A Nursing theory is a set of concepts, definitions, relationships, and propositions derived from nursing models (Smith & Liehr, 2008). A conceptual model is a visual method of representing a set of causal relationships between factors that were believed to impact one or more biodiversity targets (Morgan, 2005). One of the main differences between the two is that a theory is based off research questions and study variables, while a conceptual model is used to guide research and can be tested and changed. Nursing theories are made up of conceptual models. Nurses like Virginia Henderson, Martha Rogers, Dorothea E. Orem, Betty Neuman, Hildegard Peplau, Madeleine Leininger, Patricia Benner, have created theories to help better understand the nursing profession. From different point of views, we can build our own concepts of what this career is about. Understanding this and extracting the best of each theory, we, as nurses, can take the level of healthcare to its maximum.
Betty Neuman developed the System Model, which is a nursing theory that focuses on the way that a patient responds to environmental stressors. These stressors include the intrapersonal, interpersonal, and extrapersonal types. It also involves the use of different levels of nursing prevention intervention (primary, secondary and tertiary levels) in order to maintain the highest level of wellness in the patient. Nursing involves being concerned with the whole person, including the patient’s state of mind, which involves stress levels.
By applying nursing theories, effective nursing care can be provided for patients. An example in nursing practice in which Neuman’s theory would be effective is in treating patients that suffer from diseases with no cure, such as Multiple sclerosis (MS). This is an autoimmune disease of the central nervous system. It can take a toll on the patient’s emotions. The goal of treatment is to control the symptoms to be able to provide a better quality of life to the patient. For the patient, being able to speak about their situation to someone that would understand, such as a nurse, can help relieve stress. Nurses can ask and teach the patients to rest more, avoid certain foods, protect themselves from the sun, and other methods to help reduce fatigue and stress (Ahmadi & Sadeghi, 2017). By putting an importance on stress levels in a patient, the patient’s standard of life will improve. Reducing and preventing stress will help improve sleep patterns and reduce anxiety and depression. Also, being stressed, the body uses energy that is needed in order to maintain the immune system, and protect the body from illness, so through preventing it, immune systems will be stronger.
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