Management Unit 6 Study Note: Leadership Leading Basics Leadership: The process of inspiring others to work hard to accomplish important tasks * One of the four functions that constitute the management process * Planning: sets direction and objectives * Organizing: brings resources together and turn plans into action * Leading: builds the commitments and enthusiasm needed to accomplish plans Controlling: makes sure things turns out right
Vision: A term used to describe a clear sense of the future Visionary Leadership: Brings to the situation a clear sense of the future and an understanding of how to get there * Visionary leaders inspire others to take the actions necessary to turn vision into reality Power: The ability to convince someone else to do something you want, your way. Position Power: Temporary forms of power such as reward power, coercive power, and legitimate power.
Personal Power: Permanent forms of power such as expert power and referent power Reward Power: Rewarding good behavior with compliments or assets Coercive Power: Deterring bad behavior with punishments or negative feedback Legitimate Power: Applying good behavior through the use of authority and rights of office Expert Power: Supporting good behavior through example, advice, and experience Referent Power: Inspiring good behavior through personal respect, integrity, and admiration Keys to Developing Position Power: Centrality: Establishing a broad network of contacts and getting involved with important information flows * Criticality: Taking good care of others * Visibility: Becoming known as an influential person Empowerment: The process through which managers enable and help others to gain power and achieve influence. Important Leadership Traits: * Drive * Self-confidence * Creativity * Cognitive ability * Business knowledge * Motivation * Flexibility * Honesty and integrity
Effective Leaders: Provide information, responsibility, authority, and trust. They encourage others to take initiative, make decisions, utilise knowledge. Task Concerns: * Plans and defines work to be done * Assigns task responsibilities * Sets clear work standards * Urges task completion * Monitors performance results People Concerns: * Acts warm and supportive toward followers * Develops social rapport with followers * Respects the feelings of followers * Is sensitive to followers’ needs * Shows trust in followers
Leadership Styles Blake/ Mouton Leadership Grid: * Team Management: High task concern; high people concern * Authority-Obedience Management: High task concern; low people concern * Country Club Management: High people concern; low task concern * Impoverished Management: Low task concern; low people concern. * Middle of the Road Management: Non-committal for both task concern and people concern Hersey-Blanchard: Leadership theory that calls for adjustments of styles for per situation.
Delegating: Low-task, low-relationship style that works best in high readiness-situations Participating: Low-task, high-relationship style that works best in low- to moderate-readiness situations Selling: High-task, high-relationship style that works best in moderate- to high-readiness situations Telling: High-task, low-relationship style that works best in low-readiness situations Fiedler Contingency Model: Good leadership is based on leadership style (task or relationship otivated) and situational demands (member relations, task structure, position power) Task – Oriented Leader: Leader that focuses on task completion. Strong in high control situations but weak in low control situations Relationship – Oriented Leader: Leader that focuses on employee relationships. They are strongest in middle control situations. House Path Goal Leadership: * Directive Leadership: When job assignments are ambiguous. * Supportive Leadership: When worker self-confidence is low. * Participative Leadership: When performance incentives are poor. Achievement-Oriented Leadership: When task challenge is insufficient Readiness: How ready, willing, and able employees are in performing tasks. Substitutes for Leadership: Factors in the work setting that direct work efforts without the involvement of a leader * Subordinate: Ability, experience, independence * Task Characteristics: Routine, availability of feedback * Organizational Characteristics: Clarity of plans and formalization of rules and procedures Charismatic Leaders: Develop special leader-follower relationships and inspire others in extraordinary ways.
Vroom-Jago Leader-Participation Model: designed to help a leader choose the method of decision making that best fits the nature of the problem being faced. In this model, the best leader is someone able to choose and implement the most appropriate decision methods. * Authoritative decision – made by leader * Consultative decision – made by leader with help of group * Group decision – made by group members through participation Works best when: -leader lacks sufficient info -problem is unclear acceptance of others is necessary for implementation -adequate time is available to allow for true participation Transformational Leadership: Someone who is truly inspirational as a leader and who arouses others to seek extraordinary performance accomplishments. * Vision * Charisma * Symbolism * Empowerment * Intellectual stimulation * Integrity Transactional Leadership: Someone who is methodical as a leader and keeps others focused on progressing toward goal accomplishment.
Emotional Intelligence: The ability to manage ourselves and our relationships effectively Male Leadership: Men tend to use transactional leadership Female Leadership: Women tend to use interactive leadership, a style that shares qualities with transformational leadership and behaviors. Ethical Leadership: * Integrity: The leader’s honesty, credibility, and consistency in putting values into action. Crucial for transformational leadership and good old-fashioned leadership. * Moral Obligation: Awaken people’s potential, instill high expectations and let others do their best.
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