The Age of Empire: American Imperialism at the Close of the 19th Century

Imperialism is a process by which countries attempt to extend their power into new spheres by leveraging their military, economic, cultural, and political power over another land. The roots of imperialism have differed through the ages. Some countries have sought imperialism by conquest, pillaging and plundering another land for pure exploitative economic gain. Other countries have conducted imperialism by colonization, slowly infiltrating and eventually assuming control of another land over time by force.

For much of European history after the renaissance, the European continent entered an “Age of Imperialism” that saw British, French, Spanish, Portugese, Dutch, and German expansion across the far reaches of the globe. America, however, was a late addition to the scramble for imperialist expansion. Not until the late 19th century did the fledgling North American power attempt to move beyond its borders in pursuit of bolstering the national interest.

Over the course of several decades, however, America removed the shackles of isolationism and became an aggressive expansionist power primarily in Latin America and the Philippines. While this policy was not uniformly popular, it is important to understand because it drastically influenced and shaped American foreign policy for the 20th century. During the late 1800’s, America engaged in overseas expansion in three main areas: Spanish-America, the Philippines, and several Pacific islands. These campaigns were ideologically motivated by the philosophical underpinnings of the Monroe Doctrine.
This foreign policy standard, developed by President James Monroe in 1823, stated that the Western Hemisphere was distinctly the domain of the United States and that American “exceptionalism” would allow the United States to exclusively deal with affairs of the Western Hemisphere (Oklahoma College of Law, The Monroe Doctrine). This principle was the foundation of a series of events that eventually prompted the United States to invade foreign sovereign nations. Racist thought also perpetuated public support for these imperialist invasions.
The so-called White Man’s Burden, which had justified so much inhumanity by European powers was also raised by proponents of American expansionism. This theory held that because White men were “civilized” in contrast to their colored counterparts, it was the ethical duty of Europeans and European descendants to forcibly civilize the “uneducated” and “inferior” races of the world. Coupled with the Monroe Doctrine, politicians combined with sensational journalists (often referred to as “yellow journalists”) to drum up support for American excursions abroad (American Library of Congress).
The first major front in the eventual military expansionism that ensued was in Cuba and other parts of Spanish America. This campaign, known as the Spanish-American War, was Cuba. Here, Americans sympathetic to the plight of the Cubans, legitimized a show of force with the U. S. S. Maine, which was eventually sunk near Havana, prompting an outcry for war. The war in Cuba raged on in the aftermath of that incident, with Congress issuing a declaration of war. Unlike Cuba, which was more of a conflict between two “White” powers, American imperialism in the Philippines developed into a far more systematic form of colonialism.
American became an occupying power that asserted its dominance and applied its customs and language on the native population. Indeed, during the course of the war, American brutality was substantial, with an estimated 200,000 Filipinos dying from the conflict, largely in the festering disease-ridden concentration camps. Additionally, many Americans were reported to have carried out war crimes against the local population—shameful acts that were exposed and documented by the Lodge Committee report (Miller, 184).
Similarly, America extended its reach—with many negative results—in Guam, Samoa, Hawaii, and other Pacific islands. These particular conquests mark the height of American imperialist expansion at the close of the 19th century. Even though the Monroe Doctrine and the White Man’s Burden theories garnered sufficient support from the public to carry out the imperialist campaigns popularly, dissent against the newfound expansionism did exist. The major opponent of imperialist policies in America was the Anti-Imperialist League.
This organization, which prided itself on its founding ideals of liberty and equality for all persons, regardless of race or geographic location, sought to end American imperialist expansionism. As they argued, America’s militarism against the defenseless indigenous populations was nothing more than “criminal aggression” (Modern History Sourcebook). The League had a substantial impact on the national debate over imperialism, as it had cultural superstars like Mark Twain on its side.
Nonetheless, however, even as the League successfully highlighted some of the bankrupt practices of American expansionism, the campaigns were nonetheless carried out. The impact of American imperialism during the late 1890s reverberates still today. The Monroe Doctrine has now been replaced by a series of new foreign policy strategies, including the most recent addition of the Bush doctrine, which authorizes preemptive attacks anywhere in the world to ensure American security. Our occupation of Iraq currently has its roots and its legacy embedded in the deployment of troops under President McKinley.
This fact highlights why early American imperialism is so important to understanding our current foreign policy; it is a continuum rather than a series of isolated events. And now, just like then, anti-imperialist groups are being heard throughout the country. Only time will tell how effectively they will be at steering our government from continuing the imperialist legacy started at the close of the 19th century. Works Cited: Miller, Stuart C. “Benevolent Assimilation”: the American Conquest of the Philippines, 1899- 1903. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1982.
340 p Modern History Sourcebook. “American Anti-Imperialist League, 1898. ” Available online from: http://www. fordham. edu/halsall/mod/1899antiimp. html. Accessed 17 January 2009. “The Monroe Doctrine. ” University of Oklahoma College of Law. Historical Documents. Available online at: http://www. law. ou. edu/ushistory/monrodoc. shtml. Accessed 17 January 2009. “The World of 1898: The Spanish American War. ” The Library of Congress, Hipic Division. Available online from: http://www. loc. gov/rr/hipic/1898. Accessed 18 January 2009.


Assess the importance of the Celtic Iron Age regarding

The Iron Age was crucial as it was the development of highly sophisticated social and physiological development of humans’. There are multiple reasons why the Celtic Iron age has such significant. Firstly, the technology that had been created by the new found metal had major impacted on the Celtic society. Secondly, new lifestyles that massively change how humans use to live. Amongst this coinage had also been Introduced within Celtic regions which Invented more practical ways of trading. There was also an Increase interest In personal appearance along with a more relaxed lifestyle.
Celtic people also began to Invent things to do for leisure. Lastly, Celtic religion started to evolve and politics was beginning to be invented. The Celtic Iron Age would be considered the most important within the Three-age System regarding to human societal development in Europe. It has made many improvements for humans to achieve the level of societal complexity today. The development of advance human society has mostly evolved though the revolutionary advances in weapons and crafts that were forged by Iron. Iron was very significant and made life for humans much easier after its discovery.
Many of the weapons forged by iron was much stronger and lighter Han bronze, this allowed for improvements to be made to weapons and agricultural tools. Many of the common tools that were used during the Celtic Iron Age are till used today. For example the sickles or pruning hooks which were used by Iron Age farmers, the tool was used for cutting and shaping branches and hurdles unlike most farmers that use them today as to harvest cereal crops or cutting grass for hay. There were also several other tools that were developed during the Iron Age and its designs have been kept and improved on for many years.

Tools such as the hammers, files, axes and many other metal-working tools. Even though early stages of these tools have already been developed during the Stone and Bronze Age, the Celtic Iron Age has truly perfect it. Evidence form everyday tools that society still uses in the 20th century shows many similarities and some can be considered virtually identical to the tools that were used more than two thousand years ago. The tools were made to build houses, make weapons and farm. These were the necessary tools to that develop human society Into a more complex one.
Thus, this demonstrates that the Celtic Iron Age In Europe has help significantly to the development of human society s the discovery of Iron was revolutionary wealth humans. Without this ore, modern society In Europe would have not reach Its level of sophistication as Iron played a also shown impressive improvements that are still useful to everyday life in modern society. Therefore this shows how the Celtic Iron age has a high level of importance regarding to societal development in Europe. 1 Oliver, N. 2011. A History of Ancient Brittany.
United Kingdom, Phoenix. Up. 217 2 Ibid. , 3 S. James and V. Rugby, ‘Iron Farming Tools’, British Museum [weapon], (1997) http:// www. Brutishness. Org/explore/highlights/highlight_bob]sects/pee_BRB/I/ Ron_farming_tools. Asps Para. 3, accessed 27 June 2013. The importance of the Celtic Iron age regarding to human societal development in Europe was significant as the development and improvements of agriculture had greatly affected the way that people had lived in the in the past ages. It has also have shaped how humans tend to live today.
The Stone Age and the Bronze Age had consisted of hunting and gathering food and there was little to no agricultural activity. However, the Celtic Iron Age was primarily agricultural and their daily routines would have consisted with maintaining crops and livestock. This can be seen though evidence in the environment. Evidence in forms of carbonized grains and pollen, it was shown that new crops were introduced and many wheat’s had been farmed and grown in the fields. This meant that people began to develop permanent settlement as they were preoccupied by farming and caring for livestock.
As humans began to stay in permanent housing they also began to live in villages. This was unlike the previous ages as they were mostly hunter-gather societies when it was rarely done. They would only hunt in small groups and constantly travel as there were high risk of danger. The new agricultural life style opened many opportunities of improvement to the human society. Living in villages increase and improved human social development as they gain new skills through looking after life stock and farming as this improved their intelligence.
As historian, a Neil Oliver quotes, ‘These steps alone had made a profound and deeply transforming social revolution’s. The Iron Age did not Just improve human society by advancing in technology, however, they have also improved on having a better grasp on the practical necessities such social and leisure activities. During the Celtic Iron Age, the Celtic had much more time than their ancestors after the development of permanent housing. They were able to socialism more and focus on things that they were not able to in the past.
This included on their personal appearances and activities for leisure. Archaeological evidence of Celtic Iron Age housing shows that many of these houses contained looms. Evidence of clothing form the Celtic Iron Age have shown to be made out of either linen or wool. The fabric would have been dyed bright colors and were woven with striped or checked patterns. There was also evidence from the archaeological record of brooches, pins and other dress accessories that would have played both a functional and decorative role on the clothing.
Classical text also gives clues of what the Cells may have looked like an example of this is Odorous Sculls who was an Ancient Greek Historian, who wrote: When they are eating the moustache becomes entangled in the food, and when they that both men and women may have grown their hair long and also plaited it. This evidence has truly shown how human society had changed after the Iron Age. It demonstrates how humans have developed in intelligence by domesticating animals and also on how they have evolved.
Thus, the importance of the Celtic Iron Age regarding to societal development is very significant as this had not only taught them a more relaxing way of life. It was also the first steps of humans being more social and advance creatures though their physiological development. Being able to maintain livestock, farm and also create accessories and tools that were much more developed than previous ages. 4 Jinni. S. , ‘Ancient History in depth: Life in an Iron Age Village’, BBC History [weapon], (2013) http://www. BBC. O. UK/history/ancient/British_prehistory/ orange_intro_01 . SHTML Agriculture Para. , accessed 4 July 2013. Upriver, pop. Cit. , p. 217 6 Jinni, pop. Cit,. Appearance Para. 2 accessed 4 July 2013. Fernando. C. , ‘Pair of metal detector friends discover three quarters of a ton of Iron Age coins worth Loom buried in a field in Jersey after searching for 30 years’, Mainline [weapon}, (2012) http://www. Dilemma. Co. UK/sciences/article-2164897/ Iron-Age-coins-worth-l Mom-discovered-]erase-metal-detector-friends. HTML accessed 6 July Lastly, the importance of the Celtic Iron age regarding to human societal development in Europe is significant as the religions and rules that existed during he time has truly effected on how society is run in the present. The Celtic Iron Age demonstrated that religion had a large impact in Celtic society much like it has in modern society. The Cells shared a common religious system, it also revealed that the Cells had strict rules of worship to their religion as evidence of human sacrifices such as the Tolland Man and Windy Girl have been found.
The Greek and Roman texts provide a number of pertinent observations and a comprehensive account was given by Caesar in his description of Goulash society. The largest religion in modern society had also came out of the Celtic Iron Age. The Monastery of Illuminant Afar also known as the Illuminant Major can be considered the axis of early Celtic Christianity. Evidence of this includes the ruins of churches that are in modern Ireland and Britain. Many Celtic Scripps and illustrations have also suggest that Christianity has emerged from the era.
This also wildly demonstrates how important the Celtic Iron Age is to the development of human society as without it, many things in modern society may not have existed. Political control and early stages of feudalism was also introduced as in each city state or village. In each village there would be an en or lord’, legal or ‘king’ and ins or ‘governor-priest’ controlling it. This example demonstrates a high level of human intelligence and also an example of how the Iron Age was very significant regarding to humans societal development as this system last for centuries which demonstrated its success.
Another significant introduction was the introduction of coins within Europe. This demonstrated a large change in how humans were now living. Through coins, it was positive that trading had become a popular lifestyle, by having coins, the Cells were beginning to have an easier life style as they didn’t need to trade in the crops that they grow. They were able to grow more food and grow wealthy. As this system of exchanging money for goods is still the impact it has on the development of human society, as from the Iron Age many new systems have developed.
Which demonstrates how significant the Celtic Iron Age really is as many things may not exist if the Iron Age had not occur. Thus, the Celtic Iron Age was highly significant to human societal development in Europe. The Iron Age had introduced a number of complex things that enabled human intelligence to expand. This included farming, new tools, religion, politics and the adaptation of a new epistyle. The Celtic Iron Age had truly changed how humans have lived and improved.


Technology and Modern Age

Sunday for me is the gloomiest part of the week. I always feel I am missing about an hour of sleep and still, somewhere in my sub consciousness. I have to face the dilemma of what to do for the coming hours as well. Being at the transitional state of dream and reality, it would help me to be more creative if the selection of activities is less limited. The option includes the way the Modern Age generate happiness and the Purposeful Leisure. One of the most popular is the way done by the Modern Age since it gives us a wide selection and various inventions to choose from.
For people with a gaming instinct, the choice is plentiful. For instance Computer Games develop by every generation have conquer the minds of teenagers. An example is a Warcraft Game made by Icefrog, consisting of different characters possessing skills and can be strengthen by the use of magical things. Computers now are very innovative that its content is advance and unique. It can finish a pile of works in an hour without numerous errors, unlike the past years which requires a lot of effort to have your projects and assignments be done.
For a person who’s up for fighting, Arcade Games were made to make them feel as they were the warrior fighting for a prize. Arcade Games are commonly made as survival test; it may be a survival from Zombies, Militaries, Dinosaurs and many more. For lame people who still find time to play, PSP is very suitable, since it is not as big as Computers and Arcade machines. PSP can be downloaded with different games and can be played wherever you are. Another option that might satisfy one’s boredom is PURPOSEFUL LEISURE perhaps not as popular as MODERN AGE way but just as fun to do; this activity does not fall in the “killing time” category.

It does however, command the respect of other activity, it is healthy and known to lower the calories level. Going out to make window shopping is much interesting than spending your money on repeat gaming. Having a youth camp on mountains or just simply playing Local games gives us the simplest and cheapest way of having fun. As I think of the two options, I guess Sunday’s of mine must be spending wisely. I may not like the Purposeful Leisure since it doesn’t have much excitement, but I know that it will make me healthy.
I may love the Modern Age since it gives me new challenges but I will still prevent myself from getting addicted to it since it weakens the body’s immune system. On the year 1994, Modern Age has begun, Innovations and various inventions started to create names in public. Science and Technology has made a long way on the society. Even adults are engaged to the technological advancement. Changes are so fast and all of us need to adapt quickly. Using Technologies is very efficient. We don’t have to spend a lot of money and we don’t need to give a lot of power to finish a work.
On the other hand, it is not difficult for some of us to be amused, even you are at home or on the middle of a vacation trip, you can still find time to relax by just moving your hands and by the focus of your eyes and mind. Despite the numerous values of technology, many oppose scientific process on ethical grounds. The researchers in the field of newly inventions face scrutiny from many advocacy groups because technology is seen as violating one’s fundamental environment principles. The current debate lies on major questions about the relationship between Science and Technology and Purposeful Leisure.
What could be its psychological and societal implications to an individual? Since we have the ability to make advancement, we had better think hard about the kind of life we want. Technology has tremendous power to do good if properly used. The issues are complex. The lesson of history is that whatever is possible will be tried somewhere by someone at some time but this is no excuse for sitting back. We need to decide based on principles that the whole community can support and understand. We individuals have a vital role to play. I would like to give my reaction on the Sample Essay no. entitled Leisure and Modern Age. It stated that the Modern Age has offered humanity various inventions and technology advancement which have made our lives so progressive. Well, I agree with that, as I observe the society, people were allure by the new inventions and creations. Eyes are staring at computer monitors, ears are suited with headphones, and hands are busy pressing buttons and body is moving consistently. The next part is how these things failed to provide humanity with more quality leisure time. Since, we spend our time on improving our gaming skills than making ourselves healthy.
We have loss our mind-set that we still need to take concentration on our wellness. Most illness were get due to lack of nutrients, this happened when we engaged our energy in unworthy things. And technology is one of that unworthy things that weakens our immune system. I can say that it is okay to find Leisure on Technologies, but it is not good to get addicted and forget the real essence of why these inventions were made. Since some of the creations were made to help people become more efficient and not to make people become dependent.
Because some people were very dependent to these creations, they occupy their time just to improve on games, failing them to recall about more important things. They forget about wellness which is much needed that having an accomplished work at technologies’influence. “Use technology, but don’t let Technology use you. ” I remember this words said by an American psychology Professor on Youtube. We are now living in a modern age bringing us various ways to make our life much easier than before, less money to spend with and less energy to deal with.
Tiring days is not an issue no more, finding time to rest is stress-free. But how good is it to have this kind of lifestyle, where communication is fast as airwaves, where task can be quickly performed in just a short p of time. Does it take the pressure when someone’s in a hurry? What are the effects of Modern Age especially on how we find time to relax? There are several effects of technology in human health, environment, animals, plants and earth. Technology can affect our health in many ways with both short term and long term effects.
The extent to which an individual is harmed by technology usually depends on the total exposure to the damaging contents. Short term includes irritation of eyes and sudden stroke of muscles. Long term health effects can include chronic respiratory disease and even damage to brain nerves. Another effect is that both plants and animals are harmed by pollution cause by some creations. All the effects mentioned above pose a warning of danger for all living things. Humans, as the most intelligent species on earth, are encouraged to be more aware on what they’re doing not just by themselves but also to other creatures.


Gatekeeping Survives the Modern Age

A Master of Science in Communication Studies has finally become the heir apparent to an idea I’ve had for many years. Getting a graduate degree was always something I thought worthwhile, but the field of study was not so obvious. I did not want to put forth the time, effort and money without a clear idea of why to choose a particular subject, and then how to put it to good use. My first career as a weekly newspaper reporter was wonderful.
Fresh out of college, but with a speech communication major (because that sounded like fun and could get me out of school in four years) I learned the newspaper business from a gentle man in a small town. Because writing is my first love, I was able to easily put information into a readable format. The rest of the responsibilities – interviewing, researching, proofreading, editing, layout, paste-up, photography, developing film and printing pictures, I picked up on the job. I was young and single, then young and married, and life was good. It got better with children, so I put the newspaper business aside.
As a few friends earned their Master’s Degrees, I was envious but not compelled. English and writing were options, but didn’t appear sensible unless I taught high school or contacted New York for literary work (no small feat in those pre-technology days). I was not interested in either. Life with kids was busy and they were the priority for my time. Two decades later I resumed where I had left off. I was ready to work for pay again and fell into the perfect job as a weekly newspaper reporter. It has been a growing experience as I brushed up on and fine-tuned my skills.

I dove into controversial issues as well as the mundane, and for the last four years have recorded the news of a very active community. From this has grown the idea that a master’s is the next logical step. I love to learn, as I have from every story written for the newspaper. I am interested in studying the media from ‘the big picture’ and associating with fellow mass communication enthusiasts. There are particular aspects of the degree I will pursue because it may be the only way to learn computerized techniques useful in the field.
Most of my kids are no longer home to teach me that. For my final years of employment I would like to work with a company or non-profit organization, or teach at a junior college. I plan to stay with my perfect job until my last child is out of high school. Then I may be ready for a job with set hours. I’m quite sure that one year at a respectable salary will reimburse the cost of the master’s tuition, compared to a reporter’s wage. At any rate, I am always up for an adventure, and have been excited since deciding to further my education. Pat Fridgen


Liberty In the Age of Terror a Defense of Civil Liberties and Enlightenment Value

Free speech, as Grayling defines it, “is the fundamental civil liberty” because “without it, none of the others are possible, for none of the others can even be claimed or defended without it” (Grayling 63). The right for free speech has been granted by the Canadian law and is understood legally as everyone’s right to freedom of belief, thought, opinion as well as expression, including the mass media and other communication media.
The chief rationale for the protection of this right is the role of free speech as the instrument of democratic government. It is understood as a tool for furthering individuals’ personal growth and truth dissemination (Hogg 833). Canadian educators, who work in increasingly intensifying and centralized school environments, have been found reluctant to express their views concerning school issues as well as controversial issues in the classroom.
MAIN CLAIM: Canadian teachers do not exercise their right to free speech seeing it as a privilege, which leads to lack of informed public dialogue based on criticism of specific educational issues and erosion of intellectual inquiry in the classroom.

For a start, Canadian teachers do not exercise their legal right to free speech as they avoid critical expression and confrontation with students over controversial study topics. In an in-depth study of Canadian teachers’ use of their free speech right, it has been found that Canadian teachers limit their free expression because of their perceived threat of censorship and employers’ aggressive attitude towards criticisms or reflexivity.
For example, Stephen, a senior high school teacher with more than 25 years of experience, shares that teacher censorship is alive and well and asserts he and other teachers are censored by the school administration. Other teachers say that in reality, they do not have a legal right to freedom of expression because of employers’ directions to watch what everyone’s is saying, setting the limits of expression at work and outside school about school matters and school authorities.
Also, they said they avoided free speech expression as a means of preventing the cases of repercussions following teachers’ statements that were believed to have negatively affected the reputation of administration or schools. Interestingly, censorship by the school authorities is often based not on their worries about the reputation of a school but on teachers’ expression of thoughts that simply differed from the positions of their employers.
For instance, Linda, another interviewed teacher, expressed the view that censorship in Canadian public school setting targets “views, or thoughts or words or ideas that are not allowed to be shared or […] do not agree with their [school authorities’] train of thought” (Hoben 190). If to apply Teresa Bejan’s thesis about the difference between the effects of isegoria and parrhesia on the development of the democratic society and the need of isegoria in present-day parrhesiastic tradition in America, one can say that the situation in Canadian schools is much worse.
Indeed, one cannot observe here any tension between teachers’ forced silence and their desire to exercise free speech. In fact, teachers who are warned against sharing their ill views on school-related topics, embrace a passive stance and fail to check the legitimacy of such demands fearing job loss. To make matters worse, they are eager to avoid conflict to prevent accusations of insensitivity and insulting behavior. Hence, teachers in Canadian public schools neither exercise isegoria nor enjoy parrhesia, being afraid of job loss or job insecurity and being unwilling of arguments or believing they are obliged to withhold certain things from the general public.
The result of the free speech restrictions on public school teachers and their unwillingness to engage in open criticism of the existing school system and challenging class discussions is the detrimental effect on the quality of children’s education (Reyes 35). Specifically, many teachers made it clear that the public does not have an accurate view of what is going on in Canadian public schools. They linked this situation with censorship and information dissemination barriers set by some educational stakeholders and parents (Hobe, 1995).
In addition, teachers’ fear of teenagers’ accusations in hurting their feelings resulting from teachers’ explanations of certain controversial events or phenomena leads to erosion of classroom discussion, passionate inquiry, and students’ inability to defend their views or publicly express their own opinions. As a matter of fact, teachers often face teenagers’ complaints about their information being too hurtful or offensive even though these complaints are ungrounded and based on the students’ inability to objectivity perceive information that diverges from their established worldviews.
In these situations, teachers need to remember about their right to isegoria and remind their students’ that their wish to preserve free expression as the privilege of their group contradicts the law and the principle of equity with regard to free speech in the Canadian school environment. One of the greatest French philosophers and cultural theorists of the twentieth century Michael Foucault said, “Language is no longer linked to knowledge of things, but to men’s freedom” (Foucault 245).
Whereas teachers in Canada seem reluctant to exercise their right to free expression at work and beyond it, the fact that they recognize the adverse outcomes of such position gives hope that they will reassess their position and become increasingly active in resolving educational matters and inspiring meaningful debates in classrooms aimed at preparing self-governing and autonomous individuals aware of how thoughtful communication should take place within a democratic society (Schwartz 242).