1. Understanding the links and differences between management and leadership 1. 1 Discuss the concept of leaders as effective managers Leadership and management go hand in hand but is not the same thing, but are linked and compliment each other. There has been debate about the difference between leadership and management. With some believing there is no distinction, while others that they should be separated in two defined roles. A common definition is: Management is about the day to day running of a function and getting the right people and resources in the right place with a focus upon implementation.
Leadership is about creating a vision for that function and gaining peoples commitment by strategic direction. (NHSBT 5013 Workshop booklet) Effective management deals with resources, finances, time management and the coordination and control over these elements. Managers set goals and focus on reaching their targets. Have good organizational skills and will place people in roles to get the job the task complete. Have detailed planning taking into account adverse events that could prevent them completing task or achieving target. If the outcome gives worse results than expected an effective manager will look to provide a solution.
Effective leadership deals with the people their opinions, behaviour and attitude. They will inspire and engage people to follow them and vision. Focus is on building relationships with people around them, can be an effective part of team and lead it at the same. Effective leaders teach others, learn themselves and are able to admit mistakes righting wrongs and apologising quickly. They can adapt to issues and problems if they arise, confronting reality and issues head on. Leaders will develop trust and subsequently is able to practise accountability, holding themselves and others accountable along with responsibility for results.
How managers and leaders motivate their people to work or follow them is one of the main differences. By definition managers have subordinates and have a transactional style. The manager telling them what to do and with reward staff will do as asked. Where as leaders have followers, and following is voluntary. Managers plan details, focus on objectives, targets and managing the work. Manager tells and looks for and wants results, leader sells the idea or vision looking for achievement. With managers result focused, short term results can be high.
However longer term, without development, motivated and inspired staff there will be a lack of innovation. Ultimately the team or organisation will be static and their performance will never excel. An example of this from NHSBT: 2008 new systems and processes were implemented with limited input from users (shop floor). Results improved for a short term. However there was no continuous improvement, development, innovation or feeling of ownership. Staff and donor (customer) satisfaction, motivation dropped with targets and objectives not reached.
Alternatively without a management style or focus, day to day performance and results can suffer with only longer term vision strategy focused upon. 1. 2 Discuss the concept of leaders as effective managers Leadership fundamentals: •Have a clear vision or purpose of the future •Lead through the change to reach that vision •Shows commitment, loyalty and enthusiasm for the organisation. And is able to generate these same qualities in their people. •Listens to their people •Empowers staff and creates confidence for them to perform their role but also for them to explore how to perform better.
Majority of leaders in organisations are also in managerial roles. Having an understanding and being able to perform aspects of both roles can be advantageous as managers and supervisors need leadership abilities. Managerial style is good for task achievement, setting goals, focusing on the processes. For this reason, managers to be successful leaders would have to develop a style that is not natural for them. Moving from transactional to situational style, using supportive behaviour, knowing the team and staff motivators.
If managers cannot adapt a leadership style when required then staff will become unengaged and have low morale. Not recognising their own role in the organisation or the vision of organisation and where it wants to be. Managers are often seen as risk-averse and opportunities can be missed. Leaders will not rule out opportunities because of barriers and will consider risks to overcome these barriers and get things done. It is seen as easier to acquire managerial skills as they are based on processes and real situations that can be seen. Leadership skills require development of personal qualities which can be hard to quantify.
An effective manager is respected for the role they play but an effective leader is often remembered long after they or their people are no longer in their roles. 1. 3 Evaluate the balance needed between the demands of management and the demands of leadership. Have a clear focus on vision and aims. Understand where the organisation/team is and wants to be. Evaluate what needs to change i. e. NHSBT efficiency with cost of blood unit to hospitals need to be reduced. Could the change be in the culture of the team or of the organisation? Analysis if the organisation, team or people are currently in the position to adapt to change.
Do they have the commitment, motivation and drive. PESTLE analysis is a tool that can be used to help evaluate the demands of management and leadership needed for the organisation. Help to make decisions and understand the wider environment in which they operate. By understanding these environments it is possible maximise opportunities and minimise risks. PESTLE stands for – Political, Economic, Sociological, Technological, Legal, and Environmental. Using this tool as part of decision making process helps to evaluate styles required, for example: Persuasion – Tell or Sell Commitment or Control
Proactive or Reactive Approach – Sets direction or plans details Achievement or results Knowing yourself, people, organisation and factors that influence the task, team or individual will enable the correct balance to be made. An organisation requires both effective management and effective leadership to be successful, this can be difficult to find, but these attributes can sometimes be found in the same person. 2. Understand leadership principles that support organisational values. 2. 1Evaluate the role of the leader in contributing to the creation of the organisation’s vision, and in its communication to others.
A leader has a vision or has same beliefs in meeting the organisations vision. Has the drive and commitment to move their vision forward despite often encountering barriers. Has integrity and inspires trust in that their people follow as they believe it is the right thing to do. A leader innovates, develops, positively encouraging people to do it right and better. Leader will understand and be clear on the vision. Understands where organisation and people are. Considers capabilities and realism, especially with resources such as people time and finances.
Leader can use Situational Leadership style (Hersey and Blanchard Situational Leadership model), developing people or organisation through stages depending on starting point and maturity (S1 immature through to S4 maturity). (Hersey and Blanchard Situational Leadership model), S1 – Directing telling S2 – Selling S3 – Participating S4 – Delegating Communicating the vision, the leader will enthuse their people to work towards the goal. Will listen and consult, conveying their ideas, but also encouraging ideas and innovation. Review and revise if required on a regular basis to check understanding.
Will tailor communications and actions as they understand people and their motivators. Motivate all to contribute, encourage and support to achieve their best and deliver results with continuous improvement. 2. 2Evaluate how personal energy, self –belief and commitment impact on leadership styles Personal energy – Channelled correctly into motivating and being enthusiastic about the vision. Can lead by example with this positive energy. Energy helps with the inner drive to reach goals and a determination to overcome barriers. If not channelled correctly can be seen as stressful (nervous energy).
Balance required so the leader can be seen as driven but calm and considered, evaluating and listening to staff. Personal energy, commitment and self belief enable leaders to tackle issues that others may not see or want to tackle themselves. Self belief, commitment and inner drive gives and shows the strength and perseverance that they will and can move vision forward. Communicate this self belief so people follow because they believe it is the right thing to do and not ego driven. Self belief needs to show confidence in self and organisation but with humility so not seen as arrogance without chance of compromise or willingness to listen.
Self belief often shows an honesty, allowing people to see where the leaders stands. Commitment and resilience to persevere, commitment should be realistic but unrelenting. Keep commitments, say what you are are going to do, then do what you have said will be done. Self belief and commitment allows a leader to be own person and to do the right thing. A leader will also encourage their people to be their self, develop self and their ideas. 2. 3Identify how empowerment and trust through ethical leadership impact on organisational practice.
Ethical leadership – organisation to balance its vision/purpose with needs and feelings of staff, customers, suppliers, stakeholders and local communities. Responsibility for environment be it through sustainability, wildlife, natural resources, culture, heritage, fair trade. Acting with and showing integrity and transparency. Organisation needs to consult with these groups, giving them influence and empowerment in direction of organisation. Modern times, society and opinion has changed where public not only demand a high quality service but also ethical principles.
Leaders, along with traditional business aims, need to create a framework of trust to the general public. Organisations cannot be seen as disreputable (i. e. , banking crisis), unfair to suppliers, lack of care or responsibility to staff. Leaders need to understand altruistic reasons – we do good things, so to shop or use our services is a good thing. This understanding helps to shape policies and strategy. Leaders should demonstrate respect, care and show that they care for others (be they staff, customers, suppliers or other stakeholders). Showing dignity to people and all roles.
Ethical leadership can create transparency for an organisation, telling the truth in a way so people can easily understand and nurture a culture of being open and authentic. 3. Be able to understand and apply leadership styles to achieve organisational objectives. 3. 1 Distinguish between two different leadership styles The approach using Hersey and Blanchard (as seen in 2. 1) situational leadership styles model, is that there are four main leadership styles: •Directing •Coaching •Supporting •Delegating Situational leadership is choosing the right style for the right people.
Not just using one style but changing to suit maturity of people and team and the situation. Directing (Telling) Style This is generally one-way communication from the leader. Telling exactly what is to be done by individuals, how to do it , where to do it and why they should do it. This style centres on getting the task done. Delegating The leader is still involved with decisions, but responsibilities and processes are handed to team and individuals. The leader will monitor and evaluate progress. Style centres on the people/team and development to work independently.
Both styles are effective in used in the correct situation and with the right people: Directing style is often used with new staff or teams, they may lack all skills required and are unable to take responsibility for the task. However they are willing and enthusiastic to work at task. Delegating – As people or team become experienced and able to do the task. They become comfortable in their own ability to perform role well. They are then also able to take responsibility for this task. 3. 2 Assess the practical value of a leadership style to a manager in chieving organisational objectives Leadership style has a direct impact on organisation and its success. Leaders shape the culture, values and motivation within organisation. A leader does not have to be at the top of the organisation with leadership styles and qualities able to seen throughout. Successful leaders no matter what level all have one thing in common. They influence those around them to gain maximum benefits from their resources. Important not to limit or restrict leadership style, being able to adapt styles to where your staff, team, organisation are, is key. 60 feedback is an excellent tool to help understand where you are and any development needs they may want to strengthen. Strengthening links between leaders/managers and staff. Helping to improve understanding of staff/team needs and their perception of their leader/manager. A self awareness to understand yourself and how you react to people and how they react to you is required. Some individuals will thrive on being given targets and tasks, while others may require the metaphorical, arm around them to feel supported.
Developing self and people will give empowerment, higher motivation and innovation, creating engagement through listening and consultation. Questioning style allows staff to find and be guided to find own solutions. Play to strengths while looking to work on and improve weaknesses. A leader using a transformational style will look to change those they lead. This style does not simply use personality (charismatic) or reward and bargaining (transactional) to persuade people. Transformational style will use knowledge, expertise and a vision to engage with followers and gain buy in from followers that often remains long after the leader has left.
Transformational leadership style allows followers to develop, change and to adapt. This embeds a culture of staff looking to innovate and change, allowing the organisation to be prepared and unfazed to any future changes, adapting as the social environment changes. 3. 3 Discuss situational variables likely to influence the choice of a leadership style A leadership style required can be determined by variables other than the maturity of staff, team or organisation. PESTLE analysis (Political, Economic, Sociological, Technological, Legal, Environmental) is often used to evaluate the organisation’s environmental influences.
It is then possible to audit the current environment and expected future changes, putting the organisation in a strong position to adapt to change or looking at taking advantages over competitors. To make decisions and plan for the future, organisations need to understand the environments in which they operate. By understanding these environments it is possible to maximise opportunities and minimise any threats to the organisation. Understanding the risks associated with the market they are operating in, its growth or decline and the need for the product or service.
Leaders can then evaluate potential and direction of organisation. An example recently of where leadership and not adapting or taking a leadership style within an organisation, has failed is Jessop’s. By not adapting (using a transformational or Situational style) and understanding changes in the differing environments and factors around them. They failed to change and develop, too many high street shops with overheads and failed to take advantage of on line services which its competitors had done (Technology).
Timescales in which task or objectives are required to be met will also impact on leadership a style. A quick implementation or turn around may generally require a more directing approach to meet a short term goal. Where as a long term strategic change will require an engaging leadership style. Inspiring others to follow and buy into the vision and making this a shared vision, supporting and developing individuals while also consulting and evaluating progress, moving forward together.
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