forms where hindered in developing. Instead typography turned to propaganda posters for artistic outlet. Post WI typography developed at a rapid rate.
After the war designers begin looking for a form of unification within design. This became the International, or Swiss style. It was characterized by the heavy use of sans-serifs, with a neutral and geometrical appearance. In the ass’s the psychedelic movement emerged, which preferred on flowery ornamented typefaces, and distorted texts to mimic the effect of drugs, and even later styles such as “Grunge-typography’ emerged. At the end of the 20th century computers started to appear in every household. With these computers came word processing software, and many default typefaces.
It didn’t take long or people to start experimenting with text and typefaces, and soon everybody started making their own typography. Especially with the arrival of internet DID typography became increasingly popular, sometimes to the dissatisfaction of professional typographers. Think for instance of the controversy that surrounds Comic Sans. Nowadays, typography has become something that everybody does Looking at the background and history of typography we see that, although typeface design is a form of design, it is significantly influenced and used by different art movements throughout the years, which is a remarkable contrast.
Design is a rational and orderly activity; designers structurally approach a design and follow certain rules when designing objects. In design it is often functionality that influences form. But in art, the form of an object is the aesthetic choice of the artist, and is not subordinate to functionality. Art does not follow a predetermined set of rules and the artist is free to experiment with form to his liking. In typography these two elements clash. On the typeface has a clear function: convey messages to the reader. But on the other hand the typographer is free to shape the letters in any way he desires.
By doing so, the typeface itself can attain a certain “identity’, and convey a message that goes beyond Just the displayed text. The Dadaist where the first to really experiment with this, and this may be further explained by looking at some famous typefaces. ANATOMY OF A TYPEFACE Before we dive deeper into typefaces and start to analyze them, it is important to understand some of the terminology of typeface design. Characters consist out of many parts, more than I am going to describe here, but the following are the most important and defining for a typeface. Arts of the specific letter, but each letter has a tern, which is the main body of the letter. What the elements attached to stern are called differs per letter. Typefaces are generally divided in serifs and sans serifs. Serifs are recognizable by the little extra stroke at the ends of characters, called a Serif. The lines that make up a character are called strokes. Strokes can be modulated, which means they vary in thickness, or strokes can be modulated, which means they have the same thickness throughout the character. Well-designed typefaces are always designed within a structured grid.
This grid consists out of multiple lines, in which the character is placed. The baseline is the line on which the characters “rest”. Parts of a character that extend below this line are called descendent, like for instance the bottom part of a “J”. So, as we can see, there are many different parts the typeface designer can use to give a typeface its identity. The height between the baseline and mainline is called the X-height. The Cap Height indicates the height from to baseline to the top of uppercase letters like H. Of most lowercase letters. Parts that extend above the mainline are called ascenders. He height from to baseline to the top of uppercase letters like H. A lot of letters have their own names for various IMPORTANT TYPEFACES THROUGHOUT HISTORY Now that we have acquired enough knowledge about typefaces and their history, let’s take a better look at some (in)famous typefaces throughout history. Guttenberg Bible Texture (1452) Texture was, as mentioned, the first ever typeface. Texture was designed after the gothic style of the German scribes of that time. The strokes are modulated, and the serifs are very sharp and calligraphic. This is a great example off time related design.
Anything you will type in this text will look medieval. Aloud Manumits’ Roman (1495) A few decades later this typeface was designed in Italy. It defined the essential form of Roman types for the following three centuries. The characters have thick sterns and thinner “arms”, and very classical serifs. Because of their long existence, Roman typefaces tend to come across as a bit boring, and are often associated with formal and uninspired prints, like the “out of order”-sign you would hang on a bathroom door. Robert Grandson’s Civility (1557) This is one of the first typefaces that were designed from the ground up.
It was made to look like calligraphy and show the qualities of quill riding, which was mimicked by using heavily modulated strokes and short ascenders and descendent. Note that the typeface is a sans-serif. The typeface expresses a sort of luxurious quality, while also displaying some old gothic features. This was the first slab serif font. It is characterized by its bold strokes and block-like serifs. It was popularized by the advertising industry, and it is not hard to see why. It is a typeface with a powerful look, and it’s great for “yelling” at your audience.
Kidney Grottoes (Hans Hoffmann, 1898) An early sans-serif that became the benchmark for future sans-serifs. It lived on to become evilly used in publications of Bauhaus and Swiss-style. Its modulated strokes and rational design gave it a neutral appearance, which made it one of the fundamental types of modern typeface design. Future (Paul Renee, 1927) This was the first truly geometrical sans serif. Renee put a lot of effort in modeling the lowercase letters into a very exact looking, mono-line appearance. As a result the typeface looks tight, simple and modern.
Helvetica (Max Midrange/Eduardo Hoffmann, 1957) Comic Sans (Vincent Concern, 1994) Maybe the most beloved typeface of all time. It is a modulated sans serif, designed to be impolitely neutral. During the ass’s, Helvetica became the face of corporate branding. Because of its neutrality, it is widely used in many different contexts: street name signs, subway signage, but also in graphic design. If you are walking in a city, you won’t have to look far before you spot a text printed in Helvetica. It is so popular that even a feature length documentary was made about it.
Comic Sans might Just be the most hated typeface ever created. Especially designers have a beef against this playful typeface. It was originally designed to be implemented in Windows 95 as part of Microsoft Bob, an animated dog hat provided help to Windows 95 users. It was based on the way classical comic book lettering. However, the typeface was not finished in time introduction of home printers, people at home started to experiment more with typography, and when they first laid eyes upon the funny looking Comic sans, they Just couldn’t resist using it for their homemade wishing cards and flyers.
As a result the typeface became insanely popular, and has stayed popular ever since. However, the truth is, it is not designed very well according the principles of typography, and especially since it is used so often in wrong contexts, typographers ant help but complain whenever they can. Entire essays have been written about the flaws of Comic Sans. New Alphabet (Wimp Cromwell, 1967) New alphabet is a geometric San serif, designed by Dutch graphic designer Wimp Cromwell as an experiment in 1967. It designed to deal with the limitations of early digital data displays.
He wanted to adept his design to the technology, instead of adapting technologies to meet the design. Because the typeface consists of only vertical and horizontal strokes, some characters look a bit unconventional. With his experiment Cromwell sought the limitations of what we can perceive as readable. Comic Sans TYPEFACES IN CORPORATE BRANDING Heinlein (Heinlein) So we can conclude that different typefaces have different “identities. For many companies logos are very important. Often, an entire brand is created around a logo.
Often these companies use certain typefaces as an additional tool of branding. By doing so, companies use the identities of a certain typeface to create or reinforce the identity of their brand. Here are some examples: Google (Actual BC) Backbone (Slovakia (Modified)) goes by the name Actual SQ. The Heinlein logo is developed especially for Heinlein. Note the “laughing” ex.’s as one of the rand’s hallmarks. TIME Magazine (TIME) Ferreira (Offer Ross) Who doesn’t recognize the clean white sans-serif on that blue background? Because of its thick Moline appearance, the Backbone logo looks fresh and modern.
A very classy slab-serif that embodies Ferrier’s characteristics: power and style. TIME magazine’s logo consists out of four capitals. It looks like a classic Roman type but in a modern Jacket. The logo has something powerful, and makes you feel like that what you are about to read is very important. I have always been interested in graphic design and typography, which is one of the reasons I hose this sublet. It may be interesting to take a closer look at the my favorite typefaces and what they say about me. Next Light Gotcha Black Rockwell I Just love the no-nonsense factor of Gotcha.
It is pretty powerful looking typeface, but also really simple and clean. This is the typeface I always use for titles and headers, but also for text that needs to pack some extra “punch”. My favorite slab-serif. It looks very solid, but the strokes are not too heavy. I especially like the way the serifs seem to be part of the stroke, and not Just added for esthetics purposes. Another simple typeface that I really love to use or smaller texts. It looks sleek and stylish, and really has a nice flow to it. This is a more elegant typeface. It the roundness of the characters give it a very friendly look.
Code Light It may not look that impressive, but that is because it needs to be used with a pointiest (so letters need to be BIG). This typeface Just looks so incredibly light and has a high design-factor. There’s Just something about this type that says: “good taste”. When I look at the selection I made it tells me something I already knew: I love minimalism. I don’t want things to be as simple as possible; In design, but also in typography. However, thanks to all the knowledge I gained by writing this essay, I can go a bit deeper than that.
For instance, I notice that I really prefer sans-serifs over serifs. These types are associated with modernism, and it might be worthwhile to investigate modernism some more. I have encountered this movement before, while searching for my vision and identity, and it is interesting to encounter it once again, although this time via my preferred typefaces. Now that we have seen the visual impact a typeface can have, it seems a logical conclusion that a typeface can be a powerful tool for a signer, if he wants it to be.
Of course, typefaces can be chosen by Just picking one that looks about right, but they have much more potential than that. Not only can it be used to convey a certain message to the user, but designers can use typefaces as an expression of the identity of a product. It is interesting to see how typefaces have evolved over the past 500 years. From a medium to simply display information, to an art form which can hold the identity of an artist, or even an entire company, to a tool used by the masses to express their individualism. It begs the question if industrial design might follow a