The creation of writing in Egypt was very close to the creation of writing in Mesopotamia – may have learned it from Egypt Developed their own script – Hieroglyphs (Sacred carvings) Wrote of stone tablets, limestone flakes, pottery, and papyrus Used of business and administration Unification and the Rule of Kings The king lists, records the noses of Upper Egypt Didn’t care about race or ethnicity Color of their skin reflected gender Females – workers at home were painted a lighter color Males -? workers outside were painted a darker color Menses or Manners were known as the same person Menses” symbolized unification Kings became very powerful (Gods) With more kings this created more tombs and uneven distribution of wealth Early civilization included national religious ideology The Gods, the Unification of Egypt, and the Afterlife Souris represented order and virtue, but his brother Seth represented disorder and evil Seth put Souris in a box and sent him down the Nile Isis got the box and saved him Seth got Souris again and cut him into 14 pieces and sent them don’t the river Isis got them all and put them back together and saved him
Souris conceived a son, Hours Hours defeated Seth in a battle Hours was often depicted as a falcon on top of the kings Afterlife inspired mummification Afterlife was seen as a place for important people Cities of the Dead Things such as shrines, burial sites were most prominent in Egyptian culture Tombs in Abodes were called “Maestros” Kings Were buried with furniture, food, weapons, anything they needed for the afterlife Tombs near Square had copper objects and stone vessels Women of Elite families were buried in pyramids, such as Misshapenness 2 The Growth of Cities No existing city-states, had small self generated communities Economies are based off of cereal crops Selected cities were spaced strategically and eventually grew in to full-fledged cities Administration head quarters had given a big boost to the communities they were in 2 cemeteries served 1 city; 1 for common people and 1 for more wealth people Irrigation saved agriculture and helped in severe drought Shaded Irrigation is when buckets bring water from a river to man made irrigation chance Nell Fewer water problems then Mesopotamia Cities supposedly flourished from its temple community
Irrigation + Administration + Worship-? City The Nile Valley provided an adequate natural shield Thebes is the most monumental site The Nile Delta connected Egypt to the outside world Ports were drop off points for trade being sent on donkey of on a small little boat Monumental Architecture of the Old Kingdom: Pyramids and Fortresses Increasing power created more monumental architecture The administrative organization and economic productivity contain due to increase until the end of the Dynasty. Egypt artistic genius continued to develop the sculpture of its tombs. Architects realized the beauty of filling in the Steps Of the pyramids to create a triangular form. Tombs of the queens are situated within proximity of the kings.
Tomb robbing were quite frequent. Architectural, spiritual, political and military accomplishments date to the millennium we now call Early Dynastic. The Disintegration of the Old Kingdom Monarchs collected and kept taxes for themselves. The Nile did not reach optimal flood heights and affected agriculture. The Rise and the Fall of the Middle Kingdom King Menthol of Thebes defeated his rivals in the north and reunited the mining. Trade was revived. Fine arts and literature flourished Started to have invasions of the Hooks Kathleen, Capital City of King Kathleen Modern excavations at Marin unearthed the ruins of an ancient Egyptian capital.
King Annotate challenged the order of Egypt by adopting a new monotheistic religion. Senate made a city where he, his wife and their six daughters practiced the new religion. The eccentricity of the ruler was reflected in the cities sculptures, architecture, and painting. His isolated position threatened the stability of Egypt empire. The Roots of the Indus Valley Civilization In 1 856 British rulers were supervising construction of a railway and as they were working on it they found thousands of old bricks. They also found stones with artistic designs on them. Many scholars assumed that the Indus valley people learned the art of City buildings from the Sumerians and other people in Mesopotamia.
We can make educated guesses about the function and meaning Of remaining artifacts and physical structures. Arts and Crafts Included pottery, dying, metalworking, and beading. Small sculptures are in stone, or terra cotta. Cotton is the first known use for a fiber in weaving textiles. Carefully Planned Cities The two largest settlements are Harp and Enjoy-dark were very similar. Each city held about 40,000 people. The town plan was orderly and regular (even baskets were all uniform in size and shape. ) The regularity Of plans suggests a very organized government and bureaucratic capacity. Excavations at Dollars revealed immense gates at the principal entrances of the city.
Legacies of the Harpoon Civilization Most records involve literary and artistic forms. New ecology is based on rice cultivation and the use of iron. The Aryan groups grew skilled and powerful as they move East. The Cities of the Nile and the Indus, What difference do they make? Along the Nile, they are part of a single state that is unified about 3,000 B. C. E. They formed the core of an Imperial state. We learn the significance of archeological and textual study is unearthing. Records can show alliances between rulers and priests. Without text we have no record of religious, philosophical, legal, or administrative systems in the Indus valley.
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