World Tourism Organization, 2012 Secretary General: Taleb Rifai Executive Director for Competitiveness, External Relations and Partnerships: Marcio Favilla L. de Paula Editorial team: Dmitriy Ilin, Project Manager, Global Report on Food Tourism Inaki Gaztelumendi, Consultant, TANGIBLE – Tourism Industry Consultants Peter Jordan Series editor: UNWTO would like to sincerely thank all those who contributed material to this report. Copyright © 2012, World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) Global Report on Food Tourism Published by the World Tourism Organization (UNWTO), Madrid, Spain.
First printing: 2012 All rights reserved. Printed in Spain. The designations employed and the presentation of material in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinions whatsoever on the part of the Secretariat of the World Tourism Organization concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area, or of its authorities or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. Photos by UNWTO and Dreamstime World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) Calle Capitan Haya, 42 28020 Madrid Spain Citation: World Tourism Organization (2012), Global Report on Food Tourism, UNWTO, Madrid Tel. (+34) 915 678 100 Fax: (+34) 915 713 733 Website: www. unwto. org E-mail: [email protected] org publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, work and is pleased to consider permissions, licensing, and translation requests related to UNWTO publications. Permission to photocopy UNWTO material in Spain must be obtained through: Calle Monte Esquinza, 14 28010 Madrid Spain Fax: (+34) 913 08 63 27 Website: www. edro. org E-mail: [email protected] org For authorization of the reproduction of UNWTO works outside of Spain, please contact one of CEDRO’s partner organizations, with which bilateral agreements are in place (see: http://www. cedro. org/en). For all remaining countries as well as for other permissions, requests should be addressed directly to the World Tourism Organization. For applications see: http://www. unwto. org/pub/rights. htm. Global Report on Food Tourism CONTENTS
Foreward Taleb Rifai / 4 Introduction / 5 Gastronomy’s importance in the development of tourism destinations in the world / 6 Global trends on food tourism / 10 What our Members say / 12 CASE STUDIES International Initiatives Euro-toques in Europe: 3500 artisan cooks in defence of “eating well” / 18 Food and the Tourism Experience / 20 Foda / 22 Tourism Destinations Azerbaijan: aromas and tastes of the East with a European twist / 26 Brazil and its Paths of Flavour / 28 Egypt: food tourism experience / 30 Food and wine tourism in Georgia / 32 Kazakhstan: tracing the country’s ancient history through its food / 34 Gastronomic tourism in Korea – Globalizing Hansik / 36 A taste of Moscow / 38 Malaysia: at the cross-roads of Asian food culture / 40 Morning pilau, or peculiarities of Uzbek cuisine / 42 Business organizations Tasting Spain: the creation of a product club for gastronomic tourism / 46 Food and wine tourism: Challenges and Opportunities / 48 Sustainable gastronomy: Prospects for the Future / 50 Fine dining: an “awakening to art de vivre” Relais & Chateaux-style / 52 A brief summary of the SETE study “Gastronomy & the Marketing of Greek Tourism” / 54 Educational organizations The Basque Culinary Center / 58 Safety Food – the Brazilian Experience / 60 Presentation of the B. E. S. T. concept / 62 Foreword Taleb Rifai, Secretary-General, World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) For many of the world’s billions of tourists, returning to familiar destinations to enjoy tried and tested recipes, cuisine, gastronomy has become a central part of the tourism experience. Against this background, food tourism has gained increasing attention over the past years. Tourists are attracted to local produce and many destinations are centering their product development and marketing accordingly.
With food so deeply connected to its origin, this focus allows destinations to market themselves as truly unique, appealing to those travelers who look to feel takes a closer look at the links between tourism and food, highlighting the importance of this industry to the tourism sector and economies worldwide. Bringing together experiences from some of the world’s top tourism destinations, as well as from food tourism experts, the report offers important insight and recommendations into this growing segment of tourism. Members and other organizations who have contributed to this report. I trust it will serve as a delicious appetizer to the improved knowledge and continued development of food tourism.
This is especially important for rural communities, many of which have struggled in the face of rapid urbanization and shifts away from traditional economic sectors. With their proximity to food-producing lands, rural communities often enjoy a comparative advantage when it comes to serving up traditional fare. Tourism, particularly food tourism, allows these communities to generate income and employment opportunities locally, providing jobs for vineyard tour guides or local chefs, while fuelling other sectors of the local economy such as agriculture. The Global Report on Food Tourism, the latest in the UNWTO Secretary-General, Taleb Rifai 4 UNWTO Global Report on Food Tourism
The aim was to try to obtain a series of conclusions regarding some of the initiatives that are going on worldwide in Food Tourism for possible inclusion in the the public sector and businesses about policies for importance of gastronomy in the development of tourism destinations in the world and reviews the global trends in Food Tourism. It also reports on the results of the survey Introduction the current situation of Gastronomic Tourism. The second part of the report presents case studies of Food Tourism. First, it presents international initiatives such as Eurotoques, an organization of chefs that includes more than 3,500 restaurateurs from 18 countries; the study carried out by the OECD on “Food and the Tourism Experience”; and the Slow Food movement, which was founded in 1986 and is present in more than 122 countries.
In recent years, Food Tourism has grown considerably and has become one of the most dynamic and creative segments of tourism. Both destinations and tourism companies are aware of the importance of gastronomy in order to diversify tourism and stimulate local, regional and national economic development. Furthermore, Food Tourism includes in its discourse ethical and sustainable values based on the territory, the landscape, the sea, local culture, local products, authenticity, which is something it has in common with current trends of cultural consumption. This new volume of the “AM Reports” series, “Global Members of the World Tourism Organization (UNWTO), and was produced with the support of Member States, egional and national tourism destinations, such as Brazil, Egypt, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Korea, Uzbekistan and Moscow. It also includes the experience of business organizations the management and promotion of Food Tourism of Spain; the Portuguese Institute for Tourism Planning and Development (IPDT); the Hotel and Gastronomy Business Federation of Argentina (FEHGRA); Relais & Chateaux, an exclusive collection of 475 charming hotels and gourmet restaurants in 55 countries; and the Association of Greek Tourism Enterprises (SETE) . In this Report, we have attempted to carry out an analysis of the current situation of Food Tourism, through of tourism and gastronomy professionals with extensive experience in international organizations, in destination training. ducational institutions, such as the Basque Culinary Centre in San Sebastian, the National Confederation of Trade in Goods, Services and Tourism of Brazil (CNCSENAC) and the Ecole Hoteliere de Lausanne, on their vision and the role of human resources training in the development of Food Tourism. UNWTO Global Report on Food Tourism 5 Gastronomy’s importance in the development of tourism destinations in the world Carmina Fandos Herrera, Senior Lecturer in Marketing, Universidad de Zaragoza Javier Blanco Herranz, gastronomic tourism? Today, travellers are more experienced, have more disposable income and more leisure time to travel, and thus tourism allows them to escape the daily routine of their usual environment and immerse themselves in a world of freedom and novelty.
Thus, more and more tourists in the world are looking for concrete learning experiences, and in this endeavour the gastronomic experience, in highly diverse ways, is playing an increasingly prominent part. Current research in gastronomic tourism is scarce and is mainly focused on wine, and “oenotourists” are not necessarily the same individuals who engage in other, nonoenological gastronomic activities. Gastronomic tourism is an emerging phenomenon that is being developed as a new tourism product due, inter alia, to the fact that according to the specialized literature (among others, Quan and Wang, 2004) over a third of tourist spending is devoted to food. Therefore, the cuisine of the destination is an aspect of utmost importance in the quality of the holiday experience. PhD Student in Marketing, Universidad de Zaragoza sed in the literature is that proposed by Hall and Sharples (2003), according to which food tourism is an experiential trip to a gastronomic region, for recreational or entertainment purposes, which includes visits to primary and secondary producers of food, gastronomic festivals, food fairs, events, farmers’ markets, cooking shows and demonstrations, tastings of quality food products or any tourism activity related to food. In addition, this experiential journey is related to a particular lifestyle that includes experimentation, learning from different cultures, the acquisition of knowledge and understanding of the qualities or attributes related to tourism products, as well as culinary specialities produced in that region through its consumption.
Thus, the experience of gastronomic tourism is considered as such, provided that everything mentioned above constitutes the main reason or motivation to travel for visitors to a particular destination or But even without gastronomy being the main motivation for choosing a destination, the fact is that it is increasingly 6 UNWTO Global Report on Food Tourism occupying a substantial role as a secondary or partial motivation of tourists in the world (according to recent research, eating in restaurants is the second favourite activity of foreigners visiting the United States and is the number one leisure activity for U. S. travellers when they visit other countries). organized around an effective system of public-private cooperation.
Both approaches are inseparable and can restaurants and food industries, but also other sectors indirectly related but linked to tourism, creating conditions for improving local employment and the promotion of new outside the scope of the product “gastronomic tourism”, and adaptable to tourism-motivation dynamics that are increasingly plural and complex. Thus, we can take a step further and say that gastronomic tourism applies to tourists and visitors who plan their trips partially or totally in order to taste the cuisine of the place or to carry out activities related to gastronomy. Gastronomic tourism comprises many different subtypes if we look through the prism of the food or dish in question.
Thus we have, for example, offerings related to whisky, cider, cognac, cava, horchata, sake, or tea. Gastronomic routes are becoming without doubt one of the most developed products in this area. A gastronomic route is a system that constitutes a comprehensive and thematic tourism offering, generally branded, and is area (although in reality, gastronomy has no borders), with a series of tourism products or sites, such as factories and restaurants, which are listed in tourism guidebooks dish, generally with differentiated quality, or gastronomic events or activities. The route also informs about other sites of historical interest, thus promoting economic development throughout the area.
Therefore, the idea is to bring together different types of tourist attractions and to offer them in a conveniently packaged form so that tourists stay longer in the area than if only one kind of attraction is featured. In our opinion, gastronomic routes will be successful if they manage to activate gastronomic heritage and convert it into food tourism as an attraction for tourists, while at the same time differentiating it from the competition as visitors look for variety, new sensations and authentic experiences. But, any creation or value proposition made to strengthen travel motivations centred on gastronomy should be underpinned by sustainability principles and practices and Carmina Fandos Herrera
Gastronomic tourism, lifestyle and tourism motivations Lifestyle is used in tourism to assess involvement in tourism experiences. Researchers have pointed out that culinary tourism is an authentic experience of a sophisticated lifestyle in a pleasant environment, associated with the good life and the economic wellbeing of consuming exclusive, high-quality locally grown products. Tourist motivations constitute a key concept for the design and creation of products and services that add value for tourists. Motivations are related to consumer satisfaction and are considered a key component in understanding the decision-making process of visitors.
Thus, several physical or physiological needs (sensory perception and hedonism) security, cultural and social needs, the need to belong or interpersonal needs, the need for prestige (local delicacies), status or self-realization. In addition, UNWTO Global Report on Food Tourism 7 the literature posits two dimensions for motivation: the hedonistic, with regard to aesthetic products, and the utilitarian or rational. Tourism destination image and the gastronomic tourism experience Several studies have found that tourists travel to those destinations that have established a reputation as a place to experiment with quality local products. tourist motivations as either internal stimuli or “push”, or external stimuli or “pull”.
The former are considered from the perspective of demand, and they lead the tourist to travel to gastronomic tourism destinations that often include desires as well as psychological, social and ego-centric needs such as escapism from the daily routine, relaxing with family, rest, exploration and social interaction and affective or emotional bonding. The resources considered pull factors are cultural and natural attractions, special events and festivals, experiences with food products in the destinations and other opportunities for leisure and entertainment, value, friendliness of residents, gastronomic diversity and variety, attributes or characteristics of the destination such as proximity, etc. whose brand image is connected, with varying levels of intensity, to gastronomic values.
By way of example, it is possible to give a non-exhaustive list that includes, among others, Spain, France, Italy, Greece, Belgium, Portugal, USA (especially in areas such as California’s Napa and Sonoma Valleys), Brazil, Peru, Mexico, New Zealand, South Africa, Australia, Chile, Malaysia, Japan, example, that the Mediterranean diet of Spain, Greece, Italy and Morocco was included in UNESCO’s list of Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity in November 2010. As for the gastronomic tourism experience, it can be a number of attributes (attractiveness of the food and environment, quality of service), after a stay in a tourist destination where the tourist engaged in an activity related to gastronomy. The tourist’s perceived value of a particular destination or establishment is therefore multidimensional.
Post-experience satisfaction is a critical indicator for assessing the effectiveness or performance of the products and services of the destination. The tourist’s satisfaction with the purchase depends on the product’s performance in relation to the tourist’s expectations. It should be kept in mind that different cultures have different perceptions of satisfaction and evaluation of gastronomy and that high quality of service can result in dissatisfaction among consumers if their expectations had been too high, for example, due to exaggerated advertising. Satisfaction with the destination leads to customer loyalty and this in turn gives a higher level of intention to repeat the visit.
Quality gastronomy is a decisive factor in satisfaction, as it produces a lasting memory about the experience lived by the tourist. Thus, depending on the expectations held by the consumer as to the … the cuisine of the destination is an aspect of utmost importance in the quality of the holiday experience. Javier Blanco Herranz 8 UNWTO Global Report on Food Tourism gastronomy of the destination, such expectations predict behaviour. Here is where success lies: having tourists revisit the destination due to its gastronomy. The festive atmosphere, relaxation and fun experienced by the tourist during a gastronomic route, and the social interaction with people of similar interests create associations in the tourist’s mind linked to the good times experienced by the visitor.
To recap, gastronomic tourism is a local phenomenon of universal scope that is in a clear growth phase; it has a positive impact on the economy, employment and local heritage, as tourists seek to get to know not only the local food but also to know its origin and production processes, making it an expression of cultural tourism; it has great potential for expansion as a main motivation for tourism trips and although this type of tourism is still practised by a minority of tourists, the fact is that it is attracting a very select type of tourist with a high volume of expenditure on very high-quality products, and lastly, the development of gastronomic tourism contributes to improving the general perception of the destination. the Mediterranean diet of Spain, Greece, Italy and Morocco was included in UNESCO’s list of Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity in November 2010. 1 QUAN, S. & WANG, N. 2004, “Towards a structural model of the tourist experience: An illustration from food experiences in tourism” Tourism management, vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 297-305. 2 HALL, C. M. & SHARPLES, L. (2003). “The consumption of experiences or the experience of consumption? An introduction to the tourism of taste” in Food tourism around the world. Elsevier Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford, pp. 1-24. UNWTO Global Report on Food Tourism 9 Global trends in food tourism A people that does not drink its wine and eat its cheese has a serious identity problem. ” Inaki Gaztelumendi, Consultant on food tourism The development of tourism today is paradoxical. It simultaneously generates processes of globalization and enhanced appreciation of local resources. Tourism destinations, obliged to maintain increasingly intense competitiveness and engaged in a constant struggle to retain some of their market, face an increasingly dynamic and sophisticated environment. The world is increasingly open; however, tourists seek experiences based on local identity and culture. In recent years gastronomy has become an indispensable element in order to get to know the culture and lifestyle of a territory.
Gastronomy embodies all the traditional values associated with the new trends in tourism: respect for culture and tradition, a healthy lifestyle, authenticity, sustainability, experience… Likewise, gastronomy represents an opportunity to revitalize and diversify tourism, promotes local economic development, involves different professional sectors (producers, chefs, markets, etc. ), and brings new uses to the primary sector. This leading role of gastronomy in the choice of destination and tourism consumption has resulted in the growth of gastronomic offerings based on high-quality local products and the consolidation of a separate market for food tourism. What are the major global trends and the keys to success that can be observed in this development of food tourism? It is a growing market.
The growth of food tourism worldwide is an obvious fact. It is one of the most dynamic segments within the tourism market. But what are food tourists like? They are tourists who take part in the new trends of cultural consumption. They are travellers seeking the authenticity of the places they visit through food. They are concerned about the origin of products. They recognize the value of gastronomy as a means of socializing, as a space for sharing life with others, for exchanging experiences. Such tourists have higher-thanaverage expenditure, they are demanding and appreciative, 10 UNWTO Global Report on Food Tourism and they eschew uniformity.
Therefore, gastronomy cannot become a bland and anonymous product; it must have personality, because otherwise it will become vulnerable, de-localized and subject to adulteration. The territory is the backbone of gastronomic offerings. The terroir is an element that differentiates and is the source local identity. It encompasses environmental and landscape values, history, culture, traditions, the countryside, the sea, the own cuisine of the place. In this regard, the conversion of the territory into a culinary landscape is one of the challenges of tourism destinations. The product is the basis of Food Tourism. Therefore, natural resources we are going to convert into tourism products that make it possible to identify this territory. Cultural Heritage.
Culture is the set of behaviours, knowledge and customs that shape a society and on which a sense of belonging is based. The design of any food tourism offering will not viable if it does not take into account the cultural characteristics of the territory. Gastronomy allows tourists to access the cultural and historical heritage of destinations through tasting, experiencing and purchasing. That is, it makes it possible to approach culture in a more experiential and participatory way that is not purely contemplative. We must also take into account the emergence of new cultural values, which increase the richness and cultural diversity of the country. In this regard, Tradition and Innovation coexist in a natural manner.
Gastronomic tradition is in a process of continuous evolution, and the challenge for professionals is to incorporate innovation in order to renew and adapt their offerings to the needs of the new cultural consumer. Sustainability. Food tourism is capable of addressing cultural and environmental concerns in a way that is compatible with purely economic arguments. The recent history of global tourism development is littered with nominally sustainable models and manifestly unsustainable actions. The idea is not to create new indiscriminate pressure on culinary heritage, but to leverage it rationally with an eye to sustainability. It is not about “touristifying” gastronomy, by creating new offerings or scaling up existing ones. It is not so much bout creating in order to attract, but rather attracting visitors to participate in the destination’s own cultural reality, well explained and interpreted, through cuisine, local products and all the services and activities that surround them. Quality. Destinations that want to promote food tourism have and recognition of local products, the development of a competitive offering, the professionalism of human resources throughout the value chain of food tourism through training and retraining, and consumer protection and reception in order to increase visitor satisfaction. Communication. Destinations must articulate a credible and authentic narrative of their food tourism offerings.
The travel experience has changed and is not limited to the days of actual travelling, but rather it starts much earlier, with its preparation (the tourist becomes inspired, gathers information, compares, purchases), and the experience ends when the traveller assesses and shares his experiences through social networks. Playing key roles in the process are: the great chefs who have ignited a revolution in the segment of high-end cuisine as a revitalizing element for tourism, the media (especially television), tourist guides, food blogs and social networks in the image building of a destination. And destinations must be present in all channels and all parts of this process. Cooperation.
It is necessary for the actors operating in chefs, restaurateurs, public administrations, hoteliers, food tourism product offerings. Inaki Gaztelumendi UNWTO Global Report on Food Tourism 11 What our Members say With a view to the publication of the Global Report on Food Tourism, a survey was conducted among the UNWTO Members, working in diverse sectors around the world, were received in this regard. Strategy According to the results this survey, 88. 2% of respondents the brand and image of their destination. Only 11. 8% were of the opinion that gastronomy plays a minor role. “gastronomy is a strategic and image of their destination” However, a smaller percentage of respondents believe that their country has its own gastronomic brand: only percentage (32. %) believe that their country has not structured its own brand of gastronomy, meaning that, in general, destinations still have some ways to go in terms of Gastronomic Culture Among the elements of the gastronomic culture of the destination which they consider should be featured in promotional campaigns today, most respondents cite the quality, variety and regional diversity of foods, notably, meat, etc. As added value they lean towards broader concepts such as the Mediterranean diet, included on the UNESCO World Heritage list, healthy cooking, sustainability, or multiculturalism. They also point to the importance of restaurant offerings with a strong local basis (Mediterranean, oriental, ethnic, etc. ) that combine tradition and innovation, and the role of international cuisine.
As for gastronomic tourism products that exist in their place the importance of food events (expressed by 79% of 12 UNWTO Global Report on Food Tourism respondents). This is followed by gastronomic routes and cooking classes and workshops, with 62% answering and visits to markets and producers (53%). Having less weight among gastronomic tourism product offerings are museums (cited by only 12% of respondents), and presentations with 6% of positive answers. 68% of the organizations consulted carry out marketing activities or promotion based on Food Tourism. The marketing and promotional tools most used by these entities are: organizing events (91%), producing brochures and advertising (82%) and dedicated websites on food tourism (78 %).
At a lower level are promotional tools such as tourism guides (61%), blogs (43%), and familiarization trips for journalists and tour operators (13%). And lastly, only 4% of the organizations surveyed said they used social networks for the promotion of food tourism. UNWTO Global Report on Food Tourism 13 Economic Impact Currently food tourism is still a regional phenomenon. According to the results of the survey, the marketing of gastronomic tourism products gives top priority to the regional market. At a second level are the local and national markets. And in last place is the international market. Finally, the survey asked respondents for an estimate of the economic impact of food tourism on their destination.
In general, most of the organizations surveyed indicated that there is still no systematic analysis of the economic impact of food tourism. However, they consider that the weight of gastronomy in tourism revenue in destinations have a large margin to work with in this respect. Cooperation Asked about the existence at their destination of collaboration between the tourism sector and local gastronomy actors (producers, restaurants, markets, etc. ), the general opinion is that there is cooperation on concrete marketing actions, in particular, with local restaurants, but there are currently no stable instruments of cooperation for the development and promotion of food tourism. In fact, 37. 5% of respondents recognize
From the results of the survey it is possible to draw a set of general recommendations for tourism destinations promotion of food tourism. First, traditional strategies in the development of food tourism must give way to strategic tools to articulate the quality, variety and uniqueness of local products and gastronomy of a territory. These offerings, presented with authenticity and as experiences to be lived, must be based on the values of cultural identity, sustainability, the quality of tourism products and services, and consumer protection. Also, in a highly competitive situation like the “we need to create stable instruments of cooperation for the development and promotion of food tourism” 14 UNWTO
Global Report on Food Tourism current one, market knowledge should be one of the food guides—the organization of events, the media and use of the Internet and social networks. Third, both in the conceptualization as well as in the Members agree on the importance of establishing cooperation instruments among all actors in the value chain of Food Tourism at the local level (producers, tour operators, public administrations, etc. ). Finally, the survey shows the need to promote knowledge and research on Food Tourism. Therefore, the creation of plans to establish development guidelines and create gastronomic tourism products is seen as a priority for destinations. f seizing the opportunity represented by gastronomy for destinations. Key factors in this regard are: bringing chefs on board as interpreters of the territory, the development of high-quality and credible promotional tools—such as And additionally the following partners: UNWTO Global Report on Food Tourism 15 Case Studies International Initiatives Euro-toques in Europe: 3500 artisan cooks in defence of “eating well” Euro-Toques is neither a promotion association nor a new which are our best products. Our goal is to give value to seasonal products and to defend regional artisan production. Euro-Toques is recognized by the European Union as an organization that defends Quality Food.
It forms part of the privileged network of contacts of the European Commission. Euro-toques acts as a lobby group in European and national institutions. The organization focuses its activities on Food Law as well as on the new Common Agricultural Policy, the Common Fisheries Policy and DG SANCO activities. Our bywords: Taste, Safety, Authenticity. And therefore: Act in order not to suffer. The art of cooking should adapt itself to our times. Let us be creative, let us be open to neighbouring cultures, but let us preserve our beautiful regional traditions and adapt them to modern tastes. These are the foundations of quality gastronomic tourism.
We advocate a model based on the diversity of traditions and regions, quality products, products of the land and traditional recipes, which are the guarantee of the culinary heritage and continuity of local products. The products used in our kitchens are fresh and are prepared on the premises. Our work is based on seasonal products in order to respect the cycles of nature and ensure an authentic taste. And this respect for tradition is compatible with modernity: the pleasure and the art of living are passed on. Moreover, we chefs play an important role in consumer protection and the preservation of knowledge of our territory. Not only do we help people eat well, but we also welcome visitors and advise them about our gastronomy, products, places… President, Euro-Toques Spain 18 UNWTO Global Report on Food Tourism
At present, one of the major projects of Euro-toques is the creation of a gastronomic map of Spain. A map in which typical local products are represented in each community, province, city and town; and if possible accompanied by recipes. Traditional recipes, and modern ones as well. Recipes that show that the identity of a land is also determined by its products, by the producers who cultivate them, and by the cooks who buy and transform them, thus disseminating a gastronomic culture. The idea is to ultimately develop a collection of recipes that represent a distillation of local cuisines, thus highlighting the diversity of the different territories of Spain.
The project consists of putting together an anthology of the products and recipes of the various peoples of Spain, with the ultimate goal of producing a manual and a history of the different parts of our country that are named or are renowned for a product, a dish or an outstanding gastronomic activity. Euro- toques is an international organization representing more than 3500 chefs and cooks from 18 countries. It was founded by Pierre Romeyer, Paul Bocuse, Juan Mari Arzak and Pedro Subijana, among other famous chefs, on 18 November 1986, in Brussels, at the urging of the European Commission President Jacques Delors. The main objectives of Euro-toques are: To promote the good practices of artisan food producers. To protect the culinary heritage of Europe in all its diversity and with its different origins.
To safeguard the healthiness of food products and encourage natural combinations. To demand proper labelling in order to provide consumers with clear information allowing them to make choices based on solid criteria. euro-toques. org Let us be creative, let us be open to neighbouring cultures, but let us preserve our beautiful regional traditions and adapt them to modern tastes. UNWTO Global Report on Food Tourism 19 Food and the tourism experience Greg Richards, Tilburg University, Netherlands Food and tourism play a major part in the contemporary experience economy. Food is a key part of all cultures, a major element of global intangible heritage and an increasingly important attraction for tourists.
The linkages between food and tourism also provide a platform for local economic development, and food experiences help to brand and market destinations, as well as supporting the local culture that is so attractive to tourists (Hjalager and Richards, 2002; OECD, 2009). Food experiences have become more important in tourism as the ‘Experience Economy’ has developed. Pine and Gilmore (1999) argue that the consumer no longer pays for the basic service, but for the complete experience. In the case of food, people are willing to pay a premium for the added value offered by food experiences, which provide a gateway into local culture, creativity and landscapes. Tourist food experiences in particular are often contrasted with ‘everyday’ or basic eating, as people search for ‘authenticity’ and distinction in local food and gastronomy.
Food provides a basis for tourism experiences by: Linking culture and tourism Developing the meal experience Producing distinctive foods Developing the critical infrastructure for food production and consumption Supporting local culture Food experiences can also stimulate local development, because food tourism is high yield tourism, that can extend the tourist season and diversify rural economies. Food experiences are labour intensive and create jobs while creating backward linkages that stimulate agriculture, and they generally do not require major new investment. Food can contribute to regional attractiveness, sustain the local environment and cultural heritage and strengthen local identities and sense of community.
Food and gastronomy can also in themselves be considered as creative industries, helping to stimulate innovation by involving the consumer in co-creation, stimulating links between global and local cultures (e. g. Fusion foods, foodways that link cultures) and creating narratives around food. In this sense, gastronomic tourism can be seen as a form of ‘creative tourism’ (Richards, 2011), which allows 20 UNWTO Global Report on Food Tourism tourists to develop their creativity though contact with local people and their creative lives. Major areas of innovation currently taking place around food, gastronomy and tourism include creative tourism experiences (such as cooking and food appreciation courses), food events, food trails, new cuisines (e. g. New Asian Cuisine in Singapore) and building narratives around food.
Food can also provide the basis of branding and marketing activities, including: Partnerships between food producers, rastaurants and the tourism industry Setting standards for local foods Lifestyle positioning, emphasizing the attractiveness of lifestyles related to gastronomy Indentifying niches Theming and packaging Developing specialty restaurants Communicating the national or regional brand through gastronomy (such as the Prove Portugal programme). The numerous case studies in the OECD study indicate that the critical success factors for food experiences in tourism include Providing a good culinary offer at home, that stimulate appreciation of food and support gastronomy that is also attractive to visitors. Developing a network of good quality restaurants Developing food and wine exportation. Education and training and attracting talent Positioning chefs in world rankings (for example ‘Gastrostars’ such as Ferran Adria) Linking food experiences to tourist needs Providing ‘glocalised’ fods that link to tourist needs as well as showcasing authentic local cuisine or national and regional authorities: Ensure a solid base of local food culture Start from the basics (Quality, authenticity, locality) Build coalitions (Public, private partnership) Spread the message (Build the brand, communicate clearly) Develop a holistic approach (Tourism should be seen as one aspect of the entire food value network) tilburguniversity. edu References In Dodd, D. (ed. ) Food and the Tourism Experience. OECD, Paris, pp. 13-46. Gastronomy. Routledge, London. OECD (2009) The Impact of Culture on Tourism. Paris: OECD. Boston: Harvard Business School Press. Richards, G. (2011) Creativity and tourism: The state of the art. Annals of Tourism Research, 38(4), Pages 1225–1253. Greg Richards UNWTO Global Report on Food Tourism 21 FODA fuel”.
If it is thought of as a nourishing substance, taken into the body to sustain life, provide energy, and promote growth, then we’re on the way to healthy living. If however, it is thought of merely as fuel, to be consumed as quickly and as cheaply as possible, as it is so often these days, we’re heading in a dangerous, unsustainable direction; we’re heading towards monoculture of the lowest common denominator, leading to all manners of physical and social ills. Thankfully, increasing numbers of people around the world Catherine Gazzoli, and tradition, and the positive social impacts of developing culinary tourism. The Slow Food Foundation for Biodiversity shares these aims.
It protects the environment, defends food biodiversity, promotes sustainable agriculture, supports small-scale producers and values their traditional knowledge. It runs projects around the world, such as the Ark of Taste, an international catalogue of traditional products at risk of extinction; Forgotten Foods, saving original breeds, vegetable varieties, breads and cheeses; Earth Markets promoting regional producers in their local communities; A Thousand Gardens In Africa, creating food gardens in schools, villages and urban areas. In Britain we recently presented Slow Food UK Week, featuring occasions such as Eating the Italian Way, a food art performance from the year 2062, a ground-breaking – Kentish Cob Nut.
The climax of the week was a form of Food Roulette, where members of the public spun our nine-foot, green and orange Forgotten Foods Wheel, featuring British foods that are largely unknown to the general public. Samples of each were placed in trays set in each section. Whatever you landed on was yours! People tried Dove’s Farm Einkorn Flour, an ancient grain made into a dense, nutty bread, and quite rightly asked “Why have we heard of cous cous from Morocco, and quinoa from Peru, but not einkorn from Britain? ” There were also Three Little Pigs chorizo, made from big, black hairy Rare-Breed Berkshire Pigs, and Jersey Black 22 UNWTO Global Report on Food Tourism
Butter, a fruit based condiment that a Food Roulette winner said tasted like “Christmas in a Jar”. These and many other foods have been collected as Forgotten producers. For example, the sales of Morecambe Bay as a Forgotten Food. By highlighting a particular heritage food and community, consumers are encouraged to visit that community, widening the reach for the programme. Further good news is that the popularity of farmers markets, the appreciation of artisan producers, and the demand for culinary tourism are all on the rise. are voting with their feet and wallets for good, clean, fair food. Culinary tourism does not have to mean gourmet food. It is increasingly about unique and memorable experiences. It includes the dining xperience itself, but also an awareness that supporting such endeavours has the ability to generate rural development. It helps to diversity revenue sources, and improves rural employment and income levels. Economic objectives are as crucial as environmental, measurable, via better prices, quantities produced, and numbers employed. Local foods are disappearing their activity, producers must have economic assurance about their future. A wonderful example of integrated economic, environmental, cultural and social activity, are the Food Safaris run by Henry and Carolyn Chesshire in Herefordshire, Shropshire, Worcestershire and Wales. They are a local couple who have lived in this tranquil rural area their whole lives.
They take groups of people – birthday parties, hen and stag parties, work outings, etc. – on culinary mystery tours, introducing them to the best locally produced food and drink. The visitors literally “eat the landscape”. So returning to our original topic, you can see that more and more people around the world are valuing food biodiversity and tradition, and the culinary tourism that this generates positively impacts communities. Here at Slow Food UK we will keep working passionately to promote good, clean, fair food. And you I am sure will be doing the same for your local, regional and national communities. When it comes to foda, let’s all vote for nourishment rather than fuel. lowfood. org. uk Another wonderful legacy of Slow Food UK Week is our Chef Alliance. Many of Britain’s best chefs are now actively championing small-scale producers and their top quality, local, sustainably produced food. The chefs have created special menus using seasonal Forgotten Foods, and helped people to discover food that really matters, and drink that quenches more than thirst. Double Michelin-starred chef Marcus Wareing created a special menu for Slow Food UK Week using Forgotten Foods and heritage products such as Middle White Colchester oysters and Herdwick sheep, and has recently added Joe Schneider’s Artisan Stilton to the cheeseboard.
Including these foods on the menu, increases interest in these products and encourages patrons to seek them out on their own. The chefs play a vital role in spreading awareness of quality produce threatened by the onslaught of industrial agriculture, environmental degradation, and market homogenization. They support artisan producers to revive and even rediscover traditional techniques. Catherine Gazzoli Slow Food UK also has a retail partner, Booth’s, a small chain of family-owned supermarkets in Northern England. UNWTO Global Report on Food Tourism 23 Tourism Destinations Azerbaijan: Aromas and tastes of the East with a European twist Larisa Javanshir, Editor-in-Chief, international tourism magazine Azerbaijan Review
The culinary masters of Azerbaijan have always attracted the admiration of visiting guests with their artistic skills. When merchants and warriors, historians and ambassadors of the Great Silk Road crossed the country, they often shared memories of the generous balmy cuisine of the Caspian state and brought home stories about the wonderful dishes they had been treated to. Azerbaijan cuisine has long won recognition both in the East and in Europe as one of the most interesting on an historians and travelers and recorded in ancient written sources. The history of the art of creating culinary recipes in Azerbaijan is centuries old and based on the huge experience of ancestral cooks which has been kept to the present day. eople have become famous for their longevity. According to scientists this is down to the country’s favorable climate, lifestyle, ecologically pure products and principles of and vegetable dishes, all supplemented with soft greens and piquant spices. Friendliness towards those who come to eat and constant readiness to invite as many friends to table as possible, as well as the generous variety of offered dishes and snacks never cease to amaze foreign guests. as an invitation to a come to a generously laid table for the richest feast of tastes. Kebab houses in Azerbaijan have a similar importance to taverns in Italy, eating-houses in the Slavic countries, bistros in France etc.
In the case of kebab houses however, every Since ancient times, ‘shashlik’ (kebab) has been the most favourite and traditional food among Azerbaijanis who live in northern, southern and western Azerbaijan. Shashlik course, taste it. The famous and delicious Azerbaijan ‘tendir chorek’ is, too, baked in natural ovens, just as juicy and aromatic shishlik is. 26 UNWTO Global Report on Food Tourism A sweet fairytale The Azerbaijan people’s favorite is pilaw, the main butter and saffron. Pilaw lovers are particularly fond of this type of rice cooked with Cornelian cherries. It is an exclusively impressive, beautiful and healthy dish, cooked for a long time while the aroma of meat, rice, butter and greens start teases the senses two to three hours before dinner. Be patient and you won’t regret it afterwards!
By tradition, meals are crowned with sweets. In addition, main holidays of the country, e. g. ‘Novruz bayram’, inspire a true championship of baking. According to numerous foreign tourists who have tasted many local desserts, Azerbaijani national confectionery creates an unforgettable feeling of joyful discovery of a new world which tempts and allures over and over again. The main advantage of these dishes is that they are cooked on the basis of ancient, centuries-old recipes by using organic and ecologically pure products Weather-wise, March is one of the most uncertain months in Azerbaijan, though it is also the merriest since it is when the Novruz holiday is celebrated.
The national cuisine of Azerbaijan always abides by centuries-old traditions, while the spring nuances of oriental dishes are the yet sparing sun and the awakening land help young herbs and vegetables to grow juicy, spicy, sweet or ‘with a touch of bitterness’. honey, select walnuts and hazelnuts, village eggs, perfect spices, as well as different additives which render any many unique recipes among which are those of ‘rakhatlukum’, ‘gozinaki’, ‘noghul’, jellied fruits and other “sweet fairy-tales” of Azerbaijan cookery which can stay fresh, soft and exquisite in appearance. You can taste the dishes of Azerbaijan cuisine listed in this article in almost any restaurant or kebab house, particularly in Baku, the capital city.
Hospitable owners and cooks will offer you the best menu of the season and will always wish you “Noosh olsoon! ” The Azerbaijani autumn brings health. This effect is also largely promoted by subtropical plants, the fruits of which are sparingly supplied to markets because when ripe this tender masterpiece of gardening art is balmy drink – none other than date-plums. There are nearly two hundred kinds of persimmon, of which only 4 or 5 are cultivated as garden residents. The best sort – the so-called ‘korolyok’ – is popular not only for its sugary pulp, but also for its magical salubrious qualities. Be aware that round and solid fruits of quince conceal magical qualities of southern gardens.
They are covered with thin velvet bloom and are hard to chew on, but once processed, quince is irreplaceable for tea-drinking. It is also indispensable as an ingredient for garnishing meat dishes, or for cooking special diet dishes. Condensed quince juice is used both as a sauce and as a panacea against anemia. Seeds and leaves of quince are also medicinal, as their aqueous tincture enfeebles and stops more popular than imported bananas, pineapples and coconuts. They are successfully replaced by kiwi, feijoa, walnuts and chestnuts. Larisa Javanshir UNWTO Global Report on Food Tourism 27 Brazil and its Paths of Flavour There are many ways of knowing the soul of a people.
One of the most fascinating is, without a doubt, the gastronomy. The art of combining foods and seasonings, the rituals of preparing and serving, the pleasure of being together by the dining table, all of that is part of the much wider universe of this cultural heritage, this never ending set of values that determine our identity. It is exactly because of that, that gastronomy, besides being a competitive differential for tourism, is one of the tools that reveal the characteristics, traces, and culture of a people. Tourism, one of the most growing activities in the whole President of National Administrative Council, Brazilian Association of Bars and Restaurants (ABRASEL) ourism – by focusing its attention on valuing physical and intangible heritage, restoring traditions and preserving and spreading the symbols of national identity – is capable of opening borders for different investments and businesses. Few nations in the world have the privilege of having a culinary with such abundance of raw material, products, seasonings and aromas. Nature was generous with Brazil. We have some of the most beautiful natural scenarios of the planet, that helped create our country. Our gastronomy is a rare combination of simplicity and exoticism, with traces of the identity of a one-of-a-kind culture. The discovery of Brazil is a never-ending adventure. The continental enormity of the country divides it into regions with clearly distinct gastronomic characteristics.
In a simple way, it can be highlighted the gastronomy from the North/ Central-West, from the Northeast and from the South/ Southeast. In the North/Central-West regions, the intensity of the forests and rivers result in a great variety of exotic ingredients, diverse region’s tourist destinations related to nature, the Amazon Forest and the Pantanal – very exclusive ecosystems that are highly preserved – are strongly explored. The Forest and the Pantanal are certainly two of the biggest natural attractions of the country. Mother Nature was especially generous with the Brazilian Northeast region. There are three thousand kilometres of 28 UNWTO Global Report on Food Tourism the most beautiful beaches of clear and warm water, blessed with a permanent summer.
In each state of the Northeast, elements of African, indigenous, and European origins are joined in an explosion of sounds, richest Brazilian gastronomies, symbol of the hospitality of a people of simple soul and chanted speech. Much more than the basic trilogy of sun, beach and sea food, the Northeast is a region that has already consolidated its touristic calling and explores with originality its traditions and typical products. On this aspect, it should be highlighted the appropriation by the coastal culinary of elements of the countryside cooking, putting side by side gains more importance with the development of highly elaborated products for the Brazilian’s and the foreign tourist’s tastes.
However, so many gastronomic values reunited, such diversity and gigantic harmony existing between cultural heritage and Brazil? s natural beauties may be useless if there is no safety in the production chain related to the food and beverage in the country. The Brazilian Government authorities are permanently concerned with the patterns of Food Safety of all that is served to its resident population as well as to the foreign tourists that are either visiting or on business in Brazil. The rules of surveillance and control in Brazil are comprehensive and strict, but knowing this is not enough for us. It is necessary that countries they visit or work safety criteria acknowledged internationally.
This acknowledgement will guarantee that international tourists can travel from country to country consuming the local food with tranquillity at the same time that they feel that their health is not in jeopardy. ABRASEL – The Brazilian Association for Bars and Restaurants is committed to assisting and developing these international criteria with special concern regarding important international sports events that will be hosted in a near future in our country. The FIFA World Cup in 2014 and the Olympic Games in 2016 will certainly help to disseminate the greatness of Brazilian gastronomy and the beauty and diversity of our tourist attractions. abrasel. com. br colonizers was highlighted: Portuguese, Italians, Germans and Arabs.
Each of them lent to Brazilians ingredients and techniques that were developed here and allowed great part of the diverse gastronomy that characterizes us. Born in the South, the Gaucho barbecue spread all over the country and became a product of export, becoming one of the most recognized strengths of the Brazilian gastronomy abroad. In the countryside of the Southeast region, the culinary from Minas Gerais and Sao Paulo are mixed with subtle borders, resulting in different, outstanding and highly representative dishes of the Brazilian gastronomy and its culture. Our Caipirinha deserves special attention – important mark of the Brazilian intangible heritage and an internationally recognized icon.
Every year the production of Cachaca UNWTO Global Report on Food Tourism 29 The Egyptian food tourism experience Consumption is an integral aspect of the tourism experience, with the tourist consuming not only the sights and sounds, but also the taste of a place. Nearly all tourists eat out when they into another culture as it allows an individual to experience the “other” on a sensory level, beyond the purely intellectual. Locally produced food is a fundamental component of a destination’s attributes, adding to the range of attractions and the overall tourist experience. This makes food an essential constituent of tourism production as well as consumption.
Furthermore, eating out is a growing form of leisure where meals are consumed not out of necessity but for pleasure, and the atmosphere and occasion are part of the leisure experience as much as the food itself. However, for tourists, eating out can both be a necessity and a pleasure. While some tourists dine simply to satisfy their hunger, others will head for a particular restaurant to experience the local food and cuisine, because it forms an important component of their travel itinerary. The growth of eating out as a form of consumption and the market forces of globalization have made the food products and cuisines from all over the world more accessible. This has stimulated the emergence of food as a popular topic in magazines, radio shows and television, with food shows focusing on travel and travel shows on food.
In fact, the popularity of 24 hour television channels, such as Fatafeet devoted to food and its origins intertwines food with tourism so much that quite often it is hard to determine whether one is watching a food show or a travel show. Such developments have spurred an interest in experiencing the unique and indigenous food, food products and cuisines of a destination, so much so that people can cuisines or to taste the dishes of its “celebrity chef”. A very good example would be Gulf Tourists coming to Cairo in Ramadan to enjoy the unique food and atmosphere during the holy months in Egypt. Very often, tour operators tend to include a visit to Khan El Khalili in all Cairo schedules in order for tourists to enjoy oriental food and a unique atmosphere. From an economic point of view, nearly 100% of tourists spend money on food at their destination.
Data shows that restaurant operators Egyptian Tourism Authority 30 UNWTO Global Report on Food Tourism reported that tourists are important to their business. This suggests that tourists’ food consumption makes a substantial contribution to the local restaurants, dining places, and food industry, and thereby the destination’s economy. In an increasingly competitive tourism marketplace, every region or destination is on a constant search for a unique product to differentiate itself from other destinations. Local food or cuisines that are unique to an area are one of the distinctive resources that may be used as marketing tool to attract more visitors.
The growth of special interest tourism is seen as a of the early 21st century leisure society. Post-modern tourism is slowly moving away from the traditional tourism attractions to being a part of an overall lifestyle that corresponds to people’s daily lives and activities. The growth of culinary tourism is seen as an outcome of this trend, as well as peoples’ tendency to spend much less time cooking, but choose to pursue their interest in food as part of a leisure experience such as watching cooking shows, dining out etc. Thus culinary tourism is a special interest for the tourist travel behavior and falls on the upper end of the food tourism interest continuum.
The culinary tourist is also a cultural tourist. Thus, the obvious overlap of food as a special interest component as well as a cultural component makes the culinary tourist possibly both a special tourist and a cultural tourist. A survey of Special Interest Tours on the internet demonstrates that there are numerous tour operators conducting culinary tours all over the world. The culinary Cooking school holidays, Dining at restaurants famous for their local cuisines or their celebrity chefs and visiting food markets, Visiting food producers with tours specially related to just one product. Most culinary tours include a combination of all three types.
In addition to the annual and periodical Culinary Awards Conferences that take place worldwide. Food is now listed as one of the components of cultural tourism, implying that food is representative of a culture. One of the dominate approaches in the social sciences used to explain food consumption is the cultural approach, with the others being economic and the psychological. With respect to tourism, even though tourists come across potentially unfamiliar foods to a greater degree at the destination than they would at home, globalization with its time and space compression has permitted more people to experience ethnic and foreign foods at their home.
Finally and as previously stated, in an increasingly competitive world of tourism marketing, where destinations look for unique selling propositions in positioning themselves, there is nothing more unique than the foods and cuisines based on locally-produced food in each destination. egypt. travel UNWTO Global Report on Food Tourism 31 Food and wine tourism in Georgia There is a strong direct link between gastronomy and tourism, and gastronomy’s role in the development of niche travel is becoming even more important. When it comes to Georgia, gastronomy plays an extremely important role in the way tourists experience the destination, and for that matter some travellers return for the sole reason of savouring the unique and diverse gastronomy the country has to offer.
Therefore, it would be well substantiated to assert that gastronomy is one of the key elements of our destination’s brand image. The enjoyment of good food and drink should not be underestimated; nowadays, there is a greater appreciation of how quality food and drink contribute to individual/societal wellbeing; Georgia is making all-out efforts to gain a niche in the highly competitive global tourism market, and is keen to assert itself as an attractive destination for gastronomy tourists. From ancient times agriculture has played a major role in Georgia, and to this day it remains one of the most promising sectors of Georgia’s economy. Forty-four percent of Georgia’s total area is considered to be agricultural.
The country’s agricultural production is diverse, including viticulture, cereal production, and a wide range of vegetables, fruits, nuts, livestock, dairy, citrus and tea. Wheat and corn along with the milk and dairy sector are particularly strong, with the regions of the country. Georgia’s diverse climatic conditions and natural resource endowment allow production of a wide variety of agricultural products and favour the competitive development of the sector. Agriculture, apart from being crucial for economic development, is an essential element of Georgian culture. No agriculture means no cuisine; agriculture plays an essential role in keeping the beautiful landscapes of this country alive which constitute the major assets that tourists appreciate and value when arriving to Georgia.
Georgia boasts the oldest, continuous, unbroken tradition of wine making in the world which stretches back 8,000 years. In fact it is said to be the birthplace of wine. Many say that the generic word ‘wine’ stems from the Georgian word ‘gvino’. Over 500 indigenous grape varieties are still cultivated here. The warm climate and moist air rising from the Black Sea provide the perfect conditions for the cultivation of grapevines. After many centuries of perfecting the tradition, it is not surprising that Georgian wines – Saperavi, Tsinandali, Mukuzani, Teliani, Napereuli are exquisite. Winemaking remains a vital part of Georgian Georgian National Tourism Administration 32 UNWTO Global Report on Food Tourism culture and national identity.
Georgian families throughout the country grow their own grapes and produce wine the old-fashioned way, by placing grape juice in underground clay jars, or kvevri, topped with a wooden lid, covered and sealed with earth, to ferment during the winter. In Georgia, the food, just like wine, is quite reasonably an expression of the culture. Georgian cuisine, like those of other countries, varies from region to region. A when traveling east to west. Each historical province of Georgia has its own distinct culinary tradition, such as, for example, Megrelian, Kakhetian, or Imeretian cuisines
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