Eth/316 Community Profile Comparison

Community Profile Comparison
Responsibilities of the Individual to the Community No matter who you are or where you live, we are all part of a bigger community. As an individual, we are still part of a family be it big or small. We all are someone’s neighbor in a tribe, village, city, county, state, region, country and the world which makes us inherently responsible to each other. At the same time, full human potential cannot be reached if individuality is suppressed by society, First and foremost, the duties of each individual within any community are cooperation, respect, and participation. An individual must think beyond themselves and always be vigilant that they are just a part of a larger intently even if the individuals in that intently have different beliefs, religions, or interests. In all free societies, there is a constant struggle between individual rights and individual responsibilities. According to the U. S.
Department of State, every Individual right has a corresponding duty to the community and the bottom line is that all have the responsibility of the individual to watch over others in a community to make sure that common ste standards are objective are obtained and that they are beneficial to all. According to John B. Cobb, Jr., Ph. D. who is Professor of Theology Emeritus at the Claremont School of Theology, ” In a community, the idea of the common good takes on a far richer meaning than in a society understood as founded only on a compact and made up of atomic individuals. Because the good of each is bound up with the good of others, we can consider which changes in society as a whole conduce to the good of those who participate in it. ” If you choose or not to be a part of a community, we still have the same obligations to the community of which we are apart. Responsibility of the Community to the Individual Defining Social Responsibility within the Community Conclusion.


Princeton, NJ Livability Score. (2012). 2012. (2010).  U. S. State Census Bureau. (2010).
http://quickfacts. census. gov/qfd/states/34000.html Cobb, J. B Jr. (2011)
http://www.religion-online. org/showarticle.asp? title=3351


Community Book Festival

Every day hundreds, if not thousands of families look forward to their local upcoming weekend activities.
For some, it is the local fair that rolls into town with the rides for their children. Others, it is a walk on the water front with good food and drinks. For most, it is time to relax, have a cold drink, and enjoy things like Seafair in Washington State, or the Toyota Grand Prix of Long Beach for Southern California residents. Without local non-profit organizations, most of your favorite weekend activities would not exist.Non-profit organizations support many local events, as well as community programs that would not normally receive assistance. For a non-profit organization to flourish, it must have organization, structure, income, volunteers, a location, and events to move it forward. However, sometime with the fluctuation of the economy, it can make things difficult for the non-profit to move forward or even survive.
Local and National Economic Impact For nearly 3 years, the United States has suffered a recession of epic proportions. Charity and non-profit organizations are suffering more than ever as Americans struggle to save every penny possible.According to the National Bureau of Economic Research, in December 2007, the United States’ economy fell into recession. However, Dick Conway, a local economist and co-publisher of The Puget Sound Economic Forecaster, reported the Puget Sound region did not enter one until the end of 2008. Conway suggests that, “All of this is related to the collapse of the credit and housing markets” (James, 2009, para. 5). Because of this weak economy, not only nationally, regionally, and in local cities such as Seattle, citizens are much less likely to donate to worthwhile causes such as a non-profit community book drive.

Especially with unemployment in Washington state being as high as it is (9. 1%, about 323,400 people), and a record amount of deficit in the state budget, there is not much extra money to spread around. Mass layoffs in state jobs have increased with the recession. Some of the states’ largest companies are also feeling the sting of the drop in the economy. For example, in February 2010, the Seattle Times reported that Boeing issued a total of 1,020 layoff notices lasting 60 days, with 520 occurring locally. This came after 25 layoff notices in January “Boeing hands out 1,020 layoff warnings”, 2010, para. 1).
The Seattle Times also reports as of May 2009, another local company, Microsoft, was laying off employees affecting about 1,200 positions in Washington State. The official company statement said, “As part of the plan we announced in January to reduce costs and increase efficiencies, today we are eliminating additional positions across several areas of the company. While job eliminations are always difficult, we are taking these necessary actions in response to the global economic downturn” (Chan, 2009, para. 1, 4).These 2 companies, along with state jobs, are responsible for most of Washington’s economy. However, traditionally most people who live in the Northwest are very caring people and are always willing to help those in need, no matter what. However, like in any endeavor, organization is essential.
Organization of Book Festival Organization is crucial to successfully completing almost any task. Choose when and where the non profit book festival is going to take place. Once a non profit book festival has been chosen, first thing, it is essential to get organized right at the beginning.The first step to successful organization of a book festival is planning as far in advanced as possible and gathering plenty of volunteers. Along with recruiting volunteers, be sure to bring in some teachers, librarians, authors, and reading specialists to help bring credibility to the festival. Try to gather community support by seeking volunteers from city officials, school district faculty, city, and county volunteers as well. Last, but certainly not least, be sure to get students and parents involved, which will bring added enthusiasm to the project.
Now the ball is rolling and there are plenty of volunteers that are willing and able to contribute on various levels to ensure a successful non profit book festival. Second step to a well organized non profit book festival is to begin to spread the word on all levels of available media. People need to know all about the non profit book festival, from when, where, what, and who is going to be there. With so much technology available to people today, there are many avenues to approach advertising the book festival. Do not get overwhelmed with how to advertise.It is essential to remember, this is a non profit book festival, so people need to be resourceful and utilize what is available. Some very useful forms of advertising may be school newsletters, websites, signs, flyers, and local newspapers.
Third step to a successful non profit book fair is to remember it is a fair. A fair is supposed to be fun and appealing to all age levels, especially to students and readers. The book festival must be visually appealing, much like a carnival or fair. Make colorful displays with themes such as emphasis on a specific holiday, animals, undersea life, authors, and reading levels.Good visual appeal will draw the readers to view all the book festival has to offer. Remember, “Organization, communication, and a dash of fun will make your book fair an event to remember” (Prato, 2010, para. 1).
To showcase such an event, funds will need to be secured. Location, Advertising, and Disbursements One of the most difficult challenges of the nonprofit community book festival will fall on the location of the event. The most logical location will probably be at the cities biggest and most popular library. Using this location should help publicize the event. Advertising will also be a factor to the success of the festival.Good advertising through the city, local newspapers, and internet will provide good coverage for the event. Covering these bases will help build a good planning structure for the actual event.
The community book festival will need to be eye-catching and interactive to help promote individuals to donate and support the event. One idea is setting up autograph booths from well renowned authors, as well as up and coming local authors to promote their books. This will give readers a chance to meet the author, check out their other favorite books, and show the support needed for the festival.Catering the event will also be a necessity to provide finger foods and drinks to all guest and attendees for the event. To help promote more funds, a raffle and contest will be set up such as: speed-reading contest, a question game of how well you know your author, and raffling off books and gifts. This is a nonprofit event all funds will go towards covering the cost of the event. The disbursements of the total amount of income received from the fundraiser will be distributed by the person in charge of all the funds, usually an accountant in the committee.
All monies collected prior to the event will help pay for the location, catering, and most of the events activities. Funds that are collected during the event will also help cover some of the event activities, as well as payment of the author’s time to come to the event. Since we are a nonprofit organization, the idea will be to have the authors come on a charity basis, but if there is some cost to having authors come to the event the monies collected can help secure that issue.All other funds left over will be allocated to the city’s library system to help cover any cost for repairs or upgrades to these facilities. Fundraising Many non-profit organizations coordinate and participate in fundraising. There are countless ways to assist companies reach their financial goals. A key component to fundraising is to plan, plan and plan.
There is nothing more frustrating to attend a sponsorship or activity that has not been well thought out and organized. Therefore, there are a few basic steps and traditions to fundraising.The most customary way to fundraise a non-profit organization is through a variety of grants. The first step towards being awarded a grant is to create a proposal and then transition into grant writing. Grant writing is a tool to help gain support and money to sustain the cause. One good resource to issue grants is through the website USA. gov which is federally funded.
The second option is to fund through private foundations. There are going to be times that companies will have to think outside the box to experience a successful fundraising event.The most general ways to fundraise a book festival is through community events and activities. Bake sales are common for generating additional support. If there are great bakers, a bake sale fundraiser would be a good, comfortable option to raise money. Creating holiday baskets and auctioning the items off is another great way to fundraise and become profitable. Donating seasonal wreaths and displaying as a public sales has also been known to be successful.
Last but not least, car washes, especially those held during the summer months, can be a quick easy way to raise money needed for upcoming events.What a great way to collect funds and help others at the same time. Some people may prefer to donate their time and efforts instead of monetarily which can be a benefit. The non-profit organization will need help situating the table for the books. Today, it’s even more important to become creative and integrate innovative ideas to fundraise. According to Susie Vigon, she suggests to, “Partner with companies or events that will donate a percentage of their earnings to your organization” (Vigon, 2006, para. 4).
In addition, according to Susie, “Get a Massage for a good cause! This idea somewhat goes along with fundraising at other events. Instead of using your vendor spot for a silent auction or game of chance, get 2 massage therapists to come out and give $1 a minute chair massages. The therapists can either donate their time or do a 50-50 split with the organization. In the right venue, this can be contagious. Once people ‘see’ others getting chair massages, you will be surprised to see how fast they will want to get one too!These are just a few of the many ways you can create a buzz for your organization and fundraise at the same time by thinking outside the box. ” (Vigon, 2006, para. 5).
Overall fundraising for a non-profit organization requires considerable level of social networking. Building relationships, relating and sharing values, are all key aspects of building and developing a fundraising process. Book events can be very expensive to produce but can be done with the companies best partners. Regardless of what kind of non-profit organization is started, many factors can affect the outcome.The directors of such an organization must take into account its day to day operations and the status of the economy. Also vital to success of the organization, is the communities’ passion for the cause. Very little support will be given if the community as a whole does not care, or doesn’t know enough about the reason the non-profit exists.
Most of the time, advertising that is done for a non-profit comes out of their own pocket, therefore giving them a very little budget for popular ways of public advertisement that for profit companies take advantage of all the time.With proper awareness, prior planning, and a worthwhile cause, the community can come together and assist the non-profit on the road to success.References Boeing hands out 1,020 layoff warnings. (2010). SeattleTimes. com Retrieved from
com/html/businesstechnology/2011122372_boeing19.html”>http://seattletimes. nwsource. com/html/businesstechnology/2011122372_boeing19. html Chan, S. (2009). More layoffs at Microsoft today, says company e-mail from Steve Ballmer.
SeattleTimes. com Retrieved from http://blog. seattletimes. nwsource. com/techtracks/2009/05/05/more_layoffs_at_m


How Effective Is Community Policing In Preventing Crime?

This research paper will firstly approach the problematic nature of offering a fixed definition of community policing before analyzing specific country experiences from Europe and ASEAN member states. The research paper will then attempt to demonstrate the complexities of conducting comparative studies vis-a-vis community policing in order to highlight the significance of context. Context is extremely important in any understanding of community policing, as a one-sized fits all approach is inappropriate and sheds little light on the effectiveness of community policing initiatives.
It is primarily important to offer some definitions to aid an understanding of what some of the merits and/or limitations of community policing could be. Tilley has noted that fundamentally ‘community policing stresses policing with and for the community rather than policing of the community. It aspires to improve the quality of life in communities. In improving the quality of life it aims to solve community problems alongside the community and as defined by the community’ (Tilley 2008: 376-377). However, it must be acknowledged that community policing is an extremely broad fitting term, which subsequently makes any absolute definition problematic. At the crux of community policing is the concept of decentralization, which plays exceptionally well at the rhetorical level. This could give some indication as to how the discussion of community policing has spread so far and has such wide reaching appeal.

The lack of an unambiguous and incontestable definition from a social scientific perspective means that there is no benchmark from which to test the effectiveness of community policing. This is problematic because the notion of a community is not a fixed term, but is a social construction that changes depending on historical, social and cultural contexts. This is without mentioning the different relationships between the state and its citizens around the world, as well as the different judicial and policing systems within different countries themselves.
It has been suggested that community policing is ‘simply too amorphous a concept to submit to empirical evaluation’ (National Research Council Committee to Review Research on Police Policy and Practices 2004; Lombardo and Lough 2007). It is not that community policing produces no tangible outcomes, as there are effective and ineffective consequences. The problem is that community policing has become a sort of popularized buzz word that has been overused. This has diluted its meaning to a large extent, but some clarity must be afforded if an understanding of what the merits and limitations of community policing are to be achieved.
The contestable definition of community policing has been acknowledged. However, it still remains to state that like a community itself; community policing is a social construction that must be understood contextually. Brogden has noted that ‘the development of community policing in different national and local contexts reflects the tensions between the legal, cultural and organizational structures of policing’ (Brogden 1999: 167). It is therefore very difficult for the community policing model to be easily transplanted from one community to another. Local context and conditions ultimately dictate the perceived appropriateness of the community policing model.
Goldstein has argued the importance of a clear definition. ‘Critically, a clear definition enables both the community and police to be informed about the parameters of this policing model. In the past community policing has been oversold as a panacea for crime problems to the police and to the community’ (Goldstein 1994: VIII). This is problematic, but again at the rhetorical level seems to fit with public consensus regarding decentralization and autonomy, as people want to be able to control their own destiny and create solutions to problems which seem appropriate and logical to them. Edwards has also suggested that ‘almost anything that is not a reactive strategy to deal with a particular issue has been claimed as a community policing initiative’ (Edwards 1999: 76). This is also problematic because it has diluted the definition of community policing even further still.
The discussion above has focussed on the problematic nature of having no absolute definition of community policing. This comprises much of the literature on the subject and is reflective of its ability to stimulate debate internationally. The problem, as already acknowledged, is that community policing is not easily transferable to other communities. Compounded by fluid conceptualizations, it has meant that it is challenging to measure how effective community policing initiatives have been; because they are not the same within European countries let alone between Europe and ASEAN countries.
There are methodological challenges that need to be addressed because some of the existing literature has focussed analysis on post-conflict and transitional societies, for example, Northern Ireland and Poland. These case studies present significant operational as well as methodological challenges. The problem of conducting a thorough literature review in the space afforded in this research paper is apparent, as the literature on the subject is exhaustive. The need for definitional clarity in Scotland has facilitated seven principles being identified. These principles have accounted for the diverse communities that exist and are policed in Scotland. There is no need to list them here, but simply to acknowledge that any comparative study must account for the specific context of a community.
The cost of poor policing is apparent in Indonesia where ‘some 40 attacks on police stations and personnel since August are clear evidence that community policing, the centre-point of the police reform agenda, is not working; police are too quick to shoot, usually with live ammunition; and little progress has been made toward police accountability’ (Asia Report No. 218). It is therefore important to note that community policing is not a panacea for ending all criminality, but is dependent on other deep-rooted societal factors.
Angell and Miller have argued that many people, including academics ‘do not understand community policing for what it is – a significant crime prevention, community problem-solving, structural and operational alternative to the traditional bureaucratic criminal apprehension arrangements used in urban policing’ (Angell and Miller 1993). This is fine, so long as community policing is not fixed, but is constantly evolving in order to put the beneficiaries at the heart of policing initiatives. To truly put the community at the heart of policing initiatives requires the reassessment of the needs of a specific community. Again, this is problematic because this defines community policing too broadly to measure empirically.
After analyzing European and ASEAN approaches to community policing, it is apparent that these approaches are far from homogenous. This research paper has stressed that what is relevant, and how the problem is perceived and solved varies from country to country. If the definition of community policing is reduced to a broad conceptualization of policing ‘for the community’ and not ‘policing of the community’, then it could be argued that community policing is effective. What remains crucial regarding community policing is ownership, and that those who benefit are able to shape and define it. However, the problems of measuring the effectiveness of community policing within countries and conducting comparative studies between countries have been explored.
This research paper has concluded that there are tangible outcomes, which deal with and prevent crime, but these outcomes are dependent on identifying what is important to a particular community and that is dependent on context. In Scotland, for example, seven principles were identified to give definitional clarity to community policing. Another problem is, what should the criteria to measure effectiveness beClearly this would change depending on the needs of the community. To conclude that community policing is effective or ineffective in dealing with and preventing crime would be inappropriate because the social scientist is ill equipped to make such a declaration. It is equally inappropriate to compare countries, which have very different historical; social and cultural contexts and police structures.
Angell, John and Miller, Roger (1993). Community Policing. Alaska Justice Forum. 9 (4), 3-5.
Asia Report No. 218 (16 February 2012). “Indonesia: The Deadly Cost of Poor Policing”. (11 December 2012).
Brogden, Mike (1999). Community Policing as Cherry Pie. In Mawby, Rob (Ed.), Policing Across the World: Issues for the Twenty-First Century (pp. 167-186). Abingdon: Routledge.
Edwards, Charles (1999). Changing Police Theories for 21st Century Societies. Sydney: Federation Press.
Goldstein, Herman (1994). Forward. In Rosenbaum, Dennis (Ed.) The Challenge of Community Policing: Testing the Premises (pp. VIII-X ). Thousand Oaks: Sage.
Lombardo, Robert and Lough, Todd (2007). Community Policing: Broken Windows, Community Building, and Satisfaction with the Police. Police Journal. 80 (2), 117-140.
National Research Council Committee to Review Research on Police Policy and Practices (2004). Fairness and Effectiveness in Policing: the Evidence. Washington, DC: National Academic Press.
Tilley, Nick (2008). Modern Approaches to Policing: Community, Problem-Oriented and Intelligence-Led. In Newburn, Tim (Ed.), The Handbook of Policing (pp. 373-403). Cullompton: Willan.


Community Development Practical Approach

GROUP PRESENTATION ESSAY As part of ‘Community Development in Practice, we went on a field trip to two community organisations, Tallaght Community Arts and St. Kevin’s Family Resource Centre. The purpose of which was to look at how each project practices the principles of community development as described by the Ad Hoc Committee (2008). We had to work as a group of 3 students which included Samantha Hogan, Anthony Kelly and Elaine Vince-O’Hara, to put together a group presentation on the project of our choice.
We chose St. Kevin’s Family Recourse Centre as it is a grassroots community development organisation which we believe every community needs. St. Kevin’s Family Resource Centre St. Kevin’s Family Resource Centre is a community organisation and is based in a local primary school in Kilnamanagh, Tallaght, and whose remit covers the areas of Kilnamanagh, Tymon North and Kingswood. Established in 1994, they were one of only three ‘pilot’ Family Resource Centres (FRC) funded through the Family Support Agency.
The centre is managed by a voluntary board of management of which 70% are people from the local community and run by Grainne Begley, the Co-ordinator, Cynthia Moore, the Administrator and a large group of 25 volunteers for additional support. St. Kevin’s have a number of training rooms, counselling/ holistic therapy rooms, a youth cafe and a community childcare centre. They have an open door policy, where community members are at all times welcome to drop in and see what’s happening in their community.

They have five key areas of work; Community Education, Supporting Community and Voluntary Groups, Counselling ;amp; Holistic therapy, Childcare and Youth Work. St. Kevin’s Mission Statement: ‘St. Kevin’s Family Resource Centre is a community organisation whose mission is to bring about change through the process of empowerment and support at family, individual and community level. ’ St Kevin’s describe themselves as: ‘a thriving and integral part of the community development structures in the area…. social inclusion organisation… concerned about the people in the community who…. are not participating in society to their fullest potential’ (St. Kevin’s FRC Work Plan 2010-2012). They work out of the values and principles of community development as described by the Ad Hoc Committee (2008) as they strive towards social justice, equality and anti-discrimination through participation, empowerment and collective action to support individuals, families and their wider communities and this is evident throughout their work.
They practice the principle of participation by aiming to meet the needs of the local community, enabling them to gain the skills necessary for full participation: They do this through a community consultation process for their work plans and the provision of; community education programmes, a counselling service to help overcome many issues including oppression, holistic therapies to promote individual well being and community childcare which provides people with the opportunity to participate and become empowered.
St. Kevin’s practice the principles of empowerment as they: acknowledge value and build on people’s lives and existing experiences which is the basis of the community education which they provide. They work with people to; build an understanding of their reality and identify ways to overcome them and build confidence and self-esteem through the provision of their counselling service and holistic therapies offered. St.
Kevin’s practice the principles of collective action as they collaborate and build alliances with other groups, organisations and agencies in order to advance key community objectives, they do this through their support of diverse user groups and networking with various agencies including; South Dublin Community Platform (SDCP), Active Citizenship Together (ACT), South Dublin County Council (SDCC), the County Development Board (CDB) This ‘process empowers the community to develop new skills and be more pro-active in their own learning’. Impacts include empowerment of groups, sustaining their development and development of partnership relationships between the Centre and new groups’. ‘There is a large increase in community activity’. Motherway, B (2006) St. Kevin’s practice the principles of social justice by building strategic alliances and encouraging active participation to create awareness of the work of the family resource centre, in order to bring about social change. They work with the community in developing appropriate responses to identified needs through consultation with the community and they provide pportunities to access community education for the purpose of achieving personal and community development. They build the capacity of the management committee and continue to build a strong community development organisation to ensure that resources are utilised to their maximum effect ‘provide a safe, inclusive, happy childcare facility where children can grow and develop in confidence, thus supporting the family’ (St. Kevin’s Family Resource Centre Work Plan 2010-2012) St.
Kevin’s practice Equality ;amp; Anti Discrimination in acknowledging the diverse nature of their local community, where 20% are lone parents, 25% having no formal education, 10% have a disability, 8% are from an ethnic minority family and there is a high rate of unemployment. They promote difference and diversity, evidenced by their active role in developing a strategy to promote the integration of travellers and ethnic minorities, which was put forward to the County Development Board for consideration.
They also promote understanding and analysis of equality issues, and strategies to address them within communities through their community education programmes. Challenges Some of the current challenges faced by St. Kevin’s include: adapting to the impact of the recession including: trying to meet the needs of unemployed people accessing the service who are looking to up skill and or retrain, having to reduce the number of community education programmes due to cuts and people not engaging due to the social and economic difficulties which are hindering their ability to participate.
Successes As well as challenges they have had many successes, primarily the development and progression of a hugely successful and affordable community childcare centre, which started over twenty years ago as a two parent, parent and toddler group and grew through true grassroots community development ‘by the people, for the people’. To this day a weekly parent and toddler group are still going strong with up to 40 families taking part. Cynthia Moore, another success first became involved in St. Kevin’s FRC as a participant.
She went on to complete a community employment scheme in the centre after which she secured part-time paid employment as the administrator. She continued to participate on many community education courses and through empowerment she eventually gained the confidence to undertake a Leadership ;amp; Community Development degree course which she successfully completed in 2011. Cynthia continues in her role of Administrator and she also volunteers as a ‘Rainbows’ facilitator, a peer mentoring programme aimed at supporting young people suffering varying degrees of bereavement and loss.
Cynthia has come full circle and is a great example of what community development and community education are about and of the outcomes it has the potential to achieve. Other successes include; many previous centre users coming back to help out in a voluntary capacity, their ability to provide support to and facilitate many diverse groups, continued provision of community education, which empowers members of the community to take charge of their lives and participate in their community and their ability to network with various agencies and take lead roles in devising strategies.
Conclusion Over the last 18 years the centre has grown and adapted to the ever changing needs of the community and is now a thriving and integral part of the community development structures in the area. As we see it, by continuing to work out of the principles and practices of community development as described by the Ad Hoc Committee, St.
Kevin’s Family Resource Centre will continue to achieve effective community development, overcome challenges faced and continue to have many more successes in the future. Bibliography: Ad Hoc Committee (2008) Towards Standards for Quality Community Work, Dublin Motherway, Brian (2006) the Role of Community Development in Tackling Poverty in Ireland, Dublin, Combat Poverty Agency St. Kevin’s Family Resource Centre, Work Plan 2010-2012 Samantha Hogan Anthony Kelly Elaine Vince O’Hara 10th October 2012