1. Intro: Composer Ludwig van Beethoven was an innovator, widening the scope of sonata, symphony, concerto, and quartet, and combining vocals and instruments in a new way. His personal life was marked by a struggle against deafness, and some of his most important works were composed during the last 10 years of his life, when he was quite unable to hear. He is an crucial figure in the transition between the Classical and Romantic eras in Western art music, a pianist, a composer who remains one of the most famous and influential of all composers. 2. Body:
Family: Composer, pianist, Ludwig Van Beethoven, widely considered the greatest composer of all time, was born on or about December 16, 1770 in the city of Bonn, Germany. Although his exact date of birth is uncertain, Beethoven was baptized on December 17, 1770. Beethoven had two younger brothers who survived into adulthood, Caspar, born in 1774, and Johann, born in 1776. Beethoven’s mother, Maria Magdalena van Beethoven, was a slender, genteel, and deeply moralistic woman. His mother was always described as a gentle, retiring woman, with a warm heart.
Beethoven referred to her as his “best friend. ” His father, Johann van Beethoven, was a mediocre court singer. Beethoven was born in a family in which his grandfather and father were musicians too. Beethoven’s grandfather, Kapellmeister Ludwig van Beethoven, was Bonn’s most prosperous and eminent musician, a source of endless pride for young Ludwig. After his mother’s death in 1787, Beethoven’s father lapsed deeper into alcoholism. As a result, Beethoven became responsible for his family. At home, little by little, Ludwig replaced his father.
His father Johann, often under the influence of drink, was less and less capable of keeping up his role at the court. The young Beethoven felt responsible for his two younger brothers Carrer: Beethoven’s talent was obvious at young age. His first music teacher was his father. Although tradition has it that Johann van Beethoven was a harsh instructor, and that the child Beethoven, “made to stand at the keyboard, was often in tears”. He studied the violin and clavier with his father as well as taking additional lessons from organists around town. The musical and teaching talents of Johann were limited.
Soon Ludwig learned music, notably the organ and composition by renowned musicians, such as Gottlob Neefe. Neefe recognized how extraordinarily talented Beethoven was, introduced Beethoven to Bach (also a . And at the age of twelve Beethoven published his first composition, a set of piano variations on a theme by an obscure classical composer named Dressler. In 1784, Neefe also recommended 14-year-old Beethoven be the organist of the court of Maximillian Franz. This post enabled him to frequent new circles, other than those of his father and friends of his family.
In 1787 the court decided to send Beethoven to Vienna to study with Mozart. Howevever, only few weeks after arriving in Vienna, Beethoven learnt that his mother had fallen desperately ill, he rushed home to Bonn. After his mother’s death, Beethoven remained in Bonn and continued to carve out his reputation as the city’s most promising young court musician. In 1792, Beethoven backed to Vienna to establish his career. From 1790 to 1792, Beethoven composed a significant number of works that demonstrated his growing range and maturity. By 1793, Beethoven established a reputation as an improviser in the salons of the nobility.
In that year, he had also established a reputation in Vienna as a piano virtuoso. Loss of hearing, illness and death Around 1796, by the age of 26, his hearing began to deteriorate, yet he continued to compose, conduct, and perform, even after becoming completely deaf. The cause of Beethoven’s deafness is unknown, probably because of even his habit of immersing his head in cold water to stay awake. In 1802, he wrote a famous text which expressed his disgust at the unfairness of life, that he, a musician, could become deaf was something he did not want to live through.
Almost miraculously, despite his rapidly progressing deafness, Beethoven continued to compose at a furious pace. The most famous masterpieces in this period of time is symphonies No. 3-8, the “Moonlight Sonata,” the “Kreutzer” violin sonata and Fidelio, his only opera. Despite his extraordinary output of beautiful music, Beethoven was lonely and frequently miserable throughout his adult life. Short-tempered, absent-minded, greedy and suspicious to the point of paranoia, Beethoven feuded with his brothers, his publishers, his housekeepers, his pupils and his patrons.
By 1814, Beethoven was almost totally deaf. In 1826, Beethoven caught cold, The illness complicated other health problems from which Beethoven had suffered all his life. He passed away encircled by his closest friends on March 26th 1827, just as a storm broke out. Beethoven died on 26 March 1827 at the age of 56 during a thunderstorm. Beethoven’s funeral procession on 29 March 1827 was attended by an estimated 20,000 Viennese citizens. Music: Beethoven is acknowledged as one of the giants of classical music. His influence on subsequent generations of composers was profound.
His work comprises more than 650 compositions. Beethoven composed in several musical genres. His works for symphony orchestra include nine symphonies, and about a dozen pieces of “occasional” music, seven concerti and only one for opera. His large body of compositions for piano includes 32 piano sonatas, 10 violin sonatas, 5 cello sonatas. Beethoven’s compositional career is usually divided into Early, Middle, and Late periods. In this scheme, his early period is taken to last until about 1802, the middle period from about 1803 to about 1814, and the late period from about 1815.
In his Early period, Beethoven’s work was strongly influenced by his predecessors Haydn and Mozart. He also explored new directions and gradually expanded the scope and ambition of his work. Some important pieces from the Early period are the first and second symphonies, the set of six string quartets Opus 18, the first two piano concertos, and the first dozen or so piano sonatas, including the famous sonata, Op. 13 His Middle (Heroic) period began shortly after Beethoven’s personal crisis brought on by his recognition of encroaching deafness.
It includes large-scale works that express heroism and struggle. Middle-period works include six symphonies (Nos. 3–8), the last three piano concertos, the Triple Concerto and violin concerto, five string quartets (Nos. 7–11), several piano sonatas (including the Moonlight, Waldstein and Appassionata sonatas), the Kreutzer violin sonata and Beethoven’s only opera, Fidelio. Beethoven’s Late period began around 1815. Works from this period are characterised by their intellectual depth, their formal innovations, and their intense, highly personal expression.
The Ninth Symphony is his last work. His famous work: Symphony No5 (Fate), Symphony No3, Symphony No9 (written when Beethoven was completely deaf), Moonlight Sonata, Fur Elise, …. 3. Conclusion Beethoven was one of the most famous and influential of all composers. He is in memory of everybody. The Beethoven Monumeny, Bonn, was umveiled where he was born in August 1845, in honour of his 75th anniversary. A statue to Mozart had been unveiled in Salzburg, Austria in 1842. People all over the world consider him as the giant of classical music.