Dematerializtion of Architecture

The history of discourses has been developed for centuries, and architecture have entered a phase of re-evaluation. Because of the prevalent technology and media of creation in the virtual world, contemporary architecture is dematerialized to be images and abstract ideas. The definition of architecture has become even more subjective, obscure, ambiguous and limited. We took advantages from photography and the technology of visualization.
But the excessive trust on the visual sensation has somehow blinded our eyes and becomes he obstacle for understanding space and architecture. Photographers and designers selectively frame an object to depict a most exaggerated angle or to capture a most exciting moment. Audiences lost their autonomy in discovering the truth, because there is no other materials available except the illusions. The resulted biased understanding to architecture contradicts to Juhani Pallasmaa’s theory. He reaffirmed Merleau-Pontys philosophy, the human body is the centre of experiential world, in his book: The Eyes of The Skin.
He argues that multi-sensory experience allows the human body perceiving the qualities of space, matter and scale in a more profound manner. However, the multi-sensory experience does not apply to those intangible architecture. The obsession of rendering has enervated the importance of materiality. Materiality means mapping or tiling texture’ over the flat surface in the simulation program, disregarding physical properties, thickness, stiffness, elasticity, and density, of each specific material. We recklessly over simplify materiality.

In renderings, stainless steel eans highly reflective and shiny; wood means brown and static; brick means pixelated facade. Material has been degraded to be a piece of veneer or wallpaper, fragile and dispensable. This encourages substituting one material with another material. It is not rare to use hollow metal with shiny coating to imitate stainless steel in the construction practice. The identity of material is fading away. Last but not least, the inflation of the project scale has disrupted the relationship between an individual and the built habitat.
The immense scale of the new evelopments confuse us because everything is out of human proportion. Windows grow too big to become curtain wall. Doors are automatized, because they are too heavy to open. Towers are too high that takes hours to walk up. We cannot use the traditional quantitative mechanism to interpret matters. We could Just live within a building and hardly get to see the whole picture of it. The tangible structure is dissolved to be purely impression. Here we go back to photography in seeking a solid answer to the understanding of contemporary architecture.


Paper on Baroque Architecture

Jack Szmanda Architectural History, 3411 Professor Satkowski November 15, 2010 Contrast of Resources When researching for a specific reason or refined searches there are many places in which you can search to find results that can be more accurate or useful to the intended search. In the process of collecting information, one must review what kind of information is being displayed.
Just typing a key term into Google isn’t sufficient, but a deeper analysis is necessary.Articles, journals, books, and papers are all written with an intended focus and audience. With this, specific information is portrayed in order for the writer to adequately propose his findings or ideas to the readers. When researching information on the great building of Amphitheatrum Flavium, or more commonly known as the Colosseum, there were many sources, but the area of research that was being limited towards was the construction and looks of building rather than the architecture or city involvement.In searching, three beneficial sources were found; Rome, V,6: Colosseum (Grove Dictionary), The Colosseum (Wikipedia), and A Perfect Ruin (JSTOR), all of which portrayed different information and views surrounding the building and were intended for different reasons. The Grove Dictionary of Art is an encyclopedia that is available to the general population that relates its information to Art and Architecture. The article selected from Grove, Rome, V,6: Colosseum, was written by a women named Janet DeLaine.
DeLaine goes in great detail of the explanation of the visual and architectural aspects of the building. Her writings were mostly guided towards the explanation of how the building achieved its vast size and why the creators did so. DeLaine is guiding her writing towards a group trying to better their understanding of the Colosseum, such as Architecture Students. It is written in a way that suggests that she is sitting in the middle of the Colosseum while looking at a plan view of the building, trying to what she saw.The information being used is very up to date, even though it is almost a history lesson. She uses examples that are seen today, and renovations that have occurred recently in order for the preservation of the building, revealing that this is a valid source with legitimate and accurate information. The information given in Rome, V,6: Colosseum is very accurate an would more than likely be most helpful in the process of writing paper on the history of the building.

The next source that was collected was from the infamous Wikipedia. The exert from the encyclopedia was entitled The Colosseum where the writer was not specified. This database showed an enormous amount of information regarding the Colosseum ranging from the history of the building to the appearance in the media today. Similar to the article taken from the Grove Dictionary of Art, this article has a vast historical basis, ranging from the original construction to the multiple reconstructions throughout the years.Unlike Grove, Wikipedia goes farther into the building than just its appearance and construction, but its use and image. Wikipedia explains areas in which focus on the community involvement surrounding the Colosseum. Whether it be for entertainment, to explaining the churches involvement later in the buildings life.
The article was written to educate the reader on the building as a whole, but not refined to the teachings of an Architect, but a general student. Anyone willing to learn would get a good understanding of the building and the surrounding community.The data within the article is viewed as being current and up to date not only because it shows recent images of the building but it talks about the activity today that still surrounds the Colosseum. This reference has a large variety of strong information regarding the Colosseum. This form of secondary information does have very strong references to associations like the BBC and Encyclopedia Britannica, but the major flaw about the database is that any person could go and alter information found on the cite, making it a less reliable form of reference.The article would be very useful in writing a paper or teaching a lesson on the building, image, and community involvement surrounding the Colosseum, where it would be less helpful for a design project or planning a trip. The next resource selected, being entitled A perfect Ruin from the Journal Arion.
This exert from the journal is much larger and depictive that the other to sources. Published by the Trustees of Boston University, uses a different approach I relaying the information to the reader.The document goes in great detail of the design and structure if the building, but displays it as if the author was looking at a photograph. The author believes that a photograph is key in the studying and analysis of art and he expresses that in his writings. “By examining the photographs of the Colosseum, along with contemporary documents, we shall able to discern some of the most significant elements of the genuine sensation of Rome (Perfect Ruin, 113). ” Even through this passage alone it is easily seen that the author exemplifies photography, as a basis of the great Colosseum.The authors dialog is almost as if they are trying to communicate with the reader, trying to draw them in.
The focus is to teach the pure essence of reading photography and how they bring out the brilliance of a building like the Colosseum. The writing could be intended for a group of students, but not those that are strictly searching for elements of the building like an Architectural History student, but one who wanted to see it through different eyes, through the eyes of a camera.It also could be used for tourists wanting to understand what would be seen if visiting the Colosseum. The information successfully gives great reference to the Colosseum, while still trying to keep the readers interests. This is important because it isn’t written like a history book, but it still projects large amounts of information as a history book would. This is a great source due to its vast amount of information and legitimacy, but also because it reveals information in a different more elegant way.When approaching research from different sources, it is always important to review the information at hand to ensure that the writings are that of what you intended, and to show type of writing it is.
In the exerts from The Grove Dictionary of Art, Wikipedia, and JSTOR, all are different forms of writing ranging from a deep historical timeline of creation and construction, or a list of construction, and explanation of the building and society, to a unique prospective through the lens of a camera.All the sources can be written about the same idea, but all can be written in a different way, and intended for a different audience.Work Cited Arion, Trustees of Boston University. http://www. jstor. org/action/showPublisher ? publisherCode=tbu. Third Series, Vol.
2, No. 1 (Winter, 1992), pp. 115-142 “Colosseum. ” Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. 4 June 2009. Web. 16 Nov.
2010. <http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Colosseum>. DeLaine Janet. 2010. Rome V, 6: Colosseum.
Oxford University Press. June 22, 2010. <www. oxfordartonline. com. >


A Fast Crc Implementation on Fpga Using a Pipelined Architecture for the Polynomial Division

A Fast CRC Implementation on FPGA Using a Pipelined Architecture for the Polynomial Division Fabrice MONTEIRO, Abbas DANDACHE, Amine M’SIR,Bernard LEPLEY LICM, University of Metz, SUPELEC, Rue Edouard Belin, 57078 Metz Cedex phone: +33(0)3875473 11, fax: +33(0)387547301, email: fabrice. [email protected] org ABSTRACT The CRC error detection is a very common function on telecommunication applications. The evolution towards increasing data rates requires more and more sofisticated implementations. In this paper, we present a method to implement the CRC function based on a pipeline structure for the polynomial division.It improves very effectively the speed performance, allowing data rates from 1 Gbits/s to 4 Gbits/s on FPGA implementions, according to the parallelisation level (8 to 32 bits).
1 INTRODUCTION The CRC (Cyclic Redundancy Checking) codes are used in a lot of telecommunication applications. They are used in the internal layers of protocols such as Ethernet, X25, FDDI and ATM (AAL5). However, on modem networks, the need for increasing data rates (over 1 Gbit/s) is setting the constraints on performance very high. Indeed, the speed improvement (higher clock rates) due to the technological evolution is unable to fit the demand.Consequently, new architectures must be devised. Targetting the applications to an FPGA device is an issue for this paper, as it allows low-cost designs. The simple and evident serial implementation is a classical hardware implementation of the CRC algorithm.
Unfortunatly, on an FPGA implementation with maximal clock frequency of 250 MHz, maximal data rate is limited to 250 Mbits/s is the best case. Higher data rates can only be obtained through parallelisation. Some parallel architectures have been proposed in the past to address the need for high data throughput [ 1][2].The main problem is usually to limit the rapidly increasing area overhead while improving the speed performance. In this paper, we present a parallel approach for the polynomial division based on a pipeline structure. The parallelisation can be led to any level and is only lim- ited by the area constraint set on the design. The data throughput is almost directly linked to the parallelisation level, as the maximal clock rate is not very sensitive to it.

2 PRINCIPLE The polynomial division is the fundamental operation of the CRC applications.The serial implementation of the division is shown in figure 1 for the case where the polynomial divisor is G ( X ) = Go + G1. X1 + Gz. X2 + G3. X3 = 1 + X + X 3 . As indicated previously, the data throughput of this serial implementation is quite low. Very high data rates can only be achieved with high clock frequencies, which in turn can only be obtained using rather expensive technological solutions.
Parallelisation of data processing is the main solution to improve the speed performance of a circuit (or system) if the clock rate must remain low.Pipelining may be used as an effective parallelisation method when a repeatitive process must be applied on large volumes of ‘data. Previous works have addressed the parallelisation problem in large demanding computational applications, particularly in arithmetic (eg. [3][4]) and error control coding circuits (eg. [11[21[61). In the serial architecture (figure I), a new data bit is inject on each clock cycle. The previous cumulated remainder is simultaneously multiplied by X and divided by G(z) (where G(z) is the polynomial divisor).
On P Figure I : Serial polynomial division for G ( X ) = 1 -tX + X 3 -7803-7057-0/01/$10. 00 02001 IEEE. 1231 successive clock cycle , P bits are injected and P successive multiplication and divisions are performed. The next formula (related to the example of figure 1) describes the operation performed on one clock cycle. 0 T = [ o o 1 !]=[n Gz 0 1 o 1 1 Go GI 0 i ] 0 3 RESULTS This architecture have been implemented on FPGA devices of the FLEXlOKE ALTERA family. These devices have their maximal clock frequency limited to 250 MHz. The architecture was tested on the generating polynomials of table 1.
The results in table 2 were obtained on FPGA devices of the FLEXlOKE ALTERA family.The architecture tested in these examples implements a fully operational CRC checker. The synchronisation signals to write and read data respectively on input and ouput are fully implemented. The synthesis was done using Synplify 5. 3 and MaxPlus11 10. 0. The architecture was tested for 3 different levels of paralelism on 6 differents standard divisor polynomials.
It can be noticed that G17(z) is used on ethernet, FDDI and AALS-ATM, while G14(z) is the standard polynomial for the X2. 5 protocol. The clock rates must be compared to the highest frequency (250 MHz) that can be performed on FLEXlOKE devices.The “IC” indication means “logical cells” and is an indication of the area consumption. The results must be compared to those obtained in [SI. A data rate of 160 Mbits/s was obtained on an ALTERA FLEXIOK device (max. clock rate of 125 MHz), on a 32-bit parallel CRC runtime-configurable implementation of the decoder, based on the use of parallel combi- A pipeline structure can be devised by the implementation of P successive multiplications and divisions.
However, to keep the clock rate high, the P operations should not be done in a single combinatorial block. Thus, the stages of the P-multiplingldivising block must be separated by registers.This is the basic idea of the pipeline structure. Each of the P parallel bits of an input must be injected in their respective pipeline stage. consequently, they must be injected on different clock cycles. This may be done if the bits are delayed in a shift-register structure and (cf. the shift register path between [ d i n o ,.
.. , [douto, … ,doutp-l] in the figure 2, with P = 8 in this example and G ( X ) = 1 + X + X 3 . The operation performed when passing from the stage k + l to the stage k of the pipeline (k>O) is described in the next formula, where G ( X ) = 1 + X + X 3 as it is in figure 2.
ith Ri,J= 0 wheni + j > p – 1. The P bits of an input are processed in P clock cycles. At each clock cycle, the result of the processing of P bits is available at the output of the pipeline structure. This result (the remainder of the P bits divided by G(z) must be cumulated in the [ROO, ROZ] ROI, register using a recurrent approach, similar to the scheme of the serial architecture of figure 1. The cumulated remainder at time t must be multiplied by X p and then divided by G(x). Then, the new partial remainder coming out of the pipeline structure can be cumulated. This process is describet in the next formula.
Ro,o,ROJ,R0,Sltfl = [Ro,o,RO,l,R0,zIt * M +[Ri,o, Ri,i, Rl,z]t * T f [Do,P-l, 0,Olt natorial block for the polynomial division as presented in [ 11. The gain obtained on the 32-bit parallel architecture is within 16 and 30 times, that is, 8 to 1. 5 times using the same technology (cf. table 2). For any combination of the design parametres, the latency is alway equal to P clock cycles where P denotes the parallelisation level. It can be noticed that for given a maximal polynomial divisor degree, the area consumption (number of logic cells ) is almost proportional to the parallelisation level of the architecture.Furthermore, the results show that a large increase of the parallelisation level can be done with a reasonable decrease of maximal clock frequency.
The critical path is due to the M matrix. The complexity of this matrix depends on the choosen polynomial (number and position of the non-zero terms in the polynomial). It also depends on the parallelisation 1232 level, but not linearly. Actually, a higher parallelisation level can lead to a less complex matrix.


Big Data Architecture, Goals and Challenges

Big Data Architecture, Goals and Challenges Coupons Jose Christianity Dakota State University Abstract Big Data inspired data analysis is matured from proof of concept projects to an influential tool for decision makers to make informed decisions. More and more organizations are utilizing their internally and externally available data with more complex analysis techniques to derive meaningful insights. This paper addresses some of the architectural goals and challenges for Big Data architecture in a typical organization.
Overview In this fast paced information age, there are many different sources on corporate outworks and internet is collecting massive amounts of data, but there is a significant difference in this data compared to the conventional data, much of this data is semi- structured or unstructured and not residing in conventional databases. “Big data” is essentially a huge data set that scales to multiple potables of capacity; it can be created, collected, collaborated, and stored in real-time or any other way. However, the challenge with big data is that it is not easily handled using traditional database management tools.
It typically consists of unstructured data, which includes text, audio and video files, photographs and other data (Kavas, 2012). The aim of this paper is to examine the concepts associated with the big data architecture, as well as how to handle, process, and effectively utilize big data internally and externally to obtain meaningful and actionable insights. How Big Data is Different? Big data is the latest buzzword in the tech industry, but what exactly makes it different from traditional Bal or data analysis?

According to MIT Sloan Management Review, big data is described as “data that is either too voluminous or too unstructured to be managed and analyzed through traditional meaner” (Davenport, Thomas, Berth, & Bean, 2012). Big data is unlike conventional mathematical intelligence, where a simple sum of a known value yields a result, such as order sales becoming year-to-date sales. With big data, the value is discovered through a complex, refined modeling process as follows: make a hypothesis, create statistical models, validate, and then make a new hypothesis (Oracle, 2012).
Additionally, data sources are another challenging and differentiating factor within big data analytics. Conventional, structured data sources like relational databases, spreadsheets, and yogis are further extended into social media applications (tweets, blobs, Faceable, linked posts, etc. ), web logs, sensors, RIFF tags, photos/videos, information-sensing mobile devices, geographical location information, and other documents. In addition to the unstructured data problem, there are other notable complexities for big data architecture.
First, due to sheer volume, the present system cannot move raw data directly to a data warehouse. Whereas, processing systems such as Unprepared, can further refine information by moving it to data warehouse environment, where invitational and familiar Bal reporting, statistical, semantic, and correlation applications can effectively implemented. Traditional data flow in Business Intelligence Systems can depict like this, (Oracle. (2012). An Oracle white paper in enterprise architecture) Architectural Goals The preeminent goal of architecture big data solutions is to create reliable, scalable and capable infrastructure.
At the same time, the analytics, algorithms, tools and user interfaces will need to facilitate interactions with users, specifically those in executive-level. Enterprise architecture should ensure that the business objectives remain clear throughout big data technology implementation. It is all about the effective utilization of big data, rather than big architecture. Traditional IT architecture is accustomed to having applications within its own space and performs tasks without exposing internal data to the outside world.
Big data on other hand, will consider any possible piece of information from any other application to be instated for analysis. This is aligned with big data’s overall philosophy: the more data, the better. Big Data Architecture Big data architecture is similar to any other architecture that originates or has a inundation from a reference architecture. Understanding the complex hierarchal structure of reference architecture provides a good background for understanding big data and how it complements existing analytics, 81, databases and other systems.
Organizations usually start with a subset of existing reference architecture and carefully evaluate each and every component. Each component may require modifications or alternative solutions based on the particular data set or enterprise environment. Moreover, a successful big data architecture will include many open- source software components; however, this may present challenges for typical enterprise architecture, where specialized licensed software systems are typically used.
To further examine big data’s overall architecture, it is important to note that the data being captured is unpredictable and continuously changing. Underlying architecture should be capable enough to handle this dynamic nature. Big data architecture is inefficient when it is not being integrated with existing enterprise data; the same way an analysis cannot be completed until big data correlates it with other structured and enterprise-De data. One of the primary obstacles observed in a Hoodoo adoption f enterprise is the lack of integration with an existing Bal echo-system.
Presently, the traditional Bal and big data ecosystems are separate entities and both using different technologies and ecosystems. As a result, the integrated data analyses are not effective to a typical business user or executive. As you can see that how the data architecture mentioned in the traditional systems is different from big data. Big data architectures taking advantage of many inputs compared to traditional systems. (Oracle. (2012). An Oracle white paper in enterprise architecture) Architectural Cornerstones Source In big data systems, data can come from heterogeneous data sources.
Typical data stores (SQL or Nouns) can give structured data. Any other enterprise or outside data coming through different application Apish can be semi-structured or unstructured. Storage The main organizational challenge in big data architecture is data storage: how and where the data can be stored. There is no one particular place for storage; a few options that currently available are HATS, Relation databases, Nouns databases, and In-memory databases. Processing Map-Reduce, the De facto standard in big data analysis for processing data, is one of any available options.
Architecture should consider other viable options that are available in the market, such as in-memory analytics. Data Integration Big data generates a vast amount of data by combining both structured and unstructured data from variety of sources (either real-time or incremental loading). Likewise, big data architecture should be capable of integrating various applications within the big data infrastructure. Various Hoodoo tools (Scoop, Flume, etc. ) mitigates this problem, to some extent. Analysis Incorporating various analytical, algorithmic applications will effectively process this cast amount of data.
Big data architecture should be capable to incorporate any type of analysis for business intelligence requirements. However, different types of analyses require varying types of data formats and requirements. Architectural Challenges Proliferation of Tools The market has bombarded with array of new tools designed to effectively and seamlessly organize big data. They include open source platforms such as Hoodoo. But most importantly, relational databases have also been transformed: New products have increased query performance by a factor of 1,000 and are capable of managing a wide variety of big data sources.
Likewise, statistical analysis packages are also evolving to work with these new data platforms, data types, and algorithms. Cloud-friendly Architecture Although not yet broadly adopted in large corporations, cloud-based computing is well-suited to work with big data. This will break the existing IT policies, enterprise data will move from its existing premise to third-party elastic clouds. However, there are expected to be challenges, such as educating management about the consequences and realities associated with this type of data movement. Nonparametric Data
Traditional systems only consider the data unique to its own system; public data never becomes a source for traditional analytics. This paradigm is changing, though. Many big data applications use external information that is not proprietary, such as social network modeling and sentiment analysis. Massive Storage Requirements Moreover, big data analytics are dependent on extensive storage capacity and processing power, requiring a flexible and scalable infrastructure that can be reconfigured for different needs. Even though Hoodoo-based systems work well with commodity hardware, there is huge investment involved on the part of management.
Data Forms Traditional systems have typically enjoyed their intrinsic data within their own vicinity; meaning that all intrinsic data is moved in a specified format to data warehouse for further analysis. However, this will not be the case with big data. Each application and service data will stay in its associated format according to what the specific application requires, as opposed to the preferred format of the data analysis application. This will leave the data in its original format and allow data scientists to share existing data without unnecessarily replicating it.
Privacy Without a doubt, privacy is a big concern with big data. Consumers, for example, often want to know what data an organization collects. Big data is making it more challenging to have secrets and conceal information. Because of this, there are expected to be privacy concerns and conflicts with its users. Alternative Approaches Hybrid Big Data Architecture As explained earlier, traditional Bal tools and infrastructure will seamlessly integrate with the new set of tools and technologies brought by a Hoodoo ecosystem.
It is expected that both systems can mutually work together. To further illustrate this incept, the detailed chart below provides an effective analysis (Arden, 2012): Relational Database, Data Warehouse Enterprises reporting of internal and external information for a broad cross section of stakeholders, both inside and beyond the firewall with extensive security, load balancing, dynamic workload management, and scalability to hundreds of terabytes. Hoodoo Capturing large amounts of data in native format (without schema) for storage and staging for analysis.
Batch processing is primarily reserved for data transformations as well as the investigation of novel, internal and external (though mostly external) ATA via data scientists that are skilled in programming, analytical methods, and data management with sufficient domain expertise to accordingly communicate the findings. Hybrid System, SQL-Unprepared Deep data discovery and investigative analytics via data scientists and business users with SQL skills, integrating typical enterprise data with novel, multi-structured data from web logs, sensors, social networks, etc. (Arden, N. (2012).
Big data analytics architecture) In-memory Analytics In-memory analytics, as its name suggests, performs all analysis in memory without enlisting much of its secondary memory, and is a relatively familiar concept. Procuring the advantages of RAM speed has been around for many years. Only recently; however, has this notion become a practical reality when the mainstream adoption of 64-bit architectures enabled a larger, more addressable memory space. Also noteworthy, were the rapid decline in memory prices. As a result, it is now very realistic to analyze extremely large data sets entirely in-memory.
The Benefits of In-memory Analytics One of the best incentives for in-memory analytics are the dramatic performance improvements. Users are constantly querying and interacting with data in-memory, which is significantly faster than accessing data from disk. Therefore, achieving real- time business intelligence presents many challenges; one of the main hurdles to overcome is slow query performance due to limitations of traditional Bal infrastructure, and in-memory analytics has the capacity to mitigate these limitations.
An additional incentive of in-memory analytics is that it is a cost effective alternative to data warehouses. SMB companies that lack the expertise and resources to build n appropriate data warehouse can take advantage of the in-memory approach, which provides a sustainable ability to analyze very large data sets (Yellowing, 2010). Conclusion Hoodoo Challenges Hoodoo may replace some of the analytic environment such as data integration and TTL in some cases, but Hoodoo does not replace relational databases.
Hoodoo is a poor choice when the work can be done with SQL and through the capabilities of a relational database. But when there is no existing schema or mapping for the data source into the existing schema, as well as very large volumes of unstructured or MME-structured data, then Hoodoo is the obvious choice. Moreover, a hybrid, relational database system that offers all the advantages of a relational database, but is also able to process Unprepared requests would appear to be ideal.


Wright Demonstrating the Ideals of Organic Architecture in Taliesin West

Wright demonstrating the Ideals of Organic Architecture in Taliesin West Exterior image of Taliesin West, Scottsdale, Arizona “Organic can merely mean something biological, but if you are going to take the word organic into your consciousness as concerned with entities, something in which the part is to the whole as the whole is to the part, and which is all devoted to a purpose consistently, then you have something that can live, because that is vital” (1) (Meehan 52) The famous American architect by the name of Frank Lloyd Wright based his designs on what he called “organic architecture”.
His philosophy of what modern architecture should be is one as unique as his buildings, but nevertheless he was a pivotal figure in the progression of modernism in the United States. As described by Kathryn Smith, his winter home in Scottsdale Arizona “[reveals], more than any of his other buildings, a closer understanding of Wright the man as well as Wright the architect. ” (Smith 92) This winter home is known as Taliesin West and is an epitome of organic architecture.
Wight’s work has previously been demonstrated with the International Style, but upon deeper understanding of his architecture one can come to the conclusion that it does not exactly agree with the movement. He allowed his work to be included in first exhibition of the International style in the hopes of demonstrating the immense difference of his structures compared to the work by Le Corbusier’s, Alvar Aalto, Walter Gropius and many others. Before exploring the relation between Taliesin West and Organic Architecture, an investigation of his lectures and writings must be completed to thoroughly grasp his principles of design.

Comprehending his journey until 1936, when he bought the land to construct his new project, will grant the knowledge needed to effortlessly connect the two. Wright started his career at an early age, in 1885, in the city of Chicago. He first worked for architect Joseph Silsbee, than spent five years under the direction of Alder and Sullivan. In 1893 he made the decision to commence his own firm and went through a large learning curve for the next seven years – being a young, ambitious architect with no true reputation and little individual experience. The first decade of the 1900s saw Wright’s first real break-through with the Prairie House.
The ideas he demonstrated in this school of thought have a clear connection to his later developed definition of organic architecture. “Reproductions and variations of foreign styles did not seem to Wright an authentic expression of American culture… ” (Twombly 59-60) The drive to appropriate the types of buildings to their suitable land in America pushed Wright further in his designs. The time period expanding form 1910 to 1930 gave rise to many hardships for Wright. In 1911 he built his new home in Wisconsin, named Taliesin, and in 1914 it was the place of the tragic death of his wife and two children.
Wright remarried but in 1927 got divorced for Olga Lazovich Hinzenberg to whom he stayed married until his death. By the 1930s Wright’s Organic style had clearly matured and he became confident in his principles, nonetheless he would continue the exploration of his style through experimentation. He opened the Taliesin Fellowship in 1932 in his Wisconsin estate. This fellowship was not to be like a school at all – “instead of teachers, pupils, and pedagogy” he envisioned having “skilled craftspeople, novices, and physical labor. (Twombly 212) This is a direct result of “Wright [believing] that education should be in doing, not in the classroom. ” (Twombly 212) A former apprentice of the Fellowship, by the name of Bruce Brook Pfeiffer, describes that upon their first encounter with the desert in 1928 (when Mr. and Mrs. Wright went to Phoenix to collaborate on a hotel called the Arizona Baltimore) “they would take weekend trips out on the desert. They thought the desert was a wonderful place. The air was clean, beautiful and dry. (Pfeiffer) Following the gradual decline of Wright’s health, he was recommended to relocate to a warmer climate and so the desert was the ideal location. He previously stated “living in the Desert is the spiritual cathartic a great many people need” (Smith 88) In 1936, after the inspection of several sites, Mr. and Mrs. Wright purchased eight hundred acres of land in Paradise Valley, located approximately twenty six miles of Phoenix, Arizona. (Smith 88) When he visited this site Wright said “it’s a look over the rim of the world. ” (Pfeiffer) This desert floor landscape would be Wright’s and the Fellowship’s new winter home.
To now further explore Wright’s own definition of the term “Organic Architecture” it is essential to note that he used the word “nature” with two main definitions. The first way in which he used the term alluded “to the outdoors … or the “external” nature. ” (Twombly 304) In this context there were four major ways in which nature informed his designs, the first of these being the need to be close to the outdoors and nature itself. The inspiration that could be drawn from surroundings as models for architectural forms and construction principles was also a crucial influence to his designs.
The use of materials that would connect to the immediate nature was very important in the making a construction organic. Lastly, in the designs Wright created, there was always a sensitivity of the local climate conditions. Wright’s second definition for the term “nature” refers to a philosophical view on the environment. This use of the word related to a concept he called the “internal” nature of a house. Wright’s statement that “architecture rightly defined is the structure of whatever is” (Meehan 54) clearly relates to the “idea” of the house which he connects to his philosophy.
Wright also believed that through the study of nature one could find specific characteristics to everything and these characteristics make every item be what they are. His philosophy also encompasses the idea that essence, which every item contains, exists before perception. This philosophical view of nature is difficult to apply or relate to a specific building because it is more relevant to the thought process behind the design. Floor Plan of Taliesin West, Scottsdale, Arizona Taliesin West is known to be one of Wright’s best examples of organic architecture because it so clearly demonstrates these principles. The buildings are neither large nor monumental, but they command a presence on the landscape. Under Wright’s first definition of the word he states an organic building must connect to ground and be close to the outdoors. A primary example of that demonstrates this is the masonry wall surrounding the buildings. This wall creates an extension into the natural landscape and seems to connect them as one. (Pfeiffer) Large openings to the outdoors along with massive windows create a direct link to the outdoor Desert. Wright was also great at capturing views with his huge windows.
One of his fellowship workers explains how he would capture two perfect views into one window by framing the mountains in the top half, and framing the desert floor on the bottom half. (Pfeiffer) This created a great show whether someone was standing or sitting. To compare with the surrounding landscape there are “small pools extended throughout the plans [that give] a luxury of water and fountains in contrast with the dry Desert. ” (Pfeiffer) Although Wright brings in this new element of nature it still emphasises the need to connect to nature.
Another aspect of his primary definition is to use forms found in nature and on the land as inspiration for building forms. While speaking to his students he has presented the argument that “you are never going to get out of yourselves anything more than you are, then you can take in, than you can see as yourselves. ” In this statement he refers to the importance of going in nature and examining it with a close, intensive look. This is how one can gain the knowledge nature has to give and discover the construction principles it applies. The slopping roof of Taliesin West showcases this state of mind.
The roof is jagged and peaks, as to blend in with its background. Wright was an exceptional fan of the abstract mountains in the background of his land. He described the desert landscape saying “… here, everything is fresh, original edges pretty much preserved, erosion still going on at a terrific rate making chasms. ” (Brierly 5) The slopping walls also seem to derive from this inspiration. The lines carved into the wall that surrounds the complex was a direct inspiration of when Wright saw the water erosion lines on a canyon he visited. Pfeiffer) The roughness of the desert is also resonated throughout the construction of the edifice. Masonry Wall, Exterior image of Taliesin West, Scottsdale, Arizona He further uses materials as an important part of a construction being organic. In this case, the canvas roof was a great inspiration for him. When he first arrived in Arizona for an earlier project, he decided to build a camp site for himself and his workers instead of staying in a hotel. In the campsite, which he called Ocatilla, they used canvas as roof material and this was the beginning of his admiration of the material in this climate.
He loved the soft, natural glow of light dispersed in the space by the canvas. He was determined to keep this canvas roof in Taliesin West and so he did. He also often modified it when he would return from a summer spent in Wisconsin. When the material needed to be replaced due to inconvenience he made sure to experiment fully and pick a material that would give the same effect of lighting. The Desert rocks he used in the masonry walls of the buildings and going around the building are a prime example of selective material use.
All the rocks used in these structures were taken directly from the land on which they were built on. This gave the resort a multi coloured facade that blended in the surrounding land impeccably. By using these materials Wright also strengthened the connection between Taliesin West and its building ground. Bruce Pfeiffer also describes how they used a method called “desert ruble masonry wall” to make these walls. They would build a wooden frame and place the flat side of the stones facing outwards and proceed by filling it in with concrete.
He goes on to describe how they would fill in all the small holes with rounded rocks and describes it as “each of the walls at Taliesin West [being] an artistic creation. ” (Pfeiffer). The third major material element of the construction is the use the redwood. This material was used to support the roof, creating an abstract mountain like rooftop, and throughout the interior of the building. The wood is local to the surrounding area of the Desert. The colour of the wood compliments the landscape and the multicoloured walls of the structure.
Lastly, Frank Lloyd Wright was a great believer that a house should always “go with the natural climate”. (Twombly 310) This is the concluding manner in which nature informs Organic Architecture. This is a concept that Wright had been applying for an extended period of time and can be traces back the Prairie House. In Taliesin West he designed deep overhangs for the roof to create much needed shade in the long sunny days of the Arizona climate. He also had blinds made of the canvas which could be close the large arches leading to outside on overly sunny days.
These blinds ended up being replaced by actual glass windows to regulate the heat of the building. Another prime demonstration of this is again the used of the canvas roof. The lighting it gave to the rooms was a perfect complement to the intense Arizona sun. Wright often experimented with the arrangement of the canvas and the wood beams. The lighting of a space is very important for the atmosphere it creates. When the canvas roof became too much of an nuisance because it would leak a lot and was becoming expensive to replace every few ears, Wright experimented and made sure to replace it with a material that would give the same glow to the space. He initially only replaced part of the canvas with glass, but eventually it was all substituted by glass (Smith). When using the word “nature” in terms of his philosophy, Wright was somewhat less direct. He used the word in this sense to stand for the essence of a building and the “working of the [organic] principle. ” Taliesin West applies to all the dimensions of his “organic principles” and would therefore be Organic architecture. The characteristics he believed everything in nature had also applied to the Desert itself.
When speaking of this inspiring landscape he would say “[a]characteristic thing in the desert here is, of course, the desert itself” (Brierly 4) When Wright envisioned Taliesin West, it was his initial purpose to have an ever changing, organic structure. He would adjust it as needed as time passed. A former apprentice of the fellowship once pointed out that “Thanks to [their] seasonal migrations … Mr. Wright was able to view … Taliesin West with a fresh eye each time he arrived at [it]. ” A demonstration of this is the rearranging of the wood beams and canvas to adjust the light.
Another dimension of this philosophy is the fact that everything in nature contains an essence. These essences are all active. Nothing possesses a static essence. They can be partially the same but will always be different as time passes. (Twombly 312) This is what happened in Taliesin West since its original plans “were based on the life of the Fellowship” (Smith 89) and it now holds the same presence it did when it was originally built “with the spirit of youth and exuberance of life” (Twombly 235) but has different purposes and slightly different configuration. Exterior image of Taliesin West, Scottsdale, Arizona
Wright had an exceptional career and is recognised to be one of the most pivotal and influential architects of modern architecture in America. Through his upbringing close to nature and his eternal patriotism to America he had a clear vision to a country filled with culture – with this culture being reflected in its architecture. Wright was a man that believed the base of any culture is its architecture. Wright built structures with specific characteristics which made them uniquely themselves. Taliesin West had details that could ever only be found in it and nowhere else.
It has been made clear to me through the study of Wright’s philosophy that the fact that a building would hold these specific details about itself that make it uniquely it, is the fundamental definition of what organic architecture. The essence built into the complex is the reasons it is and organic design. Taliesin West can be said to be “part of the desert on which it sits” (Smith 90) Bibliography Brierly, Cornelia. Desert life: Desert Foliage At Taliesin West. Frank Lloyd Wright Foundation, 1988. inForm, Arch. Taliesin West. n. d. April 2012. Meehan, Patrick J. Truth Against the World: Frank Lloyd Wright speaks for an Organic Architecture.
New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1987. Pfeiffer, Bruce Brooks. Frank Lloyd Wright’s Taliesin West Planet Architecture series. 2003. CD-rom. Smith, Kathryn. Frank Lloyd Wright’s Taliesin and Taliesin West. University of Michigan: Harry N. Abrams, 1997. Twombly, Robert C. Frank Lloyd Wright: His Life and His Architecture. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1979. Week, The Architecture. Great Buildings. n. d. April 2012. Wright, Frank Lloyd. Frank Lloyd Wright Essential Texts. New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 2009. Wright, Frank Loyd. The Natural House. Horizon Press Inc. , 1954.


Approach to Software Architecture Description Using UML

The 3+1 Approach to Software Architecture Description Using ML Revision 2. 2 Henries B¦Arab Christensen, Anion Sorry, and Klaus Marcus Hansen Department of Computer Science, University of Argus Beograd 34, 8200 rush N, Denmark May 2011 Abstract This document presents a practical way of describing software architectures using the Unified Modeling Language. The approach is based on a “3+1” structure in which three viewpoints on the described system are used – module, component & connector, and allocation – are used to describe a solution for a set of architectural requirements.
Introduction Software architecture represents an appropriate level of abstraction for many system development activities [Bass et al. , 2003]. Consequently and correspondingly, appropriate software architectural descriptions may support, e. G. , stakeholder communication, iterative and incremental architectural design, or evaluation of architectures [Bass et al. , 2003], [Clement et al. , Bibb], [Clement et al. , AAA].
This document represents a practical basis for architectural description and in doing so, we follow the IEEE recommended practice for architectural description of software-intensive systems [Software Engineering Standards Committee, 2000]. Central to this recommended practice is the concept of a viewpoint through which the software architecture of a system is described (see Figure 1). A concrete architectural description consists of a set of views corresponding to a chosen set of viewpoints. This document recommends the use of three viewpoints (in accordance with the recommendations of [Clement et al. AAA]): A Module viewpoint concerned with how functionality of the system maps to static development units, a Component & Connector viewpoint concerned with the runtime mapping of nationality to components of the architecture, and an Allocation viewpoint concerned with how software entities are mapped to environmental entities In addition to the views on the architecture, we recommend collecting architecturally significant requirements (see Section 2) in the architecture documentation.

This corresponds to the mission of a system as described in [Software Engineering Standards Committee, 2000]. The views corresponding to these viewpoints are described using the Unified Modeling Language standard (ML; [OMG, 2003]). This reports provides examples of doing so. The ML has certain shortcomings in describing software architectures effectively , but is used here to strike a balance between precision/expressiveness and understandability of architectural descriptions. Figure 1 : Ontology of architectural descriptions 1. Structure The rest of this document is structured in two main sections: One introducing the “Architectural Requirements” section of the documentation (Section 2, page 3), and one introducing the “Architectural Description” section of the documentation (Section 2, page 3). These sections are introduced in general and a specific example of applying them to the documentation of a system is provided. The examples are created to describe a point-of-sale system (Next POS) for, e. G. , a supermarket point-of-sales. The example is inspired by the case study of Alarms [Alarms, 2002].
The system supports the recording of sales and handling of payments for a generic store; it includes hardware components as a bar code scanner, a display, a register, a terminal in the inventory hall, etc. More details of the functionality of the system can be found in Section 2. 1 This is in particular connected to the central Component & Connector viewpoint [Clement et al. , AAA] 2 Architectural Requirements Two types of descriptions of architecturally significant requirements are appropriate: scenario-based and quality attribute-based requirements.
The architecturally significant scenarios (or use cases) contain a subset of the overall scenarios providing the functional requirements for the system. These can possibly be augmented with requirements on performance, availability, reliability etc. Related to the scenarios. Moreover, “non-functional” scenarios, e. G. , describing modifiability of the system may be useful as a supplements . All requirements cannot be described as scenarios of system functionality, and we propose supplementing the scenarios with a set of the most critical quality attributes that the system should fulfill.
Since quality attributes (such as modifiability and performance) are often in conflict, this needs to be a subset of all architectural quality attributes. The goal of describing architectural requirements is to enable the construction of a set of “test cases” against which deterrent architectural designs may be compared and/or evaluated. 2. 1 Example In the Next POS case, a scenario is a specific path through a use case. An example of such a scenario is: Process Sale: A customer arrives at a checkout with items to purchase. The cashier uses the POS system to record each purchased item.
The system presents a running total and line-item details. The customer enters payment information, which the system validates and records. The system updates inventory. The customer receives a receipt from the system and then leaves with the items. Critical architectural attributes for the Next POS system area : Availability. The system shall be highly available since the costiveness of sales depends on its availability Ђ Portability. The system shall be portable too range of deterrent platforms to support a product line of POS systems Usability.
The system shall be usable by clerks with a minimum of training and with a high degree of e science 3 Architectural Description It is beneficial, when documenting software architecture, to apply deterrent viewpoints to the system. Otherwise the description of the system will be incomprehensible. 2 Architecturally significant scenarios are the basis of many architectural evaluation approaches [Clement et al. , Bibb] 3 Note that this choice of quality attributes excludes, e. G. Performance, scalability, security, safety, reliability, intolerability, and testability.
Taken this into account, it is first important with a viewpoint which describes the functionality of the system in terms of how functionality is mapped into implementation. Secondly, it is important to describe how the functionality of the system maps to components and interaction among components. And thirdly, it is important to see how software components map onto the environment, in particular hardware structures. These three viewpoints are the module, component & connector, and allocation viewpoints respectively in concordance with [Clement et l. AAA]. The viewpoints used in the architectural description section are defined as proposed in [Software Engineering Standards Committee, 2000]: for each, we first have a section describing the concerns of this viewpoint, then a section describing the stakeholders, then a section describing the elements and relations that can be used to describe views in this viewpoint, and finally an example of a view. 3. 1 3. 1. 1 Module Viewpoint Concerns This architectural viewpoint is concerned with how the functionality is mapped to the units of implementation.
It visualizes the static view of the systems architecture by wowing the elements that comprise the system and their relationships. 3. 1. 2 Stakeholder Roles This viewpoint is important to architects and developers working on or with the system. 3. 1 . 3 Elements and Relations The elements are units of implementation including: Class: A class describing the properties of the objects that exist at runtime. Package: A logical division of classes in the system. This can refer to packages as we find them in Java or Just give a logical division between the classes of the system.
Interface: A classification of the interface of the element that realizes it. It can refer to the interfaces found in e. G. Java or Just a description of an interface that a class can conform to. The relations describe constraints on the runtime relationships between elements: Association: Shows that there is a hard or weak aggregation relationship between the elements and can be used between classes. Generalization: Shows that there is a generalization relation between the elements and can be used between two classes or two interfaces. Realization: Shows that one element realizes the other and can be used from a class to the interface it implements. Dependency: Shows that there is a dependency between the elements and can be used between all the elements. 3. 1 . 4 Examples The module view of the POS system can be described using the class diagrams of JIMS, which can contain all the above mentioned elements and relations. It is possible to describe the system top-down by starting with the most top-level diagram. In figure 2 the overall packages of the system are shown.
Figure 3 and figure 4 show further decomposition of the Domain Model package and the Payments package in the Domain Model package. Figure 2: Package overview diagram for the POS system Dependencies among packages are also shown; these dependencies arise because of relationship among classes in deterrent packages. As an example, consider the association between figure 4 there is an association from classes in Payments to the Customer class of the Sales package. This relationship gives rise to a dependency from the Payments to Sales package as shown in figure 3.
Figure 3: Decomposition of the Domain Model package of the POS system Typically, class diagrams such as figure 4 will suppress detail and also omit elements for clarity, since a major purpose of architectural description is come annunciation. In figure 4, e. G. , details of methods and attributes of classes have been suppressed and certain classes have been omitted. Figure 4: Decomposition of the Payments package of the POS system 3. 2 3. 2. 1 Component and Connectors (C&C) Viewpoint This viewpoint is concerned with the run-time functionality of the system?I. . What does the system do? This functionality lies as the heart of purpose of the system under development, thus this viewpoint is of course a very central viewpoint, and architectural design often starts from tit . In this viewpoint, software systems are received as consisting of components which are blackball units of functionality and connectors which are first-class representations of communication paths between components. Components embody functional behavior while control and communication aspects are defined by the connectors.
Paraphrasing this, you can say that components define what parts of the system is responsible for doing while connectors define how components exchange control and data. It is important to describe properties of both components and connectors in the documentation. This is done using a combination of textual descriptions (listing susceptibilities for example) with diagrams showing protocols, state transitions, threading and concurrency issues as seems relevant to the architecture at hand. 4 Hoverflies et al. Hoverflies et al. , 1999] defines a process where this viewpoint is the first to be considered and other viewpoints are derived and elaborated from it. 6 Figure 5: C&C overview of the POS system 3. 2. 2 This viewpoint is important to architects, developers, and may also serve to give an impression of the overall system runtime behavior to customers and end users. 3. 2. 3 The C&C viewpoint has one element type and one relation type: Component: A national unit that has a well-defined behavioral responsibility.
Connector: A communication relation between components that defines how control and data is exchanged. Both are first class citizens of this viewpoint and both may contain behavior. This is obvious for components, but connectors may exhibit behavior as well. Examples of connectors with behavior are those that provide buffering of data between a data producer and consumer, data convention, adoption of protocols, remote procedure calls, networking, etc. A connector defines one or more protocols. A protocol defines both incoming and outgoing operations and mandates the ordering of them.
Thus a connector’s protocol is radically deterrent from a class’ interface that only tells what operations its instances provide (not uses) and does not describe any sequencing of method calls. 3. 2. 4 The POS system has four major functional parts as shown in the C&C view in figure 5. Components are represented by ML active objects, connectors by links with association names and possibly role names. Active objects are typically processes or threads in the operating system or programming language, and links the communication paths between them.
The diagram cannot stand alone, as component names and connector names are only indicative of the functional responsibilities associated with each. We 7 therefore provide an description of component functionality in terms of responsibilities: Barded Scanner. Responsible for 1) Control and communication with bar code scanner hardware and 2) notification providing ID of scanned bar code for items passing the scanner. Sales. Responsible for 1) keeping track of items scanned; their price and quantity; running total of scanned items and 2) initiation and end of sales handling. Ђ Presentation. Responsible for 1) displaying item names, quantity, subtotals and grand total on a terminal 2) printing item, quantity, subtotals and grand total on paper receipt 3) handle key board input for defining quantities when only one of a set of items are scanned. Inventory. Responsible for 1) keeping track of items in store 2) mapping between bar code ID’s and item name and unit price. Likewise, the connectors’ protocols needs to be described in more detail. The level of detail needed depends on the architecture at hand.
For some connectors, it may be us cent with a short textual description (for instance if it is a straightforward application of the observer pattern; or if it is a direct memory read); others may best be explained by ML interaction diagrams; and still others may have a very large set of potential interactions (like a SQL connector) of which only a few may be worthwhile to describe in more detail. The POS example names three connectors: MFC. A standard MFC patterns is the protocol for this connector that connects the Sales component serving the role of model and Presentation serving as controller and view. Ђ JDBC. This connector handles standard SQL queries over the JDBC protocol. BPCS. This connector defines a protocol for connecting with a barded scanner. Data and control is exchanged using ASCII strings in a coded format containing control words and data elements. Sequence diagrams can be used to describe connector protocols. Depending on the system, it may be relevant to document connector protocols individually (a sequence diagram for each protocol) and/or to provide the “big picture” showing interaction over a set of connectors.
Typical use cases as well as critical failure scenarios may be considered for description. In our point of sales example, an overall sequence diagram (diagram 6 seems most elevate, as the individual connectors have rather simple protocols. The scenario shown in the diagram is the event of a single item being scanned and registered. Further detail can be provided, like a sequence diagram showing observer registration and steady state operation for the MFC connector; perhaps table layout or SQL statements for the JDBC; or command language for the BPCS connector.
However, most likely this information does not provide architectural insight (they do not eject architectural qualities) and their details should be found in more detailed documentation instead. 8 Figure 6: POS “item scanned” scenario 3. 3 3. 3. 1 Allocation Viewpoint This architectural viewpoint is concerned with how the software elements of the system – in particular the C&C viewpoint elements and relations – are mapped to platform elements in the environment of the system.
We are interested in what the software elements require (e. G. , processing power, memory availability, network bandwidth) and what the hardware elements provide. 3. 3. 2 This viewpoint is important to a number of stakeholders: Maintainers needing to deploy and maintain the system, to users/customers who need to know how nationality is mapped to hardware, to developers who need to implement the system, and to architects. 3. 3. 3 The deployment viewpoint has two primary element types: Software elements: These may be, e. . , executables or link libraries containing components from the C&C views. Environmental elements: Nodes of computing hardware Furthermore, there are three main relation types: Allocated-to relations: Shows to which environmental elements software elements are allocated at runtime. These relations may be either static or dynamic (e. G. , if components move between environmental elements). Dependencies among software elements Protocol links among environmental elements showing a communication protocol used between nodes. 3. 3. 4 Figure 7 shows the deployment of the Next POS system using a ML deployment diagram. The deployment is a typical 3-tier deployment in which presentation is run on a client, domain code is run on a JEEZ application server, and data is stored on a database server. Figure 7: Deployment view of the Next POS system The following elements are of interest Environmental elements (shown as ML nodes) – The Barded Scanner is the device used for inputting sold items into the system.
It s read via an ROARS connection to the POS Terminals – The Terminal is the main point of interaction for the users of the Next POS system – The Application Server is a machine dedicated for serving all Terminals on an application level – A Database Server provides secondary storage Software elements (Shown as ML components) – The POS executable component runs the client part of the Next POS system including presentation and handling of external devices (biz. The Barded Scanner). It communicates with the Application Server via RMI over IIOP – Jobs is an open source application server which is used for running the domain- elated functionality of the system. It uses the Database Server via JDBC 10 – Myself is an open source SQL database which handles defenestrated functionality (storage, transactions, concurrency control) of the system. 3. 4 Overview The three viewpoints and their associated elements and relations are summarized below.
Module c Deployment Elements Class Component Executable Interface Computing node Package Relations Association Connector Allocated-to Generalization Dependency Realization Protocol link +1 view: Architectural requirements The mapping to ML is straight forward for the module and deployment viewpoint UT less so for the C viewpoint. For the C viewpoint, components are show by ML Active Objects (that represent run-time entities with their own thread of execution, typically threads and processes), while connectors are shown by ML links (that represent control- and data flow using some protocol).


Architecture: Words or Shapes

The context, its cultural background and its function also affects owe we view architecture. The question is, what is more important to architecture, its shape or the words that describe it? Aesthetic theory is a greatly important topic in the realm of architecture. It dictates how we view architecture, what makes it beautiful and why it is important to us. This is why there has been so much debate on the topic throughout history. The debate has developed over time and continues today with numerous theorists bringing their ideas forward and taking different positions on the topic.
Position This paper holds the position that words are more important to architecture than shapes. Conceptuality is stronger than formalism as an architectural idea. The principal argument is that shapes come from words. Lee Courier is a well-respected architect that discussed this topic. His ideology is given and backed up though experiences of his works. Saint Pewter’s dome is a great example where both sides of the argument are addressed. Is the great dome about form or symbolism? Recognizing architecture as parts of a whole shows how beauty is influenced by its context and how important this is.
Taste in architecture and how one should Judge its beauty also considers what properties are most important. Is taste to be dictated by only visual properties or are abstract properties also influential? A flower is undeniably beautiful. Analyzing why this is and how this is related to architecture gives great insight and another perspective of the argument. Words Create Shapes Christian Nowhere-Schulz enforces that words are more important to architecture than shapes by stating that, “Existential meanings are derived from natural, human and spiritual phenomena, and are experienced as order and character.

Architecture translates these meanings into spatial form”. When we grasp this understand we legalize how both types of properties are important to architecture but one informs the other, that words create shapes. A formalist would argue that without shapes there is no architecture. This is true, however question to ask is, where do shapes come from and what guides their composition and color? It is the meaning and purpose behind the architecture that guides its shape. Without words we have no shape or architecture.
This puts abstract properties above physical properties, making abstract properties the true root of architecture. Lee Courtier’s chapel at Ranch is one of the greatest examples where meaning is manifested into shape. This church is a truly unique composition of forms to create a shape that is immediately recognizable. The beauty of this shape as an object is debatable, however this shape allows us to have an experience full of emotion and delight. Lee Courier himself said that he wanted to create “a vessel of intense concentration and meditation”.
The meanings behind Ranch connect us at a spiritual level, making the architecture beautiful on a far deeper level than form alone. The shapes of Ranch create a space where we can encounter this more meaningful, deeper level of beauty in architecture. Lee Courier believed that the purpose of architecture is to move us. Great architecture stirs an emotion within us that evokes recognition and respect. Lee Courtier’s ideology is most convincing when one experiences it through his architectural works.
For example, Villa Savoy in Posits is one of his masterpieces where you can encounter his ideology. Centered in the house is a ramp that takes you on a Journey from the underbelly of the house on the ground floor to the main body on the first floor and then on to a roof garden. Throughout the house views of the surrounding nature are framed, your mind is free ravel, as the forms evoke a sense of exploration and delight. Villa Savoy is better experienced than viewed through an image, only then can you understand the greater meaning and purpose that informs its beauty.
One might argue that this is not beautiful architecture and a poor example, however upon visiting this house you cannot deny that the house is beautiful in its own right, evoking a response from the occupant. Lee Courtier’s masterpiece is moving; therefore achieving what he believed architecture to be about. This experience and the emotion that is felt can only be described in words. Shapes play a big role in the architecture but clearly the meanings behind are more important. Saint Peters Dome The crowning Jewel of Mannerist Architecture is Saint Pewter’s Basilica in Rome.
This great structure is the out come of a series of classical revival styles that were established and developed during this course in history. This was a time where famous architects like Brucellosis and Michelangelo were pushing boundaries and testing new waters. Architecture of the time was seeking to express the culture and religion through evermore ornamented and magnificent forms. This symbolism retorting the relationship between man and culture, religion and, the new found freedom of the Renaissance period. The Catholic Church’s ultimate representation of connecting Heaven and Earth is the great dome of SST.
Pewter’s. The dome accentuates the occupants focus upwards to a greater connection with, and realization of God. The appreciation one feels when being inside this great space is an undeniably amazing experience. The meaning behind this architectural feat is so strong that it becomes prevalent to the occupant in one way or another. When looking heavenward under the dome you feel a sense of awe and admiration. What we see is the immensity and ornamentation of the structure however this is interwoven with the deeper abstract properties we feel. Geoffrey Scott has the opposing view, that visual properties are more important.
He assumes that as the structural truth of the dome is hidden, it makes its meaning weak. The dome could not support itself and relies on great chains for reinforcement. Therefore the dome relies on its beautiful form and ornamentation to fulfill its purpose of majestically crowning Saint Pewter’s. This argument is weak as he refers to the meaning of the dome but misses its main purpose, that it is a symbol of heaven. The structure was important in realizing the ability to construct this great dome but not as important as the meaning for the dome.
Without this meaning there would be no reason for this structural feat or the beautiful ornamentation and Saint Pewter’s wouldn’t exist. Therefore we can say that Saint Pewter’s dome is a great example of how words are more important to architecture than shape. Beauty needs Context Paris is regarded as one of the most beautiful cities in the world. So what makes this city so beautiful? It is the question one keeps asking themselves when having the opportunity to experience the city first hand. It is Paris as a whole that makes it the way it is. It is an incredible compilation of parts that are interwoven with history and culture.
From the planning of grand avenues that link iconic landmarks to innovative architecture, everything in Paris has its own part to add to the greater story. Notre Dame cathedral would not be complete without its picturesque setting on the Seine River and the vibrant context surrounding it. The Eiffel Tower would not have its elegance and splendor if it were constructed in the middle of a wasteland. Paris has a deep history in planning, in revolution as well as the romantic French culture. All he parts of Paris need this rich context to make it the way it is.
The whole, or the context gives the parts, or the shapes, meaning. Henry Bergen uses Paris as an example of parts and whole in his book An Introduction to Metaphysics. He suggests that Paris cannot be explained in its parts, the shapes within. It needs to be understood as a whole, as an overall impression of symbols and meanings. A clear way to understand this idea is his example of how letters make up a poem. When the letters are mixed up as individual parts they do not make sense, however when they come together to form words the poem can be understood as a whole.
It is difficult to find a strong formalist argument that directly tackles architecture in its context. There are many other compelling anti-formalist observations, particularly from Christian Nowhere-Schulz. One example he gives is of the ideal positioning of Greek temples in connection to the landscape. Even the formal elements chosen for each temple are symbolic of the sites characteristics. The dominance of anti-formalist understandings is testament to the importance of meaning in architecture. When we think about the meaning of architecture, we consider a wider spectrum of properties.
Formalists are so focused on form that they forget to thoroughly address aspects greatly important to architecture such as context. Taste Architectural taste can be broken down to whether we should Judge architectural works on a universal or individual basis. Universal Judgment of architecture is based purely on shape, proportions and other visual properties. It is free from the bias of any cultural influence or personal preconception. Emmanuel Kant looks deep into this perception and argues that this is the only way we can Judge beauty and architectural works. The individual perception holds the view that beauty is in the ye of the beholder.
An individual can approach an object with a preconception from their cultural background, knowledge and experience to form a Judgment. This type of Judgment requires properties that are abstract to inform our aesthetic Judgment. We can then propose the question, how should we Judge architectural works? Should we limit Judgment to a universal approach that only considers shapes or should we have an individual approach that considers other abstract properties? Kant is a formalist and his views counter the conceptuality view of individuality. Kant believes hat not everyone is able to decide whether architecture is beautiful or not.
It is a skill that has to be developed, so that one can make Judgments void of any personal bias. Then and only then could that person decide whether an object was beautiful or not. Alexander Newsman thoroughly analyses Cant’s writings is his book Only a Promise of Happiness: The Place of Beauty in a World of Art. This analysis is neutral taking no side of the debate, however he exposes the single mindedness of this argument. How could architecture and its beauty bear no relation to the world around us? We are employ human beings all connected and interwoven into our culture, thoughts and desires.
Of course who we are and what we do affects our Judgment, not Just of beauty and architecture but of everything we do. There is no way to separate the two, abstract properties inform our Judgment and taste in the visual properties of an object. When discussing Elaine Scary writings, Newsman talks of beauty being manifested in appearance but being connected to a larger cycle, that informs understanding and interpretation. Architectural works should be Judged as an individual. Everyone is unique and has their own cultural background, thoughts and leaning to bring to architecture.
Why would you try and block this out to form a universal opinion the same as everyone else? Its is important for architecture to embrace conceptuality and let it continue to develop as rich and vibrant built form in all different shapes and sizes. Language of Flowers Georges Beatable presents a convincing discussion about flowers and how they pertain to beauty and love as aspects aesthetic theory. The rose is an undeniably beautiful object that symbolizes love and has the possibility for many more meanings determined by intention and interpretation.
A rose given out of love from one person to another makes this beautiful object more about meaning than form. We can say a rose symbolizes something more beautiful than the rose itself and the abstract properties are more important to the rose than visual. All can appreciate a beautiful rose but it is most beautiful to an individual when they have a connection to it rather than considering it Just as a form. Beautiful architecture has the same properties as a rose does. It is beautiful in appearance, directed by its components and colors, and it is beautiful in meaning, directed by its symbolism and purpose.
Like with the rose, do we not appreciate architecture more when it has a greater meaning to us? As a rose symbolizes love and stirs emotion, architecture should also stirs emotion as it is experienced and appreciated. Abstract properties bring out the true beauty of an object to make it truly beautiful. This true beauty is what both a rose and architecture is about. The formalist view is that the rose, like architecture is beautiful because of its form. This would mean that the rose as a beautiful gift is less about giver and more about the object, that architecture is more about appearance and sees about the people who interact with it.
Clearly you would rather receive a rose from someone you love rather than someone you don’t know, even if you do not appreciate the form of the rose, the act of love gives it a greater beauty. Likewise you want to have architecture for the delight it brings no matter the form. What architecture can bring to society is more important than a meaningless composition of shapes that does not relate to people. Conclusion We can conclude that it all comes back to words. The debate over shapes and words leads from one argument to the next and it will never stop.
It simply comes down to what is architecture all about? It is all about people. What is beautiful about architecture? It is beautiful in the way it relates to people and how we relate to it. Architecture is a place to dwell; it is a place for human beings. Architecture is meant to improve life, to provide us with shelter and delight. This can be manifested in various ways dependent on function, cultural meaning and purpose. What we see is its physical properties that have been informed by abstract properties. Every beautiful piece of architecture has Journey to be experienced and a story to be told.