Interdisciplinary Journal of Research in Business Vol. 1, Issue. 9, (pp. 01- 06) September, October, 2011 The Role of Television Advertising and Its Effects on Children Amin Asadollahi1 Student of PhD Marketing Management, Science and Research Branch Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran Email: [email protected] com Neda Tanha Student of advertising and Marketing, University of Applied Sciences, Tehran, Iran Email: [email protected] com ABSTRACT The prevalence of obesity and the growing increase of obesity in children with the academic, political and social issue has been.
TV ads show a significant relationship between consumption) advertised brands, b) a variety of high-energy foods advertised, c) all the food there. Most children are aware of the intention, but the ads are skills that do not use them unless explicitly noted that the response should be. Policymakers, consumers and those involved with organizations related to children’s services can be more powerful to have kids. Beginning with a powerful strategy to enhance food safety information between children and their families at the start and then focus on increasing children’s consumer skills.
Keywords: Television Advertising, Perception, Children, Foodstuffs INTRODUCTION If the TV to a (public university) can be interpreted that all segments of the population of each age range who are under the covers, not of fortune. Hence it is necessary to direct its programs to be more investment. TV should not be considered as a source of income if you think that the media is the most important. For lack of the necessary costs of functions that are expected to have a media will have a negative effect.
Perhaps one of the major pests that lurk in the media sat on this topic is the creation of private television. (Power) and (capitalistic) are two large chains of many large and small have turned to captive So chances are the custodians of authoritarian capitalist and some high And assuming that some of them are innocent of power and capitalism ,There are people around the powerful and the media to focus on the desired direction. So probably the custodians of these chains are held consciously or unconsciously . It seems the idea is to follow the great danger that should remain unaware of it.
The arrangements with regard to the prevalence of obesity in childhood are increasing worldwide Large and important role in the TV ads for food has been distributed. (Boyland et al. , 2008, 780). The prevalence of obesity and the growing increase of obesity in children with the academic, political and social issue have been. Among the various factors identified as possible reasons for the rise in childhood obesity Trends such as changes in leisure activities and knowledge of nutrition, growth in television advertising is especially important for children.
Unintended effects of advertising on children include: Ask the children, materialism, and take note of despair, dissatisfaction with family life and the conflict is. Unintended effects of advertising on children from early 1970 began the second half of this decade; the rate reached its peak and has declined over the past few years. Research shows a decline from 1980. The reclamation research and advertising effects on children (Especially today’s kids are more vulnerable to advertising) and the two decades prior to the advertising business has increased significantly.
Advertise on this ideology that developed the property and assets are important and critical quality like beauty; success and happiness are attainable only with acquiring material possessions. The results of these promotions to increase demand for purchase by children and indirectly increase the child’s parents are fighting. The ads lack the purchasing power of parents, or refuse to cause unhappiness and discomfort in children are buying.
Advertising products customized with a world full of beautiful people show in the real world while their children are compared with the ideal world and conflict in the world because they are unhappy. Younger children than older children are at risk of complications ads. I understand they have less 1 . Corresponding Author: Amin Asadollahi, Department of Business Management, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran, E-mail: [email protected] com 1 Interdisciplinary Journal of Research in Business Vol. 1, Issue. , (pp. 01- 06) September, October, 2011 and less power can have a critical view And secondly, their demands can not delay it more than other traditional groups with parents are involved In addition, smaller children can not express their wishes to take advantage of logical techniques While older children and the desire to express the logic of the techniques they use And why the younger children to show their anger more And also create more conflict. Also shown that boys more girls are persisting in their demands and more parents are involved with.
Male children are spending more violence, while girls are more polite and often are expressed to apply to the purchase offer. Apart from that conflict between parents and children in the family about the purchase occurs. Another problem is that kids tend to play with toys with their friends spend their time advertised On the other hand instead of his good friends and that it lacks a certain kind of toys they are willing Occasional bad friends are certain that the toys they play The issue of discrimination in society and their friends will cause a forced choice.
These three forms of physical aggression, verbal and psychological effects on children caused by children tend to imitate the movements of athletes or models. Are inconsistent with the terms of the gender because usually the role of women in advertising and men as agents of grade 2 are shown in Table 1. And play a major role in advertising is more often the men present. Most women in terms of cleaning, etc. . . . Deal while most men in the great outdoors and responsibilities are shown.
REVIEW OF THE RELATED LITERATURE Television, Children and Advertising Via the magic of television deals to broadcast program which can have profound effects on the developing world and the children to change their lives. No doubt with the development of new networks and satellite television in the world scene, the children will be more vulnerable to the effects of various television In other words, the potential impact of the television spectrum can be put on their young viewers, with the widespread application of this media has become more widespread.
After the family television programs and personalities of the most important factors in forming a child’s education is one Television teacher is a powerful, yet dangerous. Imitation, along with the concept, personality development and behavioral problems, the effects of television on children is a special way into his mind.
When watching TV programs are on track and learning programs offered via television, the unconscious is far, Children are not aware that their behavior and the behavior of others are acquired, the effectiveness of television can be considered as One of the most important aspect of watching TV programs about the impact of TV ads has been a lot of viewers, especially children Television as the most influential instrument of mass communication, is considered most suitable by the Propaganda In view of the world’s population, mostly young people communicate with the outside world through television, the most important means of mass communication that we seek. Television advertising The media, commercials, and its overall meaning and types of advertising messages that the employer pay for a certain time of the broadcast will be available.
TV advertising in recent years have had very progressive and growing, Apart from their relative, the most important sources of information on cultural, economic and social trends among And significant influence on the formation of patterns of intellectual, emotional and behavioral audience, especially children, have. Poor-Norooz (1377). The research, to analyze the content of television advertisements, especially children, is in Iran. His first TV ads the content of the nine categories of children: toys, safety, education, social hygiene, food, educational materials, refreshments, games and clothing distribution sites During the six-month period after it has been investigated. Based on the findings, related to advertising junk food and toys, and most game sites and educational materials, to have the least playing time.
Also, the advertisements related to the edible material, which has the largest share of ads that are not nutritious and role in physical growth and nutrition of their children. Interestingly, none of your bread, dairy products, fruit and fruit juice (effects on growth and nutrition of children) is not present in the samples. Also, half of the junk food advertisements, to promote various types of chocolate and ice cream puff and a third of them have been assigned. However, high levels of salt and a puff of sweetened chocolate and ice cream because of the high Food is not good. Instead of thinking about the study, even a TV ad on health issues, there is no the dental care to children to educate.
The effect of television advertising on children The researchers performed many studies have concluded that watching television advertising, on attitudes, life style and consumption pattern of the behavior of the audience, including children, affected. However, the effect of the various factors such as age, Social class, economic, message presentation, family structure and 2 Interdisciplinary Journal of Research in Business Vol. 1, Issue. 9, (pp. 01- 06) September, October, 2011 relationships governing the time watching television. For example, children who are at an early age because of limited cognitive abilities, the reality of what they think of television viewing and much closer to reality television programs that children know of content that are most affected.
Accordingly, the effectiveness of children’s age and years of TV ads, most children that age are high. There are also strong family relationships and causes children to be influenced by television programs. Parents with children studying the reality of online life that it can monitor and control, they are more aware of advertising and commercial purposes and the negative view about these programs is more critical than. While the relationships between family members that it is hostile, Children may achieve the advertised product, make life difficult for their parents . Affect the presentation of advertising messages are considered an important factor.
So if someone can confirm a great year for goods and services, View it with your children more likely to show having been advertised products Since young children in the diagnosis of non-reality reality Still have not found the necessary cognitive skills, Therefore, children programs and cartoons of famous personalities, young children can distinguish reality from fantasy in the wrong pockets And the perception that the advertisements are false. The intensity of these programs is more affected. Duration of exposure to advertisements, other factors affect them. Peruvian television viewers up pills than it is viewers not so serious, the impact of advertising is acceptSo that more attention to the show and to trust them and have a more positive attitude. Since advertising is rarely the main aspects and key production Such as materials used how to work and show the product price, the sale of a blower and non-misleading, and the consequences Has many negative consequences that are important: 1.
Parental pressure on children to buy advertised products and refuse to fulfill the wishes of their parents (The dream is more demand) and that conflict between parents and children leads to conflict. If parents refuse to buy goods in question, it would be sinful to their children, if you accede to the demands of parents and children, certainly the price they pay for a toy or food package, the price will be higher, because that’s what common sense would forbid it. 2. Another negative consequence of television advertising, consumption of food products such as candy and fruit juice is fresh. About 80 percent of the volume of television ads promoting these products makes up the children. All of this publicity, the belief that young children about nutrition and the impact of food.
Children can not understand that eating foods with high sugar levels, because weight gain and tooth decay is their (Newman, 1377). 3. Since most advertising, scenes from the life of the rich and affluent children can be displayed, without this, undesirable tendencies and trauma in the lives of other children who can afford it will not it may even make it to the crime and unethical behavior you have to seize it, to push. Critics of television advertising Critics of the ads are responsible for the problem of child obesity for promoting energy and food products that have relatively high fat and sugar and salt. So in many countries the demand for consumer and health organizations Policies to limit food advertising to children (Buijzen & et al. , 2007, 231).
Even more established groups in the feet And adopting new hypotheses and test them to come and prove their Food advertising in children’s programs are broadcast In violent behavior, disrespect, and stealing in children is effective Because these behaviors promoted in TV ads for food products is a view (Page & Brewster, 2009, 150). But what was of concern to all, in recent years the food and beverages to children and adolescents as a major force in the market has and thus they are now strongly and specifically target their advertising and marketing efforts are placed. Food marketers are interested in buying power among the youth because they are consumer products the direction of these techniques and multilateral channels to attract young people when they are young, they use Time to grow their brand and their food products in the future affect buying behavior. (Story & French, 2004, 14).
Food is one of the most important promotional goods and therefore attracts a lot of research efforts. (Zwier, 2009, 109) In the long-term investments that seek to Marketers and a stable market, relying Dependence on customers and their loyalty Their strategy to attract young people think it’s because The condition of their success to a life of its customer Kids also an important market for the missionaries offer Commercial and food are in direct contact 3 Interdisciplinary Journal of Research in Business Vol. 1, Issue. 9, (pp. 01- 06) September, October, 2011 Prices for products that taste good with children and adolescents is the money will be spent on children by their parents because they do.
In adolescents 8 to 17 years estimated that approximately 75% of adolescents and their families on food costs impact In addition, young children, the more likely Purchase directly to a consumer market are considered important . ( Powell et al. 2007, s253) To achieve this goal of marketing channels and techniques are certain that these channels are: Television advertising, advertising schools, kids clubs, internet, toys and products with the logo of a company (Story & French, 2004, 14) And advertising techniques, such as the award families who rejected these ads They were calling for a ban or restrictions on scope of work (Mehta et al. , 2010, 5).
But in the advertising and marketing on children’s interest It works for both physical and mental abuse that was followed Families, parents, nurses, and community governments were sensitive to this type of advertising As far as food manufacturers and their breeders, professional organizations, written and visual media, education and food and consumers have the ability to provide dietary patterns, disease prevention and health promotion is. (Lohman & Kant, 1998, 27). The story of television and advertising of foodstuffs Commercial food advertising to children is increasingly relying on the general 5: 1) A breakfast cereal 2) Sugar 3) Snack 4) Non-Alcoholic Beverages 5) Fast Food Restaurants, (Buijzen et al. , 2007, 232). With a short list of five can be important to realize Food advertising to children in the world was too sweet and fatty and are consistent with dietary recommendations. Story & French, 2004, 14) But because health has always been important, The major manufacturers also see ads from far left And build their physical and sporting activities, special attention has been And of course food and beverage ads that were related to physical activity and athletic ability Significantly more welcomed by the children were exposed to ads that were more entertaining aspects of the game. (Flot et al. , 2006, 244) But because of this sensitivity with special attention to health and the prevalence of obesity among children are around. To fully understand the relationship between advertising and food consumption patterns of children in need showing the relationship between advertising and food consumption in children and we try the following: 1) Advertised food brands 2) Different items are high-energy foods that are advertised 3) Consumption of all food products (Buijzen et al. , 2007, 235). Broadcast advertising can cause changes in food preferences and consumption rates for children and Increase the brand advertised.
This is often caused by the stimulus-response will explain the psychology of advertising Argues that advertising leads to awareness of advertised brands tend to be Mark is buying it and taking it (Ibid, 232) However you choose to display ads only lead to commercial brands and types of food intake does not increase But the ads are related to high-energy food products, Such hangs in the pattern of food advertising to children, they will increase the risk of obesity. (Ibid, 232) Explain the effect of stimulus – response to high energy consumption as a social learning theory as it appears Modeling the behaviors such as eating in advertisements that have been portrayed in the audience is led to similar behavior. Display ads can lead to the use of a particular brand, use of energy products and total food intake is increased (Ibid, 232). Effect on three levels Promoting food choices not only affect children’s food brands but they use different types of high-energy food products are developed.
Communication with proof of the theory of predictive effects of stimulus – response advertising, the effect of food advertising a particular brand to other brands of food that can be generalized 4 Interdisciplinary Journal of Research in Business Vol. 1, Issue. 9, (pp. 01- 06) September, October, 2011 (Ibid, 236). The more fatty foods children choose to include foods that contain carbohydrates between fatty foods and prefer the use of the advertised brand name is lost to Mark (Boyland & et al. , 2008, 760). However a small number of openly advertising their products as light manufacturing, have introduced a simple and low-fat That they are dedicated to those who are concerned about their weight and take care (Henderson & Kelly, 2005, 194).
However, food advertising goes to the side That promote unhealthy food such as chocolate chips and more healthy food such as vegetables and fruits are brought under their domination (Zwier, 2009,109). Family background At first glance, it seems, is that what parents feed their children are still the primary gatekeeper And overall financial costs they can control And the final purchase decisions are made in the world of buying and selling are also The amount of food available to children in the home control Like to eat snacks and determine what we have dinner tonight? But research shows that when shopping for children separated from their parents’ wishes and priorities are not important. It is understood that they will not even buy some food brands Children who do not like to bother them (Buijzen et al. 2007, 237). The family of one of the most important factors in predicting children’s consumption patterns. High-income families with children generally consume more food. And a variety of materials, energy and greater use of the advertised brands. Parents with high incomes than lowincome parents can afford to buy food are more Thus; in families with high power tend to buy more expensive food and beverage brands. In addition, higher income families are often both parents Employees. This makes it hard when they are And a strong desire to buy more food and be ready. Be higher in families with income, advertising significantly associated with food brands.
On the other hand, low-income families regardless of brand name products, only the amount of food and beverage advertising influences the pattern of low-income families with higher incomes are influenced by television advertising to justify the Children from families with high income (Ibid, 237). Despite the ads that their audiences are children According to the story of their age, character, visual, musical, musical, noisy and with the special effects (Mehta et al. , 2010, 5) But the children made their own banners and ads that do not matter adult And the range of ads when watching TV in the sight of them, are discussed The large volume of ads that are discussed are the ones who made exclusively for children (Ibid, 5).
Besides making television advertising professionals to grasp the way they, To overcome the effects of competition on the more eternal in the minds of consumers and their young, they Thus the stage to television advertising has become exaggerated feeling good, Fixation and dependence, the physical embodiment of a crime, deceit, theft and robbery, to get over the need for food and non-respectful behavior with adults (Page & Brewster, 2009, 105). Obtaining this information is not strange if we worry about Concepts that children will be broadcasted on TV ads for food, increased. Awareness of these issues as warning to officials and other supporters of child health and is instead Have a closer look at these issues (Ibid, 154). Lawyers and policy makers about the prevalence of food advertising and its potential impact on audience behavior, insight and gain more knowledge. (Henderson & Kelly, 2005, 191).
Food can also be studied by teaching critical thinking skills that may be associated Food advertising to help consumers (Ibid, 191) Despite what you would think the findings indicate that Relatively good level of awareness and understanding of children Even though you have no experience necessary Because of their lack of skills or knowledge are not sufficient to But what is certain and proven by scientific research, Is that children over 7 years of children ages 2 to 6 years of advertising are likely affected And children ages 7 to 11 years with the intention of the ads, but are aware of the skills that are not used Unless they are explicitly to be reminded that you have a reaction (Mehta et al. , 2010, 5). Children between 10 and 12 years promoting and producing ads to those who are aware of the sensitive but not (Ibid, 5). CONCLUSION Children are more vulnerable to advertising. Different laws in different countries to limit the number of ads used to be, kind, Content and timing of the broadcast ad covers For example, advertisements for toys for children to play in Greece is limited to late night hours Australia and Belgium, and in advertisements broadcast during children’s broadcasts A few minutes before it is banned.
Some researchers believe that it is better to limit excessive advertising Products to raise awareness of parents of children and to discuss with them about products and promotions the researchers say understanding the power to limit excessive growth of advertising and the guys decide to delay. Ways to protect children against advertising is to review and update. The substitution of digital television in the near future I can easily while watching the TV screen by pressing a key to enter the Internet world in the world of digital TV, which will replace the TV for the kids there will be no other limit and children will have free 5 Interdisciplinary Journal of Research in Business Vol. 1, Issue. 9, (pp. 01- 06) September, October, 2011 access to any kind of advertising.
New technology also allows advertisers to extensive information watching habits of children in the media to obtain and thus make them more targeted. So parents and teachers should increase the will power and self-esteem in children, so bring the kids once I see ads that are part of the economy, society correctly imagined to be the means of advertising. Techniques and methods of advertising to children should be taught and developed the power to judge and criticize them. The ad can not promote, or sell their goods to attract customers. It can only draw attention to the customer, to persuade him to buy. If the buyer has enough information to evaluate the ads and advertisers.
In general we can say the main criticisms against television advertising on children include: 1 – Unlimited and uncontrolled effects of advertising on children 2 – Promote consumerism and false needs 3 – Disorders of children on the farm and Health 4 – Create gender discrimination REFERENCE 1. Bergler, R (1999) the Effects of Commercial Advertising on Children. Commercial Communications, January: 41-48. 2. Bjurstrom, E (1994) Barn och TV-reklam: En introduction till forskningen on TV-reklamens paverkan pa barn [Children and television advertising: An introduction to the research on the effects TV commercials have on Children]. Stockholm: Konsumentverket (Rapport; 29). 3. Boyland, E. J. , Harrold, J. A. , Kirkham, T. C. , J. C. G. Halford. (2008) « Does television food advertising affect children’s food preferences? » Appe te, 51, 751-764. 4. Buijzen, M. , Schuurman, J. , E. , Bomhof. 2008) « Associations between children’s television advertising exposure and their food consumption patterns: A household diary–survey study» Appe te, 50, 231–239. 5. Consumers International (1999) Easy Targets: A Survey of Television Food and Toy Advertising to Children in Four Central European Countries. 6. Folta, S. C. , Goldberg, J. P. , Economos, C. , Bell, R. , R. , Meltzer. (2006) « Food Advertising Targeted at School-Age Children: A Content Analysis » J Nutr Educ Behav, 38, 244-248. 7. Goldstein, J (1998) Children and Advertising – The Research. Commercial Communications, July: 4-7. 8. Gunther, Barry, McCarthy chlorine, Jill (1380). Children and Television. Nusrat Fata translation. Soroush. Tehran. . Henderson, V. R. & Kelly, B. (2005) « Food Advertising in the Age of Obesity: Content Analysis of Food Advertising on General Market and African American Television » J Nutr EducBehav, 37, 191-196. 10. Hosseini, Negin (1385). Fighting for children’s television. Information. Tehran. 11. Kinnucan, H. W. , (2003) «Optimal generic advertising in an imperfectly Competitive food industry with variable proportions» Agricultural Economics, 29,143–158. 12. Lohmann, J. , A. , Kant. (1998) «Effect of the Food Guide Pyramid on Food Advertising» JNE, 30, 23-28. 13. Mehta, K. , Coveney, J. , Ward, P. , Magarey, A. , Spurrier, N. , T. , Udell. (2010) 14. Australian children’s views about food advertising on television» Appe te, 970, 1-7. 15. Newman, and Philip Newman, Barbara (Winter 1377). The effects of television on children’s growth. Ismail Biabangard translation. Research and Evaluation, numbers 15 and 16. 16. Page, R. M. & Brewster, A. (2009) «Depiction of Food as Having Drug-like Properties in Televised Food Advertisements Directed at Children: Portrayals as Pleasure Enhancing and Addictive» Journal of Pediatric Health Care, 23, 154-157. 17. Pejman Arash (Spring 1381). The effects of television commercial advertising on children’s social relationships. Research and Evaluation. 29. 18. Pour March, Manijeh (Winter 1377).
Content analysis of television advertisements, especially children, research and evaluation. 15 and 16. 19. Powell, L. M. , Szczypka, G. , F. J. , Chaloupka. (2007) «Adolescent Exposure to Food Advertising on Television» American Journal of Prevent ve Medicine, 33, s251-s256. 20. Saatatmand, Zohreh. (Fall 1376). The effects of television on children and adolescents. Education. 5. 21. Story, M. & French, S. , (2004) «Food Advertising and Marketing Directed at Children and Adolescents in the US» International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 1, 1-17. 22. Zwier, S. (2009) «Medicalisation of food advertising. Nutrition and health claims inmagazine food advertisements 1990–2008» Appetite, 53, 109–113. 6
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