Systematics in Modern Biology

Systematics is the root of comparative biology. Comparative biology attempts to relate characteristics of one organism to another, in this case homology and homoplasy are put to question because of similarity due to common ancestor or similarity due to a function. In systematic, studies focus on hypothesizing homology of features among taxa and then gather data to test these hypotheses. This is most important because appearance alone is not always a good indicator that features in various taxa and similarity due to a common ancestor will evolve on its own in different lineages.
Systematics and biodiversity
Biodiversity is the variety of different plants and animals on Earth. According to the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), biodiversity basically measures variation at the genetic, the species, and the ecosystem level. Because of increase in human population, anthropogenic activities tend to directly and indirectly threatens biodiversity at large. Currently the Earth is experiencing an increased rate of extinction of Earth’s flora and fauna caused by human activities and as a result, biodiversity is being reduced at an accelerated rate.

According to (Ehrlich and Wilson 1991; Eldredge 1992; Wilson 1985), only few people know that a small percentage of living things has been described and counted. This literally means that many people do not know there are still variety of living things that are yet to be described and accounted for. Currently, approximately 1.4 million species have been described and named (Ehrlich 1981; May 1988; Stark 1993; Wilson and Peter 1988). Systematics is the science that tend to provide solutions to the problems facing biodiversity.
Systematics and biodiversity conservation priorities
Since the world is incredibly increasing at an alarming rate, these put a pressure on biotic resources and as a result, difficult decisions have to be made about what parts of the Earth and where will it be maintained in a natural state in order to conserve the biodiversity present there. If it decided that biodiversity has to be maximized, then the phylogenetic patterns produced by systematists gives a way to prioritize areas based upon the diversity they contain. In order to maximize diversity, it makes sense to try to preserve groups from throughout the phylogenetic tree, rather than large numbers.
Systematics identify and document Earth’s biodiversity, and construct this information in a form that can be used for studying the diversity of earth organisms
Given information about endangered, alien/invasive (introduced) species, also important in conservation of small populations (minimum viable population size) that are threatened by human activities e.g. habitat destruction (overharvesting of trees). Biodiversity collections are intended to be permanent, and are assembled over time, they provide a way of analysing changes in the world’s flora and fauna, and can therefore provide supporting evidence for phenomena such as human-caused climate change.
Systematics and conservation biology
Conservation biology aims protect and re-establish/restore biodiversity, or the diverse nature of individuals on Earth. Also, address the loss of biodiversity and how to prevent species and habitats from being lost while still maintaining sustainable human societies. In order to preserve biodiversity three following questions must be taken into consideration, first how is the diversity of life distributed around the planet, second what threats does this diversity face, and lastly what can people do to reduce or eliminate these threats.
Captive breeding and reintroduction, genetic analyses, and habitat restoration all important in conservation biology. Biological systematics studies the diversity of living structures, at various times, and the relationships among living things through time. Relationships are constructed in evolutionary trees. Phylogenetic trees of species and higher taxa are used to study the evolution of traits (e.g. anatomical or molecular characteristics) and the relationship of organisms e.g. taxonomy. Systematics, as such, is used to understand the evolutionary history of life on Earth.
Application of systematics in different branches

Numerical systematics is a method that uses biological statistics to identify and classify animals.
Biochemical systematics is a method that classifies and identifies animals based on the analysis of the material that makes up the living part of a cell, such as the nucleus, cytoplasm, and other organelles.
Experimental systematics is a method that identifies and classifies animals based on the evolutionary units that comprise a species, as well as their importance in evolution itself.

Branches enhances the researchers to determine the applications and uses for modern day systematics.
Such applications include:

Biologists study the well-understood relationships by making many different diagrams and trees (cladograms, phylogenetic trees, and scenarios).
Manipulating and controlling the natural world. This includes the practice of biological control the intentional introduction of natural predators and disease.
Systematics in relation to society

Valuable in providing a cleaned-up set of names and a manageable system needed for filing, searching, comparing, recording and working with different species.
Mainly there is a need to re-evaluate taxonomy.
Systematics improved taxon sampling, storage, and recording of valuable data.


Investigatory Project in Biology

ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF CHILI (CAPSICUM ANNUM) EXTRACT An Investigatory Research Presented to Mrs. Presented by CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Background of the Study . Capsicum annuum is a domesticated species of the plant genus Capsicum native to southern North America and northern South America. Chili has been a part of the human diet in the Americas since at least 7500 BC. There is archaeological evidence at sites located in southwestern Ecuador that chili peppers were domesticated more than 6000 years ago and is one of the first cultivated crops in the Central and South Americas that is self-pollinating.
The plant is a perennial, but usually grown as an annual, with a densely branched stem. The plant reaches 0. 5–1. 5 m (20–60 in). The species is a source of popular sweet peppers and hot chili fruit, and numerous varieties are cultivated around the world. Despite being a single species, Capsicum annuum has many cultivars, with a variety of names. In American English it is commonly known as a chili pepper or bell pepper. Hot peppers are used in medicine as well as food in Africa.
It is employed in medicine, in combination with Cinchona in intermittent and lethargic affections, and also in atonic gout, dyspepsia accompanied by flatulence, tympanitis, paralysis etc. Its most valuable application appears however to be in cynanche maligna and scarlatina maligna, used either as a gargle or administered internally. In this research, antimicrobial activity of chili will be studied. Certain bacteria and fungal species will be the focus of the experiment. Bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus and fungi like Trichophyton rubrum Statement of the Problem

The main problem of this study is to determine the antimicrobial activity of chili (Capsicum annum) extract. This study also intends to answer the following. 1. The effectiveness of the chili extract as an antimicrobial. 2. The response of the bacteria species to the chili extract. 3. The response of the fungal species to the chili extract. Significance of the Study This study would add knowledge in the field of science. This would also be a help in further studies about plants as antimicrobial. Science students and science teachers can use this as a source for future research with regards to this study.
The public would directly benefited by this study. Infections of bacteria and fungi to humans such as pimples, athlete’s foot, skin infection and diarrhea will be aided naturally. Since chili is cheap and highly available, people can easily get and make antimicrobial extract from chili. Moreover, this study may as well be use by future researchers as a resource material. Scope and Limitation of the Study This research would make use extract from chili as antimicrobial. Other natural extracts from other plants are excluded. Antimicrobial activity includes bacteria and fungal species.
Bacteria species consist of Staphylococcus aureus while fungal species consist of Trichophyton rubrum. Dealing with microorganisms might be exposed for contamination. Aseptic technique should be observed. Over 2 plates of microorganisms will be prepared and a many laboratory works will be done. This might lessen the effectiveness of the research data and result due to human cause. That’s why human patience and strength should be employed to avoid incorrect result. CHAPTER II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE Capsicum Annuum as Plant
Capsicum annuum is a domesticated species of the plant genus Capsicum native to southern North America and northern South America. The three species C. annuum, C. frutescens and C. chinense all evolved from a single common ancestor located somewhere in the northwest Brazil – Columbia area. his species is the most common and extensively cultivated of the five domesticated capiscums. The name annuum means “annual” (from the Latin annus “year”, the plant is not an annual and in the absence of winter frosts can survive several seasons and grow into a large perennial shrub. The C. nnuum is especially productive in warm and dry climates. The single flowers are an off-white (sometimes purplish) color whilst the stem is densely branched and up to 60 centimetres (24 in) tall. When ripe, the fruit may be green, yellow or red. In American English the plant is commonly known as a chili pepper or bell pepper. Sweet peppers are very often used as a bulking agent in cheap ready made meals/take-away food as they are cheap, have a strong flavour, and are colorful. The colorful aspect of peppers increases the visual appeal of the food, making it more appetizing.
Capsaicin, a chemical found in chili peppers, creates a burning sensation once ingested which can last for several hours after ingestion. In British English, the sweet varieties are called red or green peppers, and the hot varieties chillies whereas in Australian and Indian English the name capsicum is commonly used for bell peppers exclusively and chilli is often used to encompass the hotter varieties. Uses of Capsicum Annuum The species is a source of popular sweet peppers and hot chilis with numerous varieties cultivated all around the world.
Hot peppers are used in medicine in Africa and other countries. It is employed in medicine, in combination with Cinchona in intermittent and lethargic affections, and also in atonic gout, dyspepsia accompanied by flatulence, tympanitis, paralysis etc. Its most valuable application appears however to be in cynanche maligna (acute diptheria) and scarlatina maligna (malignent Scarlet fever, used either as a gargle or administered internally. It is also considered efficacious for a wide variety of symptoms including sore throat nd fever. Microorganisms Microorganisms are very diverse; they include bacteria, fungi, archaea, and protists; microscopic plants (green algae); and animals such as plankton and the planarian. Some microbiologists also include viruses, but others consider these as non-living. Most microorganisms are unicellular (single-celled), but this is not universal, since some multicellular organisms are microscopic, while some unicellular protists and bacteria, like Thiomargarita namibiensis, are macroscopic and visible to the naked eye.
Microorganisms live in all parts of the biosphere where there is liquid water, including soil, hot springs, on the ocean floor, high in the atmosphere and deep inside rocks within the Earth’s crust. Microorganisms are critical to nutrient recycling in ecosystems as they act as decomposers. As some microorganisms can fix nitrogen, they are a vital part of the nitrogen cycle, and recent studies indicate that airborne microbes may play a role in precipitation and weather.
Microbes are also exploited by people in biotechnology, both in traditional food and beverage preparation, and in modern technologies based on genetic engineering. However, pathogenic microbes are harmful, since they invade and grow within other organisms, causing diseases that kill people, other animals and plants. Antimicrobials An antimicrobial is a substance that kills or inhibits the growth of microorganisms[1] such as bacteria, fungi, or protozoans. Antimicrobial drugs either kill microbes (microbiocidal) or prevent the growth of microbes (microbiostatic).
Disinfectants are antimicrobial substances used on non-living objects or outside the body. The history of antimicrobials begins with the observations of Pasteur and Joubert, who discovered that one type of bacteria could prevent the growth of another. They did not know at that time that the reason one bacterium failed to grow was that the other bacterium was producing an antibiotic. Technically, antibiotics are only those substances that are produced by one microorganism that kill, or prevent the growth, of another microorganism.
Of course, in today’s common usage, the term antibiotic is used to refer to almost any drug that attempts to rid your body of a bacterial infection. Antimicrobials include not just antibiotics, but synthetically formed compounds as well. Antimicrobial nanotechnology is a recent addition to the fight against disease causing organisms, replacing heavy metals and toxins and may some day be a viable alternative. Infections that are acquired during a hospital visit are called “hospital acquired infections” or nosocomial infections.
Similarly, when the infectious disease is picked up in the non-hospital setting it is considered “community acquired”. Natural Antimicrobials Many these plants have been investigated scientifically for antimicrobial activity, and a large number of plant products have been shown to inhibit the growth of pathogenic microorganisms. A number of these agents appear to have structures and modes of action that are distinct from those of the antibiotics in current use, suggesting that cross-resistance with agents already in use may be minimal.
So, it is worthwhile to study plants and plant products for activity against resistant bacteria. Plants are rich in a wide variety of secondary metabolites, such as tannins, terpenoids, alkaloids, and flavonoids, which have been found in vitro to have antimicrobial properties. CHAPTER III METHODOLOGY Materials Chili Forceps Mortal and Pestle Bacteria culture Blender Fungal culture Cheese clothSmall circular absorbant paper Beaker Research Design In this study, the antimicrobial activity of Capsicum annum will be measured quantitatively against bacterial and fungal species.
The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) will be qualitatively determined. Plant Collection and Sampling Method Chili (Capsicum annum) plant will be obtained from the local market of Zamboanga City. Mature chili will be use having a usable size of 1/4 inch in diameter. Chili will be purchased using simple random sampling. This will be applied to all chili vendors in the market. They will be washed in sterile water and will be crushed prior to extraction. Extraction Process The 40g crushed chili will be blended until is reaches a smooth texture. The chili soup will be strained by a cheese cloth and extract the juice.
The chili extract will be then set aside for the experiment. Bacterial and Fungal Culture The Staphylococcus aureus and Trichophyton rubrum will be used in the experiment. These microorganisms will be obtained from Department of Science and Technology (DOST). Data Gathering Procedure The MIC will be evaluated on the chili extract showing an antimicrobial activity. From the chili extract, a small circular absorbent paper will be soaked and place on the surface of the cultured microorganism. After 2 days. Result will be observed. The zone of inhibition


Biology Assignment, Types of Wounds and Quick Treatments

5 Types of Open Wounds: Abrasion – Abrasions are wounds caused by traumatic scraping and loss of skin. Falls occurring while in motion frequently lead to skin abrasions. Extensive skin loss may occur with high-speed motorcycle or similar accidents. Thorough cleansing and bandaging of abrasions involving small/limited skin loss should be done as first aid. Extensive or deep abrasions require a bigger treatment, which, in the most severe cases, may include skin grafting (used to permanently replace damaged or missing skin or to provide a temporary wound covering). Lacerations – Lacerations consist of cuts to the skin caused by sharp objects.
Broken glass, knives, and other sharp tools are what commonly cause/started skin lacerations. In “Common Simple Emergencies,” thorough cleansing of a laceration wound is important in preventing wound infection. Adhesive strips, tissue adhesive, skin staples or stitches can be used to close a laceration wound. How to close a laceration wounds depends on the location, shape, size and the severity of the wound. Punctures – Puncture wounds result from forceful, deep skin penetration by slender objects. Accidentally stepping on a nail or other sharp object is a common cause of puncture wounds.
Punctures wounds provided bacteria with an entryway into the deep layers of the skin where they can grow. The risk for tetanus, an infection caused by the bacterium Clostridium tentani, in simpler words meaning, infection from dirty metallic objects may provide health concern. Puncture wounds can be treated through cleansing and making sure you are up to date with your tetanus vaccination. Puncture wounds associated with animal, such as bees or most commonly dogs and human bites may require some medicine/antibiotic treatment because of the high risk infection to the bone and flesh.

Animal bites may require rabies vaccination if the animal has rabies, or if their current status is unknown. Incision – Rarely occurs, unless when handling knives, or bumping into something sharp, incision is almost like a scratch except deeper and more serious. More like a cut in the skin caused by a sharp object such as a knife, broken glass, scissors or surgeon’s scalpel. Incision wounds are also “neat” (does not affect a large amount of area with little wounds) and the edges of the skin are usually smooth (not damaged, more like split)
Avulsion – An injury in which a body structure is forcibly detached. It most commonly refers to a surface trauma where all layers of the skin have been torn away; exposing the underlying structures (e. g. subcutaneous tissue, muscle, tendons). This is similar to an abrasion but more severe, as body parts such as an eyelid or an ear can be partially or fully detached from the body. (Simple form: the forced removal of all of layers of the skin, the Epidermis, Dermis and Hypodermis, revealing tissues, muscles, tendons and sometimes bones underneath)