Impact Of Changing Population Of China And On Economy And Society

Department of Humanities and Social Sciences, IT Kanata Changing Population of China and its impact on future economy and society of China- A Demographic comparison with India Veda Parka’s, M. Sc. Mathematics, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanata Abstract: China had a population of Just 694,581 ,759 in the year 1964 and a GAP measure of216462 Million US Dollar in 1978. But today China has a population of 1. 34 Billion and a GAP of 7321508 Million US dollar. Population explosion in China was an outcome of high economic growth as well as a reason of heavy profits and surpluses f manufacturing industries in China.
Through this paper I Intend to compare the similar relation among other countries like Japan and Sweden. Aging population brings the availability of cheap labor down and hence impacts the economic performance of countries. I will examine fertility and mortality and age structure pattern of population in China and conclude that Aging population is one of the reason of China’s declining economic growth. Introduction China today is the most populated country in the world and the second strongest economy. China had a small population of 694,581 ,759 in 1964.
After the economic reforms of 1979, Chinese economy was rising and families were prospering which led to high fertility rate in China and China’s population started growing at striking rate (TFH = 5. 512 in 1970). The high number of Children in China who became young and entered labor force in the years starting from 1990 provided availability of cheap labor for industries, especially manufacturing industries. China’s export encouraging economic policies led to cheap exports for the world created heavy surpluses for the government and led China to become the second largest economy in 2009.

I try to answer question through my research, which are as follow: Question 1: How changes in fertility and mortality in China changing China’s age structure? Question 2: What effect China’s aging population will have in China’s social and economic conditions? Question 3: What can be done now to tackle the problems that are being created by changing age structure in China? Question 4: What needs to be done in India to bring down the rate of population growth and improve other demographic indicators? The reason this study is important is because a high population is like a hidden power, it has both positive effects as well as negative.
If seed correctly, then it can lead to development like in case of China and if mishandled can lead to economic and political instability. Most of the population of the world is concentrated in developing nations. If mixed with proper policies of human development, then these populations could find a way to high economic growth and better lives through their changing age structures. The outcomes of this study might help other nations in managing human development policies and also Economics By National and for those who are getting old in China. Literature Review The Demographic Dividend: A New Perspective on the Economic Consequences of Population Change by David E. Bloom, David Canning and Jayvee Seville. This paper discusses various theories related to connection between population and economic growth in detail. The “Pessimistic” Theory: Population Growth Restricts Economic Growth The “pessimistic” theory traces its lineage to Thomas Malthusian. Writing in the sass, Malthusian asked whether “the future improvement of society’ was possible in the face of ever larger populations.
He reached his famously dismal conclusion: “Taking the population of the world at any number, a thousand millions, for instance he human species would increase in the ratio of 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 128, 256, 516, etc. And subsistence as 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, etc. In two centuries and a quarter the population would be to the means of subsistence as 512 to 10; in three centuries as 4096 to 13, and in two thousand years the difference would be incalculable”(Malthusian, 1798). He was not the only one who wrote about pessimistic view of population expansion.
In year 1968, Paul Earlier came with is book, “Population Bomb”, where he declared that “In the sass hundreds of millions of people are going to starve to death” (Earlier, 1968). This view has always remained with the world and resulted in introduction of family planning policies thinking that reduced growth of population will result in increased growth of economy. One more pessimistic view is that even if world witness’s period of intensive economic growth, it will be consumed to sustain the increased population growth. So the living standards would never improve.
The “Optimistic” Theory: Population Growth Can Fuel Economic Growth There are a different set of people who believe in the great power that population brings along. The population of the world has doubled in last 40 years but long with that average incomes have also increases by two- third. As Paul Earlier declared, “millions of people” didn’t die. In fact, most of the technical and social innovations have come in last 30 years, which is faster than any other period of time. As pressure on natural resources increased, innovative technologies to obtain more from fewer resources came up.
Green revolution is one such example where agriculture produce increased by 4 times with Just 1% extra land utilization. The “Neutralist” Theory: Population Growth Has No Significant Effect on Economic Growth More recently the neutral view towards population growth and economy has come up saying that population has very insignificant effect on economic growth. Adam Smith, in his book 3 where skills of worker were directed towards special division of work developed faster than other. Other factors like investment in human capital, openness to trade, economic policies played much more important role in economic growth.
On carrying out regression between economic growth rate and population growth rate, very small dependency was found (National Research Council, 1986). Population Aging and Economic Growth in China by Judith Banister, David E. Bloom, and Larry Rosenberg This paper discusses the possible effect of China’s aging problem on economic growth and social structure. With reducing fertility rate and increasing life expectancy, the population of the world is aging on an average. More than 2 billion people will be aged (age 60 or more) by 2050. For China, this is a serious issue since by 2050, 30% of its population will be aged.
Its dependency ratio (number of working age group population/ number of young and old population) is at its peak but will decline sharply in coming years. Decrease in labor force will make it arid for China to sustain the level of GAP growth that it maintains right now. Also, because of China’s one child policy, that single child finds it tough to take care of two parents and two grandparents. There is suddenly an increase in number of abandoned parents and grandparents. Government of China and other such countries will soon have to make changes in the employment policies and social arrangements so as to accommodate the changing age structure.
Several piece of information from this paper are later used in this paper. The Demographic Transition: Causes and Consequences by Owed Gallo This paper cuisses the cause and consequence of demographic transition. First, the decline in population growth reduced the dilution of the growing stocks of capital and infrastructure, increasing the amount of resources per capita. Second, the reduction in fertility rates permitted the reallocation of resources from the quantity of children toward their quality, enhancing human capital formation and labor productivity.
Third, the decline in fertility rates affected the age distribution of the population, temporarily increasing the fraction of the labor force in the population and thus mechanically increasing productivity per capita. Declining fertility rates and mortality rate have caused an increase in population but at the same time have increased the labor force which was directed towards development programs. 4 Sources of Data and Quality Most of the data has been downloaded from World Bank Website (http:// databanks. Workloads. Rug) which is one of the most reliable sources of data on World Development Indicators (WAD) and Economic Indicators. Some other websites that were used are http://www. Undermined. Com data. UN. Org www. Chinatown. Com/data/china. Population. HTML censuring. Gob. In www. Demographic. Et/demographics Some more information has been used available on Government websites of concerned countries. Http://www. India. Gob. In/ (Indian Government Website) http://English. Gob. CNN/ (Chinese Government Website) http://www. Stats. Gob. CNN/English/index. Tm (Statistic about China) http:// www. India. Gob. In/citizen. PH (Statistics about India) Most of the data is derived from census and surveys conducted by National governments and UN agencies. All these results are exposed to the error of census and surveys. Although in developed countries these errors are smaller than countries like China and India where a large art of population is not reported and data are often adjusted and changed for political purposes. In China, data for Tibetan people is not accounted and in India people from Eastern India are often underreported.
Other reason as to why census data are not 100% correct is: There are many reasons why people might not get counted in the Census, including: privacy concerns, homelessness, low literacy levels and not enough time to fill out the forms. 5 Analysis A brief introduction to China It is the world’s most populous country, with a population of over 1. 3 billion. Covering approximately 9. Million square kilometers, the country is the world’s second-largest country by land area, and the third- or fourth-largest by total area, depending on the definition of total area.
Since the introduction of economic reforms in 1978, China has become the world’s fastest- growing major economy. As of 2012, it is the world’s second-largest economy, after the United States, by both nominal GAP and purchasing power parity (POP), and is also the world’s largest exporter and second-largest importer of goods. Population and projections 1800000 1600000 1400000 1200000 1000000 800000 600000 400000 00000 0 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 2020 2030 2040 2050 China India Population Trends in India and China China and India have followed similar trends in almost all demographic indicators, they only differ in magnitude.
China has been the most populous country in the world from old days. But according to UN estimates India will overtake China as the most populous country by year 2030. China’s population is subjected to grow till year 2020 and then due to reduced fertility rate and increased mortality rate the net population growth rate will become negative and the population will begin to decrease. In India, although fertility rate has come down but still the net population growth rate is positive and will be so for many decades.
The reason of such population explosion are very well explained by Population Demographic Theory, which takes in account changing patterns of fertility, mortality and life expectancy. 6 Demographic Transition Theory Demographers (e. G. , Frank Intentions, Kinsley Davis, Angles Coal) characterized these three groups of countries, with their distinctive known as “demographic transition” which every society has to pass through: 1 . The tags of high fertility and high mortality 2.
The stage of declining mortality and high or medium fertility 3. The stage of low fertility and low mortality The graphs for demographic transition for India and China are given in forthcoming analysis. Fertility Trends Both China and India have witnessed reduction in fertility rate, especially China for which fertility rates came down from 6. 11 to 1. 56 in 2010 and are projected to increase a bit to 1. 81 by the year 2050. Although India is witnessing slow changes in fertility rate, we are still over the replacement level (2. ). 7 6 5 4 China TFH) 3 2 1 0 1950 1955 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 201 5 2020 2025 2030 2035 2040 2045 2050 India Total Fertility Trends in India and China In the late sass and early sass, the government advocated a “later, longer, fewer” lifestyle, encouraging people to marry later, have wide gaps between children and fewer children overall. It also instated the controversial one-child policy. This policy was introduced in 1978 and initially applied to first-born children from 1979.
It was created by the Chinese government to alleviate social, economic, and environmental problems 7 n China, and authorities claim that the policy has prevented more than 250 million births between 1980 and 2000, and 400 million births from about 1979 to 2011. These were attempts to curb population growth in a bid to help modernize the economy. The results of this policy are well reflected in the drop of TFH in China from ?6 in 1970 to? 3 in years 1980. In India also several family planning missions were introduced but none of them were implemented effectively and that’s why fertility in India is still quite high.
Reasons for declining Fertility 1. Education levels have increased significantly after the sass’s in both the countries. Increased education labor has enabled women and families to make better decision for having children. 2. Family Planning Missions, Both India and China initiated family planning mission in the peak years of their population growth. In India, National Family Welfare Program was launched in 1951; Urban Family Welfare Schemes were introduced in year 1983 and Reproductive and Child Health Program in 1997 [India. Gob. In].
All these schemes have definitely brought awareness among Indian Society to reduce the number of child bearing. In China, on the other hand the major policy decision in the name of Family planning schemes, was One Child Policy which officially restricts married, urban couples to having only one child, while allowing exemptions for several cases, including twins, rural couples, ethnic minorities, and parents without any siblings themselves. [ BBC: China steps up “one-child policy”]. Although this policy has much faced criticism but has brought down fertility to satisfactory levels. [Consequences of the one-child policy Perils of motherhood] 3.
With increased awareness in masses about use of contraceptives have lowered birth rate. In India, many new projects were started regarding the same but people in India still hesitate to talk about contraceptives. The government of China also made sure that contraceptives are available to masses in all rural and urban localities. 4. Availability of economic pregnancy. 8 Life Expectancy and Mortality Life expectancy is one major important demographic indicator which shows the level of growth and availability of medical infrastructure. China had rapid increases in life expectancy from 1965 to 1980 and then it increased smoothly.
For India also life expectancy but has always remained lower than China UT the gape is projected to reduce towards the year 2050. Increased life expectancy leads to increase in number of old people in the country and thus they become a liability to the nation instead of being an asset. 90 80 7060 50 40 30 1950 1955 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 2020 2025 2030 2035 2040 2045 2050 China(Life expectancy) India Life Expectancy Trends, China and India Mortality has declined all over the after the Second World War, like other factors China improved its death rate far more faster than India.
The improvement that India achieved in 60 years, China achieved the name in only 25 years. In future China death rate is projected to go high because of death of old age population. High death rate will also become a reason of negative population growth rate in China in future. 30 25 20 15 10 50 1950 1955 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 2020 2025 2030 2035 2040 2045 2050 China(Crude Death Rate) India Death Rate Trends, China and India 9 Reasons for decreased Mortality and Increased Life Expectancy 1 .
Availability of better health care facilities has improved life expectancies in both countries. According to an article by Tania Breaking in The Guardian around 97% women in China gave birth in hospitals. In India these statistics are still are still very low, 47%. 2. Proper Health security plans in China have helped China to increase life expectancy. With higher income more people in China have access to hospital services. In India, health facilities are still away from a large segment of old people. 3. Another major achievement was that both countries were able to bring up the average age at first marriage.
When average age at marriage goes up, the age at first child goes up automatically. This enabled women to have a kid only when she was physically ready for it. This helped to reduce infant mortality rate as well as maternal mortality rate. 4. Old people who are not very rich are also treated at good local hospitals. Aging and Dependency China has a very low death rate and high expectancy rate and this is causing the number of old people in the increase to threatening level. Total population of age 65 and above will cross 65 million by the year 2050 which will account for 26 % of total national population.
China’s aging population will lead to several economic and social problems in the future which will be discussed later in this paper. Age Structure China, 2050 Source: BBC. Mom 10 China is witnessing its least dependency ratio during current years. It will rise back to the levels of 65 as it was in 1975. High dependency ratio can be very threatening in a country like China, because the backbone of China’s economy is its vast labor force, with a decrease in labor force China is doomed to speculate a fall in its economic growth.
The ageing process in China has two distinguishing features. First, it has happened at a much faster rate than in other countries. According to UN figures, the ratio of those aged 60 and over across the world rose by 3 percentage points in the 0 years from 1950 to 2010, while in China it increased by 3. 8 percentage points in just the 10 years from 2000 to 2010. Secondly, China is one of a few countries in the world in which the population has aged before becoming rich or even moderately rich.
The UN considers a country to be ageing when 7% of its population is aged 65 or over – the threshold used to be 10% of a population being 60 years old or over. 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 1950 1955 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 201 5 2020 2025 2030 2035 2040 2045 2050 Chicagoans dependency RatiO) India Changing Dependencies ratio in China and India Effects and Consequences of Aging 1 . Young population of China made a major contribution to rapid economic growth of China in a way that it provided abundant and cheap labor for Chinese industries.
With aging population, industries will find it hard to find cheap labor for them and hence their profits are going to go down. It’s almost impossible for China to maintain its current growth rate in future. 11 2. In case of India, it is still a very young country with vast educated youth. Indian’s has its least dependency ration for years to come. In India future economic growth rate will be decided by the policy decisions that government take. 3. With aging spreading fast in China, the institution of family is also breaking down [Ageing China: Changes and challenges, BBC].
Youth of that country is finding it hard to provide for two parents and two grandparents. 4. The number of abandoned old people has increased significantly in China and along with that the number of old age houses has increased. But they are still not enough to contain all the elderly population. Demographic Transition Theory in China and India Both countries were passing wrought the high fertility and high mortality trends, then both mortality and fertility started to decline and China and India reached the second stage of demographic transition.
Some of the most famous studies are “The demography of China and India-2030” by Michael J. White and “A brief comparison between India and china as emerging economy in Asia”, by Dry. Fissile Mariachi Rigid. Both India and other nations of developing world have much to learn from China and its policies. The main idea that comes out this paper is that both countries made efforts to bring down population growth, fertility, mortality etc. UT what made difference is the fact that how efficiently these planning were implemented and executed.
Health care plans failed in India for a variety of reasons such as poor infrastructure, failing to provide private sector important role in health care and more recently the issue of corruption [Health care in India – vision 2020, R Sardinian]. Other factors that contribute to Chinese success are education and government policies. India was too late to bring economic reforms and that too for a short period of time. Most of the major reforms, related to health, education or other important issue took so many months and years in some cases, that their importance diminished by the time they were passed.
Indian government’s failure in providing proper infrastructure for health care facilities made it impossible for health reforms to reach local masses. Number of physician per 1000 person is Just . 6 in India while it is 1. 51 for China [World Health Statistics, 2011]. Only the rich in India have access to high tech medical care while poor still find it hard to take gains from basic health care. Educations also help a lot to tackle the issues of fertility and population growth.
Education is one of the most important investments that a government has to make in developing the human resources. Educated people are more likely to contribute to income generation; they take better decision for their family and social life. Literacy rate in India is 74 % as compared to 99% in China. Especially for women, literacy rate is 79% in China while it is mere 64% in India [World Bank, Development Indicators]. Similar kind of analysis and results are exhibited by many other studies such as “Health care in India – Vision 2020, Issues and prospects” by R. Sardinian, “China and
India” by National Defense Research Institute and “Assessing the impact of fertility change and demographic nationalization on population structures in China and India” by Christopher Z Guillemot. The reason I carried out this study as to show how these two giant countries are moving in the same path but with great differences in the rate of change. What I expect from readers is to take the message that the solution lies within our hand. It’s onto our policy makers that how they tackle this problem and how they can implement those policies efficiently. Recommendation What can be done in India? A lot of policies and programs have been declared and initiated in India for family planning, education, girl education, gender equality and female employment, but most of them could not deliver the desired result. Our policy makers need to design a mechanism for tracking the performance of any scheme. 2. There is a need to redirect the budget allocation for many such schemes to areas on a basis of a survey conducted without political influence. 3. Most of the money of such programs is consumed by corrupt bureaucracy and middle man [Attar Pradesh NORM scam, http://en. Kipped. Rug/wick/Attar_Pradesh_NORM_scam]. In Attar Pradesh, more than One Trillion INNER was lost in corruption. The amount of medical care facilities that could have been achieved by that money is unimaginable. Government need to ensure that such cases are dealt with and they never occur again in India. 4. Providing an efficient infrastructure for medical infrastructure should be government prime objective. Achieving low mortality rates and high life expectancy such as of China will not be possible with such shortage of doctors, hospitals, beds and medical colleges. 5.
Even if there is no corruption, no horrifying on behalf of government in the implementation of these programs, they still might prove to be ineffective if people don’t know about them. Most of the Indian Population, especially rural population doesn’t know about many Health programs that are run for them. Proper information about all facilities should reach villages through the medium of television and radios. 6. Education, one of the building blocks of human resource should be given importance. The law of Right to Education should be implemented and the loopholes of the law should be removed.
Small shows and miners should be organized in villages to persuade parents to send their daughters to school so that in their future they can become independent and have equal say in decision making. 7. Increasing employment opportunities through small government programs will make women busy with their Jobs and they will delay marriage and pregnancy. 8. Government should continue their mission to bring awareness about use contraception among the masses. 14 What can be done in China? 1. For China, situation is completely different.
Their almost all the policies are implemented efficiently. Education level is close to 100% ND female participation in labor force is quite high. 2. The problem that China needs to solve is their aging population, sex ratio at birth and marriage squeeze [Domain Grammatical]. 3. China’s fast economic growth is because of its export and needs to do economic restructuring to overcome the problem of lack of labor. 4. Like India, China will also have to invest in IT sectors where cheap labor is not such an important factor. 5.


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Pak China Friendship

In early 1960s, the regional and international environment played an important role in bringing about an upswing in Pakistan-China relations. China, which was under the strong pressure of the West led by the US in those days of the Cold War as shown by the establishment of SEATO and had fought a war with India because of their territorial dispute, needed friends to end its international isolation and counter India in South Asia. Pakistan because of its strained relations with India was in search of friends in its neighbourhood to neutralise, to some extent, India’s power superiority. China met the demands of Pakistan’s strategic compulsions.
Pakistan’s realisation of the strategic importance of its friendship with China increased as it became acutely aware of the unreliability of the Western support in any conflict with India. The 1965 Pakistan-India war confirmed these apprehensions. The global strategic environment underwent a dramatic change in the 1970s with the rapprochement between the US and China, in which Pakistan had played an important role, to counter the perceived security threat posed by the Soviet Union to both Washington and Beijing. Thus, the Western impediment to the strengthening of Pakistan-China relations was removed.
In fact, following the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, both Pakistan and the US needed and secured China’s support to defeat the Soviet occupation through the Afghan jihad. The end of the Cold War in 1991 brought about another dramatic transformation of the global strategic scenario. For about a decade after the end of the Cold War, the US loomed large on the global scene like a colossus. No other country matched its enormous military power and economic strength. There were signs of concern in the 1990s on the part of China about the emergence of the US as the global hegemon and the unipolarity of the international political system.

This period also witnessed the commencement of the process of the strengthening of US-India relations to contain China and the imposition of the US economic and military sanctions against Pakistan because of its nuclear programme. These developments brought Pakistan and China closer together. The result was increased Pakistan-China cooperation in various fields, including the field of nuclear technology. Pakistan’s need for China’s support and cooperation increased also because of the intensification of the freedom movement in the Indian Occupied Kashmir and
the resultant tensions in Pakistan-India relations. The US “unipolar moment” soon passed. The first decade of the 21st century witnessed the commencement of a radical reconfiguration of the global strategic scenario driven by China’s phenomenal economic progress and rise as a leading global power. The initiation of policies of economic reforms and opening to the outside world in 1979, under China’s paramount leader Deng Xiaoping, unleashed powerful forces that accelerated China’s economic growth to dizzying heights.
Consequently, its GDP grew five times between 1979 and 1998 as against the target of fourfold increase. Since 1998, China has recorded growth rates averaging about nine percent per annum, propelling it to the position of the second biggest economy in the world. China’s GDP during the current year is expected to reach the figure of $9. 2 trillion as against the US gross domestic product of $16. 3 trillion. In purchasing power parity (PPP) terms, its GDP would reach the figure of $13. 9 trillion during the current year.
According to latest projections, China will overtake the US economy in PPP terms within the next few years and in nominal terms some time in the next decade. In 2012, it overtook the US as the world’s biggest trading nation in goods with the combined total of its exports and imports reaching the amount of $3. 87 trillion as against the $3. 82 trillion for the US. The rapid growth of China’s economy has also enabled it to increase its military expenditure at a fast rate to safeguard its security interests. its annual military expenditure is currently about $106 billion as against $36 billion for India.
However, its military expenditure is still a very small proportion of the US annual military expenditure. Such a massive shift in the global balance of power cannot but have far-reaching implications for international politics. The US ability to impose its will on the rest of the world in the economic field is fast eroding. Correspondingly, the effectiveness of its economic sanctions against foreign countries will also decline. It has forced the US to pivot its naval forces to the Asia-Pacific region where it will deploy 60 percent of its naval assets by 2020.
It is strengthening its alliances in Asia with Australia, Japan and South Korea. It is trying to checkmate China’s territorial claims in South China Sea by extending political support particularly to Vietnam and the Philippines. Above all, from the point of view of both Pakistan and China, the US is engaged in close cooperation with India in economic, military and nuclear fields to help build it up as a major world power of the 21st century with a view to containing the expansion of China’s influence in South Asia and the Indian Ocean region.
The growing rivalry between the US and China, and the US efforts to build up India as a bulwark against China, have important strategic implications for Pakistan. The growth in the depth, and the extent of US-India cooperation, is likely to push Pakistan closer to China as a counterweight to India’s possible hegemony in South Asia. US threats of sanctions against Pakistan because of its decision to proceed with the Iran-Pakistan gas pipeline project will further hasten this process. On the other hand, these developments will deepen China’s inclination to develop closer relations with Pakistan.
Thus, from purely a strategic point of view, the future prospects of Pakistan-China relations are quite bright. It was against this background that during the fifth round of the Pakistan-China Strategic Dialogue held in Beijing in November 2012, Pakistan’s Foreign Secretary and the Chinese Vice Foreign Minister agreed that Pakistan and China needed to close ranks to face the extraordinary global and regional challenges. However, there is no room for complacency.
Pakistan’s bilateral trade with China, which was estimated to be $10.6 billion in 2011, was far behind the Indo-China trade of $80 billion. We must, therefore, pay special attention to the building up of Pakistan-China relations in economic, commercial and cultural fields, while maintaining close cooperation in political and military fields. Future possibilities of economic and commercial cooperation include a rail link between Pakistan and China, oil and gas pipelines through Pakistan to connect Xinjiang and the rest of China with the Strait of Hormuz and West Asia via the land route, and a rapid increase in bilateral trade.
However, Pakistan would have to put its own house in order, reorder its domestic priorities, energise its private sector, and streamline its procedures to take full advantage of the opportunities that beckon us. On the political side, we should be sensitive to China’s concerns about the activities of the Taliban and other religious extremists in so far as the situation in Xinjiang province of China is concerned. Religious moderation is good not only for our internal political health, but also for our relations with China.