Productivity: Slumped after the economic boom 25 years after WWI Inflation: Fed by rising oil prices and Great Society/Vietnam funding w/o tax increases Vietnamization: Withdrawing 540k troops from South Vietnam, while training Vietnamese to fight Nixon Doctrine: A doctrine that stated that the United States would stay true to all of their existing defense commitments but Asian and other countries would not be able to rely on large bodies of American troops for support in the future. Vietnam moratorium (1969): American “doves” and antiwar protestor were not satisfied with “vietnamization” and preferred a prompt withdral.
Antiwar protesters did a Vietnam moratorium in October 1969 where 100,000 people went into the Boston Common and 50,000 people went by the white house with lighted candles. My Lai: Deepened disgust w/ war, a village full of innocents was massacred by American troops Cambodia: Nixon ordered troops to help SV to clear out troops in NV and VC major base Kent State University : Where Natl Gaurd fired into crowd protesting Cambodian invasion Tonkin Gulf Resolution repeal (1970): The Senate repealed the Tonkin Gulf Resolution that was originally given to Johnson and it restrained spending in the war and it reduced the draft. 6th Amendment: Lowered voting age to 18, pleased youth Daniel Ellsberg: a former American military analyst employed by the RAND Corporation who precipitated a national political controversy in 1971 when he released the Pentagon Papers, a top-secret Pentagon study of government decision-making about the Vietnam War, to The New York Times and other newspapers.
Pentagon Papers: Leaked to NYT, Pentagon study over failures of Kennedy/Johnson Henry Kissinger: Natl Security Adviser; met with Nixon in Paris to negotiate end of war, prepared path to Beijing, Moscow China opening (1971): Nixon went to China in Feburary 1972 and improved relations with the U. S. and China. Nixon then used this new relation with China in order to win trade with the Soviets. Detente: Period of relaxed tension between RU/CH
AMB treaty/ SALT I: Anti-ballistic missile treaty which set the limit of two clusters of defensive missiles per nation. Strategic Arms Limitation Talks stopped the numbers of long-range nuclear missiles for 5 years. Earl Warren: Chief Justice during the 1950’s and 1960’s who used a loose interpretation to expand rights for both African-Americans and those accused of crimes. Liberal Warren Court decisions: The Warren Court refers to the Supreme Court of the United States between 1953 and 1969, when Earl Warren served as Chief Justice.
Warren led a liberal majority that used judicial power in dramatic fashion, to the consternation of conservative opponents. The Warren Court expanded civil rights, civil liberties, judicial power, and the federal power in dramatic ways. Griswold v. Connecticut (1965): Supreme Court decision in which the Court ruled that the Constitution implicitly guarantees citizens’ right to privacy. Gideon v. Wainwright (1963): Extends to the defendant the right of counsel in all state and federal criminal trials regardless of their ability to pay.
Miranda (1966): The court ruled that those subjected to in-custody interrogation be advised of their constitutional right to an attorney and their right to remain silent. Warren E. Berger (1969): Chief Justice that replaced Earl Warren in 1969. The Burger Court was supposed to reverse the liberal rulings of the Warren court, but it produced the most controversial judicial decision in Roe v. Wade which legalized abortion Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC): Federal funds for children in families that fall below state standards of need.
In 1996, Congress abolished AFDC, the largest federal cash transfer program, and replaced it with the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) block grant Supplemental Security Income (SSI): A program established in 1972 and controlled by the Social Security Administration that provides federally funded cash assistance to qualifying elderly and disabled poor. Philadelphia plan (1969): Program established by Richard Nixon to require construction trade unions to work toward hiring more black apprentices.
The plan altered Lyndon Johnson’s concept of “affirmative action” to focus on groups rather than individuals. (1009) “Reverse discrimination”: The assertion that affirmative action programs that require preferential treatment for minorities discriminate against those who have no minority status. Environmental Protection Agency (1970): developments, logging, etc. must take environmental impact into account Occupational Health and Safety Administration (OSHA): the federal regulatory compliance agency that develops, publishes, and enforces guidelines concerning safety in the orkplace Rachel Carson/Silent Spring (1962): She investigated the harmful effects of pesticides, such as DDT, on the environment and other animals. Clean Air and Endangered Species Acts (1970): social, 1970 notable progress reduce auto emissions and cleaning up water and waste sites Nixon’s “southern strategy” : His attempt to woo conservative white voters from the democratic party by promising not to support new civil rights legislation. Sen. George McGovern (1972): George Stanley McGovern (born July 19, 1922) is a historian, author, and former U.
S. Representative, U. S. Senator, and the Democratic Party nominee in the 1972 presidential election. Vietnam pullout (1973): In 1973 the U. S. withdrew the 27,000 troops and would reclaim 560 prisoners of war and South Vietnam would receive limited amount of U. S. support. North Vietnam would have troops in South Vietnam and an election was used to determine the future government of South Vietnam. CREEP: Richard Nixon’s committee for re-electing the president. Found to have been engaged in a “dirty tricks” campaign against the democrats in 1972.
They raised tens of millions of dollars in campaign funds using unethical means. They were involved in the infamous Watergate cover-up. Watergate break-in (June 1972): Led by Liddy and Hunt of the White House plumbers, the Repub. undercover team received approval to wiretap telephones at the Democratic National Committee headquarters in the Watergate apartment complex in Washington. Early one morning, a security guard foiled the break-in to install the bugs, and he arrested James McCord, the security coordinator of CREEP, and several other Liddy and Hunt associates.
White House “plumbers unit”: The White House Plumbers, sometimes simply called the Plumbers, were a covert White House Special Investigations Unit established July 24, 1971 during the presidency of Richard Nixon. Its task was to stop the leaking of classified information to the news media. Its members branched into illegal activities working for the Committee to Re-elect the President, including the Watergate break-in and the ensuing Watergate scandal. Sen. Sam Ervin: He was head of the Senate committee that conducted a long and televised series of hearings in 1973 to 1974.
John Dean III: He was a former white house lawyer that testified about the involvement of the top levels of the White House. He talked of the president, the Watergate cover-up and accused the president of violating justice. His claims were later supported by Nixon’s tape recordings. Spiro Agnew: Nixon’s vice-president resigned and pleaded “no contest” to charges of tax evasion on payments made to him when he was governor of Maryland. He was replaced by Gerald R. Ford.
Gerald Ford: president 1974-77, Nixon’s Vice president, only person not voted into the White House, appointed vice president by Nixon: became president after Nixon resigned Archibald Cox: A professor of Harvard law school who also worked with the Department of Labor. He was the appointed Special Prosecutor over the Watergate case. “Saturday night massacre” (1973): Name given to the series of events in 1973 that included the firing of a special prosecutor investigating Watergate and the resignations of the attorney general and his next in command for refusing to fire the prosecutor.
Cambodian bombings (1973): Occurred when President Nixon expanded the Vietnam War into it’s neighboring country and attempted to destroy suspected supply lines. Pol Pot: Leader of the Khmer Rouge in Cambodia, who terrorized the people of Cambodia throughout the 1970’s War Powers Act (1973): Gave any president the power to go to war under certain circumstances, but required that he could only do so for 90 days before being required to officially bring the matter before Congress. October War (1973): It was a war between the Arabs and Israel.
Its motive was for the Arabs to regain the territory lost to Israel in the Six-Day War. Kissinger went to Moscow to restrain the Soviets while Nixon placed America’s nuclear forces on alert and gave the Israelis $2 billion dollars worth of war supplies. This helped the Israelis and brought a cease fire. Arab Oil Embargo (1974): After the U. S. backed Israel in its war against Syria and Egypt, which had been trying to regain territory lost in the Six-Day War, the Arab nations imposed an oil embargo, which strictly limited oil in the U. S. and caused a crisis. Energy crisis”: when Carter entered office inflation soared, due to toe the increases in energy prices by OPEC. In the summer of 1979, instability in the Middle East produced a major fuel shortage in the US, and OPEC announced a major price increase. Facing pressure to act, Carter retreated to Camp David, the presidential retreat in the Maryland Mountains. Ten days later, Carter emerged with a speech including a series of proposals for resolving the energy crisis. Alaska pipeline: Built in 1975 along the pipeline to Valdez, it was an above-ground pipe 4 feet in diameter used to pump oil from the vast oil ields of northern Alaska to the tanker station in Valdez Bay where the oil was put aboard ships for transport to refineries in the continental U. S.. Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC): an economic organization consisting primarily of Arab nations that controls the price of oil and the amount of oil its members produce and sell to other nations. Articles of impeachment: It was passed by the House Judiciary Committee and its key vote came in July 1974 when Nixon was accused of obstruction of justice with Watergate.
Other articles talked of Nixon’s abuse as president and his contempt for congress. Nixon resignation (August 8, 1974): When Nixon resigned, 3 tapes were released with one of them containing orders for the Watergate Break in and he confessed to his Watergate involvement on television. These events ruined Nixon’s creditability and he was able to keep his retirement benefits. Nixon pardon (1974): Within his first month of Presidency, Gerald Ford gave full pardon to Nixon. Which aroused fierce criticism, and soon his approval ratings went from 71% to 50%.
Helsinki accords (1975): Political and human rights agreement signed in Helsinki, Finland, by the Soviet Union and western European countries. Vietnam defeat (1975): Vietnam collapsed with out American aid as the last Americans were taken out of Vietnam in 1975. It made America look bad in front of other foreign countries and caused America to lose confidence in its military. The War also took a toll on America’s economy and its people with $118 billion spent, 56,000 dead, and 300,000 wounded.
Title IX (1972): Major civil rights legislation that banned discrimination in education. It appears in this chapter as an example of ineffective policy implementation; unclear goals open to inconsistent interpretation. Equal Rights Amendment (ERA): Proposed the 27th Amendment, calling for equal rights for both sexes. Defeated in the House in 1972. Roe v. Wade (1973): The court legalized abortion by ruling that state laws could not restrict it during the first three months of pregnancy. Based on 4th Amendment rights of a person to be secure in their persons.
Phyllis Schlafly: 1970s; a new right activist that protested the women’s rights acts and movements as defying tradition and natural gender division of labor; demonstrated conservative backlash against the 60s Betty Freidan: wrote The Feminine Mystique credited with starting the second wave of woman’s liberation movement, question domestic fulfillment, founded NOW National Organization for Women (NOW): Founded in 1966, the National Organization for Women (NOW) called for equal employment opportunity and equal pay for women.
NOW also championed the legalization of abortion and passage of an equal rights amendment to the Constitution. Milliken v. Bradley (1974): This Supreme Court decision responded in some ways to the backlash against integration via busing by stating that busing was only legal where schools were deliberately using racist tactics to segregate schools. It also said that the goal of Swann was not to create racially balanced schools with certain numbers of each race but to stop wilful segregation. Reverse discrimination”: The assertion that affirmative action programs that require preferential treatment for minorities discriminate against those who have no minority status. Bakke case (1978): saw the Supreme Court barely rule that Allan Bakke had not been admitted into U. C. Davis because the university preferred minority races only and ordered the college to admit Bakke. United States v. Wheeler (1978): -facts: Indian is convicted in tribal court and later charged with same offense from same act (a rape) in federal court. HELD: SCOTUS won’t apply double jeopardy bar to litigation, because under the 5th Amendment, it is not the same offense when two SOVEREIGNS prosecute the same person. Jimmy Carter (1976): James Earl “Jimmy” Carter, Jr. (born October 1, 1924) is an American politician who served as the 39th President of the United States (1977-1981) and was the recipient of the 2002 Nobel Peace Prize, the only U. S. President to have received the Prize after leaving office. Before he became President, Carter served as a U. S.
Naval officer, was a peanut farmer, served two terms as a Georgia State Senator and one as Governor of Georgia (1971-1975) Department of Energy: the federal department responsible for maintaining a national energy policy of the United States “Human rights”: the basic rights to which all people are entitled as human beings Camp David accords (1978): Peace treaty between Egypt and Israel; hosted by US President Jimmy Carter; caused Egypt to be expelled from the Arab league; created a power vacuum that Saddam hoped to fill; first treaty of its kind between Israel and an Arab state Return of Panama Canal: Carter proposed two treaties that would give ownership and control of the Panama Canal back to Panamanians by the year 2000. The return of the Panama Canal was one of Carter’s accomplishments in foreign policy. Mohammed Reza Pahlevi: Shah of Iran who was deposed in 1979 by Islamic fundamentalists (1919-1980) Brezhnev and SALT II negotiations (1979): Carter and Brezhev met in Vienna to sign the SALT agreements which were meant limit the number of lethal strategic weapons in both U. S. and Russia. U. S. conservatives were against the agreement and suspicious against Russia. The conservative stance was strengthened against the agreements when it was discovered that there was a Soviet “combat brigade” in Cuba.
Iranian hostage crisis (1979-1980): On November 4, 1979 anti-American Muslim militants went to the United States’ embassy in Teheran and took everyone inside hostage. Their demand was to restore the exiled shah who went to the U. S. for medical treatment. Ayatollah Ruholla Khomeini: Islamic religious leader who led a revolution to overthrow Iran’s government in 1979; he ruled the country for the next ten years on a strongly anti-American platform Afghanistan invasion and Olympic boycott (1980): The 1980 Summer Olympics boycott of the Moscow Olympics was a part of a package of actions initiated by the United States to protest the Soviet war in Afghanistan.  It preceded the 1984 Summer Olympics boycott carried out by the Soviet Union and other Communist friendly countries.