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Modern Political Thought

School of Politics and International Relations Modern Political Thought II POL206 2012-13 Module Convenor: Dr Madeleine Davis Email: m. j. [email protected] ac. uk Office hours: Semester 1 Thursday 2-3pm, Friday 11-12am, Semester 2 Thursday 23pm, Friday 1-2pm. Office location: Arts One, Room 2. 28b Timetable: Lectures: Thursdays at 10 am Seminars: Thursdays (see QM+ and School notice board for details) 1 1. Welcome from the convenor This module handbook provides you with essential information. The handbook details the topics covered each week.
You should use the reading lists provided to help you prepare for lectures and seminars. You should read the handbook carefully before you begin the module, and you should bring it with you every week to lectures and seminars. The first few pages give you some general information and advice on how the module will be taught and assessed, as well as guidelines on preparing and presenting your work. The rest of the handbook is a guide to module content, including a week by week guide to lecture and seminar themes, with essential and additional readings clearly indicated for each topic.
Copies of this module outline and other handouts are available from the folders on the wall outside the School Office on the second floor of the Arts Building. The module outline for the spring semester will be available at the end of the autumn semester. Announcements relating to the module will be distributed via email to your QM email account or via QM+, and it is your responsibility if you miss any of these announcements. There will be a weekly lecture for the module at 10 am on Thursdays. Seminars also take place on Thursday and you will be assigned to one of these. . Module description This second year core module is compulsory for all Politics and Politics/History students, because we think an understanding of the history, structures and main concepts of political thinking is necessary for appreciating the institutions and arguments of modern political life, as you will study it in other modules. The skills you learn in dealing with more abstract and normative ideas, as well as in evaluating rational arguments, are also essential for studying all parts of the discipline.

The module builds on the analysis of concepts and ideologies begun in POL100 Introduction to Politics, but it also offers an opportunity to read some of the classic texts, and to explore some of the founding ideas, of modern political theory. By studying the foundations and development of political thought, we can understand how contemporary ways of thinking about politics and the political emerged, as well as appreciating the historical and theoretical contexts in which they evolved.
The emphasis in the module will be on a critical reading and analysis of primary texts. Part I of the course (MPT I) focused on the development of political thought prior to the French Revolution, emphasising in particular the social contract tradition; foundational ideas about rational individualism; the quest for a theory of political obligation which would grant legitimacy to the emerging modern state; the development of radical theories of democratic participation and popular sovereignty; and the critique of many of these developments in modern conservatism.
It also raised questions about how we think of the political, by comparing the social contract tradition with that of Machiavelli and by considering politics in the context of the development of modernity. Concepts like consent, freedom, equality, rights and property were prominent. In Part II of the course, we will be considering the way in which political thought developed in the wake of the French and industrial revolutions. We will begin by focusing upon the continued rise of liberalism and secularism in the 18th and 19th centuries in the work of Jeremy 2
Bentham, John Stuart Mill and Immanuel Kant. These figures represent the continued elaboration and sophistication of the modern foundations of political society in concepts of rationalism, enlightenment, freedom and equality. As we will see, their conceptions of the role of the state, of right and of obligation continue to be immensely influential in both political thought and practice today. For the rest of the module we will turn our attention to Germany and three great German thinkers: Hegel, Marx and Nietzsche.
This will allow you the opportunity to study three of the nineteenth-century’s central political thinkers, whose ideas have played a crucial role in the development of the 20th century. Hegel’s writings may not at first seem easy to understand as they are written in a style that is highly metaphysical and abstract. However, once we get beyond the philosophical jargon we discover one of the most compelling visions of the relationship between citizens and the state that has ever been offered.
For Hegel, the state was ‘the actuality of the ethical idea’, and it was through the State that the individual acquires what he describes as ‘substantive freedom’. The critiques of liberalism developed by Marx and Nietzsche are the most influential we have. Attacking the very foundations of the emerging liberal capitalist order, they also dismissed its values and aspirations to justice as at best illusory and at worst, as masquerades for advancing sectional interests.
For them, liberal democracy is about oppression and exploitation (Marx), nihilism and deathly mediocrity (Nietzsche), not justice and emancipation. They developed very different ideas from liberal ones, about human nature and what might be ‘good’ for it. They also developed grand historical accounts to explain what they saw as the miseries and degeneracy of modernity (capitalism; nihilism), alongside more visionary allusions as to how we might escape from them.
Above all, Marx and Nietzsche sought to challenge the idea that politics is a rational practice undertaken by self-conscious actors who make rational decisions and subscribe to general values of fairness. What they describe is a far more complex environment in which politics is an ongoing struggle between (structural, cultural, unconscious) forces of which we often have little understanding and even less control. This means that they pay less attention to the State than more conventional political theorists, since the power struggles that constitute political life are much more widespread.
This clearly has significant implications for the practising of politics and through them, Marx and Nietzsche oblige us once more to take up the first semesters’ questions concerning the bases (or lack of them) for political authority, shared values or any common vision of justice or liberation. 3. Teaching and Learning Profile a) Teaching Arrangements Lecturers: Madeleine Davis (MD), Jeremy Jennings (JJ), Caroline Williams (CW) and Clare Woodford (CWd) Seminar teachers: Madeleine Davis, Caroline Williams and Clare Woodford The module has two components: a one hour weekly ecture and a one hour weekly seminar. Attendance at all lectures and seminars is compulsory. Persistent non-attendance can lead to 3 de-registration, which can affect your overall classification or prevent your studying further with Queen Mary. If you are absent due to ill health you should contact the module tutor and the office. If you are absent from Queen Mary for more than five days, you must supply a doctor’s note. Lectures: there will be twenty-two weekly lectures, as detailed in the module outline below. These will take place on Thursdays at 10 am. You should ensure that you attend all of these.
Lectures are captured on audio and video, and you can find them on QM+. Seminars: these are held once a week and also last one hour. They are small group meetings based around specified texts and themes, and they are intended to supplement the lectures and provide an opportunity for deeper discussion of the module content. You MUST do the required preparatory reading in advance of the seminar. All participants are expected to demonstrate a careful reading for the week’s topic and a willingness and ability to contribute to class discussion on the basis of such reading.
You can only demonstrate reading and thinking through making regular contributions to class discussions. The class tutors will endeavour to make sure that everybody says something in every seminar. Since seminars are designed to allow you to make an input into the module, attendance is compulsory. Please note that non-attendance at seminars can lead to deregistration from the module (see undergraduate handbook). Please let the seminar tutor know in advance if you are unable to attend a seminar, and please ensure that you speak to the module convenor or your personal tutor if you are experiencing problems.
Because texts are open to various interpretations and criticisms, seminars in this module provide an especially important forum for trying out your ideas, testing them on other readers, and most importantly, raising difficulties that arose during your reading. You should never feel intimidated in these classes, in expressing your ideas: speculative thinking is an important part of political theorising and it is not a question of being ‘right’ or ‘wrong’. Above all, it is important that you should come to class with an enquiring mind and a willingness to share your questions, problems and opinions with other members of the tutorial.
Class discussions are for your benefit and the more you put into them, the more stimulating and helpful you’ll find them. In fact, the best MPT sessions often arise from students identifying parts of texts they found the most difficult or controversial, rather than those parts which are more self-evident. Never feel inhibited about asking the meaning of words or passages – the chances are that other people are also struggling with them! It is important that you should bring a copy of the week’s primary text with you, as we may want to analyse particular passages together.
QM+ and email: it is important that you check the POL206 area on QM+ regularly. Not only will we post announcements and handouts there, but we will also involve QM+ in the teaching of the module. Smart students don’t come unprepared to class because they have forgotten to check QM+. You must also read your Queen Mary email daily for any communications about teaching. The School will not use any other email but that supplied by the Queen Mary. Failure to respond to email messages, particularly regarding non-attendance, may lead to deregistration. b) Learning Outcomes and Assessment Criteria The aims of the module are: To give students a broad overview of modern political thinking as it developed from the 16th century to the end of the 20th century; to encourage a capacity in analytical thinking and an ability to deal with abstract concepts and normative or speculative ideas; to introduce a critical perspective which encourages rigorous and creative thinking and to teach skills which are derived from a text-based module; and to introduce intensive and continuous writing assignments in order to develop students’ writing abilities and powers of written analysis.
The learning objectives of the module are: The acquisition of a detailed knowledge of classic texts in political theory; an ability to explain and critically analyse the basic claims and normative ideas underlying modern political doctrines; a familiarity with the central concepts of modern political thought, such as rights, justice, human nature, liberty, equality, democracy, exploitation, as well as the idea of the political itself, as these have developed discursively and historically; and an appreciation of how political theory both understands, and responds to, the questions of odernity and the modern state. Skills: The module aims to teach the following skills: analytic skills in close readings of texts; skills of critical evaluation in considering arguments; speculative skills in thinking about the ‘big’ questions in politics; presentation skills in summarising complex theoretical arguments; and writing skills in presenting critical written accounts of ideas covered and reflecting on the student’s own work. c) Attendance Attendance at all Lectures and Seminars is compulsory.
Persistent non attendance can lead to de-registration, which can affect your overall classification or prevent your studying further with Queen Mary. If you are absent due to ill health you should contact the module tutor and the office. If you are absent from Queen Mary for more than 5 days you must supply a doctor’s note. d) Participation/Preparation This handbook details the topics covered each week. You should use the reading lists provided to help you prepare for lectures and seminars. You can only demonstrate reading and thinking through making regular contributions to class discussions. e) Communication You must read your Queen Mary email for any communications about teaching daily. The School will not use any other email but that supplied by the Queen Mary. Failure to respond to email messages, particularly regarding non-attendance, may lead to deregistration. You must check this QM+ site for this module for any messages and associated learning material. 4. Assessment Profile and Timetable for feedback (see also Appendix 1) a) Assessment In the spring semester, assessment for this module consists of the following two pieces of work: (i) an essay proposal of max. 00 words, plus working bibliography (weighting: 10% of the mark for the whole year); and (ii) a research essay of max. 5000 words (weighting: 50% of the mark for the whole year). The research essay is designed to allow you to demonstrate both depth and breadth in your understanding of the semester’s key themes and thinkers. It is also intended to help develop your skills of research design and independent research, in order to prepare you for the final year dissertation you will undertake next year.
You will be required to choose one from a selection of key themes, and to write an essay that compares and analyses the treatment of your chosen theme by at least three of the thinkers covered in this module. The choice of thinkers will depend on the theme chosen and your own interests, with one stipulation: at least two must be chosen from the Spring Semester (for Semester B associates all will be chosen from the Spring Semester). The themes from which to choose are: i) freedom, ii) human nature, iii) morality, iv) equality, v) political authority and legitimacy.
The requirement to submit a plan and working bibliography is intended to ensure that your choice of themes and thinkers is appropriate, to help you in framing your arguments, and to give you the opportunity to receive feedback on your work in progress from your seminar tutor. Your tutors may also incorporate short writing exercises into classes to help you link themes and thinkers as we progress through the course. Deadlines Essay proposal: Thursday 7 March (Week 9) Feedback will be given in week 11. Research essay: Tuesday 23 April. Grades and feedback will be given after the exam period.
Please refer to the Appendix for further information and guidance about the coursework. Exam There is no exam for this module. 6 Semester B associate students Those taking MPT II only will have 100% of their grade awarded on the basis of their spring semester course work. The coursework is as follows: (i) an essay proposal of max. 500 words, plus working bibliography (weighting: 15% of the mark); and (ii) a research essay of max. 5000 words (weighting: 85% of the mark). The coursework is due on the same dates as for nonassociate students.
See Appendices for full details. b) Submission of coursework You must submit one electronic copy of all assignments. Your electronic copy must be submitted via Queen Mary’s Virtual Learning environment (QMPlus) by 9am on the day of the stated deadline. The School has a policy of anonymous marking. Your name must not appear anywhere on your work. Therefore, you must ensure that you use the coursework coversheet as the first page of your assignment. Any coursework work submitted which does not have a coversheet attached will incur penalties for incorrect submission.
Coversheets can be downloaded from the Undergraduate shared area of QMPlus and through individual QMPlus module areas Your electronic copy must be submitted by 9am on the deadline date, and will be retained and screened by anti-plagiarism software. REMEMBER: Save your assignment with coversheet and bibliography as a single document (preferably as a PDF) before uploading to QMPlus Complete the coversheet with your Student ID, Module Code, Assignment number and Seminar Tutor. Your assignments must be submitted by 9am on the deadline date Save back-up copies of all your work in case of computer failure.
It is your responsibility to submit your assignments correctly. (Full details of submission policies can be found in the School’s Student Handbook. ) c) Extensions If you require an extension due to extenuating circumstances (EC), you must complete the relevant EC form and attach documentation to support your request. Completed forms and documentation should be handed into the Office. Full details can be found in the Student Handbook 7 Essays submitted 14 days after the deadline – including weekends – will not be assessed and will be given a mark of zero. d) Essay Advice
Referencing and bibliography There are different ways of referencing and making a bibliography. The important thing is that you use one, and that you use it consistently. Referencing and bibliography are essential parts of any essay and marks will be deducted if they are poor or absent. Your seminar teacher will be happy to answer questions about this. For details about how to reference and make a bibliography, please consult the Student Handbook. e) Past Exam Paper There is no exam for this course. 5. QM+ All module materials, including a copy of this module outline can be found on QMPlus.
You should familiarise yourself with QMPlus as soon as possible as further information concerning this module and office hours will be posted there. To access QMPlus (on or off campus) go to http://qmplus. qmul. ac. uk/. You will require your QM computer access username and password. You should also use QMPlus to upload the electronic version your assignments. If you are having problems accessing/using QMPlus support and information can be found on the following website – http://qmplus. qmul. ac. uk/mod/page/view. php? id=85646 Equally you can contact the School Office who may be able to offer assistance.
NOTE: If you have not completed your module registration properly your modules will not show on QMPlus. It is up to you to ensure you complete registration and check QMplus regularly. 6. Plagiarism QM defines plagiarism as presenting someone else’s work as one’s own irrespective of intention. Close paraphrasing, copying from the work of another person, including another student, using the ideas of another person, without proper acknowledgement or repeating work you have previously submitted without properly referencing yourself (known as ‘self plagiarism’) also constitute plagiarism. Regulations on Assessment Offences 8 Plagiarism is a serious offence and all students suspected of plagiarism will be subject to an investigation. If found guilty, penalties can include failure of the module to suspension or permanent withdrawal from Queen Mary. It is your responsibility to ensure that you understand plagiarism and how to avoid it. The recommendations below can help you in avoiding plagiarism. Be sure to record your sources when taking notes, and to cite these if you use ideas or, especially, quotations from the original source.
Be particularly careful if you are cutting and pasting information between two documents, and ensure that references are not lost in the process. Be sensible in referencing ideas – commonly held views that are generally accepted do not always require acknowledgment to particular sources. However, it is best to be safe to avoid plagiarism. Be particularly careful with quotations and paraphrasing. Be aware that technology is now available at Queen Mary and elsewhere that can automatically detect plagiarism. Ensure that all works used are referenced appropriately in the text of your work and fully credited in your bibliography.
If in doubt, ask for further guidance from your adviser or module tutor. See your student handbook for further advice. 9 7. LECTURE AND SEMINAR SCHEDULE 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Lecture Bentham’s Utilitarianism (JJ) John Stuart Mill’s Liberalism (JJ) Kant’s Enlightenment (CWd) Hegel: Philosophy, ethics and the state (CWd) The early Marx (MD) Marx’s historical materialism (MD) Reading week; no lectures or seminars The Analysis of Capitalism (MD) Introduction to Nietzsche and the Genealogy of Morality (CW) Nietzsche’s Genealogy and Bad Conscience (CW) Nietzsche’s Genealogy and Nihilism (CW) Conclusion and overview (MD)
Seminar theme Bentham: principles of morals and legislation John Stuart Mill: liberty Kant: enlightenment and freedom Hegel and the state Marx: emancipation, alienation and speciesbeing Marx: history, class and revolution Marx: capitalism and exploitation Nietzsche’s challenge : what is morality? Nietzsche: guilt, bad conscience, discipline and will to power Nietzsche: nihilism and beyond Advice on preparing your research essay PLEASE NOTE THAT THERE WILL BE A BRIEFING SESSION ON THE ASSESSMENT REQUIREMENTS FOR ALL STUDENTS ON THURSDAY 18 JANUARY AT 1PM IN ROOM FB113A 10 8. READING GUIDE
SEMESTER II TEXTS Core Texts Jeremy Bentham, An Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation (in Wootton). John Stuart Mill, On Liberty (in Wootton). Kant, ‘An Answer to the Question: What is Enlightenment? ’ (in Wootton). G. W. F. Hegel, Elements of the Philosophy of Right (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991). Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels: various texts, including excerpts from On the Jewish Question, The 1844 Manuscripts, The German Ideology, The Communist Manifesto and Capital , collected in Wootton or Robert C. Tucker, The Marx-Engels Reader, 2nd edition (New York: W.
W. Norton, 1978). Friedrich Nietzsche, On the Genealogy of Morality, ed. Keith Ansell-Pearson, trans. Carol Diethe (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007). As far as is possible, all of the first and second semester readings are collected in David Wootton (ed. ), Modern Political Thought. Readings from Machiavelli to Nietzsche (Cambridge: Hackett, 1996) (referred to below as Wootton; you may also use the second edition from 2008). Students are strongly advised to purchase this text. Where texts are not in Wootton they will be posted on the QM+ site for the course.
Most of these texts can also be found on the internet, although the quality varies. Secondary texts: An important note on secondary reading: As last semester, the major emphasis of this course is on a close reading of primary texts. All the essential reading for seminars is from the core primary texts listed above. However you will need to consult secondary texts when planning and preparing your research essay (you can also, of course, use them for seminar preparation in addition to – never instead of! – the primary reading if you have time).
The secondary material listed below is organised into various categories: general texts: useful companion texts aimed at students and usually covering several thinkers and one or more relevant themes. secondary texts on particular thinkers: more in depth and specialised treatments of each thinker. additional thematic sources: some suggestions for general reading on the themes for the research essay. 11 Your working bibliography for the research essay will probably contain material from each of these categories. We have provided a fairly extensive range of sources here.
All should be available in the QM library (some are still on order at the time of compiling this list). Useful secondary texts (* indicates particularly recommended) General secondary texts: Barry, N. , Modern Political Theory (4th ed, 2000) (chapters on authority, freedom and equality) Boucher, D. and P. Kelly (eds. ), Political Thinkers (London: Routledge, 2003). *Edwards, A. and J. Townsend (eds. ), Interpreting Modern Political Philosophy. From Machiavelli to Marx (Basingstoke: Palgrave, 2002). (useful chapters on Kant, Hegel, Mill and Marx) *Hampsher-Monk, I. A History of Modern Political Thought (Oxford: Blackwell, 1992) (chapters on Bentham, Mill, Hegel and Marx) Macpherson, C. B. , The Political Theory of Possessive Individualism (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1964). ( a critique of liberalism) Matravers, D. et al. , Reading Political Philosophy. Machiavelli to Mill (London: Routledge, 2001). *Pateman, C. , The Problem of Political Obligation (Cambridge: Polity, 1985). Plamenatz, J. , Man and Society: Political and Social Theories from Machiavelli to Marx (New York: Longman, 1991). Ramsay, M. ,What’s Wrong with liberalism? (1997) Rorty, R. et al. (eds. ), Philosophy in History: Essays in the Historiography of Philosophy (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1984). *Rosen, M. , and Wolff, J. , Political Thought (OPU, 1999) – (a very useful reader of primary texts organised by themes including human nature, justification of political rule, and liberty, with short introductions to each theme) Wolff, J. , An Introduction to Political Philosophy (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996). By thinker: Bentham, Mill and Utilitarianism David Bromwich and George Kateb (eds), John Stuart Mill On Liberty (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2003).
Wendy Donner, The Liberal Self: John Stuart Mill’s Moral and Political Philosophy (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1991). Michael B. Gill, The British Moralists on Human Nature and the Birth of Secular Ethics (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006). *John Gray, Mill on Liberty: A Defence, 2nd edition (London: Routledge, 1996). Joseph Hamburger, John Stuart Mill on Liberty and Control (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1999). *Ian Hampsher-Monk, A History of Modern Political Thought (Oxford: Blackwell, 1992), chapters 7 and 8.
Will Kymlicka, Contemporary Political Philosophy: An Introduction, 2nd ed. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002), chapter 2. 12 John Rawls, A Theory of Justice (Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press, 1971), §§5, 26-30. Nancy Rosenblum, Bentham’s Theory of the Modern State (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1978). Alan Ryan, The Philosophy of John Stuart Mill, 2nd edition (Basingstoke: Macmillan, 1978). Geoffrey Scarre, Utilitarianism (London: Routledge, 1996). Philip Schofield, Utility and Democracy: The Political Thought of Jeremy Bentham (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006)..
John Skorupski, John Stuart Mill (London: Routledge, 1989). John Skorupski (ed. ), The Cambridge Companion to John Stuart Mill (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998). J. J. C. Smart and Bernhard Williams, Utilitarianism for and against (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1973). John Stuart Mill, ‘Utilitarianism’, in On Liberty and Other Essays, ed. John Gray (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1991), pp. 131-201. Kant Useful Introductions Scruton, R. (2001) ‘Kant A Very Short Introduction’, Oxford: Oxford University Press Filkshuh, K. A. (2003 [2nd ed. 2009]) ‘Kant’ in Boucher, D. and Kelly, P. eds) Political Thinkers From Socrates to the Present, Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 422-36 P. Guyer, The Cambridge companion to Kant P. Guyer The Cambridge Companion to Kant and modern philosophy (2006) H. Williams, Kant’s Political philosophy S. M. Shell, The Rights of reason: A study of Kant’s Philosophy and Politics R. Beiner (ed), Kant and political Philosophy H. Arendt, Lectures on Kant’s Political Philosophy P. Riley, Will and Political Legitimacy L. Krieger, The German Idea of Freedom G. A. Kelly, Idealism, Politics, and History Reiss, H. S. (ed. ) (1991) Kant’s Political Writings, (2nd ed. (H. B. Nisbet trans. ) Cambridge: Cambridge University Press Also useful for commentaries and discussion: Allison, H. (2004 ed) Kant’s Transcendental Idealism: An Interpretation and Defence, London and New Haven, CT: Yale University Press Ameriks, K. (2000 ed) Kant’s Theory of Mind, Oxford: Clarendon Press Beck, L. W. (1960) A Commentary on Kant’s Critique of Practical Reason, Chicago Caygill, H. (1995) A Kant Dictionary, Oxford: Blackwell Collins, A. (1999) Possible Experience: Understanding Kant’s Critique of Pure Reason Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press Downie, R. S. and Telfer, E. 1969) Respect for Persons, Allen and Unwin Filkshuh, K. A. (2003 [2nd ed. 2009]) ‘Kant’ in Boucher, D. and Kelly, P. (ed. s) Political Thinkers From Socrates to the Present, Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 422-36 Gardner, S. (1999) Routledge Philosophy Guidebook to Kant and the Critique of Pure Reason, (London: Routledge) 13 Keller, P. (2001) Kant and the Demands of Self-Consciousness Cambridge: Cambridge University Press Kitcher, P. (1982) ‘Kant on Self-Identity’, The Philosophical Review, vol. 91, no. 1, pp. 41-72 Kitcher, P. (1999) ‘Kant on Self-Consciousness’, The Philosophical Review, vol. 08, no. 3, pp. 345-386 Korsgaard, C. (1996) Creating the Kingdom of Ends, Cambridge; Cambridge University Press Sircello, G. (1968) ‘Subjectivity and Justification in Aesthetic Judgements’, The Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism, Vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 3-12 Wolff, R. P. (ed. ) (1967) ‘Kant: A Collection of Critical Essays’, Garden City, NY: Doubleday Anchor [a useful collection] Hegel Useful Introductions: Singer, P. (1983) ‘Hegel: a very short introduction’, Oxford: Oxford University Press Patten, A. (2003 [2nd ed. 2009]) ‘Hegel’ in Boucher, D. and Kelly, P. (ed. ) Political Thinkers from Socrates to the Present, Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 437-58 Knowles, D. (2002) ‘Hegel and the Philosophy of Right’, New York; Routledge [An excellent text. Really useful for situating Hegel’s knowledge in context. Very clearly written]. Also useful: * Hampsher-Monk, I. A History of Modern Political Thought (Oxford: Blackwell, 1992), * Patten, A. Hegel’s Idea of Freedom (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999). * Wood, A. W. ‘Editor’s Introduction’, in G. W. F. Hegel, Elements of the Philosophy of Right (CUP 1991) * Burns, A. ‘G. W. F.
Hegel’, in Terrell Carver and James Martin (eds), Continental Wood, A. W. Hegel’s Ethical Thought (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990). Ameriks, K. (1985) ‘Hegel’s Critique of Kant’s Theoretical Philosophy’, Philosophy and Phenomenological Research Vol. XLVI, no. I, pp. 1-35 Haddock, B. ‘G. W. F Hegel: Philosophy of Right’, in Murray Forsyth and (eds), The Political Classics: A Guide to the Essential Texts from Hamilton to Mill, Vol. 2 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1993). Beiser, F. (2005) ‘Hegel’, London: Routledge Berenson, F. (1982) ‘Hegel on Others and the Self’, Philosophy, vol. 57, no. 19, pp,77-90 Taylor, C. Hegel and Modern Society (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1979). Taylor, C. Hegel, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1977). Di Giovanni, G. and Harris, H. S. (eds) (1985) ‘Between Kant and Hegel’, Albany: SUNY Press Harris, H. S. (1995) ‘Hegel: Phenomenology and System’, Indianapolis: Hackett Houlgate, S. (1991) ‘Freedom, Truth, History: And introduction to Hegel’s Philosophy’, London: Routledge Ritter, J. Hegel and the French Revolution: Essays on The Philosophy of Right (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1984). Mccarney, J. ‘Hegel on History,’ (London: Routledge, 2000). Habermas, J.
Knowledge and Human Interests, trans. Jeremy J. Shapiro (Cambridge: 14 Inwood, M. A Hegel Dictionary (Oxford: Blackwell, 1992). Inwood, M. Hegel (London: Routledge, 1983). Hardimon, M. O. Hegel’s Social Philosophy: The Project of Reconciliation (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994). Mure, G. R. G. (1965) ‘The Philosophy of Hegel’, London Pinkard T. (2000) ‘Hegel: A Biography’, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press [Useful introduction to Hegel’s life and times] Raymond Plant, Hegel (London: Routledge, 1999). Pippin, R. B. Idealism as Modernism: Hegelian Variations (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997).
Avineri, S. Hegel’s Theory of the Modern State, New edition (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1974). Solomon, R. (1983) ‘In the Spirit of Hegel’, Oxford: Oxford University Press Stewart, J. (2000) ‘The Unity of Hegel’s Phenomenology of Spirit’, Evanston, IL: Northwestern University Press Taylor, C. (1975) ‘Hegel’ Cambridge: Cambridge University Press Villa, D. (2005) ‘Hegel, Toqueville, and “Individualism”’, The Review of Politics, Vol. 67, no. 4, pp. 659-86 Walsh, W. H. Hegelian Ethics (Basingstoke: Macmillan, 1969). Westphal, K. (2003) ‘Hegel’s Epistemology’, Indianapolis: Hackett Allen W.
Wood, Hegel’s Ethical Thought (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990). Pelczynski, Z. A. (ed. ), The State and Civil Society: Studies in Hegel’s Political Philosophy (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1984). Pelczynski, Z. A. Hegel’s Political Philosophy: Problems and Perspectives (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1971). Marx General texts S Avineri, Social and Political Thought of Karl Marx T Bottomore (ed), A Dictionary of Marxist Thought T. Carver ed. , The Cambridge Companion to Marx T. Carver, Marx’s Social Theory T. Carver, The Postmodern Marx *G Duncan, Marx and Mill M Evans, Karl Marx *I.
Hampsher-Monk, Modern Political Thought Ch 10 J Lively & A Reeve (eds),Modern Political Theory Section VI *D McLellan,Karl Marx: His Life and Thought *D McLellan,The Thought of Karl Marx [thematic chapters in Part 2 are extremely useful] J Maguire, Marx’s Theory of Politics P. Osborne How to Read Marx *P Singer, Marx (a useful, short introduction) T Sowell, Marxism, Philosophy and Economics W Suching, Marx: An Introduction 15 A Wood, Karl Marx The Young Marx and Alienation E Fromm, Marx’s Concept of Man S Hook, From Hegel to Marx * D McLellan, Marx Before Marxism I Meszaros, Marx’s Theory of Alienation B Ollman, Alienation D.
McLennan, The Young Hegelians and Karl Marx Historical Materialism & Social Change A Carter, Marx: A Radical Critique T Carver, Marx’s Social Theory G Cohen, Karl Marx’s Theory of History: A Defence M Rader, Marx’s Interpretation of History Marx and Capitalism: Marxist Economics A Brewer, A Guide to Marx’s Capital B Fine, Theories of the Capitalist Economy A Giddens, Capitalism and Modern Social Theory E Mandel, The Formation of the Economic Thought of Karl Marx E Mandel, An Introduction to Marxist Economic Theory T Sowell, Marxism, Philosophy and Economics Marx and Ideology E. Balibar, Marx and Philosophy T.
Carver, `Did Ideology fall with the Wall? Marx, Marxism, Post-Marxism’ in M. Freeden ed. , Reassessing Political Ideologies J Lorraine, “Ideology and its revisions in Contemporary Marxism” in N O’Sullivan ed. , The Structure of Modern Ideology J. McCarney, The Real World of Ideology M. Seliger, The Marxist Concept of Ideology R. Williams, `Ideology’ in his Keywords Marx and Engels on justice, morality, human nature and exploitation Arneson,`What’s wrong with Exploitation? ‘ Ethics 91 (Jan 1981) A. Buchanan, `Exploitation, Alienation and Injustice’, Canadian Journal of Philosophy IX vol. Cohen, Nagel & Scanlon eds, Marx, Justice and History (esp. articles by Husain and Wood L. N. Geras,`The Controversy about Marx and Justice’, New Left Review 150 (1985) * N. Geras, Marx and Human Nature *S. Lukes, Marxism and Morality *K. Neilson & S. Patton eds, `Marx and Morality’, Canadian Journal of Philosophy. Supplement to vol. VII (1981) A. Wood, Karl Marx, pt III A. Wood, `The Marxist Critique of Justice’, Philosophy and Public Affairs vol. 1 no. 13 (1972) 16 Young, `Justice and Capitalist Production. Marx and Bourgeois Ideology’, Canadian Journal of Philosophy VIII no. 13 (1978) Nietzsche *K.
Ansell-Pearson, The Perfect Nihilist. An Introduction to Nietzsche as Political Thinker *K. Ansell-Pearson, Nietzsche contra Rousseau. A Study of Nietzsche’s Moral and Political Thought K. Ansell-Pearson, `The Exotic Philosophy of Friedrich Nietzsche’, Political Theory (Aug. 1986) *K. Ansell-Pearson, `Nietzsche on Autonomy and Morality’, Political Studies (June 1991) K. Ansell-Pearson, `Nietzsche: A Radical Challenge to Political Theory? ‘ Radical Philosophy 54 (1990) K. Ansell-Pearson, `Who is the ubermensch? Time, Truth and Woman in Nietzsche’ Journal of the History of Ideas (April/June 1992) D. Conway, Nietzsche and the Political D.
Conway, Nietzsche’s Dangerous Game S. J. Coleman, `Nietzsche as Politique et Moraliste’ Journal of the History of Ideas vol. 27 (1966) G. Deleuze, Nietzsche and Philosophy [challenging but brilliant] D. Allison ed. , The New Nietzsche [excellent but challenging collection] R. Hollingdale, Nietzsche: The Man and his Philosophy [a readable semi-biography by one of his main English translaters] W. Kaufmann, Nietzsche. Philosopher, Psychologist, and Anti-Christ [It was Kaufmann who first introduced Nietzsche to many English-speaking readers, via his translations, and he who was mainly responsible for re-presenting N. s an existentialist. His work is very accessible and convincing] T. Strong, Nietzsche and the Politics of Transfiguration (2000) [good on N and Politics] M. Warren, Nietzsche and Political Thought (MIT 1988) M. Warren, `The Politics of Nietzsche’s Philosophy: Nihilism, Culture and Power’, Political Studies (Sept. 1985) M. Warren, `Nietzsche and Political Philosophy’, Political Theory vol. 13 no. 2 (May 1985) K. Higgins, Nietzsche’s Zarathustra D. Owen, Nietzsche, Politics and Modernity D. Owen On the Genealogy of Morality (2007) P. Patton, Deleuze and the Political (Routledge 2000) ch. [not all on Nietzsche but some very useful comparative points] R. Schacht ed. , Nietzsche, Genealogy, Morality: Essays on Nietzsche’s Genealogy of Morals B. Leiter Routledge Philosophy Guidebook to Nietzsche on the Genealogy of Morality *M. Tanner, Nietzsche (1994) [this is a very short and accessible introduction] B. Magnus & K. Higgins ed. , The Cambridge Companion to Nietzsche [esp. articles by Magnus & Higgins, Strong and Nehamas] *A. Nehamas, Nietzsche: Life as Literature [a very useful commentary] R. Soloman & K. Higgins, Reading Nietzsche E.
Kennedy, `Woman as Ubermensch: Nietzsche’, in Kennedy & Mendus eds, Women in Western Political Philosophy K. Oliver, Womanizing Nietzsche: Philosophy’s Relation to the `Feminine’ 17 P. Johnson, `Nietzsche Reception Today’, Radical Philosophy 80 (Nov/Dec 1996) [useful overview of literature on Nietzsche’s politics] D. Coole, `The Politics of Reading Nietzsche’, Political Studies 46 (June 1998) D. Coole, Politics and Negativity (Routledge 2000) ch. 3 S. Rosen, The Mask of Enlightenment. Nietzsche’s Zaarathustra [very detailed exposition of a major text] T. Sadler, Nietzsche. Truth and Redemption.
Critique of the Postmodernist Nietzsche [presents a mystical, existentialist Nietzsche, based on the early writings. Readable but controversial] *F. Appel, Nietzsche Contra Democracy [short and clear. Argues that Nietzsche is a thoroughgoing anti-democrat] Additional thematic sources: Many of the sources already listed by thinker have useful material on the themes for the extended essay. The sources below provide general background and additional material. As a general starting point Goodin and Pettit (eds) A companion to contemporary political philosophy (Blackwell, 1995) has useful chapters on most of these themes.
Remember that texts from last term will also be relevant. Freedom: Connolly, William, The Terms of Political Discourse (1983), chapter 4 Coole, Diana, ‘Constructing and Deconstructing Liberty’, Political Studies 41:1 (1993) [reprinted in P. Dunleavy et al. (eds. ), British Political Science] Green, T. H. , ‘Liberal Legislation and Freedom of Contract’, in Lectures on the Principles of Political Obligations and Other Writings Miller, David, Liberty Ramsay, Maureen What’s Wrong with liberalism? (1997) Ch 2 Riley, Jonathan, ‘Liberty’, in Catriona McKinnon (ed. , Issues in Political Theory Ryan, Alan (ed. ), The Idea of Freedom Swift, Adam, Political Philosophy, (Polity, 2001) part 2 Taylor, Charles, ‘What’s Wrong with Negative Liberty? ’, in A. Ryan (ed. ), The Idea of Freedom and in D. Miller, Liberty. Human nature Davies, J. , Human nature in politics (Wiley, 1963) Forbes, I. , and Smith, S. , (eds) Politics and human nature (1983) Parekh, Bikhu, Rethinking Multiculturalism. MacMillan: Basingtoke, 2000. Chapter 4. Pinker, S. , The blank slate: the modern denial of human nature (2003) Rosen, M. , & Wolff, J. , Political Thought.
Oxford: Oxford UP, 1999, Chapter 1. Sayers, S. , Marxism and human nature (Routledge, 2007) 18 Morality K. Ansell-Pearson, Nietzsche contra Rousseau. A Study of Nietzsche’s Moral and Political Thought Berki, N. , and Parekh, B. The morality of politics (1972) S. Lukes, Marxism and Morality Nuttall, J Moral Questions: an introduction to ethics (Polity, 1993) Ch 13 Raz, J. , The morality of freedom (Clarendon, 1986) Raz, J. , Ethics in the public domain: the morality of law and politics (OUP 1994) Equality Arneson . , RJ ‘Equality’ in Goodin and Pettit Pojman, L. and R. Westmoreland (eds. , Equality: Selected Readings Rees, John, Equality (Pall Mall Press, 1971) Sen, A. , Inequality Re-examined Sen, A. , ‘Equality of What? ’, in Choice, Welfare and Measurement Tawney, R. H. , Equality, (1931) especially section on ‘Liberty and Equality’ Swift, Adam, Political Philosophy, esp Part 3 (Polity, 2001) Tawney RH Equality (Allen and Unwin, 1931) White S. , Equality (Polity, 2007) Political authority and legitimacy Dunn, J Political obligation in its historical context (CUP 1980) Flathman. , R ‘Legitimacy’ in Goodin and Pettit (eds) A companion to contemporary political philosophy (Blackwell, 1995) Flathman, R. The practice of political authority (Univ of Chicago Press, 1980) Green , L. , The authority of the state (Clarendon 1988) Green TH Lectures on the principles of political obligation and other writings (CUP, 1986) Hampton, J. , ‘Contract and consent’, Ch 16 in Goodin and Pettit (eds) Lessnoff, M. , Social contract theory (Blackwell, 1990) Morris ,C. , (ed) The social contract theorists: critical essays on Hobbes Locke and Rousseau (1998) Pateman, C Participation and democratic theory (CUP, 1970) Pateman The problems of political obligation (CUP, 1985) Plamenatz, J. Consent, freedom and political obligation (OUP, 1968) Riley P. , Will and political legitimacy: a critical exposition of social contract theory in Hobbes, Locke, Rousseau Kant and Hegel ( Harvard University Press, 1982) Simmons, AJ. , Moral principles and political obligations (Princeton Univ Press, 1979) Warrender, J The political philosophy of Hobbes: his theory of obligation (Clarendon, 1957) Please note: if locating material for a topic is difficult please ask your tutor for further suggestions. 19 10. SEMINAR PREPARATION SCHEDULE Week 1: Introduction to the module.
Bentham’s utilitarianism Essential Reading: Jeremy Bentham, An Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation, chapters I, IV, VII, XIV (in Wootton). Please bring your copy of the David Wootton volume to class with you. Questions to guide your reading and for seminar discussion: 1. What does Bentham mean when he says that mankind is governed by pain and pleasure? 2. What is the principle of utility? 3. Why does Bentham believe that it can provide an objective standard by which our actions can be judged? What type of ethical theory is utilitarianism? What is its relationship to morality? . What, if any, are the political implications of utilitarianism? Week 2: John Stuart Mill’s Liberalism Essential Reading: John Stuart Mill, On Liberty. Please bring your copy of the David Wootton volume to class with you. Questions to guide your reading and for seminar discussion: 1. Why does J. S. Mill believe that it is important to define the nature and limits of power? 2. What is J. S. Mill’s ‘one very simple principle’? How simple is it? And how can it be applied? 3. What justification does Mill provide for freedom of expression of opinion? How convincing do you find it? 4.
Why does Mill believe that individuality is one of the elements of well-being? What does he mean when he says that human beings can become ‘a noble and beautiful object of contemplation’? Short in-class or post-class writing task: write some notes in answer to the following: How does Mill’s understanding of freedom differ from or develop the ideas of the thinkers we studied last semester? Week 3: Kant’s Enlightenment Essential Reading: 20 Immanuel Kant, ‘An Answer to the Question: What is Enlightenment? ’ (Wootton pp. 522-526) Please bring your copy of the David Wootton volume with you to class.
Questions to guide your reading and for seminar discussion: 1. How does Kant define Enlightenment? 2. How is enlightenment attained and what is its significance? 3. What are the obstacles to Enlightenment and how can they be overcome? 4. What is the relationship of Enlightenment to freedom? Week 4: Hegel and the State Essential Reading: G. W. F. Hegel, Elements of the Philosophy of Right, (Cambridge, CUP, 1991) Part 3: Ethical life, Section 2, Civil Society, pp. 220-39) On QM+. The editor’s introduction by Allen Wood is also very useful. Please focus especially on the following sections; §188; C. The Police and the Corporation §230, a.
The Police §231-249; b. The Corporation (§250-256). Section 3, The State §257-259. Questions to guide your reading and for seminar discussion: 1. What does Hegel understand by civil society (§188)? 2. What is the role of the police (§231-49)? 3. What is the relationship between the family and civil society and the family and the state (§231-256)? 4. How is the relationship between individual and civil society different from that of individual and the state (§258)? 5. What does Hegel think the relationship is between freedom and the state (§258)? Do not be worried if you find these questions difficult to answer when reading on your own.
We will try to answer them together in the seminar. Week 5: The early Marx This is the first of three sessions on Marx. In order to understand the context of his ideas, his career and political commitments, it will help you a great deal to do some general introductory reading on Marx from the list below over the next three weeks to support your reading of the primary texts. These are all accessible and clear introductions to Marx’ work. Class discussion will focus on the primary text, and you must bring a copy of the Wootton text with you each week and prepare some answers to the questions that will form the basis of discussion. 1 P. Singer, Marx. A Very Short Introduction (OUP) David McLellan, Karl Marx: His life and thought Hampsher Monk, A History of Modern Political Thought (Blackwell), Chapter 10, “Karl Marx”, especially section on “Early life and influences” Francis Wheen, Karl Marx (Fourth Estate) (a lively short biography) The texts we will read this week are drawn from Marx’ early work. We will consider his critique of liberal rights and freedom, and then look in detail at his concepts of ‘species-being; and alienation, as expressed in the ‘1844 Manuscripts’, often known as the ‘Paris Manuscripts’.
Essential Reading: i. Sections from ‘On the Jewish Question’: Wootton pp 742-747 (first column and top 2 lines of second column) pp750 (Bottom first column ‘According to Bauer .. )-754 (first half of column 1). ii. ‘Contribution to the Critique of Hegel’s Philosophy of Right’: Wootton pp. 758-765. You need only read the section on pp. 764-5, where Marx derives the proletariat. iii. The 1844 [Paris] Manuscripts. Section on ‘Alienated Labour’ in Wootton pp. 766-772. Questions to guide your reading and for seminar discussion: 1. Why does Marx criticise liberalism?
What has he to say about ‘the rights of man’? 2. What kind of emancipation, and from what, is Marx calling for here? 3. Why is the proletariat that will be the privileged agency of emancipation, according to Marx? The Paris Manuscripts 4. What does Marx mean by alienation? What forms does it take? What is wrong with alienation? 5. Why is Marx critical of private property? What is its relation to alienation? 6. What does Marx mean by `species-being’? Do you think Marx has a theory of human nature here? 7. What does Marx mean when he claims that communism will even emancipate the human senses?
Short in-class or post-class writing task: Write a few bullet points in answer to one of the following: How does Marx’s view of human nature/essence differ from other thinkers you’ve studied? What do you think freedom might consist of for Marx? Week 6: Historical Materialism and the Dialectic Essential Reading: i. The German Ideology Part 1 (Wootton pp775-787 up to ‘as the history of communism proves’) ii. Theses on Feuerbach (Wootton pp 773-4) iii. Preface to A Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy (Woottton pp. 829-831) iv. Manifesto of the Communist Party Parts 1,2,4 (Wootton pp. 98-809 and pp. 814 -815). 22 Questions to guide your reading and for seminar discussion: 1. What is materialism? 2. What makes Marx’ materialism historical? What drives history, according to Marx? 3. What is the relationship between forces and social relations of production, and between base and superstructure? What is a mode of production? 4. To what extent can human action shape history, according to Marx? How does class struggle fit in here? 5. What is ideology and what is its function? 6. How might a revolution come about, in Marx’ view?
Short in class or post-class writing task: Write a paragraph on how Marx’s view of history challenges the justifications for political authority advanced by other thinkers previously studied on the course. Week 7: Reading Week Week 8: The Analysis of Capitalism. Essential reading: Wootton contains very little of Capital. Essential reading for this week is taken from Tucker The Marx Engels Reader (Norton, 1978) and can be found on the module QM+ site. i. The Coming Upheaval Tucker pp. 218-9 ii. Capital vol. 1: Pt I ch. 1 sect. 1 (Tucker pp. 302-8); sect. 2 (Tucker pp. 308-312); sect. 4 (Tucker pp. 319-29); ch. VI (pp. 336-343); Pt III ch.
VII sect. 2 (pp. 351-361); ch. X sect. 2 (pp. 364-7); Ch. XIII, esp. sect’s 4,5 (pp. 392-403); Pt V ch. XVI (pp. 417-9); ch. XXV sect. 4 (pp. 429-431); Pt VIII (pp. 431-8) iii. Capital vol. 3 (pp. 439-442) iv. Crisis Theory Final section (pp. 459-65) Questions to guide your reading and for seminar discussion: 1. What is Marx’s theory of value? What do the terms use value, exchange value and surplus value mean and how do they relate to one another? 2. What is the `twofold character of labour’? 3. What does Marx mean by the fetishism of commodities? 4. What are the contradictions and crises that Marx finds inherent in capitalism? . How does the proletariat’s exploitation occur? 6. What does the analysis of capitalism show us about the dialectical method? Is this still relevant as a way of reading the present? 7. How convincing do you find Marx’s analysis of capitalism? Short in class or post-class writing task: Write a paragraph summarising your understanding of Marx’ views on either a) morality or b) equality. 23 Week 9: Nietzsche’s Genealogy of Morality I Background to Nietzsche As a preparation for studying Nietzsche, you are advised to read K. Ansell-Pearson, The Perfect Nihilist. An Introduction to Nietzsche as Political Thinker (CUP 1994).
D. Conway, Nietzsche and the Political (Routledge 1996), is a possible alternative but rather misleadingly `reconstructive’ as an introductory text. Both of these books nevertheless offer accessible introductions to Nietzsche, with particular emphasis on his political dimension. A useful introductory essay to his writings can also be found in B. Magnus & K. Higgins, `Nietzsche’s Works and their Themes’ in The Cambridge Companion to Nietzsche (CUP 1996), which can be found on Moodle Wootton (ed) contains only the first essay of the Genealogy of Morality so you will definitely need access to another copy too.
Key readings not in Wootton, as well as helpful supplementary readings are available on QM+. The Cambridge University Press edition of the Genealogy is a very good one if you wish to buy a copy. In addition, it would be very useful if you were to look at Beyond Good and Evil. Essential Reading: Nietzsche, Genealogy of Morality Preface; Essay 1. Please focus especially on sections 2,7,10,11,12,13 and pay especial attention to section 13. On the Genealogy of Morality: 1. How does Nietzsche distinguish between good/evil and good/bad?
Explain how the latter gave way to the former and the type of persons which were classified under each heading. Which civilisations correspond to these categories? 2. What is the meaning and significance of `ressentiment’ and the `herd instinct’? How do they differ from what is `noble’ and the aristrocratic way of life? What do you think it means in this context to say `yes’ to life? 3. What has been the fate of we modern Europeans, according to Nietzsche? 4. What is Nietzsche criticising in Essay 1, section 13? Nietzsche alludes here to the will to power: what sense can you gain of it?
Week 10: Nietzsche’s Genealogy of Morality II Essential Reading: Nietzsche, The Genealogy of Morality Essay 2, sections 1,2,3,7,11,12,16,17,18,24,25. Please pay especial attention to section 12, which we will read together in class. ii. Nietzsche, sections on nihilism from Will to Power [available on QM+] Questions to guide your reading and for seminar discussion: 1. What developments would have to occur before the human species is capable of entering a social contract? How does Nietzsche believe they were brought about? 24 2. In what sense can these developments be called nihilistic? 3.
Explain what Nietzsche is saying about his method and about will to power, in Essay 2, section 12. What does this add to his former analysis of punishment? 4. How does bad conscience arise? What are its consequences? 5. Who is the man of the future? What sort of redemption might he permit? Short in class or post-class writing task: Write a short paragraph or a few bullet points in answer to one (or more) of the following questions. How does Nietzsche’s understanding of morality differ from that of other thinkers you have studied? How does he pose a challenge to thinking about morality as an intrinsic part of human nature?
How do you think Nietzsche understands freedom? How might freedom be tied to power? Can Nietzsche’s philosophy be reconciled with the concept of equality? Again, try to think about his difference/connection with other thinkers covered on the course. Week 11: Nietzsche’s Genealogy of Morality III Essential Readings i. Nietzsche, The Genealogy of Morality Essay 3. Please focus on sections 1,8, 12 to end; ii. Sections from Thus Spake Zarathustra (Wooton only contains first two essays so both of these will be available on QM+). Questions to guide your reading and for seminar discussion: 1.
What is the ascetic ideal? Why is it nihilistic? What role do philosophy and religion respectively play in its promotion? 2. What do you think Nietzsche means by `Life’? How does the ascetic ideal both threaten and preserve it? 3. What is the relationship between knowledge and will? Why is everything a matter of perspective? 4. Why does Nietzsche call man the sick animal? 5. What is the herd instinct? How does it help modern individuals to cope with their anguish? 6. What examples does Nietzsche give of modern no-sayers? 7. What is the will to truth? 8.
What are the different meanings and symptoms that Nietzsche attributes to nihilism? 9. What is will to power? In what sense is it unconscious? How does it relate to the will to truth? 10. What role is played by Zarathustra and what is his relationship to the Dionysian? Why does Nietzsche suggest he has come too soon? Week 12: Research essay workshop This week’s seminar will take the form of a collaborative workshop intended to help you in preparing and drafting your research essay. By the end of the session you should have a firm title and essay structure in place, and be ready to begin writing (if you haven’t already). 5 Essential preparation: using the feedback on your essay plan, begin sketching out the structure and content of your essay in more detail. What will be your final choice of theme and thinkers? What main differences/similarities have you identified in the different thinkers’ treatment of your chosen theme? What will your final essay title be? What are the key primary and secondary texts you are using? You should be prepared to share your work and ideas with other students and to offer constructive criticism of the work of others.
IMPORTANT: if for any reason you are unable to attend this workshop you MUST notify your tutor. 26 Appendix I: MPT II Assessment PLEASE NOTE THAT THERE WILL BE A BRIEFING SESSION ON THE ASSESSMENT REQUIREMENTS FOR ALL STUDENTS ON THURSDAY 18 JANUARY AT 1PM IN ROOM FB113A Overview: This semester, assessment consists of the following two pieces of work: (i) an essay proposal of max 500 words, plus working bibliography and (ii) a research essay of max. 5000 words. There is no exam for this module. The research essay is designed to allow you to demonstrate both depth and breadth in your understanding of the semester’s thinkers.
It is also intended to help develop your skills of research design and independent research, in order to prepare you for the final year dissertation you will undertake next year. You are required to choose one from a selection of key themes, and to write an essay that compares and analyses the treatment of your chosen theme by at least three of the thinkers covered in this module. The choice of thinkers will depend on the theme chosen and your own interests, with one stipulation: at least two must be chosen from the Spring Semester (for Semester B associates all will be chosen from the Spring Semester).
The themes from which to choose are: 1) freedom 2) human nature 3) morality/ethics 4) equality 5) political authority and legitimacy. The requirement to submit a plan and working bibliography is intended to ensure that your choice of themes and thinkers is appropriate, to help you in framing your arguments, and to give you the opportunity to receive feedback on your work in progress from your seminar tutor. Your tutors will also incorporate short writing exercises into classes to help you link themes and thinkers as we progress through the course. Suggested exercises are included in this handbook.
Your work will be assessed according to the general assessment criteria set out in the Politics Student Handbook, however you should also pay careful attention to the specific requirements of the tasks set out below. Coursework 1: Research essay plan and working bibliography Deadline 9am Thursday 7 March 2013 (Week 9) 27 Title MPT II research essay plan (also give proposed title of your research essay) Word length Maximum 500 words not including bibliography. Weighting 10% of the overall course mark for MPT (15% for single semester associate students).
Task Your 500 word plan must do the following: Give a working title for your essay (see end of this appendix for example title formats) Introduce your chosen theme and give a brief rationale for your choice of thinkers Set out an indicative structure for your essay Give an indication of the main similarities/differences between the thinkers in terms of your chosen theme, and/or indicate your overall argument Your working bibliography must: Contain both primary texts and secondary sources Show that you have identified sufficient relevant sources to assist in the research and writing of your essay Be properly and accurately presented, adhering to scholarly conventions MPT II Coursework 2: Research essay Deadline 9am Tuesday 23 April 2013 (revision week) Title Give the finalised title of your essay Word Length Maximum 5000 words including footnotes, excluding bibliography Weighting 50% of the overall module mark for MPT (85% for single semester associate students) Task The essay must: Demonstrate that you have read and understood a range of primary and secondary texts studied in the module. Clearly show the relevance of your chosen thinkers to the theme selected Use analytical and critical skills to explore similarities/differences/complementarities between the thinkers 28
Advance and sustain an overall argument Be properly and accurately presented and referenced, and contain a full bibliography Advice and guidance: This research essay is not simply a longer version of the ordinary undergraduate essay. It is more in the nature of a guided research project, and thus requires more of you. You contribute to the design of the topic or question, and you will need to be more independent in identifying and selecting relevant source material. The number of sources consulted will be greater than for the average 2000-3000 word essay. A longer piece of work requires you to develop your points and arguments in greater detail and depth, and it may also be more difficult to structure.
Therefore please pay attention to the following suggestions, and ask your seminar tutor or course convenor for help if anything is unclear. Getting started: Do NOT leave all the preparatory work for this essay until the week before you have to hand in your plan! You need to be thinking from an early stage about what themes and thinkers interest you, and you should make notes, week by week, on how the different thinkers relate to the various themes. Some short exercises are included in this handbook to help you do this: these may be done in class with help from your tutor, but should also be used after class to help you build up a set of thematic notes.
Designing your topic It is crucial that your choice of theme and thinkers is coherent. Whatever theme you choose, you should start by iden

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