Essay Summary of Communication in the Workplace

• Module Code: PM 025 • Class/Group: Group A • Module Title: Contemporary Organisational Behaviour • Assignment Title: Final Essay • Assignment Title: Communication in the workplace • Tutor Name: Frenie Antony • Student ID Number: 2059591 • Date of Submission: 21st Match 2013 Communication in the workplace The definition of communication is ‘a process in which information and its meaning (common understanding) is conveyed by a sender to receiver (s)’ (Rollinson and Broadfield, 2002:612, and Jones and George, 2011, cited in Antony and Macvicar, 2011:146).
In Rollinson and Broadfield’s theory ‘meaning’ was more important than ‘information’, as long as both sender and receiver can understand the meaning of information, even the feedback is not necessarily in the communication ptocess. In addition, ‘The exchange of ideas and information is the lifeblood of any organization. ’ (Hodge and Johnson, 1970: 93). In the other words, communication for an organization is the same as the blood flow for human being. (Conrad and Poole, 2012:5).
Furthermore, according to Hodge and Johnson (1970) and O’Reilly and Pondy (1979), Dekay (2012) communication shaped the organization by interaction the organization and its environment, as the result, communication maybe the only connection between the organization and outside world. Besides, The majority aim of communication was enhance the connection between different roles in the company and smooth the working processes (Smith and Davidson, 1991, cited in Smith 1991:22).

Therefore, Williams’s and Smith and Davidson’s ideas might argue that the purpose of communication in the workplace was improving the work efficiency and finally increasing the profit. This essay will argue that barrier to communication in the organization may not only influence the further market expansion of company, but also push the company to the edge of bankrupt, as its can distortion the meaning of information during the communication process.
Furthermore, this essay will mainly divided into two parts, first, indicate the communication processes in the organization and verify some barriers (power difference barrier, cultural diversity barrier, individual perception barrier and so on) during the communication processes, second, inspect three case study of different companies (Bernard Matthew farms, The Luxor Company, Exxon Mobil, BP, Shell and ChevronTexaco) which had conquered the communication barriers.
Normally, there were three directions of communication in the workplace: ‘vertically’ (superior and subordinate), ‘laterally’ (horizontal), and ‘diagonally’ (Rollinson and Broadfield, 2002:627). Furthermore, the communication processes unsurely consisted of two parts, the sender and receiver (Williams 1991, cited Smith, 1991:120 and Hodge and Johnson, 1970:150, Rollinson and Broadfield, 2002:612). On one hand, sender wanted to transfer an idea, the idea needed to be ‘Encoded’, which means translated the message into general language.
Then choosing a ‘Channel’, for instance, by e-mail, by telephone, put an advertisement and so on. After that, receiver received the massage from sender and they should try to ‘Decoded’ the message, which means the receiver should try to understand what sender’s meaning, at last gave respond (feedback) to the sender (Rollinson and Broadfield, 2002:617 and Buelens et al, 2011, cited in Antony and MacVicar, 2011:109). On the other hand, the barriers, which called ‘Noise’, existed during these six processes, and might lead to organization ‘communication collapses’, even worse, the bankrupt of company (Hodge and Johnson, 1970: 151).
The barriers of communication often separated into two parts: ‘external barriers to the communication’ and ‘internal barriers to the communication’ (Williams 1991, cited in Smith, 1991:117, and Coulson-Thomas and Coulson-Thomas, 1997:267). To be more specific, first, external barrier often indicated as: neglect the extra message, ignore the importance of the information that processes it all followed by first-come-first-served rule, and slack to the responsibility (Williams 1991, cited in Smith, 1991:117).
Second, there were five performance of internal barrier: first, could not find a need of communication, second, careless in understanding the information or tend to not correspond at all. Third, ‘Encoded’ problem, the sender introduce in professional way that make message unclear or the sender executed it in a wrong ‘channel’, the message could not receive by target customer. Fourth, the message might tamper during the transfer. Fifth, the personality might influence people’s understanding and acceptance of the message (ibid).
The lack of communication might trigger a death for a company. For example, Bernard Matthews farms (the largest turkey supplier in the UK) started to lose reputation since 2005, because of the incident of unhealthy turkey for students in improve-school-meal program, then reached at the peak because of outbreak of bird flu and exposure of imported turkey from abroad, which against the idea of company. What was worse, Matthews never responded and defended themselves to the media in time (The Times 100, 2012).
With reference to Williams’s (1991, cited in Smith, 1991:117) theory, the farm met one of the external communication barriers that the manager notice the problem they faced, however, took no respond of it. Before Matthews took any actions the company already lost 35% of selling in the UK, and it was standing on the edge of bankrupt (The Times 100, 2012). As mentioned above, the purpose of communication is to make organization work better and increasing the profit.
With reference of Rollinson’s theory (2002: 617), during the improved communication processes, Bernard Matthews acted in three ways to simulate the internal stakeholders: formal written (weekly newsletters), electronic communication (company’s intranet site), and face to face communication. While Bernard also try to change external stakeholders’ attitude by: internet (four websites with different target customer) and social media (advertisement).
These series of action offered high information richness which easily understood and accepted by both internal and external stakeholders, in addition, it rescued the Bernard Matthews farms from bankrupt to 9% annual increasing rate. To sum up, an effective communication, both internal and external, could help overcome the barriers and change the loss position. The communication could not only help company changing the loss position, but also make great effort for company’s further development.
The Luxor Company (manufactures domestic and office furniture), which headquarters had 750 employees approximately and located in outskirts of Paris , for instance, increased dramatically in a short time that the CEO of company, Charles Binochet, realised everything seemed to be not working as smoothly as before. Furthermore, Charles believed that the rapid development would become a serious barrier when the next wave of market expansion coming (Rollinson and Broadfield, 2002:626).
According to Williams (1991, sited in Smith, 1991:117), the barriers of the Luxor Company was external communication barriers, which means both the employers and the employees could not take care of the extra information, ignore the importance of the different information, and slack to the responsibility to the company. By hiring a consultant the Luxor Company solved problem of the lack of connection between production and marketing and no financial control system problem (Roillinson and Broadfield, 2002:626). However, the chaos of relations in the organization still existed.
After some discussion, the Luxor tried to keep all of its in touch with company and its actions by provide the formal information which contained the high information richness (displayed four company’s situation chart which including ‘Number of employees’, ‘Output’, ‘investment in new plant and machinery’, and ‘New product lines added’) (ibid). Although the feedback of this action might come slowly and seldom, according to Roillinson and Broadfield (2002:612) as long as the receiver understood the information, feedback was less important in the communication.
The charts, which might help employees to understand the company’s operation and their contribution to the company, leaded to hard working performance of employees (Roillinson and Broadfield, 2002:626). As a result, it improved communication with company and employees that not only improved the employees’ motivation but also might offer a significant assistant in company’s next expansion. Many multinational corporations had the same communication barriers as the Luxor Company, during the processes of taking collaborative advantage (Hansen and Nohria, 2004: 22).
Nowadays, increasing international competition lead the company, for instance, Exxon Mobil, BP, Shell and ChevronTexaco (multinational corporations) were losing their dominant position than before. To recover the position and to increase the profit, they were willing to seek a new source, where collaboration might work, to increase the competitive advantage (ibid). Hansen and Nohria (2004:23) claimed that collaboration had several benefits: decreased the cost, better decision making, increased the revenue, be more creative, and enhanced the connection with its subsidiaries.
During the processes of taking collaborative advantage, there was a significant barrier called: ‘Inability to work together and transfer knowledge’, which Hansen and Nohria considered it as a communication barrier (ibid). The employees from different subsidiaries which belonged to different countries, suffering the language barrier (language different) and intercultural barrier (message changed because of local culture) (ibid).
According to Williams (1991, cited in Smith, 1991:117), the MNCs often had external communication barriers, which indicated as personality (culture different) influence the understanding and acceptance of the message and the message had been distorted (translate language) during the transfer. After a survey from supervisors, the companies decided to operate two actions to encourage the communication: First, setting an international standard of technologies words to conquer the communication.
Second, setting an employee-exchange-program that employee could understand the culture different and improve the work efficiency. With reference to Rollinson and Broadfield (2002:617) theory, the first solution settled the encode and decode barriers, while second solution was choosing the ‘channel’, which was exchanged the employees to other subsidiaries, to increase the understanding and to solve the distortion barriers.
To conclude, this essay has identified the communication in the workplace which included the communication barriers in the organization and purpose of communication, follow with three case studies about communication barriers, which including first, Bernard Matthews farms developed internal and external stakeholder by communication to rescue the loss position, second, the Luxor Company’s communicational-bias-further-development, third, communication helped multinational corporations to develop collaborative. As a result, communication in the workplace is critical important.
Related essay: “Advice About Communication”
However, the limitation of this essay still existed, the communication barriers identified not enough in this essay and the case study of this essay might be fewer representatives of the communication barriers. Words: 1616 Reference Antony, F. and MacVicar, A. (2011). Contemporary Organisation Behaviour. New York: McGraw-Hill. Argyris, Chris (1994). Good Communication That Block Leaning. Harvard Business Review, July-August, 1994, 77-85. Conrad, C. C. and Poole, M. S. (2012). Strategic Organizational Communication: In a Global Economy. U.
K. : John Wiley and Sons. Coulson-Thomas, C. (1997). The Future of the Organization: Achieving Excellence through Business Transformation. London: Kogan Page. Dekay, S. H. (2012). Interpersonal communication in the workplace: A Largely Unexplored Region. Business Communication Quarterly, 75 (4), 449-452. Hansen, M. T. and Nohria, N. (2004), How to Build Collaborative Advantage. MIT Sloan Management Review, Fall, 46, 1, 22-30, 2004. Hodge, B. J. and Johnson, H. J. (1970). Management and Organizational Behavior: A Multidimensional Approach.
United States of America: John Wiley and Sons. O’Reilly, C. A. and Pondy, L. R. (1979). Organizational Communication. Columbus HO: Grid Rollinson, D. with Broadfield, A. (2002). Organisational Behaviour and Analysis: An Integrated Approach. London: Pearson Education. Smith, M. (1991). Analysing Organization Behavior. London: Macmillan Education. The Times 100 Business Case Studies. (2012). Communication with stakeholders: A Bernard Matthews case study. Retrieved October 28th, 2012 from: http://businesscasestudies. co. uk/bernard-matthews /communicating-with-stakeholders/


Marketing Communications

Some of the aspects that characterize the present-day business environment include its increasing dynamism, volatility and uncertainty. This poses challenges for businesses that are rigid and not well prepared to change with the transformations in the market (Williamson et al., 2013). On the other hand, it creates opportunities for companies that have the capability of implementing necessary changes that will make them remain relevant to their target markets. Some of the main areas that have been changing in organizations in recent years include management and communication styles, organizational structures, approaches to marketing and the utilization of technology in different departments within organizations (Shimp & Andrews, 2013; Diefenbach & Todnem, 2012). This paper intends to address several issues that relate to the changes and developments taking place in the business environment. It presents an analysis or opportunities and threats that companies like Yahoo and Google face in relation to the rapid technological advancements. It also addresses the appropriate communication approaches that companies should use to facilitate internal and external communication and the communication mix that is used at Apple to market itself to its target clients. In relation to this, the report presents an analysis of a communication campaign used by Nike, a leading sports’ equipment and apparel manufactures in the UK, to establish how effective it is in attaining its marketing objectives.
Opportunities and Threats for Google and Yahoo in regard to rapid technological changes

Google and Yahoo are some of the well renowned internet-based companies that offer search engine and e-mail services to a wide range of users. Both companies also deal in software development. Based on the services and products offered by these companies, they are directly affected by technological advancements, especially in the ICT sector (Segev & Ahituv, 2010). The opportunities and threats that these advancements expose the companies to are discussed in this section.
There are several opportunities presented to these companies as a result of technological advancement. One of these is that it provides a wide range of avenues through which the companies can communicate with their clients and vice versa (Hundal & Grover, 2012). It also provides increased avenues through which the companies can market their products. Technological advancements in the ICT sector across the globe have also led to an increase in internet accessibility. For Yahoo and Google, an increase in internet accessibility provides an opportunity for them to earn more revenue through advertisements (Shih et al., 2013). This is because they are among the most visited websites internationally. Google is ranked as the most visited website, while Yahoo is ranked the fourth (Alexa, 2014). Being business oriented, technological advancement will also make it possible for them to market their products and services to a wider market base through strategic marketing communication strategies. It also provides an opportunity for them to launch e-commerce strategies, which are cost-effective for the company and convenient for clients.
Among the advancements that have taken place is the development and increased use of smartphones (Persaud & Azhar, 2012). Given that both companies deal in software development, it provides an opportunity for them to create revenue from developing applications that can be used on these devices. Google has effectively taken advantage of this advancement and has developed the Android operating system (Gandhewar & Sheikh, 2011). The fact that its operating system is compatible with many mobile devices like manufactured by different companies like Samsung and LG increases its usability. With the growing number of global populations using smartphones, the company has a lot to benefit as Android is among the top smartphone operating systems (Butler, 2011).
With the increase in the technological advancements in the market, these companies are also exposed to a range of threats (Lovelock & Wirtz, 2011). One of these is the increase in competition from other companies that provide the same products and services. With internet companies like Twitter and Facebook having a growing number of users, they provide a threat for Yahoo and Google in terms advertising revenues (Lagrosen & Josefsson, 2011). There is also a possibility of other internet based companies coming up to provide stiffer competition. In the software business, Google’s Android operating system faces a threat from Apple’s iOS, if it decides to adjust it and make it compatible to other devices (Butler, 2011). Other technology companies may also come up with more innovative products and better marketing approaches than Google and Yahoo, which might reduce their current market shares.
Another threat that is associated with technological advancements is posed to the human resources of these companies. Employees face the risk of losing jobs because a wide range of jobs that were initially handled by people can now be done even better by machines (Lovelock & Wirtz, 2011). Even though this might come as a relief for these companies as they cut salary costs, the fact that these advancements may increase unemployment undermines the social responsibility efforts that these companies may have.
The increase in technological advancements also increases the levels of cyber crime. Even though the systems of Yahoo and Google may be secure from this risk, given that they have measures in place to address this issue, clients who have opened email accounts with them may not be as secure. Hackers may gain access to their emails, obtain their personal information and use it against them. Even though such cases might occur as a result of low email security measures by the user, some of them tend to blame the email hosting companies like Yahoo or Google as being the reasons for their predicaments. As a result, this ruins the reputation of these companies.
Communication at Google
Internal and external communication
Communication is among the aspects of a business that are paramount to its success. Internal communication refers to the passing of messages or information within the organization. This could be within the same department or interdepartmental communication (Wright, 2012). External communication refers to the communication that goes on between the organization and external stakeholders, who mainly comprise of customers.
When carrying out internal communication, there are several factors that have to be considered. For instance, the messages ought to be confidential to avoid access from external parties. In this case, Google has a company intranet, which consists of an internal message board and email system (Goodman, 2006). This can only be accessed by company employees who have been allocated usernames and passwords. These channels of communications have been highly secured, making it impossible for an external party to access the information or messages passed.
Internal communication in organizations also has to be effective and quick. For Google, this is facilitated by the fact that it has a horizontal communication structure. According to Butler (2010), horizontal or lateral communication is the free flow of information or messages across different functional groups in the organization. Employees and managers across all departments and employee levels at Google interact freely without any hierarchical boundaries (The Financial Express, 2005). This approach to communication enhances cooperation among employees and also quickens the process of resolving conflict. On the contrary, it reduces the authority of departmental heads in the organization.
External communication is meant to promote products or services offered by the company, or to advertise its clients’ products to a wide range of customers (Wright, 2012). It can also be meant to engage with customers with the aim of making them feel like they are part of the organization. Depending on the aim that is to be met by external communication, there are several measures that can be used. One of the most effective tools that the company uses to accomplish this is through its website. Based on the fact that its website is the most visited in the world, there is a high level of surety that it will communicate to a wide audience (Segev & Ahituv, 2010). Even with the high number of visits on the company’s website, many customers who may be targeted by the messages might not be among the website visitors. Thus, another alternative option that the company uses is through sending e-mail messages directed to certain clients that could be interested in the goods or services of the company. In 2012, the company spent over $231 million in marketing its products, which include the Google+ social media platform, Gmail and the Google Chrome web browser (Efrati, 2012).
Market communication theories relevant to the communication strategy
There are several marketing communication theories that can be considered as being relevant to the communication strategies utilized at Google. One of these is the heightened appreciation model (Dahlen et al., 2010). It is based on the fact that companies need to carry out consumer market research to establish the key attribute that attracts consumers to a brand. Market communication strategies are then designed to link the identified attributes of the product or service to the brand (Fill & Hughes, 2013). For instance, in the advertisement of its Google+ service, the company is aware of the need for people to interact and share instant messages and videos on social media. Google then links this need in the market to Google+, encouraging more clients to subscribe.
Another model that can be used to represent the market communication strategies at Google is the advertising exposure model. This model suggests that advertisement objectives can only be met if it created five effects to the target consumer (Fill & Hughes, 2013). These effects are; creation of awareness, conveying messages about the positive attributes of the products, generation of feelings among the target audiences towards the brand, creating a brand personality and triggering purchase intentions (Dahlen et al., 2010). This model also relates to the advertisement efforts that have been implemented by Google as it markets a wider range of its products.
The AIDA model can also be used in explaining marketing communication. It is regarded as one of the oldest and most popular market communication models. This model states that there is a hierarchy of events that have to occur for a marketing communication strategy to be termed as having been successful. In chronological order, these are attention, interest, desire, and action. After the attention of the target clients have been drawn, marketers are required to raise their interest in the products or services being advertised through highlighting their advantages. After this has been done a sense of desire is created in the clients by providing them with the assurance that the products or services will satisfy their needs. This will trigger action from the buyer, which is demonstrated by making the purchase. At Google, this model has been widely used, especially when it spent approximately 231 million to market its products in 2012 (Efrati, 2012). However, this model has received criticism for being out-dated and irrelevant for the present market environment.
The Communication Mix of Apple
The communication mix is referred to as the specific approaches that are used by companies to promote their services or products to their target customers. There are five elements that make up a communication mix. These are discounts and promotions, public relations, direct marketing communication, advertising and personal selling (Wright, 2012). At Apple, the marketing mix element that is mainly used is direct marketing communication. This approach involves interactive communication with the aim of seeking a certain response from the target audiences. With reference to the recent development at Apple when it was preparing to acquire PrimeSense, an Israeli 3D chip developer, it was vital for the company to inform its external and internal stakeholders or the impending acquisition (Velazco, 2013). Some of the approaches that the company could use to pass this information include direct email communication, social media interaction with its clients and through its website. The company has maintained a large customer data base that contains the contacts of its customers and other Apple stakeholders (Wright, 2012). This also makes it easy for the company to pass such vital information directly to its customers and other external stakeholders. Internal stakeholders, who mainly comprise of employees, can be formally informed through circulation of a memo or posting the message on internal communication platforms.
Importance of Cross-functional communication
Cross-functional communication is applicable within the organization. It is referred to as the communication among people from different departments or functional groups in the organization (Shimp & Andrews, 2013). The importance of cross-functional communication that is beneficial to Apple Inc is the fact that it enhances cooperation within the organization as different teams work towards attaining the same organizational goal. Encouraging cross functional communication also promotes awareness of whatever is taking place across the entire organization, which eliminates cases of ignorance of misinformation. Some of the challenges that are associated with ineffective cross-functional communication in organizations include the failure for members of certain departments in the organization to appreciate or recognise the contributions made by other departments (Diefenbach & Todnem, 2012). This may result to destructive rivalry that may affect the attainment of organizational goals adversely. In a scenario where Apple might plan to acquire another company, cross-functional communication enables all the departments to be equally ready for any changes or additional responsibilities that may arise after the acquisition (Diefenbach & Todnem, 2012).
Analysis of an integrated Marketing communications campaign
Marketing communication campaigns are defined as strategies that are implemented by organizations with the aim of increasing market awareness about their products or services. This is usually with the aim of increasing the purchasing intentions of the target audience. According to (Bergemann & Bonatti, 2011), ideal integrated marketing communication strategies effectively coordinate all product promotional messages to ensure that they are all consistent. This section presents a market communication campaign that was launched by Nike, a company that deals in the manufacture and distribution of sports equipment (Nike, 2014).
The marketing communication campaign was implemented with the aim of increasing the company’s market share in the UK to extend its lead. This is as a result of the stiff competition from Adidas (Thomasson, 2014). The campaign intended to make use of all the available avenues to increase awareness of the UK market about the brand. It also intended to market the new products that it had launched and seen as appropriate for the target market. These mainly included sports shoes. This marketing communications campaign targeted a wide range of customers, who ranged from 18 to 50 years of age (Nike, 2014).
Factors that make the campaign successful
There are several aspects of the campaign that make this campaign successful in attaining its originally set goals. One of these is the wide range of media outlets were used to pass the message to the audience, basing on the fact that media consumption varies among individuals within different age groups (Bergemann & Bonatti, 2011). Another factor that made the communication campaign successful was the fact that it highlighted the favourable attributes of the company’s products, which included the affordable prices and the comfort of the shoes. Referring to the heightened appreciation model, this is an effective trigger of purchase intentions among the target audiences (Fill & Hughes, 2013). Given that this marketing communication campaign was strategically designed, the only aspect that could undermine its capability to attain the intended goals is the launch of a similar or better campaign by its key competitors.
Media Used
Different forms of media were used in this campaign to increase the size of the audience that could be reached. These were classified as print, broadcast and interactive media. Print media comprised of newspapers and magazines. These targeted different clients. For instance, ads that were placed in fashion magazines targeted the fashion enthusiasts who could need Nike’s products to work out. Broadcast media basically comprise of radio and TV (Lamb et al., 2008). Different market segments were targeted by advertising on a wide range of TV and radio channels, and at different times. Given that communication campaigns in print and broadcast media are one way, they were designed to contain as much information as possible to answer any questions that clients could have regarding the product (Bergemann & Bonatti, 2011).
Interactive media comprised of all the media outlets that could allow the company and its clients to engage real-time with each other (Correa et al., 2010). These comprised of social networking, mobile and via the company’s blog. As opposed to print and broadcast media platforms, interactive media provided capabilities for the company and target customers to engage constructively (Kim & Ko, 2012). Some of the major social media platforms that are ideal for such form of communication between companies and customers include Facebook, Twitter and Google+. Despite the advantage of real-time engagement that social media presents for companies, information on a flaw of negative attribute on the product spreads very fast (Correa et al., 2010).
This paper has covered a wide range of issues that relate to the present-day business environment. In regard to the technological advancements that are taking place in the present-day business environment, Google and Yahoo have been used as cases to discuss the opportunities and threats that these advancements present to the company. The paper has also presented an overview of internal and external communication in Google, which has incorporates that factors that are considered and the channels that are used in the communication. Different marketing communication theories have also been presented. These include the heightened appreciation model and the advertising exposure model. In the paper, different organizations have been used in the explanation of various concepts presented. Based on the arguments that have been presented in the paper, companies have to ensure that they effectively communicate with their customers and also encourage cross-functional communication so as to succeed in the current hypercompetitive business environment. Failure to implement an appropriate communication mix will not only have adverse effects on the marketing efforts of the company, but will also hamper internal operations. For future research, the marketing communication theories and models should be analyzed more broadly so as to establish their relevance to different businesses.
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Digital Communications

OBSERVATION The modicom 1 board, first in my observation is the power input these are the electrical input connections necessary to power the module. The LJ Technical Systems’ “I. C. Power 60” or “System Power 90” is the recommended power supplies. Then second is the sampling control logic is the circuitry generates the timing and control signals that sample the input waveform, and also creates a sinusoidal 1 kHz signal for use during the MODICOM 1 practical exercises.
It is recommended that this signal is used for most of the experiments, as you will find that it is difficult to synchronize more than one oscilloscope trace when the input comes from an external source. Then third is the sampling circuit is the signal at the ANALOG INPUT socket is sampled at a rate, and for duration, which depends on the applied sampling control signal. Then fourth is the second order low pass filter this is a filter having a 3. 4 kHz bandwidth.
Then lastly is the fourth order low pass filter is similar to the Second Order Low Pass Filter but has a steeper cut off gradient (represented by the graph on the board). CONCLUSION MODICOM 1 incorporates and on-board waveform generator that can be selected to provide a 1 kHz sine wave. An on-board pulse generator, giving a choice of 5 discrete sampling frequencies and 9 discrete duty cycles, is also provided. These on-board signal sources are phase locked, ensuring that the sampled waveforms appear stationary when observed on an oscilloscope. OBSERVATION

In the experiment, we study the Modicom 1 Demonstration. The purpose of this is to understand the functions of each block using input analog signal. We connect the supplies to the board; we ensure sampling control board “internal” position. The duty cycle selector position is in 5. We link 1 kHz sine wave output to analog input. Then we turn on the power supply. Ensuring that all the connection are connected properly. We need to display the input sine wave and sample output and we link the sample output to the input of fourth order low pass filter.
We display the output of the fourth order low pass filter. Successively press the frequency selector and observe the effect on the signal. CONCLUSION The sample and hold circuit stores electric charge in a capacitor and contains at least one fast FET switch and at least one operational amplifier. To sample the input signal the switch connects the capacitor to the output of a buffer amplifier. The buffer amplifier charges or discharges the capacitor so that the voltage across the capacitor is practically equal, or proportional to, input voltage.
In hold mode the switch disconnects the capacitor from the buffer. The capacitor is invariably discharged by its own leakage currents and useful load currents, which makes the circuit inherently volatile, but the loss of voltage (voltage drop) within a specified hold time remains within an acceptable error margin. Therefore The sample and hold circuits are essentially used in linear systems. In some kinds of analog-to-digital converters, the input is often compared to a voltage generated internally from a digital-to-analog converter (D-A-C).
The circuit tries a series of values and stops converting once the voltages are “the same” within some defined error margin. If the input value was permitted to change during this comparison process, the resulting conversion would be inaccurate and possibly completely unrelated to the true input value. Such successive approximation converters will often incorporate internal sample and hold circuitry. In addition, sample and hold circuits are often used when multiple samples need to be measured at the same time. Each value is sampled and held, using a common sample clock.


Green Communications and Networking

Green Communications and Networking can bring about a momentous reduction in energy consumption in the information and communication technology (ICT) industry and with other industries. Now a days, there great research in green communications and networking for next-generation wired, wireless, and smart-grid networks and also cutting-edge algorithms, protocols, and network architectures to improve energy efficiency in communication networks has been done.
There are a variety of aspects of modeling, analysis, design, management, deployment, and optimization of algorithms, protocols, and architectures of green communications and networking. There are many energy-efficient hardware platforms, physical layer, networking, and applications. Recently, a new solution for delivering green last-mile access: broadband wireless access with fiber-connected massively distributed antennas (BWA-FMDA) has been made. Surveying a delegate number of demand and response methods in smart grids, we become experts in understanding of smart grid dynamics needed to participate in the development of next-generation wireless cellular network.

At the present time, the world of telecommunications and information communities is facing a more and more severe challenge, specifically on one side the transmitted multimedia rich data are blowing up at a remarkable swiftness and on the other side the total energy consumption by the communication and networking devices and the relevant global CO2 production are growing dreadfully. furthermore, to find radio networking solutions that can really progress energy effectiveness in addition to resource efficiency (Green Communications) is not only advantage for the global environment but also makes profitable logic for telecommunication operators supporting sustainable and profitable business.
What is Green Communications?
When discussing green technologies numerous terms are often used and misused. One of the key issues when discussing green communications is what is exactly meant with ‘green’ communications. It is logical to suppose that a synonym for ‘green’ is ‘environmentally friendly’. But environmentally friendly is a wide term. Due to the dilemma of global warming and the related weather change, the carbon emissions presently receive most concentration. on the other hand, when concerning an environmentally friendly solution, issues like air, water and soil excellence, fortification of the ozone layer, use of natural resources, waste reduction etc. require to be measured as well.
Telecommunications equipment classically contains a substantial quantity of limited materials and heavy metals. Both the extraction of these materials, classically through mining, and the handling of the waste symbolize a large environmental defy. From these we can obtain the quantity of waste formed with and without material recycling. When making an allowance for green technologies the complete life cycle has to be taken into account.
Direct and Indirect Impacts
Direct impacts are directly related to the implementation of the considered solution. For example, implementing a solution which reduces the energy consumption of a service results in a direct impact.
Indirect impacts of solutions are related to the broader penalty of the acceptance of the solution. For example, adoption of email may lead to a higher environmental impact of ICT but at the same time reduce the number of letters being sent which in turn leads to less impact of transport, paper usage, etc..
Mobile Devices
We believe three categories of devices accessing the network: regular mobile phones, smart phones, and laptops. Modeling of the footprint of regular mobile phones is based on cradle to gate. LCA studies of mobile phone manufacturing including the transport to the customers resulting in an average of 18 kg CO2e/device. The operation is estimated to 2 kWh/year based on charging every 60th hour equal to 40 percent of battery capacity every day and a standby scenario of 50 percent of the remaining time. It must be noted that modern mobile phone chargers have low stand-by power consumption in the order of 0.1 W. Based on current trends, we project that manufacturing and operation emissions of laptops decrease by five percent per year.
Radio Access Networks
Concrete figures of the carbon footprint of site manufacturing and construction for the radio access network (RAN) are based on a complete LCA of network equipment. Figures on emissions and energy consumption due to RAN site operation, operator activities, data centre operation, and data transport are based on a broad operator investigation covering networks that service about 40 percent of global subscriptions. In 2007, the RAN electricity consumption per average subscription was about 17 kWh.
The construction of new base station sites every year as well as the removal of old site equipment is taken into account throughout the period of study. Surveying existing network equipment reveals that annual electricity consumption of new base station sites decreases about 8 percent on average compared to equipment installed the year before due to technological advances. This average is an overall estimate inclusive of all developments in power amplifiers, digital remote and small outdoor RBSs as well as the growing share of 3G base stations. In this regard, the base station model must be seen as an average of the mix of installed product. For predictions until 2020, we assume that the 8 percent/year trend continues over the study period and refer to it as continuous improvements.
Femto Cells
The power consumption of a femto cell today is around 10 W, it will be around 6 W in 2012, and it can be assumed that a femto cell in 2020 will still consume about 5 W (if the power consumption for the fixed line connection is also included). An estimated number of 100 million femto cells in 2020 will consume about 4.4 TWh/year, which is less than 5 percent than consumed by the global RAN. Given this rather small impact and high uncertainty of deployment estimates, we exclude femtocells in the RAN energy consumption model. While femto cells consume a rather small amount of energy, their positive impact on data traffic and capacity, resulting in an energy consumption decrease, could indeed be larger.


Airline Crisis Communication

Airline crisis communication is very important in saving the reputation of an airline company. The purpose of this presentation is to evaluate the reason why some airline loss their reputations and then make successful strategies in an airline crisis communication In this presentation, the definition of airline crisis communication will be given from two aspects, the aspect of practical way and the knowledge of the scholars.
Then an example of an unsuccessful case about NYMPH is chosen to scribe the measures they did after a crisis case happened and the analysis of the negative effects and loss following it will be described in details. After that, the problem of this case will be evaluated and reasons will be explained. Finally, four best strategies based on crisis communication theory and successful examples will be introduced to assist airline take successful strategies in the future.
Then it comes to the conclusion that best strategies are effective in a crisis communication. Key words: Crisis communication: the perception of an unpredictable event that threatens important expectancies of stakeholders and can seriously impact an organization’s performance and generate negative outcomes. Reputation: the opinion that people have about an airline someone or something because if what has happened in the past.


The Communication Phenomena: Ideas and Definitions

It is acceptable then to say a definition of communication phenomena is the exchange of thoughts and ideas that are observable or observed and takes place In remarkable or arc There isn’t a more powerful example of a communication phenomenon in modern times than the coloratura evolution that has been brought on by the advent Of the mobile telephone. Beginning with the bulky, primitive models of the past and continuing on with today’s advanced smartness, this communication phenomenon has not only had a significant impact on the urban lifestyle, it has also reshaped the urban landscape.
Small group communication, a subfield within the broad field of communication, has been changed significantly in large urban cities because of the mobile telephone. In the times before that technology was available, it was a challenge for an individual to acquire basic information such as the location of the closest bus stop that is still operating in the direction they need to go or even what time the next bus will arrive. This difficulty was amplified if the individual was alone and could not find anyone else to ask, as commonly happens during the late night & early morning hours.
Equipped with a data enabled smartened, an individual simply loads an application or visits a mobile website to find out he basic information they wanted. Additionally, detailed information is available such as GAPS map and navigation data, weather information along the route or even if a particular store along the way has something they are interested in on sale. Even if an individual doesn’t have a complex smart phone there’s a good chance the information will be available via voice- response systems.

Another communication phenomenon that is taking place in both urban centers and rural areas is changes in the efficiency and scope of public address communication systems. Historically, whenever the need arose to communicate information rapidly to a large group of people it was handled in traditional ways. Depending on the time period those methods ranged from men on horses with bullhorns, smoke signals, sirens, radio and eventually broadcast television. While they were considered effective for their time, those methods had varying weaknesses.
Some suffered from large coverage area gaps while others relied on the target audience being within close proximity to the source of the announcement. Mobile telephones have enabled instantaneous nationwide communication via voice and text messaging for the first time in history. Even after satellite technology allowed for nationwide television broadcasts, nothing has been able to specifically target groups of individuals across such vast land areas as quickly and efficiently as mobile telephones are able to.
United States national security has even been bolstered by the newly created Presidential Alert System. Amazingly the President and other designated individuals can compose a message and send it to almost every single smartened in less than 5 minutes. One might think that modern methods of communication using advanced smart devices have caused the biggest communication phenomena in recent decades. However that title has been earned by the first generations of cellular phones that were adopted very quickly by society after they were born in the AT&T Labs in 1983.
Even though they were bulky and the very early models even had separate battery packs, they allowed mankind to finally “cut the cord” thus creating a communication phenomenon so large that caused a technological and social paradigm shift which changed how unmans interact forever. An interesting side-effect of this digital revolution is the negative interpersonal communications phenomena that occur. Prior to information being so easily accessible and available, people communicated verbally with one another in almost every situation in their day to day lives.
Word of mouth was a very common way information was spread. It was not uncommon to barely be able to hear yourself think over the din of conversation anywhere people would congregate such as subway cars, train stations and even busy street corners. Now most people rely on their devices and new media sources for the same information they would get from verbal communication with other people or print media like newspapers.
It’s an almost eerie sight to be on a packed subway car where the only noise you hear is the clicking and notification sounds of smartness supplying the masses with the information they so desire. Occasionally though, as if the energy of times past was able to manifest itself, there will be an event significant enough to cause many people on that train to be notified at once. Then you start to hear muffled conversation confirming the information with a fellow passenger. That muffled verbal communication quickly turns into an all-out discussion of the event.
For a brief period of time it’s as if the devices didn’t exist, however almost as quickly as it started, the passengers realize that they want more information and grow silent as they head back to their various digital streams of information. Utilizing the Non research methods of quasi-experiments & pre-experiments from our textbook, there are several different ways to explore how the communications phenomena that mobile loopholes have created effects the process and outcome of scenarios in daily life.
Using the quasi-experiment method, which uses pre-tests to see where subjects are in reference to the variables tested, our two subjects are both in a large city around BPML and have to locate a bus Stop where they can catch a bus heading in their required direction of travel. Subject A has a smartened with all the current technology such as GAPS sensors, navigation technology and a “Find my Bus” type application provided by the local transportation authority. Subject B has no cell phone or means to communicate outside of the people and places in her immediate vicinity.
They are both less than a mile away from a bus stop in a safe well-lit area that will get them a direct bus to their destination. Subject A is in their office getting ready to leave for the day. They decide they want to stop at a restaurant on their way home and get some take-out food for dinner and surprise their family. In order to accomplish this goal, they simply take out their smartened and enter in the destination addresses of their home and the assistant.
The application(s) plot the locations of all relevant bus stops that are close along with the connecting bus information when they reach the restaurant. Simple walking directions are also provided in relation to their location. Since the closest bus stop is only a 10 minute walk away they are able to stay in their office until right before they have to head out, When the time comes they leave their office and have an uneventful walk to the bus stop and make it to the restaurant on time to pick up the food and make it to their connecting bus home.


Marketing and New Communications Technologies

CHAPTER 1 1)Briefly compare and contrast the concepts of needs, wants, and demands, giving an example of each. Discuss how these concepts relate to marketing practices. Needs are states of deprivation. For examples, physical needs for food, clothing, warmth, and safety; social needs for belonging and affection; and individual needs for knowledge and self-expression. Wants are the form that needs take as they are shaped by cultural and individual personality. For example, an American needs food but wants a Big Mac, french fries, and a soft drink.
Demands is wants backed by buying power. For example, given their wants anfd resources, people demand products with benefits that add up to the most value and satisfaction. Outstanding marketing companies go to great lengths to learn about and understand their customers’ needs, wants, and demands. They conduct consumer research and analyze mountains of customer data. 2)In a short essay, discuss the challenges and advantages that new communications technologies have created for marketers.
The new communications technologies has provided marketers with exciting new ways to learn about and track customers and create products and services tailored to individual customer needs. It’s helping marketers communicate with customers in large group or one-to-one. Marketers also can create their own detailed customer databases and use them to target individual customers with offers designed to meet their specific needs. For example, by using the Internet, a direct marketer can tap into online data service to learn anything from what car you drive to what you read to what flavor of ice cream you prefer.


A Review of the Application of Integrated Marketing Communications

The notion of integrated marketing communications (IMC) is not new although it has become popular in recent times (Pickton D., and Broderick A. 2005). While the marketing concept, more often than not, has always focused on consumer needs, the practice of IMC has truly provided the first major effort to really put the customer in the centre of firm’s marketing activities ; and even (some marketing authors would agree) to a large extent, has defined successful businesses.
That being the case, the need for Integrated Marketing Communication is not only needed, but critical to marketing success (Wirth, R. 2005). No doubt, it is viewed as a response tool to communication challenges facing today’s organizations.

More encompassing than advertising, IMC weaves together a broad array of traditional and innovative communication tools and techniques in highly coordinated customer-focused programs . But then, with all the accolade given to IMC, organisations world wide have not had it easy to embrace (Pettegrew 2000); an issue also explore in this report.
The dawn of the 21st century has seen the definition of IMC changed (Schultz and Kitchen 2000) . Previously, IMC was thought as a concept of marketing communication planning that recognizes the added value of a comprehensive plan that evaluates the strategic role of a number of communication disciplines (for example, general advertising, direct response, sales promotion, and public relations) and combines these disciplines to provide clarity, consistency and maximum communication impact.
Today, IMC is considered as a strategic business process used to plan, develop, execute and evaluate coordinated measurable, persuasive brand communication programs over time with consumers, prospects, and other targeted, relevant external and internal audiences (Schultz and Kitchen 2000).
The management process associated with the strategic development and dialogue of consistent, coordinated messages, would seek to reinforce core brand propositions that able to be perceived by stakeholders (Chris Fill 2002, p. 465). It means that your PR materials say the same things as your direct mail campaign and your advertising has the same ‘look and feel’ as your website (Kotler et al 2002).
That is to say getting all the horses pulling in the same direction; everything you do publicly should look, feel, and sound as though it is spoken by the same unmistakable organization. Your ads and brochures, your logo and TV commercials, your packaging and point-of-purchase materials, your store front, should share a singular look, feel, and tone of voice .
More so, it is not just a matter of transmitting uniform marketing communications, it is about blending internal and external messages so that there is a clarity, consistency and reinforcement of the organisation’s or brand’s ‘core position'(Chris Fill 2002).
All elements of the promotion mix should be coordinated and systematically planned to complement each other (Pickton & Masterson 2004, p. 240). Promotion mix, also known as marketing communication mix, consists of five major modes of communication including; advertising, sales promotion, public relations, personal selling and direct marketing (Armstrong & Kotler 2004) use for IMC. Every brand contact delivers an impression that can strengthen or weaken a customer’s view of the company.
However, Pickton and Broderick (2005) caution that “integration should not be taken to imply a uniformity of communications which many authors seem to suggest (p. 26)”. More than one creative treatment-message or image may be used, but where more than a single treatment is employed, they should be mutually consistent (Pickton and Broderick 2005).
IMC in Action Examples:
Haagen-Dazs Case
Haagen-Dazs demonstrated effective use of IMC when it entered the UK market. Ice-cream was traditionally a seasonal children’s food and the market had experience little growth or innovation. The business strategy adopted was to create a new market segment, one that has become referred as the super premium segment.
The positioning intention was to present Haagen-Dazs as a luxury, fashion orientated food for adults. To achieve the business goal, the entire marketing mix was strategically coordinated:
The product reflected high quality, the high price induced perceived quality and distribution was through up-market restaurants in prestige locations and five star hotels where Haagen-Dazs was the only branded ice-cream on the menu. The promotional campaign used celebrities from many works of life as opinion leaders to create a word of mouth ripple effect. The quality of the media used and messages themselves reflected the same quality theme.
Concern Case
Concern , an international relief and development charity, was experiencing a fall in revenue and facing challenging market conditions coupled with a historic lack of investment in marketing. The charity faced up to these difficulties, employing a hard-hitting integrated marketing communications plan that exceeded expectations. The five-year strategy is not yet complete. However, it has already turned the charity’s performance around and resulted in a cultural shift in favour of a long-term approach to donor management
Concern, along with its competitors, experienced rapid growth during the early 1990s and was able to extend fund raising operations into the UK, with offices in Belfast, Glasgow and London, and into the US via an affiliate operation. Concern restored brand positioning in the Irish third world charity market. The main competitor is Trocaire
The charity’s challenge
Most of Concern’s expansion was founded on emergency appeals in response to large-scale humanitarian disasters in Rwanda and Somalia. Although their event-driven fundraising was highly effective, their reliance on this method of generating income had three serious consequences for the charity. The first was that income fluctuated rapidly. The second was that a funding crisis developed as these major events faded from view and public consciousness.
Concern’s income 1991-1999
The third consequence was a failure to invest in the marketing function in general or activity that didn’t show an immediate pay back. The lack of investment in customer relationship management (CRM) activity left the charity vulnerable to fluctuations in market conditions.
Marketing strategy was fragmented across different offices. Existing budgets failed to achieve a real impact in UK markets or take advantage where potential economies of scale existed. Direct mail and press advertisements had achieved little success in recruiting new donors, except where the call to action was a high urgency, emergency appeal.
By the mid-1990s Concern found itself facing increasing competitor activity which eroded its market share and reduced brand awareness. Income was falling and the marketing department was not in a good position to respond.
Clear objectives were set….
After much internal debate, the following objectives were agreed by the senior management team:

Fundraising net contribution to be doubled to million by 2003
Long-term funding to be developed, especially regular donations using monthly standing orders or direct debits from million in 1999 to million by 2004 (increasing overall contribution to revenue from 10 per cent to 20 per cent)
To exploit Concern’s traditional ability to raise funds for emergency appeals and then convert donors to long-term regular giving
To regain leadership in the Irish market
To improve positioning in the British marketplace

The targets were felt to be ambitious and the likelihood of achieving them was viewed with considerable scepticism. Having assessed a range of options, direct marketing was felt to offer the best hope of attaining all the goals. Tobin Aldrich was convinced direct marketing could deliver results for the charity, “The beauty of direct marketing is that the effectiveness of all activity can be directly and immediately measured. Direct marketing is particularly appropriate for charities that have to justify every penny they spend.” He was under pressure to achieve results quickly from the initial investment.
And the strategy was implemented…
A new team of marketing and fund raising professionals was recruited to ensure the necessary direct marketing skills were readily available in-house. A range of agencies offering specialist direct skills were evaluated. One was appointed to manage key aspects of campaign integration and creative and another to buy the media. The creative agency was briefed to produce new material that could be customised for local markets. The core propositions were Concern’s ability to deliver aid swiftly and efficiently, using operational staff on the ground.
Merging databases was a key step to take before the marketing approach could be properly integrated. Four marketing databases were combined into a new marketing information system. To make the most of the new information system, new procedures were also introduced to ensure donation and standing order processing could cope with new volumes. This attention to procedures paid dividends when responses started to come in better than anyone could have imagined. At one point standing orders numbered 11,000 in one month, from previous volumes of 200 per year!
Consistent with IMC practice, each activity was carefully monitored and evaluated and the learning points fed into future campaigns. A comprehensive Donor Lifetime Value model was developed. This model was used to forecast and manage future lifetime value by evaluating donors recruited from each source. Information about the best donor sources feeds back into donor recruitment strategy.
The new marketing team developed a fresh approach to donor recruitment. Initial donations were solicited in the form of a regular monthly gift for the first time. Concern decided not to engage in discrete brand building activity above the line as it was felt that direct marketing media would produce an uplift in brand awareness.
A rich mix of media was used and the campaign was fully integrated across the UK and Ireland. Each media had a target return on investment from recruited donors of 1:1 in the first year, rising to 4:1 by the fifth year. The packs, inserts and advertisements featured topical and hard-hitting messages coupled with a clear response device. A consistent message appeared across all media during the generic fundraising campaigns.
Direct mail packs were developed for specific emergency appeals. The Afghanistan campaign featured packs for high and normal value donors. The packs updated donors about the situation in Afghanistan using a letter, a clever e-mail-like insert, a programme update memo and photographs of individual families to bring the appeal to life. A simple donation slip and reply paid envelope completed the pack.
The appeal pack followed classic direct marketing principles and imparted emotive information in a straightforward way. The appeal for money is kept reasonably low key as the news speaks for itself. The letter’s opening paragraph acknowledges the donors status as a supporter and interested party. The simplicity of the pack, using cheap, typed inserts, is in keeping with the charities image. The non-donor or normal donor pack uses cheaper materials, fewer inserts and solicits a direct debit. The letter is slightly stronger in tone.
Exploiting the potential of rapid response media
The performance award judges praised Concern’s “impressive events-driven activity”, facilitated by their re-structuring of their marketing department and a fresh approach to their marketing challenges.
Appeal response capability was honed, allowing Concern’s appeal advertisements to achieve first appearance in the UK press and DRTV. Use of DRTV was refined to the point where Concern could air appeals within 48 hours of a disaster occurring. The development of two generic adverts that could be adapted to fit each circumstance, one for immediate disaster relief and the other for the recruitment of regular donors. DRTV is also considered to have had a major impact on brand awareness, following its use integrated with press and direct mail.
The results speak for themselves
All financial targets for the five-year plan, ending 2004, were achieved by end 2001. All investment has paid back within the first year. The charity has regained its leadership of the Republic of Ireland market and doubled its market share in the highly competitive UK market.

Fundraising income has increased from .8 million to million. Fundraising contribution was million against a target for 2003 of million.
The number of regular donors has risen from 8,000 to 95,000, resulting in a quintupling of regular donations to million. Regular donor income doubled to million in 2002 as the full value of monthly gifts was realised.
Brand awareness has improved across all markets, from 49 per cent in the Republic of Ireland in 1999 to 55 per cent in 2001.
Concern is now the dominant charity brand in Ireland, with 55 per cent spontaneous and 96 per cent prompted awareness. Market share in England, Wales and Scotland has doubled.
Donor recruitment is up, using an integrated approach across existing and new media. In one year 3 per cent of the population of Ireland were recruited as regular donors.
The return on investment for the first year was 1.5:1, with a 7:1 ROI over 5 years. Inserts, direct mail and press ads all returned 2:1, and DRTV produced an extraordinary 7:1 result over 5 years.
Rapid response capability of online and DRTV media were exploited, contributing to a dramatic increase in online income generation from ,000 in 1999 to ,000 by 2001.

Building on Success
Following the encouraging performance of early campaigns, donor recruitment targets have been increased from 2002. Concern is now able to roll out new creative approaches targeting specific age groups with much greater confidence. The team now have detailed knowledge of which media perform best and will potentially return the best lifetime value.
To build on the lead gained by their successful donor recruitment programme, continuous monitoring enables Concern to control attrition using a comprehensive welcome and ongoing donor care programme. This has succeeded in keeping attrition below 15 percent, against a forecast of 20 percent.
The charity embarked on an ambitious expansion programme while experiencing very difficult conditions. Interactive marketing’s potential has been imaginatively exploited to produce some amazing results. Concern’s approach has combined practicality with flair and originality.
IMC Models
Having understood what integrated marketing communication means, it is suitable to briefly recognise some of the models advanced by some writers in this area.
Steve Yastrow (2000) comes up with the following model; a model he thinks represents the popular IMC.
He states that although many companies claim to practice this model, it is more often implemented as a series of parallel, as opposed to integrated, marketing efforts.
Another problem with the use of this model as Yastrow recognizes; it still focuses largely on communication initiated by sellers, with much more energy spent talking rather than listening (2002, p. 2).
The school of thought championing a synergy of the marketing communication mix is captured by the following model from Kotler and Armstrong (2004).
The customer points of contact with any of the marketing communication mix should deliver a consistent, clear and compelling message (whether good or bad) about the company, its products and its brands (Kotler and Armstrong 2004).
Pickton and Broderick (2005) usher in a model, which they claim attempts to represent the entire framework of IMC.
Their IMC process model demonstrates how integrated marketing communications work from sender to receivers. They agree that, their model derives four basic elements of Schramm’s (one of the earlier communication theorists) communication model including sender, message, media and receiver. Against the backdrop that Schramm’s model was simplistic, Pickton and Broderick (2005) included the notion of marketing communication context that encapsulates the macro and the micro business environment within which communications take place.
They also include the notion of brand equity that involves the customer’s responses or behavioral attitudes as a result of interacting with the IMC process for a product brand. The t+1 element of the process explains that brand equity is created and varies over time and past responses to a marketing communication can influence subsequent process and the output of communication in time period +1.
The customer/audience relationship management and Image and brand management depicted from the aforementioned model, according to Pickton and Broderick, describe the key strategic tasks facing those responsible for implementing and managing the IMC process.
Hansted and Hemanth (1999) opinioned that Integrated Marketing Communications Model recommends the customer, not the product, at its core and incorporates an element of learning from customers into the marketing strategy. Learning from customers becomes a continuous effort, and companies need to conduct extensive research of current and potential customers in order to interpret this data accurately (Hansted and Hemanth 1999).
To this end, the authors advocate building a global database of marketing insights as well as the creation of local customer databases. When entering an emerging market, the global database should be used as a benchmark, while the local customer database should be used to facilitate developing marketing strategies that suit local conditions. The model is circular and evolves in six phases:
Phase one: Defining the business and the brand
Many industries have their own version of the Coke and Pepsi tale. The probability of a company successfully expanding into foreign markets depends largely on its ability to define the business and how willing it is to adapt to the needs of a given market. By defining a basic global understanding of the brand, a company can provide a broader platform for more effective communications and business practices. For example, Coca-Cola’s core competency is refreshment. The basic understanding of the brand being “refreshing” allows Coke to adapt its product portfolio to whatever is perceived as refreshing in a given market.
Phase two: Creating a global database of marketing insight
A global database is a tool that facilitates the strategic planning process prior to a company’s decision to enter a new market. With the application of database software, the global database is able to identify clusters of countries and customer segments of strategic importance. The global database is an information base that offers companies the ability to group countries and customer segments with similar needs by applying what has been learned from one country to other countries. Groupings might be done according to similarities in product usage, culture, religion, gross national product and geography.
Phase three: Local market research
When determining market appeal, companies often restrict themselves to statistical measures such as population size, net disposable income and purchasing power. While this might be an adequate method in countries with similar characteristics to the company’s country of origin, it is seldom satisfactory in emerging markets where cultural issues can have a significant impact on market potential. Consumer needs and buying abilities are often very different in emerging markets compared to existing markets.
Dell Computer Corporation is an excellent example of a company that had to think outside of its current marketing structure when entering an emerging market. In China, Dell quickly realized that it could not just replicate its usual direct model. The infrastructure and customer need was simply not present. Dell did not discount the strong Chinese market, however. Instead, Dell conducted a market analysis that led to the identification of a new customer segment, namely big corporations that were very interested in Dell’s services (Albright & Kunstel, 1999). Dell currently operates a very successful business in China.
Phase five: Building a local database after market entry
In emerging markets, the database can be critical in creating and sustaining a competitive advantage for multinational companies. Market conditions can change overnight as customer levels fluctuate when competitors introduce new products or adapt existing products to better suit customers’ needs. A database gives a company direct access to customers and enables the creation of learning partnerships.
This database of consumer knowledge can then be applied to strategic planning and product development. The aim should be to build customer loyalty among the most profitable customers. Ideally, a local database supplements the company’s continuous research of market trends. Combining research and database knowledge enables the company to keep ahead of the competition through qualitative and first-hand knowledge of market developments used to make strategic adjustments.
Phase six: Measurement and feedback
The Integrated Marketing Communications Model is circular in nature because the learning is continuous. In phase six, the company’s activities are measured against objectives set in phase four. The local database can be used to assess how relevant the company’s strategies are to the local customer base. This process is intended to preempt any negative surprises in the market and to mold strategies according to new insights. Finally, knowledge is then fed back into the global database to facilitate future operations in other markets. This is the basic thinking accompanying the Integrated Marketing Communications Model for Emerging Markets (Hansted K. and Hemanth G. 1999, p. 5).
Every tenet said so far indisputably acknowledge the importance of integrated marketing communications. What then are the benefits of IMC to an organization?
IMC Benefits
The most obvious benefit derived from the integration marketing communications is synergy (Pickton and Broderick 2005). In incorporating the various elements of the marketing communication mix, in a mutually supportive and enhancing way, the resulting output is more compelling than the simple sum of its parts (Pickton and Broderick 2005, p. 27).
BUPA’s (Pickton and Broderick 2005) recent marketing strategy repositioned its brand and integrated its offering. The core brand proposition – ‘BUPA the Personal Health Service’ – was promoted on TV, in press and radio advertising through direct marketing, sponsorship, PR and internal communications. BUPA’s prompted awareness of the brand currently stands at 97%.
Moreover, IMC can deliver competitive advantage through clearer positioning, and encourages coordinated brand development with internal and external participants (Chris Fill 2002). An argument also echoed by Pickton and Broderick depicted in their so-called 4Es and 4Cs of integrated marketing communications thus:
The 4Es of IMC include:

Enhancing- improve; augment; intensify.
Economical- least cost in the use of financial and other resources; not wasted.
Efficiency- doing things right; competent; Efficiency through reduction of duplication of effort; not wasteful.
Effective- doing the right things; producing the outcome required; not wasteful.

The 4Cs of IMC include:

Coherence- logically connected; firmly stuck together.
Consistency- not self-contradictory; in agreement, harmony, accord.
Continuity- Connected and consistent over time.
Complementary communications- producing a balanced whole; supportive communications.

The rationale of a company adopting IMC cannot be over emphasized: when an organization integrates, its communication and interactions become consistent, its reputation and image more distinct, and its customers more trustful. The organization builds integrity because it is seen as a whole, rather than as a collection of fragmented functional units. The foregoing is lucidly reiterated by Duane Sprague (2002) thus:
“IMC leverages every contact point and media impression, and maximizes impact by emphasizing a one-look, one-voice approach. IMC gives consistency to the customer shopping and ownership experience. Brand image and awareness are built faster because all planned messages are consistent, and the best media tools are used based on a strategic marketing plan, backed by research to guide the direction of the campaign “.
But then, the use of the promotional mix together could be counter productive at certain instance (Pickton and Broderick 2005). Consider a scenario where sales promotion activities can portray a cheap or value-for-money product with money-off coupons and discount offers whereas distribution and merchandising activity may attempt to show the product in a status or prestige context with a high value image. The ensuing confusion may result in reduced sales.
The Debate: IMC Implementation
Integrated marketing communications has altered advertising practices by broadening definitions of advertising, facilitating significant shifts in marketing communication and promotion budgets, increasing emphasis on accountability, and fostering demand for new and interactive communication technologies (Rust and Oliver 1994; Smith 1995). And it’s making some people in those businesses mad as hell because instead of dividing communications into several overlapping departments, organizations use one strategy for everything, making every communication consistent with one message and one strategy .
Hertha Kettler (2002) admits that few executives and managers world wide have taken the trouble to embrace IMC. “In a study of top management and marketing executives in large consumer companies”, Kettler explains, “indicated that over 70% theoretically favoured the concept of IMC…yet most of them did not buy the IMC package services, preferring to put together different specialised agencies by themselves”.
One of the fundamental problems implementing IMC as Sprague (2004) would identify is the aspect of getting every employee in every department to work, plan and think together as a team. It is the separate and distinct territories that destroy integration, consistency, pro-activity, real branding ability, and solid customer service and retention (Sprague 2004).
This is due to the fact that the theory of IMC fails to take into account the way most corporations are structured and function or their unique culture . Manfred Bruhn (1997), in his own rights, lashes out: most IMC approaches concentrate on the integration of external communications and thus are incomplete IMC, is doomed to fail if the employees are not included in the integration process, and if the external community is better informed than the internal community .
The greatest barrier to implementing IMC in a given company is the absence of direct support from the CEO (Pettegrew 2000). In the absence of CEO support, there is an operational threshold past which IMC cannot be fully or effectively adopted.
Many companies held up as exemplars of IMC, fail to uphold IMC standards on a company-wide basis as evidenced in an examination of Nike and Proctor & Gamble in 2002 revealing neither company had comprehensively or effectively integrated its many communications functions seamlessly or spoken to their stakeholders with one voice (Pettigrew 2002).
The question remains, how do great companies like these miss the IMC mark? The answer to this important question lies, to a great extent, in their respective organizational structures; both Nike and Procter & Gamble are marketing organizations, organized around product marketing (Pettegrew 2000).
There are three organizational issues that must be resolved before IMC can be implemented: marketing planning systems and basic marketing thinking, organizational structure, and capabilities and control. They believe that because functional specialists within an organization try to keep the various communications programs separate, they are a major hindrance to IMC implementation (Schultz, Tannenbaum and Lauterborn 1992).
One of the most apparent conceptual barriers is the lack of strategic objectives in communications planning; even though most communication functions or activities are planned and executed in a professional manner, they lack strategic vision and clear positioning at the corporate level (1997). Fully integrated marketing requires a very high level of clarity in the articulation of brand strategies; the more understood and clear a brand strategy is, the easier it is to get people from distant areas of the company to work from the same game plan (Yastrow 2000, p. 4).
Another cardinal problem in IMC implementation is: large companies employ several communication specialists to work under their brand managers (Kettler 2002). Each specialist knows little about the other communication tools. Also, they usually have outside favourite outside agencies and opposed turning responsibilities over to one super agency (Kettler 2002).
The analysis of the main barriers led to the definition of a number of requirements for IMC: Employees willing to cooperate in the field of communications; employees with a comprehensive understanding of the communication system and of integration; the full support of top management; strategic positioning and objectives; new methods for planning and analyzing communications activities; radical changes in the way communication functions are structured; new methods of budgeting applying integration principles (Bruhn 1997).
For IMC to be effective it must tear down the traditional departmental walls that create information silos and management fiefdoms; all departments must work together as a unified team to carry out the strategic plan in total unison -one aim, one mission, one message and one experience (Sprague 2004) . IMC must be designed around the people who have to make it work, and has to take account of the prevailing traditions, skills, resource availability and organisational constraints (McDonald 2003, p. 81)
Furthermore, for IMC to be a reality in a corporation, adoption must precede implementation; existing IMC theory gives considerably more emphasis to implementation than adoption of IMC (Pettegrew 2000). Something McDonald agrees: “although writings on IMC explain the problem, there is little practical help for organisations on how to solve it” (2003, p. 360).
There are more critical issues, such as the planning and management of IMC, the IMC mix and the communication process itself, which would have been explored if not of the limit imposed for this report. Nonetheless, the purpose of integrated marketing communications cannot be over emphasized. Having got exposed to the diverse and overwhelming literature on IMC, my understanding is a successful IMC is not a one-off event, rather a continuous, adaptive and sustainable process.

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Pickton, D. and Broderick, A. 2005, Integrated Marketing Communications, Prentice Hall.
Schultz, D. E., Tannenbaum, S. I. and Lauterborn, R. F. 1993, Integrated Marketing Communications: Pulling it together and making it work. Chicago: NTC Business Books.
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Communication is an important factor that influences the group’s behavior and plays a crucial role to decide whether the group can achieve the goals. It is difficult for us to use a second language when stating our opinion. Poor English speaking make us cannot explain It well and lead to misunderstanding when we planning the satellites. According to Uremia (2009) point out that the cross language communication does not always convey exactly what we want to stating and the targeted receiver may receive less of more that what it is intended to convey.
However, using the single word or simple sentence to express the idea is one of the skills can help to closing the communication gap (Emerald Insight Staff, 2004). In retrospect it’s obviously make sense because we have a clarity expression when doing the ‘blind man move wood game’ while using the simple sentence to stating our intention. Culture has a profound influence on perceptions of respect, in which respect is communicated across cultures not only for verbal communication but also nonverbal communication (Bailey, 1997: 329).
In China, It shows polite manners to look at other when talking with them. However, It Is Impolite In Pakistan culture that makes our team comes out with conflict. Non-verbal communication Is rooted In culture and depends heavily upon cultural knowledge for Its effective use and interpretation (Hill, Anne; Rivers, Danny; Watson, James, 2008). On the other hand, non-verbal communication can also have an encourage effect on the team.

When we have the cannoning competition, our team member use body language such as hurtful gestures to show they are encouraging us cause by it rains a lot that we cannot hear clearly that have a positive signs of support for our teammate. Reference: Uremia Rat; S. M. Rat; Effective Communication. Iambi, MIND: Global Media, 2009. UP. Emerald Insight Staff (2004) (Contribution by) Communication Strategies, Bradford, KGB: Emerald Group Publishing Ltd, 2004. IIOP Hill, Anne; Rivers, Danny; Watson, James (2008) Key Themes In Interpersonal Communication: Culture, Identities and Performance.


Market Survey on Compliance Communication Software

I would like to express my heartfelt gratitude to all of them. I would like to thank all officers and managers of the companies I visited. I couldn’t have done without your help. Last, but not the least, I would like to thanks assistance for the project. This project proved to be a great learning experience for e, and I would like to take this opportunity to thank all those who have directly or in-directly helped me in completing this project.
Title of the Project: Estimate the market size for Zero Gap – CSS (Compliance communication software)

Supervisor: Mr..Knap Kumar P. M.
Name of student: Subbed Nathan Grandfathers
PAGE No: 12051
Statement of Research
A market survey to estimate the market size for the software Zero Gap which is compliance communication software. The study was basically done to raise capital for the company. So a market study about the software would help the company to approach investors and explain them about the future of this segment and this company. The study will help us to understand how CSS a creative and an innovative product can be a part of the big IT industry in India.
The market survey was segmented into 4 industries; Banking, Insurance, TIES and High-end retailers. Following attributes were also kept in mind – immediacy of the need for solution, business pain they would like to solve, how much are these segments willing to invest, what functionality they are looking in a product like this – their need list and the wish list and are there any favorite vendors in this category In each of these segments who are the real decision makers and who do these decision makers relay on to make the decision? What factors influence them?
Based on the answers to the above query, the Leverage management has to decide its go to market strategy and business plan The thesis describes the above work in detail. Signature of Student Subbed Nathan Granddaughter Director Signature of the Supervisor Mr. Knap Kumar P. M. Leverage Consulting Pet. Ltd. , Bangor About The Software Industry The emergence of the software industry in India heralded a new confidence, a new mind-set and a new paradigm in the Indian business. It is generally agreed that this industry has raised the international image of the country like no other sector.
Wherever you go in the developed world, there is a new-found respect for India, thanks to the software industry. India has gained reputation as the software development centre of the world, much like China’s reputation as the factory of the world. Most of the top companies in this industry have followed the finest principles of corporate governance, run their companies with transparency and accountability are listed on international exchanges like NASDAQ and NYSE, and embraced the hanged on these exchanges as front runners and brought recognition to India. Raciest in India. Informs is also the first company on NASDAQ to provide the balance sheet and income statement according the Gaps (the Generally Accepted Accounting Principles) of eight countries – India, US, Canada, I-J, France, Germany, Japan and Australia. There have been both positive and negative effects of software industry’s tremendous growth. The per capita income of state has risen. The software engineers of the current generation earn salaries at the beginning of their career ore than what their parents used to earn at the end of their career. Read what to do when inflation is skyrocketing, and prices are out of control. What are banks most likely to ask the federal reserve to do with regards to government bonds and reserve requirements
Growth in income has had an effect on the real estate prices with the land rates skyrocketing. Land prices have shot much beyond rate of inflation and in some places rate of land doubles every two years. Agriculture has slowed down as people find it more lucrative to sell the land rather than use it for agriculture. The surge in income of software professionals has led to increased interest among youth opting for computer science and information technology courses in college. The basic science, arts and commerce fields have felt a shortage of quality manpower.
The current global recession of economy has hit software industry with some losing their Jobs. About the Company Started with a mission to provide cutting edge technology solutions to business issues, Leverage Consultancy Private Limited was founded in the year 2004 in Bangor. It aims to serve the dual purpose of providing strategic consulting as well as software solutions to assist organizations to succeed in the e-economy. The company focuses on small and medium scale industries.
They have the expertise in developing solutions to manage inventory, human resources, quality management, ales and service, work flow management, asset maintenance etc. The modules developed can be integrated and scaled to provide enterprise wide view, to enable decision makers to strategies based on accurate and timely information. The service offering encompasses analysis and reporting tools, component based customizable solutions for scalability, flexibility and effective management. Leverage can provide client development support and management, from our expert team in London and in Bangor.
Together they provide ongoing support on IT projects, ongoing maintenance and upgrading options, transfer of systems to locally based IT support managers and develop shared IT solutions whereby customers only pay for a part of the development and maintenance. In addition to above, the company successfully optimizes Ovenproof ERP which is a commercial open source ERP business solution for small and medium enterprises. Using Ovenproof ERP, organizations can automate and register most common business processes.
The following processes are supported: Sales, Procurement, Manufacturing, Projects, Finance, MR. and more.
Numerous commercial functional extensions are available on the Ovenproof Exchange which can be procured by users of the Professional Subscription version of Ovenproof ERP. Zeroing is the compliance communication software developed by Leverage which ensures complete and consistent communication among all participants in the Value Proposition Leverage, based out of Bangor, IT R;D capital of India offers the following benefits to its customers
1 . On time delivery due to highly skilled talent and well developed software development process
2. Time advantage
3. Cost advantage
4. Low overhead cost development factory
5. Now having sold solutions to companies like Wiper, Irate, INS, TV’S, Leverage would like to productized the solutions.
To productized and market the solution management would like to raise capital either through debt or equity. To make a business plan the management deeds to know the following market realities: The assumption made is that, the following segments are more open for compliance based solutions because of their regulatory & data privacy requirements:
1 . Banking
2. Insurance
3. ‘TEST High end retails
4. The challenge to the management is:
11.What is the market available (Size) for an implementation Zeroing?
2. From the customer segments mentioned above, how are the following attributes seen by each customer segment?
Immediacy of the need for solution
b. Business pain they would like to solve How much are these segments willing to invest?
D. What nationality they are looking in a product like this – their need list and the wish list.
E. Are there any favorite vendors in this category? In each of these segments who are the real decision makers?
And who do these decision makers relay on to make the decision? What factors influence them? Based on the answers to the above query, the Leverage Consultancy Pet Ltd has to decide its go to market strategy and business plan. Purpose of the study Organizational context: With the competition intensifying day by day in each sector only player with a competitive advantage will survive. At this Juncture standardization of products and implying to prescribed norms will make any company stay ahead in the competition.
Hence the compliance management industry catching up fast and growing leaps and bounds
* To understand the market potential of the compliance management industry. To examine the most lucrative sectors and compliance that should be served.
* To get the information about the decision makers in the company who deal with compliance issues?
Methodology Collection of Primary data
A Face to Face interview will be conducted with a questionnaire circulated to companies keeping in mind factors like no. Of employees and their turnover.
The research would be conducted by giving a questionnaire to 10 companies whose turnover is above 50 – 2000 scores. The companies will be from sectors like Banking, IT, Retail and Insurance. The respondents will be asked to register their response in multiple options as per the nature of question. The data will be tabulated as per attributes for the interpretation and analysis.
Sources include
l. Questionnaires – Questionnaires, based on several factors like type of industry, there turnover, no. Of employees etc.