Cultural Comparison of America and Japan

Different cultural practices affect every area of life, the family dynamic, labor force, education, cultural economics, death, reproduction, religion etc. The cultural practices in the United States are eclectic in many ways considering all the different ethnicities that reside in the U. S. In Japan, the religious views tend to lend towards liberal views on the family dynamic and sexual expression. I intend to compare the differences between the two countries as it relates to sex and gender roles in the family.In terms of comparative cultural characteristics at the cultural map of the world according to the World Value Survey describes Japan as average-high in Self Expression Values.
The gender roles in Japanese homes are reverse in comparison to some traditional gender roles in America. Typically the wife handles and completely controls the household finances. She gives her husband a monthly allowance and has total control over the rest of the family’s income.Half of the husbands in one survey reported they were unhappy with the amount of the allowance but could do little if anything about it. Traditionally, in past times, American household income was predominately earned and controlled by the husband in the home. But according to the U. S Department of Labor women comprise 46.
5% of the total U. S labor force and are projected to account for 47% of the labor force in 2016. That being said, the traditional roles in the American home have changed considerably. Women are indeed controlling the finances in the home in contrast to the past.America’s diverse population, different ethnicities, and different religious views lead to mixed views on sexual expression. The Christian religion dominates 85% of the countries population, which sews a strong moral character in their beliefs and practices. This leads to a predominant belief in traditionalism, same sex marriage.

In contrast, the Shinto religion of Japan recognizes neither good nor evil, so the concept of sin and personal guilt so commonly associated with sex in western cultures does not exist in Japanese culture.In conclusion, cultural influences largely affect the general populations behaviors and practices. Laying he foundation of family dynamics and religion creates a very definite pattern of behaviors for any one culture.Reference: 1. Inside-Japan. com Home 2. Asayama, Shinichi.
1979. “Sexuality of the Japanese Youth: Its Current Status and the Future Prospects. ” Sex Education Today, 36, 8-16 (in Japanese). 2. Adherents. com 3. Bornoff 1991 p.
14-15, 89-90 4. U. S


Native America and Astronomy

To a great degree, the reading point to an aspect of the study of astronomy that many people might not be entirely familiar. That aspect is, of course, the contributions of the Navajo to the study of astronomy. This contribution has been largely ignored by many in the established scientific community in large part due to the fact that the concept of Navajo astronomy is more based on interrelation of what is discovered as opposed to a categorizing approach that does not integrate the discovered with the discoverer. Consider the following:
The concept of a dynamic integrated whole is important in Navajo cosmology and astronomy. The pattern of relationship is far more important than the identification, location and Greek or Arabic name of any individual star. The individual stars contribute to the significance of the whole. (Begay/Maryboy Navajo Astronomy)
In other words, there is a concept of harmony and balance present in the concept of Navajo astronomy. The earth, stars, moon, etc are interwoven as parts of a whole known as the universe. In traditional approaches to astronomy, there is an almost centrist position that the earth is the center of the universe and that the moon and stars are dependent upon the earth. While this may sound like an odd ideology of exceptionalism, the reality is that this WAS the exact belief of astronomers at one point in history.

Now, this does not mean that the barren moon is on equal parity of the earth, but it does acknowledge that the mere concept of earth centrist ideology can lead to a belief in pillaging the environment because there is limited acknowledgment that the other components of the universe help keep the earth in harmony.
This is why it becomes important to read the more extensive work “Sharing the Skies” because it allows a more in depth look at the subject. Considering the complexity of the subject, a lengthier work is required in order to develop a much more clear understanding.
One of the more interesting aspects of “Sharing the Skies” is essentially the fact that the work points out that when one realizes that most astronomy is centered on a Western Civilization origin, one realizes that the concepts and definitions of astronomy lead directly to one culture. When one looks at different cultural explanations of astronomy, then an individual can gain an insight into the cultures of other peoples and nations.
In Williamson’s “Native American Astronomy,” the reader discovers a bit more depth to the origins of Native American cosmology. It is important to present and define Native Astronomy in the manner that Williamson presents it because he re-establishes the fact that Native astronomy is a sphere of science and not the weird, New Age quasi-religion that it has become thanks to a number of hack writers who have flooded bookstores with dubious works.
“Application to Astrology” ties much of the philosophy of Native Astronomy and earth studies into the component that conventional sciences ignore: the spiritual component. Again, this stresses the idea of interrelation between various parts of a whole. Since the spiritual can not be removed from the person and the person can not be removed from the earth, then it goes without saying that there is an interrelation between the human spirit and the earth. Both halves of the same idea compliment each other and compliment each other quite effectively.
Begay, David and Maryboy, Nancy C.Finding the Thunderbird in Navajo Astronomy.
Bluff: Indigenous Education Institute, 2004.
Begay, David and Maryboy, Nancy C. Sharing the Skies Bluff: Indigenous Education
Institute, Date Unknown


Bank of America Business Analysis

Bank of America is one of the world’s largest financial institutions, serving individual consumers, small and middle sized market businesses and large corporations with a vast array of products and services. From multi-million dollar loans to thousands of ATM’s throughout the United States and overseas, Bank of America is among the world’s leading wealth management companies’ and is a global leader in corporate business. Bank of America Business Capital provides asset-based credit facilities of $10 million or more throughout the United States, Canada and Europe for manufacturers, wholesalers, distributors, and service businesses.
Bank of America is currently listed as number 5 on the Fortune Global 500 annual ranking of America’s largest corporations. However, they did not place within the top 100 of fortune 500 companies to work for in 2009 (CNN. com money magazine, 2009). Bank of America operates in more than 10 countries including regions in Europe, Asia, and Central and South America. With operations in such a wide range of selected countries Bank of America (BOA) has to deal with differing legal and cultural aspects which can relate to the amount of risk the management is willing to accept.
This risk includes what is called systematic political risk. “As a rule, a country’s political processes do not treat foreign operations unfairly. If they did, few companies would hazard the investment” (Daniels et. al, p. 105, 2011). The differing market and legal systems, ranging from common law to theocratic law and a mixed system, etc could make room for trouble for BOA’s international business if the interpretation of the laws are not the same.

Similarly, economic risk is the likelihood that certain events or changes in the economic status or a company or will cause drastic changes adversely affecting profits and other goals. The ability to measure and understand risk and determining which risk is acceptable is a key factor of success with any international business venture. This along with political risk will have to be managed forecasted effectively to judge the outcome of any changes to governmental, import, or export changes as they could affect the profits and or losses which could ultimately affect a company’s ability to repay a loan that was granted by BOA.
Although the 2011 CFO Outlook reports that “U. S. companies overall are highly involved in foreign markets and are forecasting international sales growth in 2011” (2011 CFO Outlook), if I were a political consultant for BOA, I would highly caution them with respect to venturing into a country where they are not willing to accept our form of economic feasibility or where the GDP does not represent strength as it relates to longevity within the economy.
It would be far too difficult to influence change within an entire culture just to add breadth to the organization. Furthermore, without the ability to measure and understand the end state of a cultural shift, the foreign business opportunity may be at risk of unacceptable losses especially where healthcare costs and costs of materials are concerned (2001 CFO Outlook). Bank of America is changing because its customers are changing. In the 2009 Financial Report Brian T.
Moynihan, Chief Executive Officer and President of BOA said “There is nothing more important to our more than 280,000 Bank of America teammates and me than our belief that there’s a right way to do business — an approach that balances our responsibilities to all our stakeholders. This belief has guided our efforts as we’ve worked to help customers, clients and communities ride out the economic storm. ” He also went on to say that the most pressing need is the overhaul of loan modifications.
The pressing need for this is “to help families and businesses manage their monthly cash flow to get through the crisis. ” However, BOA is making strides ahead of some of the other financial institutions. They repaid the Troubled Asset Relief Program (TARP) in December of 2009 although they reported a net loss applicable to common shareholders of $2. 2 billion (BOA 2009 Financial Report). This has proved to work fine for common law states but it would prove to be much more difficult in civil law or a mixed system and just about impossible in theocratic law system.
BOA has a code of conduct or ethics as they call it as a significant part of their processes used to manage risk. They train their associates to mitigate risk and set high standards for their associates. This provides a framework for the associates to conduct themselves with the highest integrity in delivering products or services to their customers. “We instill a risk-conscious culture through communications, training, policies, procedures, and organizational roles and responsibilities.
Additionally, we continue to strengthen the linkage between the associate performance management process and individual compensation to encourage associates to work toward enterprise-wide risk goals. ” (Brian T. Moynihan, BOA 2009 Financial Report). This is vitally important for the company to extend these ethics to the workforce overseas as the importation and adoption of the headquarters mindset will ensure that host nation workers will also adhere to the higher standards associated with conducting business with BOA.
It is just a good business practice to ensure that wherever you operate, you share the same vision that will foster success and continued best practices. Although I did not find any social programs during my research on BOA, I did notice when I was in Panama that they have Panamanian and American workers employed. I would presume to say that, just as in any working environment the management would establish some sort of informal program amongst its workers. And seeing how BOA strives with its code of ethics this could be not far from the truth as bonds are made as the people work together daily.
In conclusion, BOA has done quite well for themselves and that is directly attributed to the high standard set by the corporate office and CEO Brian T. Moynihan. As one of the world banking leaders it would do them well to continue to look toward the future of expanding and exploring other joint ventures locally and internationally. They would do well to guide their investment strategy and actions by monitoring the consumer deposits, credit card services, and investment management as an indicator of the overall economic status and potential growth of their joint ventures.


Gun Violence in America Research Paper

Since 1982, at least sixty-two mass shootings have occurred, thirty-two of them since 2006. (Aronsen). Jared Loughner was sentenced to life in prison after shooting nineteen people in January of 2011. Last July, fifty-eight people were shot and twelve killed while watching the new Batman movie in a theater in Colorado. In December, twenty-six people were murdered, including twenty first-graders, in a Connecticut elementary school (Follman).
The issue of gun violence only becomes relevant after a horrific event such as these, then fades from public concern after about two weeks. The number of injuries and murders using guns in the United States is a large number, which can hopefully be lowered by implementing statewide, or even nationwide gun buyback programs, stricter carrying permit laws, and making it harder for the mentally unstable and convicted felons to legally obtain guns.

The argument for or against gun control has been an ongoing battle since the beginning of the nation. The Second Amendment gives people the “right to bear arms.” When arguing for this Amendment, the factor that is not considered is that it was made so one could protect their person in case of an emergency. There was no police force when this law was created; therefore it was almost every man for himself, the people protected themselves. Now the police force is incredibly large, and is always patrolling the streets to make sure all is well and everyone is safe. Carrying a small handgun in one’s car is reasonable, but is keeping ten different models of machine guns and semi-automatic rifles at home just for fun?
Every year, eight million small firearms and ten to fifteen billion rounds of ammunition are manufactured worldwide. Over eight hundred and seventy-five million firearms are in possession in the world, and 75% belong to the people (Alpers). In the United States, approximately 6.1 million guns are produced each year and there is a ratio of 89 guns to every 100 people (“Firearms Death Rate per 100,000 by State,”).
According to a Gallup poll, the majority of gun owners possess guns for three main purposes: 67% for self-defense, 66% for target shooting, and 62% for hunting (Velasco). If one decides to own guns, they should be kept locked up safely in a private place, so there is not easy access for children in the household or someone incapable of properly operating a firearm.
In 2005, Erik Zettergren shot Jason Robinson in the head for attempting to have sex with his wife. He then forced Robinson’s fiancée to assist him in dragging his dead body to the river for disposal. Zettergren was a man with a history of mental health problems, and was a convicted felon who had his rights to possess a gun barred. Two months before the murder, a judge reinstated his rights without even holding a hearing (Luo). Felons commit 90% of all gun crimes, yet most of their rights are given back with little or no review. Juveniles and the mentally unbalanced primarily carry out the remainder of the crimes (Kates Jr.).
A German Neurologist claims he has found the “dark patch” of killer’s brains that is associated with wicked behavior. He classifies these people into three groups. The first he classifies as ‘psychologically healthy,’ people who grow up in an environment where it is ‘OK to beat, steal and murder’. The second type is the mentally disturbed criminal who looks at his world as threatening. The third group is pure psychopaths, a group in which tyrants such as Hitler and Stalin belong. (Hall)
Over thirty-eight thousand people use guns to commit suicide each year. If the guns are taken away from them, they will just find another way to kill themselves. Suicide is a problem that can’t really be solved. On the other hand, guns are also used to kill over eleven thousand people a year (Becker). Again, if the guns are taken away, murderers will find other methods to kill, but if they aren’t using guns, there hopefully won’t be as many deaths. If a man goes into a building with a gun, he can kill an almost unlimited number of people, but if he only has a knife, for example, it’s going to take a lot longer to kill that many people by the time help arrives.
One of the most famous anti-gun organizations is the Brady Campaign,
established in 1974, which has played a major role in the control of guns. Their main goal is to make it more difficult for convicted felons, the mentally unstable, and other such people to obtain guns (“About Us: History of the Brady Campaign”). They presented the Brady Act, passed in 1993, which would “impose a waiting period of up to five days for the purchase of a handgun, and subjects purchasers to a background check” (“Brady Act”). Since the imposition of this act, over one hundred million background checks have been conducted, and more than seven hundred thousand attempted purchases have been denied (“National Instant Criminal Background Check System”).
Another major group is the Coalition to Stop Gun Violence, or the CSGV. Their mission statement is “The Coalition to Stop Gun Violence seeks to secure freedom from gun violence through research, strategic engagement and effective policy advocacy.” They are composed of forty-seven national organizations, including religious and social justice organizations, child welfare advocates, and public health professionals. This diversity allows them to reach a wide variety of grassroots in the world (“About Us – Coalition to Stop Gun Violence”).
If people like teachers had carrying permits, they could keep a gun locked up in the classroom, so if a person with a gun comes bursting through the door and threatens to shoot people, or does shoot someone, the teacher can run to grab the gun, and protect the lives of all the children and him/herself. Through further investigation, it has been found that the gun murder rate can be lowered through proper enforcement of carrying permit laws, better help for the mentally unbalanced, and increased gun buybacks.