Categories
Behavior

Off-the-Job Behavior

Textbook Case Study Off-the-Job Behavior 1. Do you believe Oiler’s employee rights were violated? Explain your position. Peter Oiler’s termination from his job by the Winn-Dixie Corporation was an obvious violation of his employee rights. Though balancing employee rights with proper discipline is a constant challenge for HR professionals. But in this case of Oiler, the work place behavior of the employer had not changed and there is no problem, with the co-employers also. Also in the own time, the company have no rights about the way he dress.
Hence there is also no such challenge for the Winn-Dixie that it has to terminate Oiler. Hence I would consider that Winn-Dixie has violated the employee rights of Oiler. Also his social security has been compromised. When we consider the situation here is more normal than a similar case in 2005, which happened in Georgia. According to that, the courts consider this as sexual discrimination under 42 U. S. C. Sec. 1983 and Equal Protection Clause of the 14th Amendment of the Constitution.
And the development of trans-gender transitions has a real concern and the laws accept the claims of discrimination under employer’s categorizing of genders. Thus Oiler’s claim is acceptable and Winn-Dixie has to oblige to the claims of Oiler. Here Oiler’s can be taken as an example of opposition of trans-genders in the general public. Though the laws are guarding them, the manipulation of thought caused by these cases is more than the actual violation. Since the court ruled out as not a violation, it will be a wrong guideline as the decision can be referenced in consecutive references. . What do you see as the consequences of organizations that punish employees for certain off-the-job behaviors? Explain. In the case of punishment of the employees, the people have united against this unrightfully action. Also it had created an uneasy environment among the workers. Most organizations which do the punishment of workers for off-job behaviors as they feel as their right, run the risk of being faced with numerous lawsuits and allegations of partiality and discriminatory practices.

Hence these organizations end up with a bad reputation and a question mark for credibility. Which in turn costs, they also face losing customers, business partners and stockholders. There will be a greater number of individuals who do not agree with these abrupt decisions than who support it. Hence they will decide to cut their ties with organizations who favor such practices. It would be safe to assume that many businesses that were previously a part of the Winn-Dixie organizations like financial institutions, suppliers etc. ade the decision to no longer be associated with a company that would practice such unethical and immoral standards of business. This will in turn destroy the past achievement and the support it had earned and also future trades with other organization is also threatened. Hence it completely obliterates the potential success of any business or organization. Any business organization must have rules and regulations which must be followed to and by all employees. Additionally, businesses must have particular methods in place to discipline individuals who do not follow the rules. 3.
Would you consider Winn-Dixie an organization that exhibits characteristics of progressive discipline or the hot stove approach? Defend your position. According to me, Winn-Dixie is an organization which exhibits hot stove characteristics. This can be made on seeing the action taken by Winn-Dixie. Oiler has a clean organizational behavior and has a perfect work record. His career track record is also proper and he is considered as an asset by all the workers. When we consider about the harshness of the Disciplinary action, terminating the employee is considered as a most severe disciplinary action.
And the Winn-Dixie had done this, hence it is a Hot stove characteristic. The hot-stove approach punishes all unacceptable behaviors with identical disciplinary actions whereas the progressive approach, warns individuals depending on the harshness and/or the reoccurrence of actions and behaviors which they have previously been warned against. The severe disciplinary action can be taken for an offense is so serious that immediate dismissal is appropriate such as theft, sexual harassment, violence, plagiarism etc.
And since the person involved has not done anything, hence he should not be taken severe discipline. Also before taking a decision of terminating the employee, the company neither talked to Oiler for an explanation nor it has given Oiler a verbal warning so that he can be more careful in future. Thus it had taken the action immediately and without giving time to Oiler for confirming his position or giving any explanation. Hence Winn-Dixie is following hot stove procedure in disciplinary actions.

Categories
Behavior

Productive and Counterproductive Behaviors Paper

Productive and Counterproductive Behaviors in the Workplace Employees within an organization can either contribute positively or negatively towards their employing organization’s overall success and effectiveness. The organizations that ream the most productive behaviors from their employees typically incorporate motivational and leadership activities that encourage these behaviors (Jex & Britt, 2008). This paper will define counterproductive and productive behaviors and describe the impact those behaviors have on job performance and the overall performance of an organization.Counterproductive Behaviors Logic says that employees should want to do well in their jobs. But despite this logic, some employees do not. For various reasons employees will sometimes perform counterproductively towards their employer’s overall goals.
Examples of these types of behaviors are ineffective job performance, frequent absence from work, unsafe behavior, turnover, theft, violence, substance abuse, and sexual harassment (Jex & Britt, 2008). These types of behaviors can result in high costs for organizations.Detecting Counterproductive Behavior The best way employers can detect counterproductive behavior among employees is to perform routine performance appraisals. There are several methods for performing appraisals, including electronic, production data, and subjective appraisals. Each of these systems has pros and cons to it, and are only marginally effective (Jex & Britt, 2008). The truly best way to detect counterproductive behavior is to interact with employees and monitor their job satisfaction. What Causes Counterproductive Behavior?An employee who does not perform well in his or her job may do so for reasons like lack of ability, interruptions from other employees, or poor task design (Jex & Britt, 2008).
As well, poor job performance may result from elements in the organizational climate that provoke poor attitude, or, much less often, because of deep psychiatric problems (Jex & Britt, 2008). Once an employer detects a counterproductive behavior among his or her workforce he or she must try to pinpoint the cause of the behavior. One way of doing this is through the attribution process, in which the mployee’s supervisor would evaluate an employee’s current performance against his or her past performance, his or her performance on specific tasks versus his or her overall performance, and his or her performance compared to other employees. By doing this the supervisor can try to determine the cause of the ineffective behavior and whether it is being caused by internal (lack of ability or motivation, poor attitude, or psychiatric issues) or external (coworkers, poor task design, or lack of tools) factors (Jex & Britt, 2008). Responding to Counterproductive BehaviorOnce a behavior is detected and the cause of the behavior is analyzed, employers must decide how to respond to the behavior. The best first response is to have the employee’s manger discuss the counterproductive behavior with the employee in question (Jex & Britt, 2008) and determine whether the behavior can be corrected in order for the employee to retain his or her position. Once the discussion takes place the manager and employee can decide whether further training or coaching would encourage improved behavior or whether an Employee Assistance Program (EAP) would be beneficial (Jex & Britt, 2008).

Of course, organizations would be best off to prevent counterproductive behaviors from occurring at all. This can be done by going to the effort and expense of hiring the right employees, possibly by utilizing the tools of selection programs to analyze potential employees skills and personalities. As well, employers should nurture their employees’ skills and abilities to encourage productive job performance. Finally, they should also offer employees frequent feedback and measurement of their performance to help keep them on track with respect to organizational expectations (Jex & Britt, 2008).Productive Behaviors Despite the fact that some employees do not contribute positively to the organizations they work for, most employees try to perform their jobs to the best of their abilities and even go above and beyond their required duties at times. Examples of productive behaviors include positive job performance, organizational citizenship, creativity, and innovation (Jex & Britt, 2008). Assessing Productive Behaviors Organizational psychologists use various models to assess job performance.
These models evaluate in-role (technical aspects of a given job) and extra-role (skills that transcend the specific content of a job such as communication skills and being a team player) performance by employees (Jex & Britt, 2008). These assessments allow managers to recognize productive employees and encourage and motivate them to continue in their efforts. Predictors of Productive Behaviors There are several methods that organizations can use when recruiting employees to predict whether candidates will contribute positively to their organization.These include general cognitive ability, level of job experience, and the personality trait of conscientiousness (Jex & Britt, 2008). By evaluating these predictors, organizations can save themselves time and money by hiring the right people who will contribute to organizational goals without excess coaching, training, or need for reprimand. The Affects of Counterproductive and Productive Behaviors Clearly an organization will be affected by the employees that support it. Employees that contribute positively will help the organization move towards its goals, and, if innovation and creativity are present, possibly even surpass their goals.
On the other hand, employees who work counterproductively within an organization, will cost management time and may require additional effort to be spent on reputation management, recruitment, and training (Jex & Britt, 2008). Organizations would be best served to recruit employees with the most potential to work productively by analyzing their job experience, personality, and cognitive ability before offering an individual a job.References Jex, S. M. , & Britt, T. W. (2008).
. Organizational Psychology. A Scientist-Practitioner Approach, Second Edition. Retrieved from https://ecampus. phoenix. edu/classroom/ic/classroom. aspx.

Categories
Behavior

Essay sample on Organizational Behavior

Organizational behavior is a valued issue in the circles of corporate world. Firms have in the past structured executive compensation in a manner to influence organizational behavior. Firms usually craft attractive compensation to attract and retain superior executives. In some instances, executive compensation is tied to the performance of the managers, usually reflected on the financial performance. However, the present global financial meltdown has placed executive compensation on the debate table. The big dilemma is should executive compensation programs be shelved in context of the present financial crisis.
Recruitment firms mostly involved in the hiring best-performing executives mostly persuade the interested firms the need to increase compensation levels (McCool, 9). The issue of executive compensation is most times handled in emotive manner other than in logical due process analysis. In pursuit of executive compensation Growth oriented firms normally pursue executive compensation to attract highly qualified managers and enhance retention to assure of succession at the firm. Firms caught at the center of the present global competition for leadership, executive compensation is an issue that executive search team influence to stay ahead.
For example, a 1991 Fortune study on 200 major firms found that 86 percent of the CEOs earn $1M or more per annum. In fact, the average CEO earned about $1. 4M in base salary and annual bonuses but on counting long incentives and stock options the figure possibly reached $2. 8M (Crystal, 1). It is reportedly that some CEOs while campaigning to have their compensation hiked, they enlist best paying companies on the survey to justify their under-compensation. The level of compensation soared in the 1990’s but in the present decade it has blasted leading to heated debate.

Categories
Behavior

Organizational behaviour and organisational analysis of behaviour in Pizza Hut

1. Introduction
Organisational behaviour and organisational analysis are both subjects that deal with the behaviour of people in organizations, and together they contain a wealth of knowledge about this matter. However, each one has a somewhat different focus. The traditional concern of organisational behaviour is at macro level of organization and so it normally has a heavy, if not exclusive focus on the characteristics and processes of individuals and groups. Conversely, organizational analysis is much more heavily focused on the organization as a whole and deals with characteristics such as structure, effectiveness, goals and culture and also with process such as control, communication and change. (Rollinson, Broadfield & Edwards, 1998, p.18). To identify and critically analyse an organisational behaviour and/or human resource issue facing an organisation I have chosen the Company Pizza Hut.
Pizza Hut (corporately known as Pizza Hut, Inc.) is an American restaurant chain and international franchise. Pizza Hut was founded in 1958 by brothers Dan and Frank Carney in their home town of Wichita, Kansas and headquarters in Plano, Texas, US. A small 25 seat restaurant only had room for 9 letters on the sign… the building looked like a hut. So ‘Pizza Hut’ was born!

2. Mission Statement
A mission statement identifies operational objectives, assists in goal-directed behaviour of staff, describes performance standards, and speaks to organisational survival (Smith, Heady, Carson & Carson, 2001). And Williams (2002) suggested that organisations with a more comprehensive mission statement do better financially than those with an ambiguous mission or no mission at all. Similarly Pizza Hut takes pride in making perfect pizza and providing courteous and helpful service on time and all the time. They are the employers of choice offering team members opportunities for growth, advancement, and rewarding careers in a fun, safe working environment.
3. Marketing Strategy
Most businesses find it easier to formulate strategies that outline how they intend to achieve their goals than how to implement them (Noble and Mokwa, 1999; Walker and Ruekert, 1987). The literature suggests that an important cause of such strategy implementation difficulties is the way businesses organize their marketing activities (McKee, Varadarajan, and Pride, 1989 and Walker and Ruekert, 1987). In particular, marketing theory posits that to enable strategy implementation and achieve superior performance, managers should organize marketing activities in different ways depending on their business strategy (Slater and Olson 2000; Walker and Ruekert 1987). However Pizza Hut is successfully enabled its marketing strategy. Pizza Hut marketing strategy is very simple: “We want to satisfy our customer by offering them the best.” In 1995, Pizza Hut began two customer satisfaction programs: a 1-800 number customer hotline, and a customer call-back program. These were implemented to make sure their customers were happy, and always wanted to return.
4. References
Books, Web and Journals:
1. McKee, Daryl O., P. Rajan Varadarajan, and William M. Pride (1989), “Strategic Adaptability and Firm Performance: A Market-Contingent Perspective,” Journal of Marketing, 53 (July), 21-35.
2. Derek Rollinson, Aysen Broadfield and David J. Edwards. (1998). Organisational behaviour and analysis: an integrated approach. New York: Harlow: Addison-Wesley. p18.
3. Noble, Charles H. and Michael P. Mokwa (1999), “Implementing Marketing Strategies: Developing and Testing a Managerial Theory,” Journal of Marketing, 63 (October), 57-73.
4. Ruekert, Robert W. and Orville C. Walker (1987), “Interactions Between Marketing and R&D Departments in Implementing Different Business Strategies,” Strategic Management Journal, 8 (May-June), 233-48.
5. Slater, Stanley F. (1995), “Issues in Conducting Marketing Strategy Research,” Journal of Strategic Marketing, 3(December), 257-70.
6. Smith, M., Heady, R. B., Carson, P. P., & Carson, K. D. (2001). Do missions
accomplish their missionsAn exploratory analysis of mission statement content
and organizational longevity. Journal of Applied Management and Entrepreneurship,
available on-line at http://www.huizenga.nova.edu/jame/.
7. Williams, C. (2002). Effective Management. Cincinnati, OH: South-Western
Publishing.
http://www.fundinguniverse.com/company-histories/Pizza-Hut-Inc-Company-History.html

Categories
Behavior

The Oxidation Behaviour of Welded 2.25Cr-1Mo (T22) Boiler Tube Steels under Cyclic Conditions

Abstract: This research examines the oxidation behaviour of SMAW and TIG weldment in 2.25 Cr-1Mo (T22) boiler tube steels after exposure to air at 900°C under cyclic conditions. Weight gain/area has been plotted against number of cycles to identify the kinetics of oxidation. Scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDX) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques were used to analyze the oxidation products.
The results reveals that the SMAW welded steel showed more weight gain than that of TIG welded because of the formation of higher extents of cracks and a thicker oxide scale on HAZ and weld region.
Introduction

At moderately high temperature Cr-Mo steels are a broadly used group of engineering materials for applications, for example, steam generation/handling, petroleum processing/refining, thermal reforming/polarization/cracking [1]. The improvement in strength at elevated temperature is preferable to avoiding the increasing of wall thickness when using traditionally Cr-Mo steel for reheater or superheater tubes.
The reheater and superheater tubes may fail well inside their intended design life by a combination of fireside corrosion and creep [2]. In any case, in steam generator systems, a large number of welds were found in tubes to tubes or tubes to sheets forms. Welding subjects the base metal to intense thermal cycling resulting in a significantly altered, inhomogeneous microstructure adjacent to the weld deposit.
This region is known as the heat- affected zone (HAZ) [3]. The heat-affected zone (HAZ) of 2.25 Cr-1 Mo steel and the weld crown region of 9 Cr-1 Mo steel were found to oxidize at higher rates when exposed to high temperatures, and grow significantly thicker scale than other regions in the weldments of the respective steels. This was considered while using scale thickness measurement as a tool for life assessment of high temperature welded parts.
The difference in the oxidation behavior of the different regions was found to emerge from the difference in the Cr content of the inner layer of the protective oxide [4, 5, 6]. The faster propagation of cracks along the grain boundary of HAZ than that of other regions of the 2.25Cr-1Mo steel weldments was seen because of the formation of Cr-rich secondary phases and corresponding depletion of free Cr along the grain boundaries, which might be the result in an increase in oxidation [7].
The oxidation behaviour of complex alloys has not been studied widely and isn’t surely knew, particularly of welded components moreover. Along these lines, additionally examines are required on oxidation behavior of complex alloys, especially those utilized for high temperature applications [8]. The cyclic conditions have been chosen for testing as these conditions constitute more practical approach towards taking care of the issue of metal corrosion in real industrial environment [9, 10].
This paper describes an experimental work carried out at 900°C to assess the oxidation behaviour of welded 2.25Cr-1Mo (T22) boiler tube steels under cyclic conditions. The oxidation product analyzed by XRD, SEM/EDX and cross-sectional BSEI.
Experimental Procedure
Preparation of weldments and specimen
ASTM SA213 2.25 Cr-1Mo (T22) steel was acquired from the thermal power plant Bhatinda, Punjab, India in the tube form. Gr. T22 boiler tube steel (10 mm thickness x 26 mm diameter) was cut into approximate length of 150 mm each. Each tube was machined to obtain a single conventional V-groove, with 30° bevel angle, constant root gap and root face of 1 mm.
Preceding welding the tube was altogether cleaned with brush and CH3)2CO in order to expel any oxide layer and soil or oil holding fast to the tube. Tubes were welded together by shielded metal arc welding using basic coated electrode AWS A5.5 E9018-B3 and tungsten inert gas welding techniques using 99% pure argon gas with filler wire AWS A5.28 E90S-B3 with constant arc current 95A.
The specimens each measuring approximately 20×15×5 mm3 were cut from the circular weldments. The specimens were polished with (220 grade) silicon carbide paper and emery paper and after that wheel polished before being to oxidize. The chemical compositions of T22 boiler tube steel and electrode/filler wire used in present study are shown in Table 1 [11].
Cyclic oxidation test
Cyclic oxidation studies were conducted in air at 900°C temperature in the a laboratory silicon carbide tube furnace for 50 cycles. Each cycle comprised of 1 hour heating at 900°C took after by 20 min cooling at room temperature. During experimentation, the prepared specimen was kept in an Al2O3boat and the weight of the boat and specimens was measured. Al2O¬3 boats used for the investigations were preheated at a steady temperature of 1200 °C for 6-8 hours, and it was accepted that their weight would stay consistent throughout high temperature cyclic oxidation study.
Then the alumina boat containing the specimen was embedded into the hot zone of the furnace set at a temperature of 900 °C. Weight-change measurements were taken at the end of each cycle using an electronic balance model 06120 (Contech, Mumbai, India) with a sensitivity of 10-3 g. After that the oxide scale was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy/Energy dispersive X- ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDX). The oxidized specimens were then cut over the cross-section and mounted for the cross-sectional oxide scale thickness measurement.
Results and Discussion
Visual examination and weight gain measurement analysis in air
The macrographs after cyclic oxidation for 50 cycles at 900 °C for welded 2.25Cr-1Mo (T22) steels are as shown in Fig.1. The colour of oxide scale for all welded steels after few cycles turned blackish gray. For SMAW welded steel the spalling started to appear just after 4th cycle. The new oxide scale seems to have grown in this void and which led to cracks and spalling of the top scale.
Whereas occurrence of large number of cracks have been observed in the oxidized samples. The weld region appeared black colour during 6th cycle of TIG welded steel. Cracks were observed in the oxide scale. The amount of the spalled scale has also been incorporated in weight gain measurements. The width of cracks was comparatively more in case of SMAW welded steel than TIG welded. The weight gain plots of welded steels in air at 900 °C is shown in Fig. 2 and it can be seen in the plots the weight gain for both weldments was almost same in the initial number of cycles upto 5th cycles then after gradually increased.
It can be inferred from the plot that SMAW welded steel showed the maximum weight gain as compared to TIG welded steel. The behaviour for SMAW welded steel was almost parabolic with parabolic rate constants, Kp(10-8 g2 cm-4 s-1) is 36.447 and the behaviour of TIG welded T22 steel has followed the parabolic law from 12thcycles due to minor spallation. Its parabolic rate constant (Kp) is 20.371 x 10-8 g2 cm-4 s-1 as shown in Fig.
Oxide scale thicknesses measurements
The thicknesses of the oxide scale on the weldment (i.e. on weld metal and HAZ) were measured from the BSEI along the cross-section of the mounted samples and the images are shown in Fig 4. The normal scale thickness values measured for weld area of SMAW and TIG weldment in steels are 1.333 mm and 1.095 mm individually. Though normal scale thickness measured for HAZ region of SMAW and TIG weldment are 1.386 mm and 0.940 mm individually. Least scale thickness was shown by TIG weldment. The oxide scale debonding at metal/scale interface is apparent from Fig. 4 (c); (d) for TIG welded steels respectively.
X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD)
The XRD patterns of the oxide specimens after 50 cycles are shown in Fig.5. These diffractograms has relatively comparable phases of iron oxide (Fe2O3) with Cr2O3 for both the welded steels. The weak peaks of Fe3O4, Cr2O3 along with main oxide Fe2O3 were indicated in the oxide scale of TIG welded steel.
SEM/EDX analysis
The surface SEM/EDX morphology of welded 2.25Cr-1Mo (T22) boiler steel is shown in Fig. 6. The SEM micrograph for weld region of SMAW welded steel Fig. 6 (a) reveals that the scale has developed cracks, and through these the iron oxide spalled out. The main upper oxide scale is rich in iron 97.96% with MnO (1.95%) point 2. The inner oxide scale having Fe2O3 (95.41%) and MnO (3.40%) point 1. The oxide scale of HAZ region of this weldment comprises of Mn with main oxide of Fe (96.78%) at point 2, however at point 1 it was only 95.57%Fe with manganese and chromium Fig. 6 (b).
The oxide scale of weld region for the TIG welded steel shown in Fig. 6 (c) indicates massive scale having cracks. The inward scale consists of predominately iron oxides with little amount of MnO (1.20%) and Cr2O3 (2.60%) point 1.Whereas the upper scale containing MnO (1.22%) and Cr2O3 (1.28%) with iron oxide point 2. The EDX analysis of HAZ region of this welded steel shows the oxide of iron (97.55%) with little amount of Cr2O3 (1.58%) at point 1 (black portion), while the white portion consists of Cr2O3(2.47%) with main phase of iron oxide (96.75%) at point 2 in Fig. 6 (d).
Fig. 2 demonstrates that both the weldments indicated same weight gain during first few number of cycles, however then after progressively expanded and nearly follows the parabolic oxidation rate law. The kinetics of oxidation, according is concerned in weldments. The resistance to oxidation of SMAW welded steel was less when contrasted with TIG welded and this might be because of the development of higher extents of creaks in oxide scale on weldment (i.e. weld metal and heat-affected zone (HAZ) (Fig. 1).
Less oxidation rate (in terms of weight gain) of TIG weldment was because of the formation of lower extents of cracks in the oxide scale. Some spalling of the oxide scale of welded steels as saw during cooling times of the thermal cycles was because of different values of thermal expansion coefficients of the metal and oxides [12, 13].
As far as scale thickness valuations, the weld region of SMAW welded specimen indicates more oxidation than that of TIG welded, and was expected to the non-availability of Cr in oxide scale as affirmed by EDX Fig. 6 (a) and furthermore as discussed about by Raman [6]. The little amount of chromium with main Fe2O3 in the oxide scale of TIG weldment (weld and HAZ regions) has contributed for the better oxidation resistance as can be seen in XRD and further confirmed by SEM/EDX analysis as indicated in Fig. 6(c) and (d).
Conclusions
SMAW welded steel showed the more weight gain than that of TIG welded and it was because of the development of higher extent of cracks and a thicker oxide scale on HAZ and weld region.
The weight gain of the T22 welded steels follows the parabolic rate law in air at 900 °C. The susceptibility to oxidation of welded 2.25Cr-1Mo (T22) steel specimens has been found to be as in the following order TIG; SMAW.
References

Khare AK (1981) Ferritic steels for high temperature applications, ASM Metal Park, OH, Conf., Warren, PA.
James PJ, Pinder LW (1997) Effect of coal chlorine on the fireside corrosion of boiler furnace wall and superheater/reheater tubing. Mat at High Temp 14:187-196.
Peddle BE, Pickles CE (2001) Carbide development in the heat affected zone of tempered and post-weld heat treated 2.25Cr-1Mo steel weldments. Canad Meta Quart 40:105-126.
Raman RKS, Muddle BC (2000) Role of high temperature corrosion in life assessment and microstructural degradation of Cr-Mo steel weldments. Inter J Press Vess Pip 77:117-123.
Raman RKS, Gnanamoorthy JB (1995) Oxidation behavior of weld metal, HAZ and base-metal regions in weldments of Cr-Mo steels. Weld J 74:133s-139s.
Raman RKS (2000) Relevance of high-temperature oxidation in life assessment and microstructural degradation of Cr-Mo steel weldments. Meta Mat Trans A 31:3101-3108.
Klueh RL, King JF (1982) Austenitic stainless steel-ferritic steel weld joint failures. Weld J 61:302s-311s.
Hussain N, Shahid KA, Khan IH, Rahman S (1994) Oxidation of high-temperature alloys (superalloys) at elevated temperatures in air: I. Oxid Met 41:251-269.
Sadique SE, Mollah AH, Islam MS, Ali MM, Megat MHH, Basri S (2000) High-temperature oxidation behavior of iron–chromium–aluminum alloys. Oxid Met 54:385-400.
Kumar R, Tewari RK, Prakash S (2009) Studies on hot corrosion of the microstructurally different regions of 2.25Cr-1Mo (T22) boiler tube steel weldment. J Mat Engg Perf 18:959-965.
ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (1986) Case N-47. ASME, Fairfield, New York.
Young DJ (2008) High temperature oxidation and corrosion of metals. Elsevier publisher.
Khanna AS (2002) Introduction to high temperature oxidation and corrosion. American Society for Metals, Materials Park, Ohio, USA.

Categories
Behavior

Consumer Traits and Behavior Paper

The practice of making a purchase or the influence of purchasing habits consists of several unseen processes. Most of these processes consist of consumer traits, social, psychological, decision, and behavior processes, which are in need of research. Organized study has gathered several theories and reasons concerning how, and why consumer traits and behavior have influence concerning the purchasing process. The consumer psychologist propose that each purchase made by consumers are in a number of ways influenced by components, such as cultural influences, psychological, and social processes, internal, and external factors.
Consumers of today are demonstrating a desire for fresh products and services. Because of these desires, doors of opportunity are opened for consumers, marketing providers, and businesses to approve or disapprove new concepts. Organizations will need to conduct nationwide research concerning the consumer’s behavior, and his or her decision- making processes. The research will support a variety of roles and ideas for product development. A successful marketer understands the numerous causes, motivation, and influences of consumer purchasing.
A psychological process occurs in the minds of individuals, and usually affects the individuals’ behavior. Concerning this topic, psychological process determines the consumer’s behavior. The team member will discuss three psychological processes, and three social processes. The team member will begin with psychological processes. Motivation: The internal force that encourages the consumer to take certain actions, Memory: Consumers use this process to store, acquire, retain, and retrieve information sometimes later.

Perception: by perception, consumers interpret, and organize sensations that affect him or her, and important to his or her lives. A social process occurs in an individuals’ life or surroundings. An individuals’ social life may affect his or her patterns of behavior and interactions. Social influence processes include: Family and role influences: How individuals are raised and family roles often determine how he or she responds to the environment. Opinion leaders: Individuals are usually affected by those who influenced his or her life.
Culture: Individuals may acquire similar or different interests, or likes. The importance of understanding consumer motivation will help businesses to develop marketing strategies that work. Businesses can communicate with his or her customer in ways that highlight his or her most valuable attributes. A successful business relies upon its capability to draw and keep customers, eager to buy goods and services at costs that will profit the business.
Consumer perception explains how consumers and probable consumers view other companies, and his or her goods and service. Consumer perception becomes significant for a business because it can influence the customer’s behavior, which eventually affects the businesses profits. A variety of businesses spend huge quantities of capital to persuade customer awareness. Consumer perception can most times determine success or failure for a business.
An example of this consists of an individual who own his or her restaurant, and the restaurant has a reputation for serving good food. The general perception would indicate that everyone should eat at this particular restaurant because it serves the best foods in town. This perception could boost revenue for the restaurant, but on the other hand if consumers had a negative perception about the restaurant, it could hinder profits. Consumer memory allows consumers to remember and identify information for future use.
Therefore, memory plays an important role concerning the decision- making process of consumers, by moving his or her awareness and remembrance of marketing information. Consumers used information stored in his or her memory knowingly and unknowingly when making decisions. These decisions range from what brand and flavor of soda to drink or what manufacture, and type of car to purchase. By understanding these important processes marketers can better prepare to market new product and services to consumers.