Categories
Child Abuse

Summary on child abuse

Child abuse is an act whereby parents or guardians would jeopardize or impair the well-being of the child, which includes physical, sexual, emotional and psychological abuse. According to our research, the trends on child abuse is increasing. In the previous year, 3,035 reports were looked into on the topic of child abuse, which was about 1.5 times that of the 2,022 inquiries in 2015. Most of the cases involved physical abuse in children. An example stated was a mother and her boyfriend physically abusing a two years old boy in 2015, in which they kicked and slapped him almost every day for over a month (The Straits Time, 2017).
The factors that contribute to child abuse include aspects of the family and child. Family structure, domestic violence and stressful life events can contribute to the possibilities of maltreatment. Research have shown that children who live with single parent are more likely to experience physical and sexual abuse. Due to the family’s low income, heavy responsibilities and insufficient support, single parents choose to mistreat children to relieve stress (Child AbuseWatch, n,d.).
Due to the increasing trend on child abuse, the government has invested in reinforcing the abilities of professionals such as educators, healthcare and social workers to discern abuse and intervene professionally. To ensure that the professionals are well educated, they are required to undergo training to better equip themselves for such situations (Ministry of Social and Family development, 2016).

Children’s age, physical, mental and emotional disabilities cause them to be vulnerable to certain types of child abuse such as shaken baby syndrome and physical neglect due to their petite physical size. Children with disabilities tend to be ill-treated 1.7 times more than children without disabilities. Parents may feel overwhelmed with the extra responsibility that they have to provide for their children. Children with special needs are also seen as an outcast and are easy targets for abuse (Child AbuseWatch, n,d.).
A pressing and prevailing issue that children in Singapore face is abuse. One of the reasons why children in Singapore face abuse is due to the fact that children are not given a voice to speak up against their abusers. Often, the perpetrator is their own family member. Thus, due to the fear of speaking against their family members and tearing apart their family, victims of child abuse often choose to stay quiet on the issue. For example, in March, a food stall assistant, who sexually abused his biological daughter for more than two years, was sentenced to 23½ years’ jail and the maximum 24 strokes of the cane. The girl was aged between 11 and 13 when her father violated her. At first, she did not tell anyone about the abuse, fearing that it would break her family up. (The Straits Times, 2017).
Some victims of child abuse may not even be aware that they were being used by their own family members for their own pleasure. A case of sexual abuse of a boy came to light during a sexual education class when he insisted that a “bad” touch was a “good” touch as his father, as well as his father’s friend, had done it to him previously. He had not realised that he was sexually abused. (CNA, 2019).
Differentiating child abuse is also a problem in Singapore as parents use violence as a form of punishment to discipline their children. We have all heard of the saying “spare the rod, spoil the child”. However, where should the line be drawn? Many parents lack child development knowledge and thus may cross the line while having good intentions in mind. Numerous child abuse cases are interconnected to child discipline issues – parents who want to discipline their child ends up abusing him (Teo, 2017).
Another reason why child abuse cases are kept under the wraps is because children educarers are not trained well enough to discern and spot signs of child abuse. A survey conducted by the Singapore Children’s Society indicate that pre-school teachers are not well-trained in handling child abuse cases or are not aware of the resources available. It polled 336 pre-school staff, of whom 60 per cent had more than 10 years of experience and 62 per cent were in leadership or management positions. (The Straits Times, 2017)

Categories
Child Abuse

CHILD ABUSE

1.0 INTRODUCTION
Abuse is known as someone or something that is or will be used for a bad purpose. Abuse will usually happen among any children, teenagers or adults especially women. One of the most happening abuse among people is child abuse. Child abuse has been one of the most current issues in Malaysia. What is child abuse? Child abuse is doing something or failing to do something that results in harm to a child or puts a child at risk of harm (Gupta N, 2012). There are several types of child abuse. For example, physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional abuse and neglect. Unfortunately, nowadays most of the children are abused physically and sexually and these have been done by the children’s own parents, step – parents, siblings, babysitters, school teachers and strangers. The children are also abused emotionally and they were neglected by their own parents too.
Types of child abuse

Physical abuse
Physical abuse involves physical aggression directed at a child by an adult (Theoklitou D and etc., 2012). Most nations with child-abuse laws consider the deliberate infliction of serious injuries, or actions that place the child at obvious risk of serious injury or death, to be illegal (Theoklitou D and etc., 2012). Bruises, scratches, burns, broken legs, lacerations, as well as repeated “mishaps,” and rough treatment that could cause physical injury, can be physical abuse (Theoklitou D and etc., 2012). Physical abuse can come in many forms, although the distinction between child discipline and abuse is often poorly defined (Khademi G and etc, 2015).
Sexual abuse
Child Sexual Abuse (CSA) is a form of child abuse in which an adult or older adolescent abuses a child for sexual stimulation (Medline Plus, 2014). Sexual abuse refers to the participation of a child in a sexual act aimed toward the physical gratification or the financial profit of the person committing the act (Theoklitou D and etc., 2012). Forms of CSA include asking or pressuring a child to engage in sexual activities (regardless of the outcome), indecent exposure of the genitals to a child, displaying pornography to a child, actual sexual contact with a child, physical contact with the child’s genitals, viewing of the child’s genitalia without physical contact, or using a child to produce child pornography (Medline Plus, 2014).
Emotional abuse
Emotional abuse is defined as the production of psychological and social defects in the growth of a child as a result of behaviour such as loud yelling, coarse and rude attitude, inattention, harsh criticism, and denigration of the child’s personality (Theoklitou D and etc., 2012). There are other illustrations that could cause emotional abuse such as name – calling, ridicule, degradation, destruction of personal belongings, torture or killing of a pet, excessive criticism, inappropriate or excessive demands, withholding communication and routine labelling or humiliation.
Neglect
Child neglect is the failure of a parent or other person with responsibility for the child to provide needed food, clothing, shelter, medical care or supervision to the degree that the child’s health, safety and well – being are threatened with harm. Neglect is also a lack of attention from the people surrounding a child and the non – provision of the relevant and adequate necessities for the child’s survival, which would be a lacking in attention, love and nurture (Theoklitou D and etc., 2012). Neglected children may experience delays in physical and psychosocial development, possibly resulting in psychopathology and impaired neuropsychological functions including executive function, attention, processing speed, language, memory and social skills (Apa.org, 2012).
2.0 CAUSES OF CHILD ABUSE
Usually, any children with a low birth weight than normal birth weight, have an ill, or they were born as a disable are more likely to be the abuser’s target since the children cannot resist well because of their problem. There are also children who were born in a healthy condition but they are abused by some irresponsible people. Abuser are abusing the children because of some factors. The factors that contribute to child abuse are lack of education, the abuser was abused when he or she was a child, poor emotional control, depression, commit sex for self – gratification and more. Although there are various causes of child abuse, only certain causes do contribute to each kind of abuse.
2.1 PHYSICAL ABUSE
2.1.1 POOR EMOTIONAL CONTROL
Every person in this world can get many emotions in their daily life. The examples of emotions are anger, sad, anxiety and more. In the case of physical abuse, anger is more likely the emotion that will be expressed by someone. Usually, a person will only get angry when someone does something wrong or the person ruins other’s work but there are some people who are good at controlling their emotions. Not only that, some people do get angry for no reasons at someone else and they may indicate their anger at a victim.
Unfortunately, the victim will usually be the abuser’s children. The person will express his or her anger by violating or torture their child. He or she will use anything that looks like metal or long stick or rubber. The examples are chain, rubber hose, baton, silver fork and more. Figure 1 shows that things that are used to abuse a child (Refer to Figure 1 in Appendix).
By using these things, the child would have bruises all over his or her body. The bruises could be severe if the abuser abuses the child for a long period and this could lead to the child’s death. Figure 2 shows that a child with many bruises on his or her body (Refer to Figure 2 in Appendix). Abusing physically also could make a child’s bone to get broken easily because he or she will be beaten with a stick or metal.
What will happen to him or her if the child is abused physically? The child may lose his or her relationship with the parents. This is because since the parents are beating their child out of anger, the child may think that his or her parents are not loving them anymore. Hence, their relationship may loosen up easily. This could also lead them to follow their friends and do whatever they want such as smoking, taking drugs and drinking alcohol.
2.1.2 THE ABUSER WAS ABUSED WHEN HE OR SHE WAS A CHILD
Abusing a child could also be done if the abuser was abused when he or she was a child. The abuser childhood could be terrible too as they were abused by their parents and because of that when they are grown – up they will abuse someone else especially their own child. This will only happen if they have at least one child. If they have no child in their family, they will abuse other family’s child by babysitting the child while the child’s parents are gone to work.
Why are they abusing the other children as well? This is because of their instinct in abusing the child as the abuser was abused when he or she was a child. This will also give a satisfaction to the abuser as they are abusing a child. How will they get a satisfaction? The abuser can get a satisfaction by watching the child who will be crying in pain.
As a conclusion, every person who was abused when they were young could possibly abuse the other children when they have grown – up. Some people might also think that the child should not get a safe and beautiful life and they should be deserved with a misery life that is not safe at all. Thus, they will abuse the child.
2.2 SEXUAL ABUSE
2.2.1 COMMIT SEX FOR SELF – GRATIFICATION
Committing a sex is not crime in Malaysia when a male and a female are happily married as they want to have some children. It is forbidden in Malaysia for every adult who is over than 18 years old to commit a sex without getting married as it is known as a severe crime if someone commits it. The consequences for those who commit sex without getting married are possibly living in the jail for the rest of their life and also whipping at their bottom for almost 50 times.
Unfortunately, most of the people from foreign countries are just doing sex without even getting married. Why are some people doing sex when they are not even married yet? It is because they want to get a self – gratification. Hence, those who are addicted to sex they will try to find a way to do sex. Most of the time, it is the males who want to do sex and they will usually target the younger ones who will usually be in four to twelve years old. They are also some people who do sex with non – living objects such as doll but normally the main target will be a child.
This could be explained when they commit sex, they will usually touch the young girls’ private parts where the parts are forbidden to be touched by someone else except the owner. Touching a private part could make a girl lose her dignity as and this could lead the girl to commit suicide.
2.3 EMOTIONAL ABUSE
2.3.1 DEPRESSION
When a person is in depression, the person may change their attitude from being a normal person to abnormal person. They will act weirdly to everyone. Sometimes they will cry alone and take a lot of medication without even referring to a doctor. In our daily life, we will face depression when we are really sad about something or someone. This sadness is not an ordinary but it is a severe as the person will be hurt by someone or something. This sadness could be about relationship among couples where they got broken up because of some reasons, losing one person’s love as the person passed away, having a hard time to live a life and more.
Usually, young adults and teenagers will get depression easily because of those reasons. It is very rare for an adult to get depression