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Accounting

Importance and Evolution of Human Resource Accounting

Human resource accounting comprise accounting for outgos related to human resource as assets opposed to traditional accounting attack which treats these costs as disbursals that will cut down net incomes of organisation. Importance and engagement to growing in HRA to growing have been clear in figure of states. Human Resource Accounting ( HRA ) comprise accounting for outgos of human resources as assets on the other manus traditional accounting attack which treats costs of human resource as disbursals that will cut down net incomes of organisation importance and parts to growing in HRA have been plain in a figure of states Importance and engagement to growing in HRA to growing have been clear in figure of states. Since the constitution of globalisation of concern and services, human rudimentss are going more of import input for the success of any organisation. It helps the direction to construction policies for human resources. Human resource accounting is a procedure of placing and mensurating informations about human resources. Measurement of the investing in human resources will assist to measure the charges in human resource investing over a period of clip. HRA is non a new issue in the field of concern. Economists think about human capital as a production factor, and they explore different ways of mensurating its investing in instruction, wellness, and other countries. Accountants have accepted the value of human assets for at least 70 old ages.
Cardinal words:Human Resource Accounting, Human Capital accounting, Human resource.
Introduction

The success of economic undertakings and accomplishing its ends depends mostly on the efficiency and effectivity of human resources, and as the human component is a existent provider of any undertaking, and material resources are contribution factors, adult male what owned the accomplishments and enjoyed by the desire to work is a important component to accomplish production efficiency and profitableness, the undertakings spent a batch of money in the enlisting and choice and preparation of workers. The traditional accounting position these charges treated as current outgos charged to the income of the fiscal period when ciphering the net net income, although it represents investing disbursement in order to make assets of the establishment, and hence to promote the an organisation to see human resources as Capital Assets. When doing determinations on the assets they expect to acquire all the future benefits, every bit good as promote the organisation to making an incorporate system of human resources accounting.
Need of HRA and its applications
Human Resource Accounting provides helpful information to the disposal, fiscal analysts and human resources on the undermentioned issues.
1.Human Resource Accounting helps the direction in the Employment, turn uping and use of human resources.
2.It supports in make up one’s minding the preparation, publicity, and retrenchment of human resources.
3.It provides a footing for planning of human resources.
4.It helps in measuring the costs incurred for leaving furthermore developing in employees.
5.It supports to find the causes of high labor turnover at assorted degrees and taking defensive steps to incorporate it.
6.It helps in turn uping the existent cause for low return on investing, like improper or under-utilization of physical assets or human resource or both.
7.It supports in apprehension and measuring the interior strength of an organisation and helps the direction to maneuver the company good through most inauspicious and unfavourable fortunes.
8.It provides valuable information for individuals interested in doing long term investing in the house.
9.It supports employees in bettering their public presentation and bargaining power. It makes each of them to understand his part towards the improvement of the house vis- & A ; agrave ; -vis the outgo incurred by the house on them.
Develop of HRA reappraisal
Although human resource accounting ( HRA ) is a comparatively new field, its development has already passed through several discernable phases. The first phase of growing, from 1960 to 1966, was distinct by involvement in HRA and the beginning of basic HRA constructs from related organic structures of theory, The initial impulse for the development of HRA came from a assortment of beginnings, including the economic theory of human capital, the new human resource point of view, and a concern for human assets as constituents of corporate ( flamholtz, 1999 ) .there was many phase during development of Human resource accounting as followers:
First period ( 1960-66) :
This characters the foundation of academic attending in the country of Human Resource Accounting. though, the centre was chiefly on derive Human Resource Accounting constructs from other surveies like the fiscal theory of capital, psychological theories of leadership-effectiveness, the lifting constructs of human resource as dissimilar from forces or human dealingss ; every bit good as the measuring of concern good will.
Second period ( 1966-71 ):
The focal point here was more on lifting and validates different theoretical accounts for HRA. These theoretical accounts enclosed both costs and the pecuniary and non-monetary value of HR. The seek was to develop some tools that would assist the organisations in measuring and organisation their human resource/assets in a more rational mode. One of the first surveies here was that of Roger Hermanson, who as portion of his Ph.D. studied the job of mensurating the value of human assets as an component of good will. Inspired by his work, a figure of research undertakings were undertaken by the research workers to develop the constructs and methods of accounting for human resource.
Third period: ( 1971-76 )
This period was distinct by a extended attending in the field of HRA taking to a speedy growing of research in the country. The focal point in most instances was on the issues of application of HRA in concern organisations. R.G. Barry experiments contributed well during this phase. ( R.G.BarryCorporation:1971 )
Fourth period ( 1976-1980 ) :
This was a period of diminution in the country of HRA chiefly because the multipart issues that needed to be explored needed much deeper experiential research than was required for the old simple theoretical accounts. The organisations, nevertheless, were non ready to back up such research. They set up the thought of HRA interesting but did non happen much usage in pump in great amounts or puting batch of clip and power in back uping the research.
Fifth period ( 1980 onwards) :
There was a unexpected regeneration of attending in the field of HRA to some extent cause of most of the developed economic systems had displacement from fabricating to service economic systems and perceived the criticalness of human plus for their organisations. Since the endurance, increase net incomes of the organisations were evident to be reliant more on the rational assets of the organisations than on the physical assets ; the demand was felt to hold more true steps for HR costs, investings and value.
An of import result of this renewed involvement was that unlike the old decennaries, when the involvements were chiefly academic with some practical applications, from mid 90s the focal point has been on greater application of HRA to concern direction. Different types of theoretical accounts to accommodate the specific demands of the organisations have been developed integrating both the touchable and the intangible facets. Besides, larger figure of organisations really began to utilize HRA as portion of their managerial and fiscal accounting pattern.
Today, human and rational capitals are perceived to be the strategic resources and hence, clear appraisal of their value has gained important importance. The increased force per unit areas for corporate administration and the corporate codification of behavior demanding transparence in accounting have farther supported the demand for developing methods of mensurating human value.

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Accounting

Accounting-People Oriented

Is the hotel service of the highest frequency words in one, but how to understand the “people-oriented”, and fell at the service Implementation, but not so simple. Four Seasons Hotel prior to the opening trial of business is not facing society, but to face the staff, commissioning a month, the staff try to eat a month, identify problems, stop at any time, In order to ensure the quality of the opening one hundred percent. This Is a people – the guests when the hotel can not be “Guiana pigs.
From this concept, the Four Seasons Hotel is no interns. Employees must be strengthened into the store a series of training to meet the requirements of posts, appointment is a formal work – services must be perfect for guests, not the internship process. A defect In the current hotel is the rooms, restaurants, PA, recreational and other first-line lack of understanding among the various departments, the hotel also provides that employees of various departments can not “string Kong,” and this will inevitably affect the overall service quality and team spirit.
The last of a series of raining is to allow employees to do the day the guests, In addition to free room arrangements, and the other 600 distributed to staff, the staff wear casual consumption in the hotel, dining, fitness, the bar can be, requiring employees to stand in the guest point of the hotel experience, understanding customers. Proceeding to create a high degree of satisfaction with the service, and also from the beginning so that employees of various departments of the hotel have a comprehensive understanding facilitate future communication and coordination among departments.

Four Seasons Hotel “people-oriented” high level of protection is n important embodiment of the guests right to privacy and equal respect for each guest. This Is, in our country, both conceptual Issues, but also the difficulty of the operation, while the Four seasons Hotel In respect of human rights Is the undying honor. – To the room, into the elevator key card to be plugged in, it stopped back in the appropriate floor. The hotel public areas without permission will be allowed to take pictures, because many people In public places, even seemingly private photos, but the background may still be related to other people, which have generated the aground of the possible infringement, which is strictly prohibited . If you really need camera can tell you specifically for the hotel arrangements. Each house guests are all equal, even if there is an important guests arrived, the hotel main entrance Is still to be set aside for dally guest channel and out of lanes and not allow sealed. If there is a conflict, the Four Seasons Hotel would rather not take the PIP guests have to absolutely guarantee the normal conditions of service. – Do not allow media access to the lobby guests take photos, such as: David Buckram’s “Posh” wife to Shanghai, the toll cordoned off at the door, the media must not go beyond.
The more so, is the absolute guarantee that the store’s environmental quality, the guests privacy and freedom of movement. Media sometimes complained, but the principle unswervingly adhere to the Four Seasons Hotel. Personalized Four Seasons service quality is the bigger and more extreme, the cost of large, difficult to have the hotel can afford. SYNC TV united States President to Shanghai, the hotel Immediately contact professional organizations in Shanghai, the purchase of decoders, dedicated to the 1 OFF
SYNC line II rooms Witt Conic’s channels Ana a Selene well-producer special programs; to the president of Pepsi-cola, the room All put on PepsiCo products; Philips president stayed, the rooms are full of Philips lighting replaced; Toast’s chairman, the head of the bed put a label marked with the model of Toyota cars; Samsung Electronics Company President of stay, hotel suites spared no expense to the other brands of high plasma TV removed and replaced by the latest models Samsung products.
These benefits not only the boss, that is, a child, but also an equal footing. To store that also brought along a couple of old child, a child of the hotel immediately coupled with bathrobes, slippers and children, balloons and other small toys, extra bed is also consistent with the child’s height. It can be said, as long as visitor information, the Four Seasons Hotel are fully in place beforehand.
Never use the hotel services, car floor, because the car, then most of the time during the day there are services out of the way the surface floor, guests have to sidle over, rude, tasteless, garbage bags on board the service, not elegant, another odor. At the same mime, there is baggage car floor, but there will be impact phenomena. Each floor of the hotel which had a small linen, the maintenance of daily turnover.
Rooms at the Four Seasons hotel, only one printed on both sides “do not disturb” the morning of the plate, but not “come forward to clean” message. Shop CLC said that if there “dashing clean”, which means that the hotel’s commitment to the guests, it is not able to be kept. If the same floor a number of guests 10 rooms, while immediate cleaning is not feasible, and the guests is not to immediately clean up the worry level. Therefore, the hotel prompted guests, as long as the call to immediately clean up, immediately put in place, we must meet.
The clean rooms and facilities engineering maintenance rooms must close the door, this is for hotel guests and staff security and privacy considerations. Close the door, the staff will hang outside the card – “We are cleaning your room. ” Room table, covered with high-strength glass, in fact, everyone knows the problem, at home, in the office, all on the table, and the public use of the hotel room table, glass and India produce, and even cigarette butts, there ill be hot scorch , which gives the guests have the old sense of being damaged.
Covered with glass, to resolve to the problem. Of course, under glass do not go into this kind of written material, a messy desktop, visual, taste is reduced. Of course, the name of such services, such as customers, it is essential. Floor attendant pocket has a piece of paper on which was written the name of this floor guests, guest name to see the greeting guests pay tribute to revered. The world has a different pronunciation of the language features, the hotel guests of different nationalities can best be understood.

Categories
Accounting

The Importance Of Accounting In Our Modern Society

Accounting is a very important term to our modern society. It is the career for men and women who at the start have their eyes set on top positions in industry, management, government, and general business. Accounting is a basic need of every businessmen, from the operator of a filling station to the government of the United States. It”s so important to our society. None of the business organization can operate without is. They are there-somewhere-in every business. In small business, people use pen, ink and skill keep teh records.
In large business, modern accounting machines are used to operate. Men and women are directing these machines in the accounting process. Wise businessmen enter business must have some accounting knowledge. Accounting is a vital element of business. It records the way a business has grown and, after analyzing figures, suggests the way it should go in the future. Furtunes are gambled on the advice of accountants. If your friend has ever operated a business and you saw him placing figures in ledgers, then you saw him doing bookkeeping.
If you have worked at a service station or supermarket and have seen books with large sheets lined in green and red lying on the manager”s table or desk, you saw books of accounting. Accounting is one of the fastest growing fields in the United States It expands each time a new store, a factory, a filling station, or a school goes up, whether in a large city or a small town. In today”s society, the demand for good accountants for exceeds the supply.

As our country has expanded, business and industry have become more and more complex, so control here is very important. And control depends on a great deal of the bookkeepers and accountants who can analyze figues and advise management on what should be done. They are using more scientific ways changing money, figuring change, and collecting sales taxes. Moreover, department stores and other companies now have plants and offices widely scattered throughout the country. A new set of bookkeepers and accountants, is needed at each branch.
I know there are many managements supervisory, and junior or senior executive positions are bing filled by people who started as accountants because accountants have the knowledge of methods and finance and comprehension of the fundamentals of business, and accounting is the foundation of sound business. The two kinds of accountants, public accountants and private accountants serve different important functions in business organization. Business enterprises, government agencies, and nonprofit institutions, such as universities and churches more are more likely use public accountant.
They offer their services to the general public on a fee basis in much the same way as do lawyers, doctors, and dentists. In addition, the larger firms have professional accountants on their staff who work for a salary, but are also considered public accountants. The two important areas, auditing and tax services are also the job for public accountants. In a single business enterprise or nonprofit organization, the main job for private accounts in to handle the finanacial records. Manufacturing or other concerns are also need accountants, in that situation, they are often called industrial accountants.
In addition, accountants are employeed by all branches of federal state, and local government, including government-owned corporations. Accountants in private and government work customarily specialize in the performance of a single type of accounting service, they may do any of the types of accounting service just described above. They also tend to become specialists in a narrow field of employment such as a particular branch of manufacturing, public utilities, or transportation.
Except public accountants and private accountants, there are some other general category of accountants who are taking important parts in business organizations. They are managerial accountants, controller, cost accountant, government accountant, internal accountant and teaching accountant. Each of the accountant serves different function in business organization. A company needs well-organized management. Managerial accountant is a kind of person hired by a company and trained to be a manager one day. The managerial accountant, needs to learn all aspects of the company-people, products, plants, and equipments.
They should know how to handle management responsibility, and administrative skills. A company needs somebody to record its financial operating datas, and measure performance, and it needs somebody to interpret results of operations, and to plan and make recommendations for actions. Controller is this kind person of the company and is responsible for the records of the company”s operation. His or her job is not only deal with finances, but also deal with people, products, equipments and material. In addition, he or she also needs to concern about sales and profit of the company.
Like the president or vicepresident, controller has opportunities to exercise imagination and judgement and to make rewarding contribution to the company. A corporation may exist many different items in managactures, and those items go hundreds of various sized and priced componenets. The sales office will have to know the production cost of each item in order ot arrive at a sales price that will contain a profit for the company. A cost accountant works on it. He studies the items one by one, figures the cost of every parts of the products, and then arrives at the production cost of each item.
Organizations of federal, state, or municipal government also need accountants to help their business. Government accountants come to do a variety of financial management work. They may deal with auditing, designing and maintaining. They may do budgeting and administrative duties requiring the use of accounting information. A modern business organization needs internal accountant to see whether the assets of a business are properly protected and accounted for, that current trasactions are completely recorded, or the company”s waste and loss whether to be saved or not.
High schools, colleges or universities are also need accounting professors to teach students accounting techniques. Teaching accountants, who know a great deal about accounting and has had some practical experience in dealing with persons and businesses, ready to pass along their knowledge and experiences to students and future accountants. In small schools, teachers have other duties besides their work in the classrooms. They serve as school secretaries, bookkeepers, statistical clerks, and managers in lunchrooms.
In addition to the accounts mentioned above, you may also find tax accountant, a systems and control accountant, a budget accountant, or an auditor. Working people need to pay taxes. Tax is so important to our society. It”s a main financial imcome of the government. People have to pay different kinds of tax according to their imcome. For example, they need to pay imcome tax, social security tax, state unemployment tax, federal excise tax, state and local sales and miscellantous taxes, property taxes, and federal and state taxes on corportation imcomes.
As an accountant, one of the job he needs to do is to hepl people to pay taxes. Taxes and accounting are intervined. In dividual tax liabilities are arrived at by an accounting process. Large corporations that pay taxes in the hundreds of thousands of dollars, hire many accountants. Thus, accountant is tightly related to the tax adminatration. Accountants use skills in tax matters to help prepare people yearly report. According to the statistics, “In California, individual CPA practitioners report that around 21 percent of their business is tax work.
Public accountant practitioners, who are closer to the small income earners, report that 25 percent of their business is tax work. ” Especially public accountants, their large percentage of income is come from tax work. Because of the development of the modern society and increasement of peoples” income, more and more accountants are needed for tax work. Sound business needs good record, so control accountants are needed for this. They can help and advice managers to well develop their business. Some government firms and other organizations such as banks, stores, schools, churches, need auditors to operate the business.
The auditor”s report will be of particular value to stockholders and creditors, since it shows an impartial opinion of the company is financial condition. For the management of the company, the auditor can often make very valuable suggestions for cutting costs, minmizing tax liabilities, and finding new ways to increase profits. Let”s look some accounting jobs in government. There are two million federal employees are working for the government , dealing with problems of population, education, transportation, national security, welfare and others.
Accountants, auditors, system analysts, and budget administrators are helping to maintain the stability in modern governmental operations. United Stated is teh largest enterprise in the world today, we can imagine how complexity of the business got to be, so accountants take important parts in the operation of these business. They work for department of Agriculture, department of Commerce, department of Defense, department of Health, Edaucaiton, and Welfare, post offic edepartment and department of teh Treasury.
Department of Agriculture deal with agricultural production, chemistry, economics, engineering, marketing, conservation, price support, and production adjustment problems. The department nees accountants to help its programs. The main job for accountant in this agency is to develop and maintain financial management systems, prepare and analyze budgetary and program lost statements, check costs of commercial food processors and producers, audit various operations in the office and in the field, and check records of commercial, cooperative, and state and municipal organizations participating in agricultural programs.
Department of Commerce performs a wide range of operations. It gathers information about domestic and foreign industries and trade, publishes technical information for the government, and handles allocations of materials necessary to military and atomic energy programs. It”s also a place which needs accountants. Accountants here maintain regulatory and cost accounting systems, and audit steamship, railroad, and utility companies. Department of defense is an department which includes departments of the Army, Navy, and Air Force. This department has established an ideal career program to help recruit auditors and accountants.
The department needs a well-qualified accountants and auditors. Those accountants are needed to handle cost accounting, property and inventory accounting, inernal and external auditing, and budgeting. Under the department of Health, Education, and Welfare, there are Public Health Servide, the Food and Drug Administration, the Office of Education, the Social Security Administration, and the Office of Vacational Rehabilitation. Those offices are located every where in the United States, so countless accountants are needed to operate in these organizations.
The work mostly involves cost accounting, hospital accounting budgeting, auditing, and financial mangement. Post Office Deartmetn is another place which needs accountants assistants. This large department employs more than 560,000 persons and operates over 35,000 post offices. Besides that, it provides money-order and postal-saving services. All this naturally involves large sums of money and huge volumes of transactions. To handle it all, “The depatment has set up within its organization a Bureau of Finance, which looks after the the accounting, budgeting, cost accounting, keeping statistics and financial data, nd financial management work. ”
Department of the Treasury serves as the government”s banker, bookkeeper, disburser, collector, trustee, investor, lender, printer of the currency, coiner of money, supervisor of national banks, and financial advisor to the President and Congress. It”s not hard to see that each of these duties involves accounting. The Treasure Department needs men and women educated and trained in accounting, auditiing, budgeting, and financial management.
Here accountants may be systems accountants, general accountants, cost accountants, internal auditors, revenue agents, bank examiners, budget and fiscal officers, management analysts, tax analysts, and public debt analysts. There are also a nember of independent agencies with which an accountant may find interesting and challenging work. There are the Atomi Energy Commission, the Farm Credit Administration, the Interstate Commerce Commission, the Securities and Exchange Commission and other important commissions, an accountant can find an easy way upward to general administrative and managerial positions.
There is a overseeing department is called the United States Greneral Accounting Office. Just as a company president is the top man over many men and departments below him. The department generally oversees all the other agencies of the government. This vital department is headed by the comptroller General of the United States. As the President is called the Chief Executive of the nation, you could call the comptroller General the Chief Accountant of the nation.
His office, an independent agency in the legislative branch, has the vitally important job of making audits of the programs, activities, and financial responsibilities of federal departments and agencies. It even checks government contracts. Since women”s position has been improved in the U. S, accounting also opened its door to women. It can be the world of achievement for the women who is looking for a higher ststus than what is offered by ledgers and journals. Accountants in today”s society is expected to know a great deal about management, business practice and theory, taxes, cost accounting, auditing, and systems and controls.
To the woman who can train these and other subjects gose the opportunity to work at the management level with executives and leaders of business. Women also have opportunities for specialization and self-employment in an accounting firm. That”s why I say accounting is the door which widely open to women, and more and more women are stepping into it. According to the statistics “By 1910, there were about 190,000 women engaged in the occapation. From 1940-1950 the increase in female bookkeepers was 37,395. An estimate, based on the 1950 census, showed 556,229 women bookkeepers compared to only 164,748 men in the same employment. The figures show women occupy a large percentage in accounting field.
Accounting is every where. Non eof the business or nonbusiness organization can stay longer without it. There is no doubt that all the business require some people who have some experience or knowledge in bookkeeping and accounting. More and more employers prefer employees with some knowledge of bookkeeping and accounting. There are other some examples of accounting job are required in different business: Office Manager-accountant, excellent salary, may advance to plany controller.

Categories
Accounting

Demographic Profile Of The Respondents Accounting Essay

In this chapter, consequence is obtained through the informations aggregation method from 300 questionnaires. The informations obtained from questionnaires are analyzed and computed by utilizing the Statistical Package societal Science ( SPSS ) package. Tables and charts will be exhibited to show the consequences in an apprehensible mode. This chapter started off with the descriptive analysis of the respondent demographic profile and cardinal inclinations measuring of concepts. Next, scale measuring is to supply the consequences of dependability trial. This is followed by the illative analysis with the Pearson correlativity coefficient analysis and multiple additive arrested development analysis. Last is to reason this chapter.
4.1 Descriptive Analysis
4.1.1 Demographic Profile of the Respondents

Table 4.1: Gender of Respondents
Gender
Frequency
Percentage
Valid Percentage
Accumulative Percentage
Valid
Male
105
51.7
51.7
51.7
Female
98
48.3
48.3
100.0
Entire
203
100.0
100.0
Beginning: Developed for the research
In the Table 4.1 above, it showed the frequence and per centum of gender of 203 respondents. There were a sum of 105 male respondents ( 51.7 % ) and a sum of 98 female respondents ( 48.3 % ) .
Table 4.2: The Age Group of Respondents
Age
Frequency
Percentage
Valid Percentage
Accumulative Percentage
Valid
Under 21 old ages
5
2.5
2.5
2.5
21-30 old ages
67
33.0
33.0
35.5
31-40 old ages
54
26.6
26.6
62.1
41-50 old ages
31
15.3
15.3
77.3
51 old ages & A ; above
46
22.7
22.7
100.0
Entire
203
100.0
100.0
Beginning: Developed for the research
Table 4.2 presented the frequence and per centum of the age group of respondents. 5 respondents ( 2.5 % ) were under 21 old ages old, 67 respondents ( 33.0 % ) were 21 to 30 old ages old, 54 respondents ( 26.6 % ) were 31 to 40 old ages old, 31 respondents ( 15.3 % ) were 41 to 50 old ages old and 46 respondents ( 22.7 % ) were 51 old ages old and above.
Table 4.3: The Marital Status of Respondents
Marital Status
Frequency
Percentage
Valid Percentage
Accumulative Percentage
Valid
Single
73
36.0
36.0
36.0
Married
130
64.0
64.0
100.0
Entire
203
100.0
100.0
Beginning: Developed for the research
The Table 4.3 indicated the frequence and per centum of the matrimonial position of respondents. The bulk of the respondents were married which represented 64.0 % that is about 130 people out of 203 respondents. Meanwhile, 73 respondents ( 36.0 % ) were still individual.
Table 4.4: The Education Level of Respondents
Education Degree
Frequency
Percentage
Valid Percentage
Accumulative Percentage
Valid
Primary instruction
8
3.9
3.9
3.9
Secondary instruction
77
37.9
37.9
41.9
Certificate / Diploma
80
39.4
39.4
81.3
Bachelor ‘s grade
33
16.3
16.3
97.5
Master ‘s grade
5
2.5
2.5
100.0
Entire
203
100.0
100.0
Beginning: Developed for the research
From the Table 4.4, it showed the frequence and per centum of the instruction degree of respondents. From the information above, bulk of 80 respondents held a certification or sheepskin ( 39.4 % ) . The 2nd and 3rd largest groups were 77 respondents who had completed the secondary instruction ( 37.9 % ) and 33 respondents who held a unmarried man grade ( 16.3 % ) . Last, the respondents who had completed the primary instruction and which is a maestro grade holders were 8 people ( 3.9 % ) and 5 people ( 2.5 % ) severally.
Table 4.5: The Working Period of Respondents
Working Time period
Frequency
Percentage
Valid Percentage
Accumulative Percentage
Valid
Less than 1 twelvemonth
23
11.3
11.3
11.3
1-5 old ages
63
31.0
31.0
42.4
6-10 old ages
48
23.6
23.6
66.0
11-15 old ages
25
12.3
12.3
78.3
16-20 old ages
19
9.4
9.4
87.7
Above 20 old ages
25
12.3
12.3
100.0
Entire
203
100.0
100.0
Beginning: Developed for the research
The Table 4.5 represented the frequence and per centum of the on the job period of respondents. The respondents were divided into six classs. 23 respondents worked as an insurance agent for less than one twelvemonth ( 11.3 % ) , 63 respondents worked for 1 to 5 old ages ( 31.0 % ) , 48 respondents worked for 6 to 10 old ages ( 23.6 % ) , 25 respondents worked for 11 to 15 old ages ( 12.3 % ) , 19 respondents worked for 16 to 20 old ages ( 9.4 % ) and 25 respondents worked as an insurance agent above 20 old ages ( 12.3 % ) .
4.1.2 Cardinal Tendencies Measurement of Constructs
4.1.2.1 Commission Pay
Table 4.6: Cardinal Inclinations Measurement for Commission Pay
No.
Statement
Mean
Standard Deviation
CP1
I think the committee wage is a really of import incentive for me.
4.3448
0.75078
CP2
I am motivated by committee wage to seek my best attempts in work.
4.2562
0.73350
CP3
My occupation public presentation determine the extra committee wage when achieve higher mark.
4.2808
0.81141
CP4
I will retain the occupation because I am satisfied with the committee wage.
4.0985
0.85025
CP5
I work hard is to acquire a better committee wage in this occupation.
4.3005
0.78561
Beginning: Developed for the research
Table 4.6 illustrated the cardinal inclinations measurings of committee wage. Mentioning to the tabular array above, most respondents agreed to the CP1 with average value of 4.3448. The 2nd highest was CP5 with average value of 4.3005. The 3rd and 4th highest were CP3 and CP2 which had the average value of 4.2808 and 4.2562 severally. The lowest average value was CP4 which was 4.0985.
From the tabular array above, CP4 had highest standard divergence value which was 0.85025. The 2nd and 3rd highest standard divergence value was CP3 and CP5 which had 0.81141 and 0.78561 severally. The 4th highest standard divergence was CP1 with the value of 0.75078. The lowest standard divergence value was 0.73350 by CP2.
4.1.2.2 Job Security
Table 4.7: Cardinal Inclinations Measurement for Job Security
No.
Statement
Mean
Standard Deviation
JSM1
I think occupation security is another of import incentive for me.
4.1232
0.68188
JSM2
I am motivated by the good occupation security in current occupation.
3.9852
0.74779
JSM3
I feel my current occupation is unafraid, dependable and lasting.
3.9951
0.82951
JSM4
My occupation public presentation is influenced by the occupation security.
4.0000
0.79603
JSM5
I work hard is because I ‘m afraid to loss this stable occupation.
3.7143
1.00845
Beginning: Developed for the research
The Table 4.7 illustrated the cardinal inclinations measurings of occupation security. The consequence from the tabular array above, JSM1 had the highest average value of 4.1232. The 2nd highest average value was JSM4 which was 4.000. The 3rd highest was JSM3 with the average value of 3.9951 which was followed by JSM2 which had a average value of 3.9852. The JSM5 had the lowest average value of 3.7143.
Harmonizing to the Table 4.7, the JSM5 had the highest standard divergence value of 1.00845. The 2nd highest standard divergence value was JSM3 which was 0.82951. The 3rd highest was JSM4 with the standard divergence value of 0.79603 which was followed by JSM2 which had a standard divergence value of 0.74779. The lowest standard divergence value was JSM1 which was merely 0.68188.
4.2.2.3 Opportunities for Advancement and Development
Table 4.8: Cardinal Inclinations Measurement for Opportunities for Advancement and Development
No.
Statement
Mean
Standard Deviation
AD1
I think the chances for promotion and development is another of import incentive for me.
4.1034
0.79238
AD2
I am motivated by chances for promotion and development in current occupation.
4.0443
0.75321
AD3
I have more chances for promotion and development in current occupation if I retain the occupation for longer period of clip.
4.0936
0.78734
AD4
I have more chances to direct for preparation, learn accomplishment and developing myself in current occupation.
4.1084
0.81330
AD5
I work hard is to acquire more chances for promotion and development in this occupation.
4.1675
0.74563
Beginning: Developed for the research
Table 4.8 illustrated the cardinal inclinations measurings of chances for promotion and development. In the term of average value, AD5 had the highest mean of 4.1675. Second, it is followed by AD4 of 4.1084, AD1 of 4.1034 and AD3 of 4.0936. The AD2 had the lowest average value of 4.0443.
From the Table 4.8, the AD4 had the highest standard divergence value of 0.81330. Second, it is followed by AD1 with the standard divergence value of 0.79238, AD3 with the standard divergence value of 0.78734 and AD2 with the standard divergence value of 0.75321. The lowest standard divergence value was 0.74563 by AD5.
4.2.2.4 Work Itself
Table 4.9: Cardinal Inclinations Measurement for Work Itself
No.
Statement
Mean
Standard Deviation
W1
I have more independent when I ‘m working.
4.1724
0.78654
W2
I have more assurance to accomplish the mark of the occupation.
4.2217
0.75461
W3
I am willing to work hard with current occupation.
4.2069
0.72886
W4
I am non willing to alter another occupation even if I get other occupation in elsewhere.
3.8227
0.98909
W5
I think my ability can execute good in current occupation.
4.1527
0.75211
W6
I am proud to work with current occupation.
4.2020
0.77944
Beginning: Developed for the research
The Table 4.9 above, it illustrated the cardinal inclinations measurings of work itself. Based on the tabular array, W2 had the highest average value of 4.2217. The 2nd highest was W3 that had 4.2069 of average value. The 3rd highest was the W6 that had 4.2020 of mean value which was followed by, the W1 and W5 which had the average value of 4.1724 and 4.1527 severally. The W4 had the lowest average value was 3.8227.
In the tabular array above, the highest standard divergence value was 0.98909 by the W4. The 2nd highest standard divergence value was W1 which was 0.78654. The 3rd highest standard divergence value was the W6 that had 0.77944 which was followed by, the W2 and W5 which had the standard divergence value of 0.75461 and 0.75211 severally. The lowest standard divergence value was W3 which was 0.72886.
4.2.2.5 Job Satisfaction
Table 4.10: Cardinal Inclinations Measurement for Job Satisfaction
No.
Statement
Mean
Standard Deviation
JS1
In general I am satisfied with my occupation.
4.1330
0.74265
JS2
I am satisfied with the flexibleness of the on the job hours in current occupation.
4.3054
0.68601
JS3
I am satisfied with the committee wage strategy in current occupation.
4.0394
0.78250
JS4
I will retain the occupation because I am satisfied with the occupation security.
4.0148
0.74779
JS5
I am satisfied with the accomplishment in current occupation.
4.0591
0.78125
JS6
I am happy with the manner my co-workers and higher-ups treat me.
4.0936
0.79982
JS7
I am truly enjoyed with my occupation.
4.2266
0.81925
Beginning: Developed for the research
Harmonizing to Table 4.10, it illustrated the cardinal inclinations measurings of occupation satisfaction. Based on the tabular array, most respondents agreed to the JS2 with average value of 4.3054. The 2nd highest was JS7 that had 4.2266 of average value. The 3rd and 4th highest average value was JS1 and JS6 which is 4.1330 and 4.0936 severally. The 5th highest was JS5 with the average value of 4.0591 which was followed by JS3 which had a average value of 4.0394. The lowest average value was the JS4 which was merely 4.0148.
In the term of standard divergence value, JS7 had the highest standard divergence of 0.81925. Following, it is followed by JS6 of 0.79982, JS3 of 0.78250, JS5 of 0.78125 and JS4 of 0.74779. The two lowest standard divergence values were JS1 of 0.74265 and JS2 of 0.68601.
4.2 Scale Measurement
4.2.1 Internal Reliability Test
Table 4.11: Reliability Statistic
Variable
Cronbach ‘s Alpha
N of Items
CP
0.881
5
JSM
0.805
5
Ad
0.911
5
Tungsten
0.899
6
Joule
0.901
7
Beginning: Developed for the research
The dependability trial is test the consistence and truth of the IVs and DV which the credence degree of cronbach ‘s alpha more than 0.70.
Based on the Table 4.11, the highest cronbach ‘s alpha is chances for promotion and development standing at 0.911. The 2nd highest is occupation satisfaction which the cronbach ‘s alpha is 0.901 followed by committee wage and work itself which the cronbach ‘s alpha are 0.899 and 0.881. The lowest cronbach ‘s alpha is occupation security standing at 0.805.
From the consequence, overall the cronbach ‘s alpha for all variable are more than 0.70. Therefore, the questionnaire in this research is dependability and consistence.
4.2.2 Normality Test
The trial of normalcy, histogram with normal curve, P-P secret plan and spread secret plan diagram are being used to demo the normal distribution of informations.
Table 4.12: Trials of Normality
Kolmogorov-Smirnova
Shapiro-Wilk
Statistic
df
Sig.
Statistic
df
Sig.
Standardized Residual
.055
203
.200*
.988
203
.091
a. Lilliefors Significance Correction
* . This is a lower edge of the true significance.
Beginning: Developed for the research
This research uses 203 study questionnaires which the sample size is more than 100. Therefore, Kolmogorov-Smirnov ‘s trial is usage for proving the normalcy as it is used to analyze larger sample size ( n & gt ; 100 ) . Based on the Table 4.12, the important value of Kolmogorov-Smirnov ‘s trial is equal to 0.200, which is more than 0.05. Thence, as the normalcy premise is achieved, the informations can be assumed to be usually distributed.
Besides, based on the Appendix D, the histogram with normal distribution curve of trade name trueness demoing a sensible bell-shaped and therefore the informations can be assumed to be usually distributed.
In add-on, from the Appendix E, the normal chance secret plan of trade name prevarications near to the fanciful heterosexual line which is lifting from the lower-left corner to the upper right corner and demo a upward incline of the graph. This can connote that the informations can be assumed to be usually distributed.
4.2.3 Multicollinearty Test
Based on the Table 4.14, the correlativity coefficient between IVs were 0.581 for CP and JSM, 0.496 for CP and AD, 0.528 for CP and W, 0.604 for JSM and AD, 0.612 for JSM and W, and 0.657 for AD and W. Therefore, these correlativity coefficients are high between IVs but there is no multicollinearity job since they are all less than 0.8 in this research ( Field, 2005 ) .
Furthermore, harmonizing to Table 4.13 the tolerance and VIF value for CP ( 0.606 1.650 ) , JSM ( 0.493 2.029 ) , AD ( .497 2.013 ) and W ( .478 2.094 ) are more than 0.1 and less than 10 severally in the multicollinearity statistics. Hence, multicollinearity job do non show in this research ( Hair et al. , 1992 ) .
Table 4.13: Multicollinearity
Model
Collinearity Statisticss
Tolerance
VIF
CP_Average
.606
1.650
JSM_Average
.493
2.029
AD_Average
.497
2.013
W_Average
.478
2.094
Beginning: Developed for the research
4.3 Inferential Analysis
4.3.1 Pearson ‘s Correlation Analysis
Table 4.14: Pearson ‘s Correlation Analysis
CP
JSM
Ad
Tungsten
Joule
Commsion Pay ( CP )
1
Job Security ( JSM )
.581**
1
Opportunities for Advancement and Development ( AD )
.496**
.604**
1
Work Itself ( W )
.528**
.612**
.657**
1
Job Satisfaction ( JS )
.557**
.659**
.674**
.836**
1
** . Correlation is important at the 0.01 degree ( 2-tailed ) .
Beginning: Developed for the research
By implementing Pearson Correlation Coefficient, Table 4.14 illustrates the consequences of the correlativity analysis of the four independent variables ( CP, JSM, AD and W ) and one dependant variable ( JS ) .
The consequence from Table 4.14 shows that p-value of committee wage is 0.000 which is less than the significance value 0.01 degree ( 2-tailed ) and the R value is 0.557. Therefore, the analysis consequence concludes that committee wage is moderate positive correlated with occupation satisfaction.
For occupation security variable, the p-value is 0.000 which is lower than the significance value 0.01 degree ( 2-tailed ) and the R value is 0.659 which indicates there is moderate positive relationship between occupation security and occupation satisfaction.
In the Table 4.14, the p-value of chances for promotion and development is 0.000 ( P & lt ; 0.01 ) and the R value is 0.674. Hence, the chance for promotion and development is moderate positive correlated with occupation satisfaction.
As shown in the Table 4.14, the p-value of work itself is 0.00 which is lower than the significance value 0.01 degree ( 2-tailed ) and the R value is 0.836. As a consequence, the work itself has high positive relationship with occupation satisfaction.
4.3.2 Multiple Regression Analysis
Table 4.15: Multiple Regression Analysis
Independent Variables
Unstandardized
Coefficients
Standardized
Coefficients
t-value
Sig.
Bacillus
Beta
Changeless
.350
2.069
.040
Commission Pay
.069
.074
1.610
.109
Job Security
.158
.160
3.154
.002
Opportunities for Advancement and Development
.130
.143
2.834
.005
Work Itself
.562
.605
11.724
.000
R2
.748
Adjusted R2
.743
F
147.264**
Beginning: Developed for the research
From table 4.15 above, shows that the correlativity coefficient, R= 0.864, means that there is a positive correlativity between the four independent variables and dependent variable. The value of R Square is 0.748 which indicates that 74.8 % of the discrepancy in the dependant variable ( occupation satisfaction ) is explained by the 4 independent variables ( committee wage, occupation security, chances for promotion and development, and work itself ) . However, it is still leaves 25.2 % of occupation satisfaction is explained by other factors in this survey.
Furthermore, harmonizing to table above, p-value ( Sig. 0.000 ) is less than alpha value 0.05, therefore, the F- statistic which equals to 147.204 is important. That mean this theoretical account is a good form for the relation between the residuary and forecasters. Therefore, the independent variables ( committee wage, occupation security, chances for promotion and development, and work itself ) are significantly explicating the discrepancy in the occupation satisfaction among insurance agents. Since the p-value is less than 0.05 and is in the cull part which H0 is rejected.
Harmonizing to Table 4.15, occupation security ( p=0.002 ) , chances for promotion and development ( p= 0.005 ) , work itself ( p & lt ; 0.001 ) are important to foretell the dependant variable ( occupation satisfaction ) in this survey because their p-values ( Sig. ) are less than alpha value 0.05. From the multiple arrested development analysis, occupation security, chances for promotion and development and work itself are the of import motive factors that affect the occupation satisfaction among insurance agents in Malaysia. Among these IVs, work itself is the strongest determiner. However, the independent variable ( committee wage ) is non significantly foretelling the dependant variable ( occupation satisfaction ) . This is because committee wage ( p=0.109 ) is more than the alpha value 0.05.
Therefore, a multiple additive arrested development is formed by utilizing the information from the column headed “ B ” shown in the tabular array 4.15 above. The arrested development equation is as below:
Job satisfaction = 0.350 + 0.069 committee wage + 0.158 occupation security + 0.130 chances for promotion and development + 0.562 work itself
4.4 Decision
Three independent variables ( occupation security, chances for promotion and development and work itself ) for this research are found to hold important relationship with the independent variable ( occupation satisfaction ) . However, the independent variable ( committee wage ) is non important relationship with the dependant variable ( occupation satisfaction ) . Consequences of the analysis and back uping grounds for the consequences are being discussed in the undermentioned chapter.

Categories
Accounting

Study Of Demographic Profile Of The Respondents Accounting Essay

In this chapter, the consequence is obtained through the information aggregation method from 300 questionnaires. The information obtained from questionnaires is analyzed and computed by utilizing the Statistical Package societal Science ( SPSS ) package. Tables and charts will be exhibited to show the consequences in an apprehensible mode. This chapter started off with the descriptive analysis of the respondent demographic profile and cardinal inclinations measuring concepts. Next, scale measuring is to supply the consequences of a dependability trial. This is followed by the illative analysis with the Pearson correlativity coefficient analysis and multiple additives arrested development analysis. The last is to reason for this chapter.
4.1 Descriptive Analysis
4.1.1 Demographic Profile of the Respondents

 

Valid

Male
Female
Entire

105
98
203

51.7
48.3
100.0

51.7
48.3
100.0

51.7
100.0
100.0

Beginning: Developed for the research
Age

Valid
Under 21 old ages
21-30 old ages
31-40 old ages
41-50 old ages
51 old ages above
Entire

Frequency
5
67
54
31
46
203

Percentage
2.5
33.0
26.6
15.3
22.7
100.0

Valid Percentage
2.5
33.0
26.6
15.3
22.7
100.0

Accumulative Percentage
2.5
35.5
62.1
77.3
100.0
100.0

Beginning: Developed for the research
Marital Status

Valid
Single
Married
Entire

Frequency
73
130
203

Percentage
36.0
64.0
100.0

Valid Percentage
36.0
64.0
100.0

Accumulative Percentage
36.0
100.0
100.0

Education Degree

Valid
Primary instruction
Secondary instruction
Certificate / Diploma
Bachelor’s grade
Master’s grade
Entire

Frequency
8
77
80
33
5
203

Percentage
3.9
37.9
39.4
16.3
2.5
100.0

Valid Percentage
3.9
37.9
39.4
16.3
2.5
100.0

Accumulative Percentage
3.9
41.9
81.3
97.5
100.0
100.0

Beginning: Developed for the research
Showed the frequency and per centum of the instruction degree of respondents. From the information above, the bulk of 80 respondents held a certification or sheepskin ( 39.4 % ). The 2nd and 3rd largest groups were 77 respondents who had completed the secondary instruction ( 37.9 % ) and 33 respondents who held an unmarried man grade ( 16.3 % ). Last, the respondents who had completed the primary instruction and which is a maestro grade holders were 8 people ( 3.9 % ) and 5 people ( 2.5 % ) severally.
Working Time period

Valid
Less than 1 twelvemonth
1-5 old ages
6-10 old ages
11-15 old ages
16-20 old ages
Above 20 old ages
Entire

Frequency
23
63
48
25
19
25
203

Percentage
11.3
31.0
23.6
12.3
9.4
12.3
100.0

Valid Percentage
11.3
31.0
23.6
12.3
9.4
12.3
100.0

Accumulative Percentage
11.3
42.4
66.0
78.3
87.7
100.0
100.0

Beginning: Developed for the research
Represented the frequency and per centum of the on the job period of respondents. The respondents were divided into six classes. 23 respondents worked as an insurance agent for less than one twelvemonth ( 11.3 % ) , 63 respondents worked for 1 to 5 old ages ( 31.0 % ) , 48 respondents worked for 6 to 10 old ages ( 23.6 % ) , 25 respondents worked for 11 to 15 old ages ( 12.3 % ) , 19 respondents worked for 16 to 20 old ages ( 9.4 % ) and 25 respondents worked as an insurance agent above 20 old ages ( 12.3 % ) .
4.1.2 Cardinal Tendencies Measurement of Constructs
4.1.2.1 Commission Pay

No.
Statement
Mean
Standard Deviation
CP1
I think the committee wage is a really of import incentive for me.
4.3448
0.75078
CP2
I am motivated by the committee wage to seek my best attempts at work.
4.2562
0.73350
CP3
My occupation public presentation determines the extra committee wage when achieving a higher mark.
4.2808
0.81141
CP4
I will retain the occupation because I am satisfied with the committee wage.
4.0985
0.85025
CP5
I work hard is to acquire a better committee wage in this occupation.
4.3005
0.78561

Beginning: Developed for the research
Illustrated the cardinal inclinations measurements of committee wage. Mentioning to the tabular array above, most respondents agreed to the CP1 with an average value of 4.3448. The 2nd highest was CP5 with an average value of 4.3005. The 3rd and 4th highest was CP3 and CP2 which had an average value of 4.2808 and 4.2562 severally. The lowest average value was CP4 which was 4.0985. From the tabular array above, CP4 had the highest standard divergence value which was 0.85025. The 2nd and 3rd highest standard divergence values were CP3 and CP5 which had 0.81141 and 0.78561 severally. The 4th highest standard divergence was CP1 with a value of 0.75078. The lowest standard divergence value was 0.73350 by CP2.
4.1.2.2 Job Security

No.
Statement
Mean
Standard Deviation
JSM1
I think occupation security is another important incentive for me.
4.1232
0.68188
JSM2
I am motivated by the good occupation security in current occupation.
3.9852
0.74779
JSM3
I feel my current occupation is unafraid, dependable and lasting.
3.9951
0.82951
JSM4
My occupation public presentation is influenced by the occupation security.
4.0000
0.79603
JSM5
I work hard is because I ‘m afraid to lose this stable occupation.
3.7143
1.00845

Beginning: Developed for the research
Illustrated the cardinal inclinations measurements of occupation security. The consequence from the tabular array above, JSM1 had the highest average value of 4.1232. The 2nd highest average value was JSM4 which was 4.000. The 3rd highest was JSM3 with the average value of 3.9951 which was followed by JSM2 which had a average value of 3.9852. The JSM5 had the lowest average value of 3.7143. Harmonizing to the Table 4.7, the JSM5 had the highest standard divergence value of 1.00845. The 2nd highest standard divergence value was JSM3 which was 0.82951. The 3rd highest was JSM4 with the standard divergence value of 0.79603 which was followed by JSM2 which had a standard divergence value of 0.74779. The lowest standard divergence value was JSM1 which was merely 0.68188.
4.1.2.3 Opportunities for Advancement and Development

No.
Statement
Mean
Standard Deviation
AD1
I think the chances for promotion and development is another of import incentive for me.
4.1034
0.79238
AD2
I am motivated by chances for promotion and development in current occupation.
4.0443
0.75321
AD3
I have more chances for promotion and development in the current occupation if I retain the occupation for a longer period of clip.
4.0936
0.78734
AD4
I have more chances to direct for preparation, learn accomplishment and developing myself in current occupation.
4.1084
0.81330
AD5
I work hard is to acquire more chances for promotion and development in this occupation.
4.1675
0.74563

Beginning: Developed for the research
Table 4.8 illustrated the cardinal inclinations measurements of chances for promotion and development. In the term of average value, AD5 had the highest mean of 4.1675. Second, it is followed by AD4 of 4.1084, AD1 of 4.1034, and AD3 of 4.0936. The AD2 had the lowest average value of 4.0443.
4.1.2.4 Work Itself

No.
Statement
Mean
Standard Deviation
W1
I have more independent when I ‘m working.
4.1724
0.78654
W2
I have more assurance to accomplish the mark of the occupation.
4.2217
0.75461
W3
I am willing to work hard with current occupation.
4.2069
0.72886
W4
I am unwilling to alter another occupation even if I get other occupations elsewhere.
3.8227
0.98909
W5
I think my ability can execute well in my current occupation.
4.1527
0.75211
W6
I am proud to work with the current occupation.
4.2020
0.77944

Beginning: Developed for the research
Illustrated the cardinal inclinations measurements of the work itself. Based on the tabular array, W2 had the highest average value of 4.2217. The 2nd highest was W3 that had 4.2069 of average value. The 3rd highest was the W6 that had 4.2020 of mean value which was followed by, the W1 and W5 which had the average value of 4.1724 and 4.1527 severally. The W4 had the lowest average value was 3.8227. In the tabular array above, the highest standard divergence value was 0.98909 by the W4. The 2nd highest standard divergence value was W1 which was 0.78654. The 3rd highest standard divergence value was the W6 that had 0.77944 which was followed by, the W2 and W5 which had the standard divergence value of 0.75461 and 0.75211 severally. The lowest standard divergence value was W3 which was 0.72886.
4.1.2.5 Job Satisfaction

No.
Statement
Mean
Standard Deviation
JS1
In general, I am satisfied with my occupation.
4.1330
0.74265
JS2
I am satisfied with the flexibleness of the job hours in the current occupation.
4.3054
0.68601
JS3
I am satisfied with the committee wage strategy in the current occupation.
4.0394
0.78250
JS4
I will retain the occupation because I am satisfied with the occupation security.
4.0148
0.74779
JS5
I am satisfied with the accomplishment in current occupation.
4.0591
0.78125
JS6
I am happy with the manner my co-workers and higher-ups treat me.
4.0936
0.79982
JS7
I have truly enjoyed my occupation.
4.2266
0.81925

Beginning: Developed for the research
Harmonizing to Table 4.10, it illustrated the cardinal inclinations measurements of occupation satisfaction. Based on the tabular array, most respondents agreed to the JS2 with an average value of 4.3054. The 2nd highest was JS7 that had a 4.2266 of the average value. The 3rd and 4th highest average value was JS1 and JS6 which is 4.1330 and 4.0936 severally. The 5th highest was JS5 with the average value of 4.0591 which was followed by JS3 which had an average value of 4.0394. The lowest average value was the JS4 which was merely 4.0148. In the term of standard divergence value, JS7 had the highest standard divergence of 0.81925. Following, it is followed by JS6 of 0.79982, JS3 of 0.78250, JS5 of 0.78125, and JS4 of 0.74779. The two lowest standard divergence values were JS1 of 0.74265 and JS2 of 0.68601.
4.2 Scale Measurement
4.2.1 Internal Reliability Test

Variable
Cronbach ‘s Alpha
N of Items
CP
0.881
5
JSM
0.805
5
Ad
0.911
5
Tungsten
0.899
6
Joule
0.901
7

Beginning: Developed for the research
The dependability trial is testing the consistency and truth of the IVs and DV which the credence degree of Cronbach’s alpha more than 0.70. The highest Cronbach’s alpha is chances for promotion and development standing at 0.911. The 2nd highest is occupation satisfaction which the Cronbach’s alpha is 0.901 followed by committee wage and work itself which the Cronbach’s alpha is 0.899 and 0.881. The lowest Cronbach’s alpha is occupation security standing at 0.805. From the consequence, overall the Cronbach’s alpha for all variables is more than 0.70. Therefore, the questionnaire in this research is dependability and consistency.
4.2.2 Normality Test
The trial of normalcy, histogram with a normal curve, P-P secret plan, and spread secret plan diagram is being used to demo the normal distribution of information.

Kolmogorov-Smirnova
Shapiro-Wilk
Statistic
df
Sig.
Statistic
df
Sig.
Standardized Residual
.055
203
.200*
.988
203
.091

Lilliefors Significance Correction. This is a lower edge of true significance.
Beginning: Developed for the research
This research uses 203 study questionnaires in which the sample size is more than 50. Therefore, Kolmogorov-Smirnov’s trial is useful for proving the normalcy as it is used to analyze a larger sample size. Besides, based on Appendix G, the histogram with normal distribution curve of trade name trueness demoing a sensible bell-shaped, and therefore the information can be assumed to be usually distributed. In add-on, from Appendix F, the normal chance secret plan of trade name prevarications near to the fanciful heterosexual line which is lifting from the lower-left corner to the upper right corner and demo an upward incline of the graph. This can connote that the information can be assumed to be usually distributed.
4.2.3 Multicollinearity Test
Based on the Table 4.14, the correlativity coefficient between IVs were 0.581 for CP and JSM, 0.496 for CP and AD, 0.528 for CP and W, 0.604 for JSM and AD, 0.612 for JSM and W, and 0.657 for AD and W. Therefore, these correlativity coefficients are high between IVs but there is no multicollinearity job since they are all less than 0.8 in this research. The tolerance and VIF value for CP ( 0.606 1.650 ) , JSM ( 0.493 2.029 ) , AD ( .497 2.013 ) and W ( .478 2.094 ) are more than 0.1 and less than 10 severally in the multicollinearity statistics. Hence, multicollinearity jobs do not show in this research.

Model
Collinearity Statistics
Tolerance
VIP
CP_Average
.606
1.650
JSM_Average
.493
2.029
AD_Average
.497
2.013
W_Average
478
2.094

Beginning: Developed for the research
4.3 Inferential Analysis
4.3.1 Pearson’s Correlation Analysis

CP
JSM
Ad
Tungsten
Joule
Commission Pay ( CP )
1
Job Security ( JSM )
.581**
1
Opportunities for Advancement and Development ( AD )
.496**
.604**
1
Work Itself ( W )
.528**
.612**
657**
1
Job Satisfaction ( JS )
.557**
.659**
.674**
.836**
1
Correlation is important at a 0.01 degree ( 2-tailed ).

Beginning: Developed for the research
By implementing the Pearson Correlation Coefficient,  illustrates the consequences of the correlativity analysis of the four independent variables ( CP, JSM, AD, and W ) and one dependant variable ( JS ). For the occupation security variable, the p-value is 0.000 which is lower than the significance value 0.01 degree ( 2-tailed ) and the R-value is 0.659 which indicates there is a moderate positive relationship between occupation security and occupation satisfaction. The p-value of chances for promotion and development is 0.000  and the R-value is 0.674. Hence, the chance for promotion and development is moderate positively correlated with occupation satisfaction. The p-value of work itself is 0.00 which is lower than the significance value 0.01 degree ( 2-tailed ) and the R-value is 0.836. As a consequence, the work itself has a high positive relationship with occupation satisfaction.
4.3.2 Multiple Regression Analysis

Independent Variables
Unstandardized
Coefficients
Standardized
Coefficients
t-value
Sig.
Bacillus
Beta
Changeless
.350
2.069
.040
Commission Pay
.069
.074
1.610
.109
Job Security
.158
.160
3.154
.002
Opportunities for Advancement and Development
.130
.143
2.834
.005
Work Itself
.562
.605
11.724
.000
R2
.748
Adjusted R2
.743
F
147.264

Beginning: Developed for the research
From table 4.15 above, shows that the correlativity coefficient, R= 0.864, means that there is a positive correlativity between the four independent variables and the dependent variable. The value of R Square is 0.748 which indicates that 74.8 % of the discrepancy in the dependant variable ( occupation satisfaction ) is explained by the 4 independent variables ( committee wage, occupation security, chances for promotion and development, and work itself ). However, it is still left 25.2 % of occupation satisfaction is explained by other factors in this survey. Furthermore, harmonizing to the table above, the p-value ( Sig. 0.000 ) is less than the alpha value 0.05, therefore, the F- a statistic which equals 147.204 is important. That means this theoretical account is a good form of the relation between the residuary and forecasters. Therefore, the independent variables ( committee wage, occupation security, chances for promotion and development, and work itself ) are significantly explicating the discrepancy in the occupation satisfaction among insurance agents. Since the p-value is less than 0.05 and is in the cull part which H0 is rejected.
Harmonizing to Table 4.15, occupation security ( p=0.002 ), chances for promotion and development ( p= 0.005 ), work itself are important to foretell the dependant variable ( occupation satisfaction ) in this survey because their p-values ( Sig. ) are less than the alpha value 0.05. From the multiple arrested development analysis, occupation security, chances for promotion and development, and work itself are the of import motive factors that affect the occupation satisfaction among insurance agents in Malaysia. Among these IVs, work itself is the strongest determiner. However, the independent variable ( committee wage ) is non significantly foretelling the dependant variable ( occupation satisfaction ). This is because the committee wage ( p=0.109 ) is more than the alpha value 0.05.
The arrested development equation is as below:
Job satisfaction = 0.350 + 0.069 committee wage + 0.158 occupation security + 0.130 chances for promotion and development + 0.562 work itself
4.4 Decision
Three independent variables ( occupation security, chances for promotion and development, and work itself ) for this research are found to hold an important relationship with the independent variable ( occupation satisfaction ). However, the independent variable ( committee wage ) is a non important relationship with the dependant variable ( occupation satisfaction ). The consequences of the analysis and back using grounds for the consequences are being discussed in the undermentioned chapter.

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Accounting

Memo Accounting Department

Per your memo dated February 12th regarding the company smoking ban I have instituted a mediation committee in the Accounting Department consisting of Joe Jones, Jane Doe and Herbert Hoover. However, since the new policy went into effect last Monday, the committee has received numerous complaints of non-compliance in the men’s rest room on our floor that they are unable to effectively address.
The Accounting Department’s Mediation Committee has had no effect in enforcing the new smoking ban; in fact many of the other employees are making comments to the effect that the committee is overstepping its bounds by attempting to control the problem in the rest room.
Similar article: Teambuilding Memo Examples

There are nine smokers of the 27 male staff members on our floor. Those who are complying with the new policy now must step outside for a smoke break and much time is being lost while they are away from their desks. They are dissatisfied by the lack of shelter when it is raining or snowing outside and this is leading to a loss of morale in the smoking staff members. As well, the smokers tend to congregate immediately outside the main entrance to the building and this is unacceptable for our clients and visitors to witness.
There appears to be no easy solution to this problem. My Mediation Committee is quite frustrated by their lack of authority to solve the issues being presented to them. There may need to be an addendum to the smoking ban which addresses acceptable policy during the staff’s normal work shift.
I would be happy to set up a convenient time for you to visit with the mediation committee, the floor staff and myself before the end of this week in my department. Perhaps together we can all come up with a suitable solution – please advise me of your availability.
I appreciate your help with this matter.

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Accounting

Accounting Software Installation Project

The Accounting Software Installation Project (from Larson, E. E. , and Gray, C. F. , 2011 Project Management – the managerial process, fifth edition p441) Sitting in her office, Karin Chung is reviewing the past four months of the large corporate accounting software installation project she has been managing. Everything seemed so well planned before the project started. Each company division had a task force that provided input into the proposed installation along with potential problems. All the different divisions had been trained and briefed on exactly how their division would interface and use the forthcoming accounting software.
All six contractors, which included one of the Big Five consulting companies, assisted in developing the work breakdown structure—costs, specifications, time. Karin hired a consultant to conduct a one-day “partnering” workshop attended by the major accounting heads, a member of each task force group, and key representatives from each of the contractors. During the workshop, several different team-building exercises were used to illustrate the importance of collaboration and effective communication. Everyone laughed when Karin fell into an imaginary acid pit during a human bridge-building exercise.
The workshop ended on an upbeat note with everyone signing a partnering charter that expressed their commitment to working together as partners to complete the project. TWO MONTHS LATER One task force member came to Karin to complain that the contractor dealing with billing would not listen to his concerns about problems that could occur in the Virginia division when billings are consolidated. The contractor had told him, the task force member, he had bigger problems than consolidation of billing in the Virginia division.

Karin replied, “You can settle the problem with the contractor. Go to him and explain how serious your problem is and that it will have to be settled before the project is completed. ” Later in the week in the lunchroom she overheard one consulting contractor bad-mouthing the work of another—“never on time, interface coding not tested. ” In the hallway the same day an accounting department supervisor told her that tests showed the new software will never be compatible with the Georgia division’s accounting practices.
While concerned, Karin considered these problems typical of the kind she had encountered on other smaller software projects. Case FOUR MONTHS LATER The project seemed to be falling apart. What happened to the positive attitude fostered at the team-building workshop? One contractor wrote a formal letter complaining that another contractor was sitting on a coding decision that was delaying their work. The letter went on: “We cannot be held responsible or liable for delays caused by others. The project was already two months behind, so problems were becoming very real and serious. Karin finally decided to call a meeting of all parties to the project and partnering agreement. She began by asking for problems people were encountering while working on the project. Although participants were reluctant to be first for fear of being perceived as a complainer, it was not long before accusations and tempers flared out of control. It was always some group complaining about another group.
Several participants complained that others were sitting on decisions that resulted in their work being held up. One consultant said, “It is impossible to tell who’s in charge of what. ” Another participant complained that although the group met separately on small problems, it never met as a total group to assess new risk situations that developed. Karin felt the meeting had degenerated into an unrecoverable situation. Commitment to the project and partnering appeared to be waning. She quickly decided to stop the meeting and cool things down.
She spoke to the project stakeholders: “It is clear that we have some serious problems, and the project is in jeopardy. The project must get back on track, and the backbiting must stop. I want each of us to come to a meeting Friday morning with concrete suggestions of what it will take to get the project back on track and specific actions of how we can make it happen. We need to recognize our mutual interdependence and bring our relationships with each other back to a win/win environment. When we do get things back on track, we need to figure out how to stay on track. ”