Communism in US was embraced as an ideology but in China it was seen as an alternative)bureaucracy, different levels of productive force, dominant role of peasantry,( in china, they had no clue, so the role of town workers and farmers in US and China) different perspective to imperialism ( when communism was instilled in SO, Stalin etc was interested in bringing about a strong US empire, so they felt that other countries should subordinate to theirs, because they feel they were the leader. US volcanically and militarily aided the countries to spread communism-China, believed strictly In sovereignty, no Interference In domestic policies.
Mao received extremely Limited aid, he spread It Individually. Hence, China did not see why they should have to succumb to SUE leadership. He refused to conform. In the long march to the mountain, when he recruited and spread communism, the used the farmers, and the loyalty was instilled thru how communism could help their socio economic problem. China has plenty of cheap labor. So Mao Sedona took into account all this factors. -As a result of all the difference in ideology, dominant players, ways, what happen is that when Mao finally established communism in China, he felt independent, he did not feel obligated to SO.
They did not respect US s the supreme leader of communism as opposed to Eastern European countries. Ideological – approach + practice difference ( policies headed of , 2 different directions – personality , challenges to USSR supreme leadership. Communist Crises 1) Sino soviet split 2) Chinese Economic Reforms (1978) -by 1980 china was already full on economic reform. Resulting in a major crises June 4th mass demonstration and Attainment Square massacre 1 ) agriculture and farming -leasing land to the farming, in return a fixed quota, incentive to increase farming. Decentralized party power. Province power increased to make decisions.
Adoption of household responsibility system. 2) industry- as china began to reform, how are you going to measure economic efficiency? What measures were taken to modernize Industry 1) gradual approach 2) pilot project XSL Chuan, starting with the smaller SEE, they were given autonomy. More than 6000 See’s were given power. All the state Industrial, manufacturing and production of Industrial products, they were also supposed to be financially independent. They were supposed to increase the among the farmers. But the SEE failed, because of corruption, lack of training of skilled people, lack of enterprising managers. 3) open door policy 4)