Ginger Ginger is a knotted, thick, beige underground stem (rhizome). The stem extends roughly 12 Inches above ground with long, narrow, ribbed, green leaves, and white or yellowish-green flowers. The Important active components of the ginger root are thought to be volatile oils and pungent phenol compounds (such as gingerers and gasohol). 1. 1 Parasitological examination of stool specimen This Is the examination of intestinal parasites. This aspect of the training was designed to Introduce students to the area of Woolgathering.
Helmets refer to arms and can be divided to 3 groups: a. Nematodes-Round & segmented b. Custodies-Flat & segmented c. Dermatomes-Flat & engorgement’s. During the collection of stool sample, samples to be examined must be freshly passed. The first test carried out on samples is the macroscopic test which involves the use of the unaided eye to see basic morphological features Including the presence of blood or mucus. The next step Is the microscopic test which Involves two steps: 1 Direct wet preparation 2. Concentration techniques. The procedure of the direct wet preparation is as follows: A drop of normal saline is deed to a clean, grease free slide using a Pasteur pipette. With a swab stick, a tiny quantity of the stool specimen Is collected and placed on the slide containing the normal saline, and Is emulsified with it. After emulsification, the slide Is covered with a cover slip and allowed to stand for 30 seconds to a minute and examined under a microscope using both low and high magnifications(ex. and ex.).
It was noticed that the number of parasite eggs determine the degree of infectious parasite that could result. Concentration of the stool specimen allows for easy viewing of hidden micro organisms. Its advantage over the direct wet preparation Is that In cases of light infections, the causative agents can still be viewed and detected. Concentration can be carried out either using brine, or 10% formaldehyde ether. Summarily, brine concentration is a floatation technique employing the use of density.
Some substances will float and stick to the cover slip and will be examined, while 10% formaldehyde ether is a sedimentation technique, where the substance desired to be examined descends to the bottom of a tube after centrifugation. The stain used for 1 . AAA Collection and examination of blood specimen This involves in the collection and examination of blood samples. Collection can occur through either finger prick using a sterile lancet-when little quantity is required, or vein puncture using a syringe-when a relatively larger quantity is required.
After collection, preparation for microscopic examination follows, and this could be done by direct wet preparation, thin film or thick film methods. The direct wet preparation is carried out as follows: With a Pasteur pipette, 2 drops of blood is placed on a clean, grease-free slide and covered with a coveralls and allowed to stand for seconds to minute, and then viewed under a microscope using low and high magnifications. Note that the standing is for easy identification of motile parasites.
In the thin film preparation, a drop of blood is placed on a clean glass slide, CM from the edge (for labeling). Use another slide, inclined at 30-450 as a spreader. (Allowing the blood to spread within the width of the spreader before pushing forward to obtain a monolayer. ) When the thick film method is employed, 2 drops of blood is placed at the centre of a clean slide, and using the edge of another slide, spread the sample in n anti clockwise manner until a diameter of 1 centimeter is obtained. 1. B Staining techniques Staining is employed only when thin or thick layer preparations are used.
Stains include: Wright stain, Leaching stain, Ageism and Field stains. It should be noted that Leaching stain is used for only thin films, while Ageism stain is used for both thick and thin film preparations. 1. C Blood group determination Three antiserum- A, B and D are used to determine the possible blood grouping of a given blood sample. 3 drops of the blood sample is placed on a clean slide. A drop of entities A, B, and D are placed on drops 1, 2 and 3 respectively and the agglutination of any of the spots determine the blood grouping.
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