Approximately 80% of people who experience depression are currently not receiving any treatment. This statistic Is sad because depression Is one of the most treatable Illnesses. If treated with the proper medication and or therapy, 80% to 90% will find relief. By the year 2020, depression will be the second most common health problem in the world (SYS). I believe depression to be a very Interesting topic because as common as depression is, there is still a stigma attached to “being depressed. ” I currently suffer from depression and would like to know more about it and the different treatments that are available.
In this study, I will explain, discuss, and elaborate upon the point of view, assumptions, strengths, and weaknesses of the biological perspective on depression. The biological perspective focuses on how the brain functions and the influence of genetics on behavior. Therefore, the biological perspective explains depression as it relates to the functions of the brain. There are roughly ten million cells, called neurons, In your brain and each neuron connects to another neuron. When the connection is made, it is in the form of an electrical impulse which travels down the connections between neurons.
The neurons that carry these electrical impulses contain small gaps called synapses. These are important because they allow electrical activity, and hence brain functioning, to take place. In order for an impulse (or message) to go from one neuron across the synapse to another neuron. A number of important enzymes, called neurotransmitters, have to come into play. In total there six different groups of neurotransmitters and each one is specific to a particular type of brain cell. From the point of view of depression, the main neurotransmitters are serotonin and noradrenalin, sometimes called morphogenesis Priest).
When we are depressed, physical changes take place within our bodies. The most Important of these changes takes place within the brain. It Is on this basis that depression is considered a physical illness, rather than merely something psychological or something that exists only in the imagination or perception of the ‘OFF sufferer (Pretest). I nerve Is a null degree AT variation among people Walt depression In terms of symptoms, course of illness, and response to treatment, indicating that depression may have a number of complex and interacting causes.
These varying actors pose a major challenge to researchers attempting to understand and treat the disorder (Psych Central). However, recent advances in research technology are bringing National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) scientists closer than ever before to characterizing the biology and physiology of depression in its different forms and to the possibility of identifying effective treatments for individuals based on symptom presentation.
People who suffer from depression have low levels of these two neurotransmitters, and this is thought to lead to the main symptoms of low mood, owe-energy, depressed outlook on life, disturbed sleep and a low drive or arousal which relates back to the definition of depression. The strengths of the biological perspective that relate to depression are the fact that depression is mainly a result of low levels of certain neurotransmitters. Another reason could be an imbalance of hormones, which would explain why nearly twice as many women as men are affected by a depressive illness each year.
The influence of hormones on depression in women has been an active area of NIMH research. One recent study was the first to demonstrate that the troublesome depressive mood wings and physical symptoms of premenstrual syndrome (MS), a disorder affecting 3% to 7% of menstruating women, results from an abnormal response to normal hormone changes during the menstrual cycle. The hormonal system that regulates the body response to stress is the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HAP) axis. It is overactive in many patients with depression.
The hypothalamus, the brain region responsible for managing hormone release from glands throughout the body, increases production of a substance called corporation releasing factor (CRY), when a threat to physical or psychological well-being is detected. Elevated levels and effects of CRY lead to increased hormone secretion by the pituitary and adrenal glands which prepares the body for defensive action. NIMH research suggests that persistent over activation of this hormonal system may lay the groundwork for depression.
The elevated CRY levels detectable in depressed patients are reduced by treatment with antidepressant drugs or ACT, and this reduction corresponds to improvement in depressive symptoms [ (Psych Central) In the sixties, the biological perspective became dominant due to numerous breakthroughs in genetics, psychopathology, neurophysiology, and brain research. Genetic research has also been able to show support that biological elements play a strong role in depression.
Close relatives of people who suffer from depression were found to be more susceptible to depression in comparison to people of the general population. There has been extensive research done on trying to identify the gene that causes depression. However, it has been hard to identify the gene and researchers feel that there are several genes that contribute to depression, meaning that each gene makes a small contribution. Psychopathology provides more evidence that the biological perspective is the primary Doctor In oppression. Ever ten past cache, targeted rug eagles NAS lea to significant advances in the pharmacological management of depression. In the sass the introduction of the selective serotonin eruptive inhibitors (Girls), into clinical medicine was heralded as the “first class” of antidepressants with a selective action on a key neurological target in depression, namely serotonin. The selective serotonin eruptive inhibitors (Girls) are the most widely used antidepressants cause they are easy to use, and their side effects are better tolerated than those of older antidepressants.
The most frequently used Girls are Florentine (Approach), serialize (Zloty), parenting (Paxar), and Catalonian (Clean). A newer antidepressant is ventilating (Officer), which is closely related to the Girls. Antidepressant medications take several weeks to be clinically effective even though they begin to alter brain chemistry with the very first dose. Research now indicates that antidepressant effects result from slow-onset adaptive changes within the neurons.
The fact that a depressed person can take an antidepressant and feel better proves that depression is mainly the result of the biological perspective [ (“Pharmacology and Depression” Pumped. Gob) Neurophysiology is a branch of clinical psychology that studies how the brain and nervous system affect how we function on a daily basis. Unlike the use of normalizing techniques such as MR., CT scans and Egg’s where the focus is on nervous system structures, neurophysiology seeks to understand how the various components of the brain are able to do their Jobs.
Clinical neurophysiology makes SE of various assessment methods to ascertain function and dysfunction and applies this knowledge to evaluate, treat, and rehabilitate individuals with suspected or demonstrated neurological or psychological problems [ (Rightful. Com) In the past decade, there have been significant advances in our ability to investigate brain function at multiple levels. The National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) is collaborating with various scientific disciplines to effectively utilize the tools of molecular and cellular biology and genetics.
Modern brain imaging technologies re revealing that in depression, neural circuits responsible for the regulation of moods, thinking, sleep, appetite, and behavior fail to function properly, and that critical neurotransmitters, chemicals used by nerve cells to communicate, are perhaps out of balance [ (Psych Central) The weaknesses of the biological perspective are that it does not take into account your environment, society, and culture. The behavioral perspective explains mental illness as a learned response to stimuli. From a behavioral perspective, learning theorists assume that depression and the lack of reinforcement are related.
Most researchers think that depression results from an interaction between the person’s biological characteristics and psychological vulnerability and the occurrence of stressful events in his or her life [ (Huckleberry) The socio-cultural perspective describes depression as the result of social, economic, and cultural factors. Strong evidence of this is shown among people living in poverty. In addition, there are other factors, such as today’s high rate of unemployment and victims of social disasters like war. In ten manliest perspective, a person’s Taller to Tina meaning In Tie or to lawful their potential can be attributed to depression.
Abraham Mascot was an American psychologist who was best known for his theory of human motivation, which led to a therapeutic technique known as self-actualization. Mascot proposed that an individual is motivated by a hierarchy of needs. A humans basic needs must be met before higher ones can be satisfied. Arranged in order from lowest to highest in a hierarchy, the needs are physiological (satisfaction of hunger and thirst), safety (security), belongingness and love (being loved, avoiding loneliness), esteem achievement, recognition, self-esteem), self-actualization (realization of one’s full potential).
Mascot also believed that the achievement of self-actualization is often marked by peak experiences, feelings of incredible peace and happiness in the course of life activities. When these, hierarchy of needs that Mascot talks about are not met like being lonely, having low self esteem, and not reaching ones full potential in correlation with the biological factors, you have a recipe for depression. Carl Rogers, a clinical psychologist, used the theory of self-concept, which he defined as n organized pattern of perceived characteristics along with the values attached to those attributes.
He also assumed that within each individual there is a biological drive toward growth of self-concept, which can ultimately lead to self-actualization. Rogers believed that while children’s self-concept is developing, they may internalize conditions of worth, Judgments about the kinds of behaviors that will bring approval from others. He felt that to promote growth and development, parents and authority figures should give a child unconditional acceptance and love, which allows a child to evolve self-acceptance and to achieve self-actualization.
To help his clients get back on the road to self-actualization, he developed a therapeutic approach called client- centered therapy, in which the therapist offers the client unconditional positive regard by supporting the client regardless of what is said. The warm, sympathetic therapeutic environment allows the client to be freed of internalized conditions of worth and to resume the self-actualization process [ (Huckleberry) In conclusion, by exploring the different psychological perspectives, I had to take y blinders off in order gain a greater understanding of depression and how it relates to the perspectives.
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