We live in a marketing and media-driven world. Any organization involved in the leisure and tourism business; arts centers, museums, sports clubs and small hotels to the largest theme parks, airlines and cruise companies, is interested in advertising. Many companies think that they should cut expenditure on advertising and redirect it into sales promotions, direct mail, public relations and other forms of marketing communications. Advertising is not an expensive but, rather, is a strategic activity which should be regarded as an investment in the product or brand.
Reducing advertising spend may yield short-term savings but may well lead to long-term loss of market share. In the late 1970s Adidas cut advertising spend on its sports shoes and found that the brand was not strong enough to maintain market share in the face of new competitors. It has struggled to recover its former position. Advertising must be sustained to maintain a brand’s market presence since people only buy those products they talk about. “Out of sight is out of mind for the customer” Effective advertising cannot guarantee success, but it certainly increases its chances.
Advertising plays an important and limited role within the process of marketing. Advertising has three basic objectives:
To inform customers about new products, experiences, services and other information that they need to be know.
To persuade customers to purchase a destination or product, to perceive a destination or product differently or change a brand preference (as an example to perhaps change a customer’s preference for a destination or change of accommodation at a destination) or,
To remind customers about a destination or product, where it may be purchased or how it may be purchased (booked). Good marketers see their business from the customer’s viewpoint and organize their entire enterprise to develop relationships with the customer based on trust. Marketing is the ability to develop a mix of marketing strategies to influence customers to buy products and services.
This mix consists of a set of four decisions: Product decisions, Pricing decisions, Distribution decisions, Promotional decisions. A product may be a tour package, an airline seat, a destination, a hotel, a meal. The product should provide benefits to the customer; the price ensures the product is priced at a level that reflects consumer value.
The distribution component ensures access to the product in the right place at the right time in sufficient quantities to meet customer needs.
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Advertising is only one element of the promotional mix. Advertising is defined and is taken to mean mass communication via newspapers, magazines, radio, television, billboards, the Internet, or direct-to-consumer communication via direct mail. Promotion: can be a short-term activity, but also, when seen at a strategic level, it is mid- and long-term investment aimed at building up a consistent and credible corporate or destination identity.
THE IMPORTANCE OF ADVERTISING IN TOURISM:
In the tourism and hospitality sectors, where the product is a “service” promotion is more vital than other industries. The tourism product is “intangible”, “inseparable”, “variable” and “perishable”. There is nothing tangible for the customer to examine beforehand or to take away afterwards. The service is inseparable from its production. The experience is variable and subject to factors beyond marketer’s control. The product is perishable and cannot be stored for sale.
The customer buys a holiday on the basis of symbolic expectations established promotionally through words, pictures, sounds . tc. Tourism experiences are constructed in our imagination through advertising and the media. The tourism product is also a discretionary (optional) product, which will be competing for both the customer’s time and money against essential items of expenditure and other discretionary purchases.
These 5 attributes “intangible”, “inseparable”, “variable”, “perishable” and “discretionary” mean that the skill in tourism and leisure marketing lies in creating the perceived value of the product. HOW ADVERTISING WORKS IN TOURISM AND LEISURE Advertising is a process of communication.
Ads should persuade and suggest things that the consumer may not previously have considered and the persuasion process is achieved through ads. Advertising must create immediate and measurable effects. When effective, advertising (communication) moves customers along a way from “awareness of a product” to “reinforcing post-purchase satisfaction”.
Stage 1: Awareness:
Target market to be aware of product.
Stage 2: Comprehension:
Potential customers to understand its features and benefits.
Stage 3: Acceptance:
Potential customers must decide that the product can meet their needs. Advertising plays a vital role here.
Stage 4: Preference:
Advertising must offer for Potential customers a compelling reason to think that the product meets their needs.
Stage 5: Purchase:
Advertising motivates customers to action or to buy the product. This objective is always linked to sales promotions.
Stage 6: Reinforcement:
To confirm customers’ choices and create a sense of satisfaction about their actions or purchase.
How Advertising Works?
4 key models are used in planning advertising today:
Sales response model: Sales response model is a very simple price-based model. It encourages the purchase of a product purely on the basis of its price.
Persuasion model: Persuasion model takes the advertisement as a starting point and if it is effectively compiled, its impact and message should persuade the audience that the product presented is the best one . Brand advantage is secured by highlighting a specific benefit of a product. Brand: product characteristics + added value.
Involvement Model: It aims to interest and engage the consumer. Once the interest is there, a relationship is created with the audience, to feel good about the product. The next step is the commitment to the product, resulting in increased sales.
Saliency model: It depends on innovative brand, product- awareness. It moves the audience emotionally closer to the brand product. It generates a feeling of “that product is for me”.
International Tourism Advertising
International tourism advertising is tourism-related marketing on the part of a private or public entity directed towards audiences abroad, and might target potential travelers and non-travelers alike. Wholly private firms such as travel agencies, hotel chains, cruise agencies, non-governmental organizations.
When planning tourism advertising it is essential to consider customer buying patterns when planning a holiday (even tourism industry staff). These are the usual steps for most people.
STEP 1: Type of holiday Usually the first question is “what type of holiday do we want? ” This may be a seaside holiday, a touring by car holiday, perhaps a fishing trip, a restful quiet break in a mountain retreat, a houseboat holiday or one of many other options.
STEP 2: Location “Where is the best place for our chosen type of holiday? Will it be within the same state, interstate, perhaps New Zealand? ”
STEP 3: Other activities “What else will we do while there? ” What other attractions or activities are available to enjoy? Other activities of appeal may be bushwalking, visiting wineries, playing golf, water skiing, river cruises, shopping, etc” While there may be a main reason for visiting a destination, usually customers want to know about other features.
STEP 4: Accommodation “Where shall we stay? ” “What options are there in type, standard and tariff? ”
STEP 5: Dates and travel method “When do we want to travel? ” “How will we travel? ”
STEP 6: Bookings “How do we make bookings? ” “Do we need to book in advance? ”Booking is also a major concern. Assistance with information: When formulating travel plans, frequently customers need information to assist with their decisions.
The most popular sources of information are:
Visitor Information Centres (reached by phone, e-mail or writing)
Internet, websites are very popular with both Australian customers, particularly in capital cities, and overseas visitors Destination brochures
Travel agents (particularly for some destinations reached by air services or cruises)
Automobile clubs (for touring customers)
Friends and relatives who have previously visited the intended holiday destination. It is important to note that selection of the destination is a significant part of the process of planning leisure travel.
If customers know little about the destination, it is not likely to be high on their list of preferred places to visit. The various steps above need to be kept in mind when designing tourism advertising.
As the global travel market continues to expand with yearly increasing flights among international destinations, advertising efforts on the part of the major actors in this market are also increasing. Advertising campaigns to promote travel to destinations abroad are particularly prevalent in western countries where the general public’s expenditures on tourism tend to be consistently high, even in light of the economic recession.
Many advertisers, which include both private entities and foreign governments themselves, share the intended goal of increasing their own revenue by popularizing their service (e. . , airline or hotel chain) or destination to boost receipts from travelers; however, some travel campaigns have additional or alternative purposes, such as promoting good public sentiments or improving existing ones towards them among the target audience.
Sometimes, states may use the branding of a product or service, itself, as a means of conveying a specific message without explicitly stating the message; this tactic is often used to soften the implied message itself, thus allowing the brander to sidestep or minimize controversy and/or opposition.
A great degree of ads promoting foreign countries are produced and distributed by the tourism ministries of those countries, so these ads often serve as vehicles for political statements and/or depictions of the destination country’s desired foreign public Perceptions. Following are only a few of the many examples of government-produced tourism destination advertising that also serve political or social functions.
The Bahamas are commonly considered to be a focal point of leisure and recreational travel in the Caribbean and the island nation advertises itself as such.
Television ads and website produced by the government of the Bahamas specifically foster the image of the islands providing a care-free, exciting, culturally rich, and even romantic experience for travelers; a recent slogan for the marketing campaign was “It’s better in the Bahamas” to reinforce the contrast between the desired perception as a low-stress getaway and the hectic nature of whatever living environment tourists would be leaving behind.
The Bahamas have, however, actually traditionally seen high violent crime rates, so the tourism marketing attempts to focus the audience’s attention on the azure water and beaches and draw it away from any negative elements of life there. Managing perceptions is a common part of advertising of many consumer products and services, focusing the audience’s mind solely on the desirable aspects of whatever is being sold and away from any possible drawbacks or consequences.
The common impression of India in the West has long been either negative—including perceptions of widespread poverty, lack of sophisticated hygiene, and violent ethnic and religious clashes—or ambivalent, so the Indian government’s Ministry of Tourism began a marketing campaign, “Incredible India,” to emphasize the country’s rich culture, historic sites, tourist attractions, and general sense of excitement and dynamism to western audiences.
Tourism is an extremely lucrative and growing global industry so it is no surprise that India, a developing nation, is striving to capitalize on that market to boost its economy. In addition, India is also looking to strengthen its international security and diplomatic ties while broadening and deepening its trade relationships, especially with the U. S , so it is in India’s interest to promote a positive light for itself among the American and western voting populations in order to garner future international support and aid.
Recently in 2010 the Tourism Board of Mexico, a public office that aggregates the resources and interests of the federal, state, and municipal governments, launched a tourism advertising campaign in the United States and Canada—the new campaign’s purpose is expressly demonstrated by its marketing slogan, “Mexico, the place you thought you knew. ” The print and television ads feature views of Mexico’s beaches, natural wonders, cultural festivities, and historical artifacts like Mayan pyramids and Spanish churches in order to provide a counterbalance to the less preferable popular preconceptions.
The eventual goal of tourism board is likely to increase tourism revenue for the country, but, for now, the Tourism Board is focusing on managing perceptions among the general populations of Mexico’s two major neighboring trade partners.
In 1999, Malaysia launched a worldwide marketing campaign called “Malaysia, Truly Asia” which was largely successful in bringing in over 7. 4 million tourists. The extra revenue recently generated by tourism helped the country’s economy during the economic crisis of 2008.
However, it is mainly Malaysia’s heavy government Regulations of the economy which enabled it to be barely affected by the recent 2008 global economic crisis. In recent years tourism has been threatened by the negative effects of the growing industrial economy. Due to the large amounts of air and water pollution along with deforestation, tourism has decreased in affected areas.
Through advertising for the Emirates airline, one of the major themes that Dubai promotes is its evolving status as a key geographic and economic player in the Middle East.
Emirates advertising describe Dubai as “The perfect hub for an expanding global network”
Tourism is a major economic factor in the Kingdom of Thailand, contributing an estimated 6. 7% to Thailand’s GDP in 2007. The main marketing slogan for promoting Thailand internationally was “Amazing Thailand”, but, in reaction to the 2009 tourism crisis, it was relaunched as “Amazing Thailand, Amazing Value “. By contrast, the main marketing slogan for promoting Thai tourism to the Thai is Unseen in Thailand.
ABOUT TOURISM INDUSTRY
Tourism is the largest service industry in India . It contributes 6. 23% to the national GDP. According to World Travel and Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 ranked tourism in India sixth in terms of price competitiveness and 39th in terms of safety and security In 2011, total Foreign Tourist Arrivals (FTA) in India were 5. 78 million. The majority of foreign tourists come to India from USA and UK, Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Delhi, Uttar Pradesh and Rajasthan are the top five states to receive inbound tourists.
Domestic tourism in 2011 was 740 million. Andhra Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Tamil Nadu and Maharashtra received the big share of domestic visitors. Ministry of Tourism is the nodal agency . It formulates national policies and programmes for the development and promotion of tourism. Concerted efforts are being made by them to promote new forms of tourism such as rural, cruise, medical and eco-tourism. The Ministry of Tourism also maintains the Incredible India campaign.
However inspite of these achievements, India’s tourism industry faces a number of problems such as:
India has a worker shortage.
Unclean rooms effect tourism adversely.
Food problems concern the foreign tourists.
Many places in the interior of the country are not well-connected by proper roads, railways or airways.
Excessive bureaucracy also delays new hotel and transportation projects, Tourists are often exploited economically
Criminal elements in India can make visits to India unsafe for women and elderly tourists.
The tourist attractions in India are also being damaged by pollution. Oil refinery smoke is damaging the TajMahal, while ecosystems of the coasts, Rann of Kutch and the Himalayas are being battered by pollution. Areas Where Problems are Acute
Tourism problems are more common in the rural interior of the country. Orrisa is one of such places where problems are more.
These areas are rich in natural beauty, but they often lack basic infrastructure and accommodations for tourists.
Often these regions are highly agrarian. The Government is often unable to secure enough land for developing tourism infrastructure, because it adversely affects local farmers.
EFFECT OF TOURISM PROBLEMS IN INDIA
Tourism problems have contributed to India’s low share of 1 percent of the world’s total tourist arrival percentage.
It also leads to concentration of tourist attention to certain parts of the country. For example, the transport and communication industries of Delhi, Jaipur, Agra in northern India and Bhubaneswar, Konark, Puri in Orissa are preferred over other equally attractive Indian destinations.These problems also shorten the tourist season in India, which in turn leads to unemployment in off-seasons Future of Tourism
Despite all the problems with tourism in India, the industry has a bright future.
Tourist arrivals in 2012 are expected to rise 22 percent
Foreign exchange earnings from this industry are predicted to rise 33 percent above 2004 earnings.
The positive expectations have been based on the current growth rate of the industry which is being attributed to the fast-growing Indian economy for the past three to four years. Despite short- and medium-term setbacks, such as shortage of hotel rooms, tourism revenues are expected to surge by 42% from 2007 to 2017
India’s rich history and its cultural and geographical diversity make its international tourism appeal large and diverse. It presents heritage and cultural tourism along with medical, business and sports tourism.
TOURISM IN VARIOUS STATES OF INDIA ANDHRA PRADESH
The state of Andhra Pradesh has scenic hills, forests, beaches and temples. It is one of the most developed cities in the country and a modern hub of information technology, ITES, and biotechnology.
Hyderabad is known for its rich history, culture and architecture representing Its unique character as a meeting point for North and South India, and has a multilingual culture. It is called as city of nawabs Andhra Pradesh has many famous temples: * Tirupati -the abode of Lord Venkateswara is the richest and most visited religious center (of any faith) in the world. Srisailam- the abode of Sri Mallikarjuna is one of twelve Jyothirlingalu in India.
Amravati’s Siva temple is one of the Pancharamams.
Charminar – Center of the Hyderabad Old City.
Golkonda Fort – Largest and 400 years oldest fort.
Makka Masjid– Masjid in Hyderabad City.
Ramoji Film City– Largest Film City in the world situated in Hyderabad City.
The golden beaches at Visakhapatnam, picturesque Araku Valley, hill resorts of Horsley Hills, are some of the natural attractions of the state.
Arunachal Pradesh is a serene land tucked into the North Eastern tip of India.
It has picturesque hills and valley
There are places of worship and piligrimage such as Parasuramkund and 400 years old Tawang Monastery. There are also sites of archeological excavations like Malinithan and Itanagar, the serene beauty of lakes such as Ganga lake or Sela lake or the numerous variations of scenic beauty of the snow clad silver mountain peaks and lush green meadows. ASSAM Assam is the central state in the North-East Region of India and serves as the gateway to the rest of the Seven Sister States.
Assam has famous wildlife preserves – The Kaziranga National Park, which is home to the Great Indian One-Horned Rhinoceros. Manas National Park which is one of the most famous place of Assam
Tezpur, tea-estate. ,bazaars, temples, and wildlife sanctuaries. BIHAR Bihar is one of the oldest continuously inhabited places in the world . The rich culture and heritage of Bihar is evident from the innumerable ancient monuments that are dotted all over this state in eastern India.
Patna – Patna is the capital of Bihar, famous for its rich history and royal architecture.
Gaya –Gaya is known for Bodh Gaya the place at which Gautama Buddha attained enlightenment.
Muzaffarpur – Muzzaffarpur is Famous for its education.
Sasaram – Sasaram is famous for Tomb of Sher Shah Suri, the great Emperor of medieval India.
Chhattisgarh is a new state but with an ancient civilization and is one of the richest bio-diversity areas in the country. There are many tourist attractions worth seeing.
The state is blessed by nature with magnificent waterfalls, mountains, forests and wildlife Chitrakot Waterfalls, Kutumsar Caves, Ramgarh and Sita Bengra, Bhoramdeo temple, Sirpur, Rajim, Ratanpur and Malhar. DELHI Delhi is the capital city of India.
New Delhi is famous for its British colonial architecture, wide roads, and tree-lined boulevards. Delhi is home to numerous political landmarks.
It currently has many renowned historic monuments and landmarks such as the Tughlaqabad fort,Qutub Minar, Purana Quila, Lodhi Gardens, Jama Masjid, Humayun’s tomb, Red Fort, and Safdarjung’s Tomb.
Modern monuments include Jantar Mantar, India Gate, Rashtrapati Bhavan, Laxminarayan Temple, Lotus temple and Akshardham Temple *
It also has national museums, Islamic shrines, Hindu temples, green parks, and trendy malls.
GOA Goa is one of the most famous tourist destinations in India. It is a former colony of Portugal.
Goa is famous for its excellent beaches, Portuguese churches, Hindu temples, and wildlife sanctuaries. * The Basilica of Bom Jesus, Mangueshi Temple, Dudhsagar Falls and Shantadurga are famous attractions in Goa.
Recently a Wax Museum (Wax World) has also opened in Old Goa housing a number of wax personalities of Indian history, culture and heritage. GUJARAT Gujarat is the seventh largest state in India, located in the western part of India.
It is the tenth most popular state in the country for tourists . It is also known asWorld’s largest Temple Complex, there are more than 3000 temples located on the Shatrungaya hills, exquisitely carved in marble.
Gujarat offers scenic beauty from Great Rann of Kutch to the hills of Saputara.
Gujarat is the sole home of the pure Asiatic Lions.
Gujarat offers many types of tourism like Business Tourism, archeological & heritage Tourism, cultural Tourism, religious Tourism, wildlife Tourism, medical Tourism and much more.
Capital of Haryana is Chandigarh ,which is a union territory. Haryana Pilgrim Destinations offers the devotes with a wide range of sacred places which are of considerable religious and historical significance. The pilgrim places of Haryana are thronged by devotees all over the year, who visit the important religious places in order to seek divine blessings and eternal happiness. The state of Haryana has a long historical and cultural tradition which is manifested in the numerous religious places which fills the tourist with an intense sense of satisfaction.
Some of the notable “Pilgrim Destinations” of Haryana are:
Kurukshetra- The historical place of “Kurukshetra” is the cradle of Hindu civilization. The fierce battle field of the holy land of “Kurukhshetra” is a witness to the discourse between the mighty and valiant ruler “Arjuna” and his divine charioteer “Lord Krishna.
Jyotisar- The ancient place of “Jyotisar” is the nurturing ground of the values and principles that guide the oldest religion of the world, the “Hindu” religion. The significance of the place lies in the fact that the holy religious text of the “Hindus”, the “Bhagwad Gita” was complied in this sacred place
Thanesar- The sacred place of “Thanesar” has two important religious temples of the Sthanesvar Mahadev Temple and the “Ma Bhadra Kali Temple that draws several devotees throughout the year
Pehowa- The holy land of “Pehowa” is an important religious place among the Hindus, who pray to the deceased member of their family and offer “Pind Daan” o release them from the cycle of birth and re-birth
Panchkula- The beautiful place of Panchkula offers the tourist with numerous places of religious and historical importance, including “Morni hills” and “Tikkar Taal”.
HIMACHAL PRADESH ATTRACTIONS
Himachal Pradesh is famous for its Himalayan landscapes and popular hill-stations. Many outdoor activities such as rock climbing, mountain biking, paragliding, ice-skating, and helicopter-skiing are popular tourist attractions in Himachal Pradesh.
Shimla, the state capital, is very popular among tourists. Shimla is also a famous skiing attraction in India. Other popular hill stations include Manali and Kasauli.
Dharamshala, home of the Dalai Lama, is known for its Tibetan monasteries and Buddhist temples. Many trekkingexpeditions also begin here.
JAMMU AND KASHMIR
Jammu & Kashmir is known for its scenic landscape . Jammu and Kashmir is the northernmost state of India. It is also called as “Paradise on Earth”.
Jammu is noted for its scenic landscape, ancient temples and mosques, Hindu and Muslim shrines, castles, gardens and forts.
The Hindu holy shrines of Amarnath in Kashmir Valley attracts about Vaishno Devi also attract thousands of Hindu devotees every year. Notable places are Dal Lake, Srinagar, Phalagam, Gulmarg, Yeusmarg and Mughal Gardens etc.
Ladakh has emerged as a major hub for adventure tourism. It consistsof naked peaks and deep gorges. Leh, the capital, is also a growing tourist spot.
Karnataka has been ranked as fifth most popular destination for tourism among states of India. It has the second highest number of protected monuments in India, and 507 Kannada dynastieslike Kadambas, WesternGangas, Chalukyas, Rashtrakutas, HoysalaVijayanagaras and the Kingdom of Mysore.
Gol Gumbaz, Bijapur, has the second largest pre-modern dome in the world fter the Byzantine HagiaSophia. Karnataka has two world heritage sites, at Hampi and Pattadakal.
Jog falls of Shimoga District is one of the highest waterfalls in Asia.
Karnataka has 21 wildlife sanctuaries and five National parks and is home to more than 500 species of birds.
Karnataka has many beaches at Karwar, Gokarna, Murdeshwara, and Surathkal. Karnataka is a rock climber’s paradise.
Fort in Chitradurga, Ramnagaram district near Bangalore, Shivagangein in Tumkur district and tekal in Kolar district are a rock climber’s heaven.
Kerala is a state on the tropical Malabar Coast of southwestern India.
Its unique culture and traditions, coupled with its varied demography, has made it one of the most popular tourist destinations in India. it is also called Gods own country”.
Popular attractions in the state include the beaches at Kovalam, Kappad, Muzhuppilangad, Cherai and Varkala.
The hill stations of Munnar,Thekkady, Nelliampathi, Ponmudi and Wayanad.
The National Parks/ Wildlife sanctuaries at Periyar and Eravikulam .
The “backwaters region”—an extensive network of interlocking rivers, lakes, and canals that centre on Alleppey, Kumarakom, and Punnamada also see heavy tourist traffic. Cities such as Kochi, Thrissur, Kozhikode and Trivandrum are popular centres for shopping and traditional theatrical performances.
Madhya Pradesh is called the “Heart of India” because of its location in the centre of the country. Madhya Pradesh is also known as Tiger State because of the tiger population.
Innumerable monuments, exquisitely carved temples, stupas, forts and palaces are dotted all over the state.
The temples of Khajuraho are world-famous for their erotic sculptures.
Gwalior is famous for its fort, Jai Vilas Palace, the Tomb of Rani Lakshmibai, Md.Ghaus & Tansen.
National parks like Kanha, Bandhavgadh, Shivpuri are famous for tigers.
Maharashtra is the most visited state in India by foreign tourists. Mumbai is the capital of Maharashtra which was earlier called Bombay. Mumbai is the most popular cosmopolitan city in India, and a great place to experience modern India. Mumbai is famous for Bollywood, the world’s largest film industry. In addition, Mumbai is famous for its clubs, shopping, and upscale gastronomy.
Ajanta Caves, Ellora Caves and ancient Elephanta Caves are in Maharashtra . Islamic Haji Ali Mosque, to the colonial architecture ofBombay High Courtand Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminusallare in Maharashtra .
It also has numerous adventure tourism destinations, including paragliding, rock climbing, canoeing, kayaking, snorkeling, andscuba diving.
Maharashtra also has several pristine national parks and reserves, some of the best ones are Tadoba with excellent accommodation and safari experiences .
The city of Pune the seat of the Maratha Empire and the fantastic Ganesh Chaturthi celebrations together contribute for the Tourism sector of Maharashtra.
Manipur as the name suggest is a land of jewels. Its rich culture excels in every aspects as in martial arts, dance, theater and sculpture. The charm of the place is the greenery with the moderate climate making it a tourists’ favourite place.
The beautiful and seasonal Shirui Lily at Ukhrul (district), Sangai (brow antlered deer) and the floating islands at Loktak Lakeare few of the rare things found in Manipur.
Othermain tourist attractions are:
Imphal Churachandpur Keibul Lamjao National Park,
War cemeteries and Loktak Lake.
Meghalaya has some of the thickest surviving forests in the country.Therefore constitutes one of the most important ecotourism circuits in the country today. The Meghalayan subtropical forests support a vast variety of flora and fauna. Shilling is the capital of Meghalaya.
The Umiam Lake has a water sports complex with facilities such as rowboats, paddleboats, sailing boats, cruise-boats, water-scooters and speedboats.
Cherrapunjee is one of the most popular tourist .
The popular waterfalls in the state are the Elephant Falls, Shadthum Falls, Weinia falls, Bishop Falls, Nohkalikai Falls, Langshiang Falls and Sweet Falls. The hot springs at Jakrem near Mawsynram are believed to have curative and medicinal properties.
Orissa has been a preferred destination from ancient days for people who have an interest in spirituality, religion, culture, art and natural beauty.
Ancient and medieval architecture, pristine sea beaches, the classical and ethnic dance forms and a variety of festivals at Udayagiri.
Khandagiri Caves, Lalitagiri as well as Ratnagiri, on the banks of river Birupa are very famous. Precious fragments of a glorious past come alive in the shape of stupas, rock-cut caves, rock-edicts, excavated monasteries, viharas, chaityas and sacred relics in caskets and the Rock-edicts of Ashoka.
Orissa is also famous for its well-preserved Hindu Temples, especially theJagnath Temple at Puri, Konark Sun Temple and The Leaning Temple of Huma.
Kolkata is the capital of West Bengal . It is called “City of Palaces” and the “City of Joy”. This comes from the numerous palatial mansions built all over the city. It is famous for sarees and sweets and leather bags and shoes.
It is famous for howrah bridge which is very uniquely constructed * Metro train and planetariums are other tourist attractions
The Union Territoryof Pondicherrycomprises four coastal regions viz- Pondicherry, Karaikal, Mahe and Yanam. Pondicherry is the Capital of this Union Territory and one of the most popular tourist destinations in South India.
The city has many beautiful colonial buildings, churches, temples. It has statues, combined with the systematic town planning and the well planned French style avenues.
The state of Punjab is renowned for its cuisine, culture and history.
Punjab has a vast public transportation and communication network. Chandigarh is the capital of panjab. Some of the main cities in Punjab are Amritsar,Chandigarh, Patiala and Ludhiana. Punjab also has a rich Sikh religious history and tourists visiting on a daily basis.
Amritsar is a big tourist spot, a lot of five star hotels are there. it is famous for Wagha border which is border of India and Pakistan and Jallianwalla Bagh Hatiyakand. Chandigarh has famous lake sukna lake, rose garden, rock garden where monuments are made of waste article
Rajasthan known as pink city of india , is one of the most attractive tourist destinations in Northern India. The vast sand dunes of the Thar Desertattract millions of tourists from around the globe every year.
Jaipur– The capital of Rajasthan, famous for its rich history and royal architecture.
Jodhpur – Jodhpur is the Fortress-city at the edge of the Thar Desert, famous for its blue homes and architecture.
Udaipur – Udaipur is known as the “Venice” of India.
Jaisalmer – Jaisalmer is famous for its golden fortress.
Bikaner – Bikaner is famous for its medieval history as a trade route outpost.
Mount Abu – Mount Abu is the highest peak in the Aravalli Range of Rajasthan.
Pushkar – Pushkar has one of the very fast Brahma temples in the world.
Ranthambore –It has one of the largest national parks in India.
The capital of Sikkim is Gangtok, it is located approximately 105 kilometers from New Jalpaiguri, the nearest railway station to Sikkim. Sikkim is considered as the land of orchids, mystic cultures and colorful traditions.
Sikkim is well known among trekkers and adventure lovers.
Places near Sikkim include Darjeeling also known as the “Queen of Hills” and Kalimpong. Although, an airport is under construction at Dekiling in East Sikkim, the nearest airport to Sikkim is Bagdogra which is famous for imported items at cheap price.
The popular sightseeing places include Baba Mandir, Nathula Pass, Rumtek Monastery, Handicraft Shops and Tsangpo Lake.
Tamil Nadu is the top state in attracting the maximum number of foreign tourists in India it is famous for many temples and other tourist spots. It is also known for medical tourism and has some of Asia’s largest hospital.
It has Great Living Chola Temples and Mahabalipuram. Tamil Nadu has some great temples like Madurai,Meenakshi ,Amman Temple and Brihadeeswarar Temple.
Kanyakumari is the southernmost tip of India provides scenic view of sunset and sunshine over the Indian ocean.. Hill stations like Kodaikanal, Ooty, Valparai, Yelagiri are widely visited.
It is Situated in the northern part of India, bordered with the capital of India ,New Delhi. Uttar Pradesh is the most popular tourist destination in India. Uttar Pradesh is important with its wealth of historical monuments and religious fervour.
Uttar Pradesh is the historical heart land of India, where each part of the state is attached with ancient history, civilization, religions and culture.
Varanasi- It is the origin of Hinduism and the world’s one of the oldest cities. It is also known as City of Temples . It is Most popular holy place of Lord Shiva devotees. Some of the finest Textiles are produced here.
Agra – Taj Mahal and several others historical monuments and gardens.
Allahabad or Prayag – It is the place where Indian national rivers, Ganges , Yamuna and Saraswati rivers meet. A mass Hindu pilgrimage n which Hindus gather at the Ganges river. Akbar forts. One of the most popular religious center of ancient and modern India for Hinduism.
Uttar Pradesh administrative and education capital.
Kanpur – It is Uttar Pradeshs commercial and Industrial hub. Has several historical places from Mughal, British era. * Mathura- It is the birth place of Lord Krishna of Hinduism and Neminath of Jainism.
Ayodhya- It is the birth place of Lord Rama of Hinduism.
Jhansi-It is a historical place. This city was centre of Rani Lakshmibai’s battlefield against British.
Sarnath-Gautama Buddha first taught the Dharma here. The eleventh Jain Tirthankar of the Jainism.
Noida and Greater Noida- These are the IT, Electronics and education hub of Northern India. India’s biggest city with planned and high teck residential area.
Gorakhpur –is famous for Jim Corbett National Park and Nainital.
PART B ABOUT THE SUBJECT TOURISM
Tourism is travelfor recreational, leisure or business purposes. The WorldTourism Organization defines tourists as people “traveling to and staying in places outside their usual environment for not more than one consecutive year for leisure, business and other purposes”.
Tourism is the fastest growing, industry in the world. It is also one of the world’s most competitive sectors. The completion is increasing as more and more countries seek to attract tourist and more companies and organization become involved in the highly skilled business of transporting, accommodating and catering for tourists. Tourism needs to be marketed, just as any other product, indeed more so, because it is an industry in which the costumer still has an immense variety of choice. There are a number of destinations competing with each other to get a bigger and bigger share of the market.
As applied to the tourism industry, the important functions of marketing are to bring about an awareness of the product in the minds of the consumers in the market areas. This is done by way of promotion.
Tourism promotion is one of the elements of the marketing mix and an important tool for marketing. The term promotion is interpreted and defined in many ways. Basically, the purpose of promotion is to inform. Or persuade, to encourage or, more specially, to influence the potential customers or trade intermediaries (travel agent, tour operators, reservation, services, hotel and charter manner).
Like in any other industry, successful marketing in tourism cannot rely only on a product of the right kind, on a market related pricing policy and on a reliable and effective distribution network, systematic communications with actual and potential customers and with the trade intermediaries bridging the gap between producer on the one hand and the customer on the other is also needed. The consumer must be aware of the existence of a tourist place of a tourist product. How is the awareness to be brought about in minds of the consumers in the market areas?
Some of the easily identifiable methods are advertising, sales support and public relations. These are the three major marketing tools which any organization uses to information actual as well as a potential customer. Advertising plays an important and limited role within the process of marketing. Good marketers see their business from the customers view point and organize their entire enterprises to develop relationships with the customer based on trust.
Advertisement may be defined as any activity designed to spread information with a view to promoting the sales of marketable goods and services.
It plays a crucial role in marketing a tourist product. The tourism ministry has also played an important role in the development of the industry, initiating advertising campaign such as the “Incredible India” campaign, which promoted India’s culture and tourists’s attractions in a fresh and memorable way. The campaign helped to create a colorful image of India in the minds of consumers all over the world, and has directly led to an increase in the interest among tourists. The prime purpose of advertising is to create awareness.
The ultimate purpose of advertising and promotion is to influence human behavior, to motivate and to manipulate demand. Advertising has been added importance where it is used in a supportive role to complement other campaign elements, such as promotional print, tactical price cuts, and sales promotion are often required to make a prospective customer aware of the existence of the other campaign elements.
The two most important considerations in effective advertising are the medium which provide the reach, and the message, which provides the communication . n travel and tourism, the special role of sales literature, which is partly sales promotion and partly distribution, must also be included in marketing communication.
While the choice of promotional techniques are important to motivate and move consumers they will not bear results if facilitation techniques have not been employed to market easy for motivated people to achieve purchases. Advertising enables you to promote a specific message to a wide audience but unlike pr it’s not free! It can be an extremely expensive promotional tool which is notoriously difficult to evaluate.
Advertising is good for creating and building ‘awareness’ but this is not necessarily the same as the building scales. There are few organizations that can’t benefit in some way from advertising campaign, but to avoid wasted efforts and expense, it must be even more carefully planned than any other promotional activity. Advertising usually has either tactical or strategic objectives. Strategic advertising is concerned with creating awareness of markets, and of products, of developing an organization s identity and image.
Strategic advertising takes a longer term view. Tactical advertising is aimed at specific market segments, and persuading them to go to a particular place or buy a certain service, sometimes at a particular time. Tactical advertising takes a more shot to medium term view.
SELECTION OF MEDIA
How much ever you plan your advertising in advance, there will always be occasions when an advertising sales person telephones you with a special offer. Some of these might be genuine. Most are not. ou should do your best to resist there will be another opportunity and your advertising will be much more effective if it is proactive and planned rather than reliant on those last minute special offers , especially if they are for new publications which no which no one has heard of and which disappear almost instantly. The selection of appropriate media is usually based on three criteria:
Cost of space- in the print media on time radio, TV and cinema screen. Cost is obviously very important and is expressed in terms of cost per thousand contacts. Whilst being a useful yardstick it only provides an estimate of potential readers or people who may see an advertisement. Usually a larger the circulation the lower is the cost per thousand.
Suitability – if graphics colour or movement is required the medium must be suitable.
Appropriateness – the chosen medium must be appropriate for the product or service being promoted and clearly targeted. Before booking any soace or time, telephone the advertising departments of the media you are interested in and ask for a copy of their media pack.
This outlines the various advertising opportunities, costs, and profile of readers, viewers or listeners, as well as giving technical data for the publication or programme. For most organizations their budgetary restrictions will limit their choice to advertising in publications rather than on television or radio. Television has been proven as an excellent and very persuasive medium but is expensive. Not only is the cost of time slots costly but also the production of good advertisements.
If you have sufficient budget for television advertising you should use an advertising agency to help you buy the time as well as produce an effective advertisement. Radio advertising is cheaper than television and can be useful for events and tourism products which are easy to buy such as well known attractions . radio advertising is less effective for products and services which need detailed explanations. The choice of publications in which to advertise is vast. In addition to local and national press, there are also special interest magazines and tourist board guides .
If you run any special interest holidays, these magazines are very useful. When you have obtained media packs and information about relevant publications, use the following criteria to draw up a short list. Profile of readership Do the readers correspond to your target markets?
The readership profile should detail readers in terms of age and socioeconomic profile, as well as giving further details about hobbies and interests, and any research about holiday-taking habits. Tourism products are a major source of revenue for many publications so they will usually have more detailed information available if you ask for it.
Readership Most publications will give their circulation and readership figures. The readership figures are more interesting because these show the actual number of people who will see and read publication, not just buy it. For some publications will give their circulation and readership figures are more interesting because these show the actual number of people who will see and read the publication, not just buy it. For some publications there will be a big difference between the circulation and readership figures.
Some of the more up market monthly magazines have relatively low circulation figures but a long shelf life and high readership figures-particularly when they are the types of publication you see in doctors and dentists surgeries! When considering readership figures, look also at the distribution method for the publication. Is it one which people really demand, by buying it at a newsagents or requesting it from a tourist information centre? Or one which arrives un -requested through the letterbox? Publication date We will need to plan ahead and choose publications whose copy dates you can meet.
Even more important are publication dates. If most people plan and book their holiday with you in November, there is little point advertising in a publication which appears in may, unless it is tactical advertising and you are looking for top-up business. The media pack will probably include details of forthcoming features which might be relevant to you. Sometimes it is a good idea to advertise within a relevant feature but remember that competitors will probably be doing the same. It can be useful to stand alone and make a bigger impact at anothertime, if the timing is right for you.
Advertising rates The deciding factor will inevitably be whether or not you can afford to advertise in your chosen publications and if it is cost-effective . set your budget in advance and stick to it. You might decide to place your advertising through an agency which shouldn’t actually cost you anything because they will take a commission from the the publications, and May already have special rates. When placing advertisements always ask if there’s any chance of editorial coverage and the name of the person you should contact. Evaluating advertising campaigns
They’ll never find out which half of your advertising budget was a good investment unless you monitor it. keep a record of the media in which you advertised, when and the cost . make sure that all staff are aware of the need to monitor advertising expenditure and ask them to make a point of asking people who book with you where they heard about you, and to make a note of this. You can also monitor which publications work for you by using different types of advertisement, such as specific packages or codes when people are asked to complete tear –off vouchers for further information.
Monitoring advertising campaigns is more difficult for destinations and attractions where people simply turn up. Where-ever possible you should conduct brief visitor surveys (using students on work placements is an easy way of doing this) questioning representative group or people at difficult times of the year. you will be able to increase the effectiveness of any advertising if it is carefully thought through and planned in advance . advertising should also be integrated into the marketing plan so activities can be dovetailed . you will raise more awareness of your product.
Advertising on outdoor and non-print media. The past 20 years have seen dramatic shifts in advertising, as TV press and radio have become increasingly fragmented and diverse as audience media consumption continually changes. This means that the marketer has much more choices in which advertising medium to choose from and if you know the media, or in this case, travelling habits of your target market, should make reaching them a lot easier than merely hoping they will be watching an episode of Coronation Street on a Wednesday night.
If you are in the market to buy media space ,things have been sewn up by Viacom outdoor, who sell space on behalf of transport for london,including buses,london underground ,docklands light railway, and the major train ,tram and coach networks . nice and easy! Rail advertising Rail advertising offers opportunities to reach a broad audience, from daily business commuters to leisure traveler’s . rail sites offer the benefit of longer dwell-time, allowing more detailed copy, and aiding brand recall.
There is a wide selection of sites across several major rail networks throughout the uk,including central trains(across the midlands and beyond),chiltern railways(commuter connection from London Marylebone to Birmingham),gner(east coast mainline s service between london king,s cross and Scotland )and merseyrail(key commuter network in the north west). This can work well for local advertisers to complement existing mixed media ,or as part of a Uk –wide rail campaign . There is a wide range of campaign options and associations costs, but to give an example of a four week campaign the following costs.
Could apply. Below are some examples of the main media options available; Tube car panels Tube car panels can be found inside the carriages and benefit from a captive audience for an average of 13 minutes every journey. Escalator and stair panels. They are situated in a range of locations across the networks and are available to buy as part of general distribution packs, line by line and in special packs.
DO’S AND DON’TS OF ADVERTISING
DO HAVE A PLAN: No matter how small or how large is the tourism destination or tourism business, there needs to be an annual marketing plan, even a simple one. It does not need to be complex but the plan will provide direction and help make better decisions about advertising opportunities as they arise.
DO HAVE A BUDGET: Many advertising opportunities look too good to miss – but are they? If there is a set budget for marketing for the year, this imposes self-discipline on how funds are allocated. Advertisements should be within budget to avoid problems related to financing of advertisements.
DO HAVE A BUSINESS OBJECTIVE: There should be a business objective. Some suggested business objectives could be:
To stimulate demand in a shoulder period. These advertisements may have a retail approach using packages to attract customers
TO promote a new feature like an attraction, extending trading hours, a motel adding a dining room or a houseboat operator adding new houseboats to the fleet
To compete against new competition by reminding customers that they will still be welcome
DO HAVE A CLEAR REASON FOR ANY ADVERTISEMENT: The days have gone when advertisements can be scheduled without a clear business reason. What the advertisement is designed to achieve should be stated up front so that evaluation is easier.
DO RECOGNISE THE IMPORTANCE OF DESTINATION MARKETING: Every tourism business needs to be cognisant of the importance of destination marketing. If the customers do not visit your destination and go somewhere else, no tourism business or any other business will earn any revenue from visitors.
DO CONSIDER CAREFULLY THE FORMAT OF ADVERTISEMENT: Many regional tourism businesses spend money on advertisements that fail to produce results. Often they blame the newspaper, magazine, or other medium which was used. Far too often the advertisement fails because it has a format that does not attract the attention of customers. The “Advertising formats” section of this paper has further details.
DON’TS OF ADVERTISEMENTS DON’T WASTE MONEY ON “ONE-OFF” ADVERTISEMENTS: Advertising only once in any consumer newspaper, magazine, trade press, radio, TV or any other medium does not usually achieve anything. It takes a series of advertisements to have impact. Tourism businesses that schedule one advertisement should not be surprised when they get no response.
DON’T WASTE MONEY ON SMALL ADVERTISEMENTS: Some tourism businesses say that they have a small budget and can only afford a small advertisement in consumer print media. In that instance it is recommended that other marketing techniques be used. Small advertisements usually are not seen by customers and become a waste of money. The exception is classified sections in newspaper regular travel features and automobile club magazines. They are read by prospective customers.
DON’T STRUCTURE ADVERTISEMENTS TO PLEASE YOU. DESIGN THEM FOR TOURISTS: When a customer sees any tourism advertising, always at the back of their mind, in some form, is the question, “what’s in it for me? ” If customers cannot see any benefits to enjoy, the sale (booking or attraction entry) will be lost.
DON’T USE PHOTOGRAPHS WHICH APPEAR TO HAVE COME FROM A FAMILY ALBUM: Tourism destinations and tourism businesses sometimes use photos that look as if they have been taken from a family snapshot album. Such photos can be a real “turn off”. Any tourism destination or tourism product needs to use photographs that impress customers otherwise they may think your destination or product is second rate. If this occurs not only will you have “saved a few bob” in the expenditure column, but the revenue column will be down too. When choosing a professional photographer to take photos it can help to choose a photographer skilled in tourism photos.
As an example a photographer who is good with wedding photos may not have the skills for tourism photos which are quite different.
DON’T HAVE BLAND AND UNINTERESTING COPY
Unlike other products, tourism is about enjoyment, excitement, adventure, special interest, relaxation and particularly different experiences. Destinations that are more successful have emotive advertising supported by brochures which attract customers with their carefully selected pictures, appealing design and exciting copy. Advertisements that use bland and uninteresting copy cannot expect tobe competitive, orenthuse customers about their destination or tourism product.
Regional tourism spends large sums each year on advertising but how much proves to be effective? Many advertisements fail to produce results, and poor design is often the reason. Advertisements that work follow a number of basic rules. First and foremost, successful advertisements carry a strong message that relates to the reader.
It grabs their attention, and excites their interest by presenting customer benefits in a compelling, involving way. The advertisement heading describes the one key selling pointhat will enthuse the reader. This should have no more than eight words.
There have been various attempts to define “marketing” but so far no universally accepted definition has been devised . this is perhaps due to the fact that marketing as a compresive management function is farily concept which effectively only started to be applied in the early 1950’s . like most innovations , marketing has been gradually adoptes be increasing the number of enterprises mainly in the fields of consumer products with diverse ideas developed as to what it should embrace and how its priciples should be implemented . n the last few decades , however , marketing has become an established management process and practice in most industries.
FEATURES OF TOURISM MARKETING
Marketing of tourism product has certain peculiar characterstics. although general principles of marketing of products of other industries could be applicable so marketing of tourist product , there are a certain differences in approach . these differences are because of peculiar character of tourist product . amoung the peculiaities of the tourist product are :-
TOURISM IS AN INTANGIBLE, NON MATERIAL PRODUCT
No transfer of ownership of goods is involved as compared to a tangible product; say for example , in case of sale of a motor car , certain facilities , installations , items of equipment are made available for a specified time and for specified use . Production and consumption of tourist services are closely interrelated The travel agent or tour operator who sells this product cannot store it . production can only be completed if the customer is actually present. There is a close link between production and consumption of tourist services.
Most tourists services cannot be consumed incrementally, in the other words, consumption, once begun, cannot be stopped, interrupted or modified at all.
A TOURIST PRODUCT IS ASSEMBLED BY MANY PRODUCERS
The tourist product cannot be provided as single enterprises. Each of the components of a tourist product is highly specialized and together makes the final product. This is not so in the case of the other tangible products where one manufacturer produces a total product. In tourism on the other hand, an airline considers seats flown or passenger miles to be its product measures its production.
TOURISM DEMAND IS HIGHLY UNSTABLE
The demand is influenced by factors such as seasonal, economic, political, et. The seasonal changes greatly affect the demand. Seasonality means that tourism plant is frequently used for a limited part of the year and therefore uneconomic . many tourist areas have a short season usage is the seasonal unemployment, which is a serious problem. Some of the developing countries which have recently established tourist industries suffer particularly from seasonality.
DOMINANT ROLE OF INTERMEDIARIES
In most industries, manufacturers have a predominant control over product design, distribution and promotion and pricing. On the other hand in tourism, sales intermediaries like a tour operators, travel agents, reservation services and hotel brokers play a very dominant role and enjoy superior marketing strength. From the stand point of tourism marketing this strong position of the travel trade has significant implications. The travel trade determines to large extent which services will be sold and to whom .
It is comparatively simple to determine why people buy a certain make of refrigerators, smoke certain brands of cigarettes, and use certain brands of toothpaste.
The subjective and objective reasons, expectations and desires which influence tourists’ choice for a certain holiday destination, type of accommodation and vacation activities are far less evident.
Research refers to the search for Knowledge. At is scientific investigation for the Search for relevant information. Research consists of comprising and referring problem, formulating solutions, collecting, organizing, evaluating data, making conclusions and carefully testing.
TITLE OF THE STUDY
“A study on Role of advertisement in promotion of tourism” in India.
INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY:
Advertising may be defined as a form of communication used to encourage or persuade an audience (viewers, readers or listeners. Sometimes a specific group of people. ) To continue or take some new action. Advertisement helps to promote tourism by providing people with information regarding various places which are known as well unknown to people. Attractive advertisement of a place motivates people to go to the place and hence increase the tourism. Hence this is a study to analyse the role of advertisement in promotion of tourism in India.
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Advertisements and publicity play an important role in promotion of tourism in any country. In India numerous advertisements are made every year, however less importance is given to tourism advertisements and publicity. In absence of effective advertisement about tourist places, tourism suffers badly which in turn affect the GDP and employment in the country. Many places in different parts of India like Kerala, Goa etc have remained unexplored and untapped in absence of proper promotion and advertisements This project aims at analyzing the role of advertisement in promotion of tourism.
OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
To understand the relationship of advertisement and tourism
To identify the prominent mode of advertisement used in promoting tourism
To study the tourist attitude towards advertisement
To understand the need of advertising in tourism
To suggest few changes in tourism planning so that the Indian tourism development corporation (ITDC) can improve its advertising and promotion.
NEED OF THE STUDY
Through this study it would be possible to find out how effective has the role of advertisement been for promoting tourism in India and also the ways in which it can improve tourism in the country.
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